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Sample records for bovini tribe bovidae

  1. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  2. Fossil Bovidae from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1958-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 Order Artiodactyla Owen............... 8 Family Bovidae Gray................ 8 Subfamily Bovinae Gill................ 8 Duboisia santeng (Dubois).............. 8 Epileptobos groeneveldtii (Dubois)............ 19 Hemibos triquetricornis Rütimeyer............

  3. TAXONOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF NEOGENE BOVIDAE FROM CHINA%中国新近纪牛科分类及演化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠芳; 张兆群

    2009-01-01

    occurred Turcocerus, which is the dominant element during the Middle Miocene in North China. The Middle Miocene/Late Miocene boundary witnessed the second remarkable turnover event of Bovidae. None of the Middle Miocene taxa survived into the Late Miocene. The third turnover event happened near the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. The diversified group Urmiatheriini went extinct. The fourth turnover event is characterized by the occurrence of extant genera and species during and after the Late Pliocene.Excluding the argued Palaeohypsodontus and Hanhaicerus, there recorded earlier bovid taxa in China than in other areas of Eurasian continent. The faunal composition of Chinese Bovidae during the Neogene is also distinct. Hypsodontinae, Urmiatheriinae, and endemic forms of Caprinae constitute the major part of Miocene bovid faunas. In other areas of Eurasia, Bovi-nae (including Eotragus, Boselaphini, Bovini) , spiral horned Antilopinae, and early forms of Caprinae are the dominants in the Miocene.There recorded two major immigration events of Bovidae during the Neogene, e. g. the immigration of Eotragus at MN 6, and Miotragocerus during the Late Miocene. However, these immigration events did not alter the endemic faunal composition of Chinese Bovidae.%我国新近纪的牛科相当繁盛.至今已记录了30属,归入5个亚科(Hypsodontinae,Urmiatheriinae,captinae,Antilopinae和Boyinae).化石主要出现在我国北方且大部分为土著类型,以颊齿中等高冠至高冠、前臼齿列短、头骨粗壮、弯曲和角心特化为特征.在整个新近纪时期,牛科经历了5个发展阶段和4次大的更替.与同时代欧亚大陆其他地区的牛科类群相比,中国牛科化石出现的时间早,且基本组成不同.在中新世,我国的牛科主要由Hypsodontinae,urmiatheriinae,Caplinae的早期特化类型和Gazella组成,Boselaphini稀少并缺乏转角羚羊(Antilopinae);在上新世,除Gazella外,我国北方仍生活着Caprinae的一组土著类型.

  4. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation.

  5. Kwartaire Bovidae van Nederland. De schedels en hoornpitten, welke zich bevinden in het Rijksmuseum van Geologie te Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlerk, van der I.M.

    1942-01-01

    The plates I—XI contain illustrations of all the skulls and horn-cores of Bovidae from the Quaternary of the Netherlands, brought together in the National Museum of Geology at Leyden, Holland. They were all photographed with the occiputs vertical or what is thought to be vertical. They are described

  6. Molecular characterization of bot flies, Oestrus spp., (Diptera, Oestridae), from domestic and wild Bovidae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Virginia; Romero-Fernández, Ismael; Marchal, Juan A; Beltrán, Manuel; Granados, José E; Habela, Miguel A; Tamadon, Amin; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sarasa, Mathieu; Pérez, Jesús M; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    The identification of Oestrus spp. larvae from Bovidae hosts is a difficult task due to the great morphological similarity between species. The lack of unambiguous identification criteria could have also serious epidemiological implications since domestic and wild hosts are sympatric in many natural areas. In order to accurately identify the Oestrus parasitizing hosts, we characterized two different genetic markers, 28S (rRNA) and COI, in larvae collected from domestic sheep and goats, European mouflon and Iberian ibex. Our sequence analyses demonstrate that all samples, except those from Iberian ibex, greatly resembles O. ovis and so we conclude that the species parasitizing this ibex is not O. ovis. Further studies will be needed to confirm whether it is in fact O. caucasicus, as previously suggested, or even a new species.

  7. Oneida Tribe Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst

    2014-08-15

    Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.

  8. The Tribe of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the claim that the international academic community of educational technologies seems to have functioned in a "tribal" way, having formed themselves around tribe-like patterns. It therefore addresses the research question: What are these claimed tribe-like practices that such a community exhibits? This question is…

  9. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  10. Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., a new species of Oiocerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Middle Miocene of SpainSamotragus pilgrimi n. sp., un nouvel Oicerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) du Miocène moyen d'Espagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Beatriz; Nieto, Manuel; Morales, Jorge

    1998-03-01

    A new Oiocerini, Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., from the Middle Miocene of Spain is described. This medium sized bovid is characterized by large, massive, inverse-twisted horn cores with an abrupt narrowing of the section at mid-length. These features allow the inclusion of this form within the genus Samotragus. To date, this form is the earliest and westernmost record of this tribe.

  11. Entrepreneurial Business Development Through Building Tribes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From...... this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a...... loudspeaker concept) that is able to generate strong customer response, and shape the brand or e-brand, which in turn can create a market and a sustainable business. We suggest entrepreneurial success is highly dependent on how the inner-tribe can create an ‘icon’ to shape an outer-tribe by means...

  12. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  13. 40 CFR 35.573 - Eligible Tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible Tribe. 35.573 Section 35.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.573...

  14. Procapra picticaudata (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Procapra picticaudata Hodgson, 1846, is commonly called the Tibetan gazelle, goa (= Tibetan), or zang yuan ling (= Chinese) and is monotypic. It is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the Tibetan Plateau where it prefers alpine meadow and alpine steppe but uses other lower-elevation plains and valleys. It is partial to good grasslands with high diversity of forbs. There have been no systematic estimates of total numbers of P. picticaudata. Populations are currently widespread but have been reduced from historic levels and are vulnerable because of poaching in remote areas and competition with livestock of pastoralists. P. picticaudata is uncommon in zoos and private collections. It is a threatened Class II species in China and considered “Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  15. STATUS OF SCHEDULE TRIBES IN ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Dr. P. Subramanyachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schedule Tribes (ST’s are Indian population groups that are explicitly recognized by the constitution of India order 1950. The order lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its first schedule. In Andhra Pradesh 33 types of Schedule Tribes are living in 8 districts. ST’s are 6.6% are in total population of Andhra Pradesh. They have rich heritage along with their innocent life style. As they are living in hill areas and forests they have some peculiar characters like indications of primitive traits, distinctive culture, and shyness of contact with other communities, geographical isolation, backwardness etc. So, for their development central and state governments are implementing different programmes and schemes since 1951. After the Ministry of Tribal affairs were constituted in 1999, there is more focus on development of Schedule Tribes in Indian society especially in Andhra Pradesh. The persisting problems like low literacy and high drop-outs, inadequate health services, lack of nutrition food, extreme poverty, and ineffective implementation of schemes etc are putting them away from economic development. Hence, there should be more commitment by both central and state government and local bodies to develop Schedule Tribes in the society. As literacy is 37% NGO’s and other voluntary organizations have to play key role to bring awareness among schedule tribes regarding programs and scheme for their development. Awareness and participation of Schedule Tribes in the implementation of policies leads to prosperity of ST community in the state as well as country.

  16. Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

    2008-10-22

    The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

  17. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  18. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

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    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Per Olof

    2013-01-01

    Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. ...

  20. Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) from Hong Kong: first record of the genus and tribe from continental China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George W. C. HO; Shek Shing MAR; Richard M. K. SAUNDERS

    2009-01-01

    Populations of Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) are described and illustrated from Tai Mo Shah in Hong Kong, southern China. This represents the first report of the genus and tribe from continental China.

  1. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  2. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  3. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  4. Tribal Energy Program for California Indian Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.

  5. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

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    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  6. Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental

    2014-04-01

    The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.

  7. Council of Energy Resources Tribes 1993 summer internship report: Nez Perce Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.

  8. 25 CFR 170.942 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's Welfare-to-Work...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's Welfare-to-Work, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, and other quality-of-life... § 170.942 Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's...

  9. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  10. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family, Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family, Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families, Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family, Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family, Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family. for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1. Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  11. 25 CFR 224.173 - How does a tribe rescind a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe rescind a TERA? 224.173 Section 224.173... does a tribe rescind a TERA? To rescind a TERA, a tribe must submit to the Secretary a written tribal... TERA. Upon rescission, the tribe must also return all Departmental resources transferred under the...

  12. 75 FR 57976 - Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of... Tribes of Warm Springs of Oregon, Warm Springs, Oregon (Warm Springs Tribe) for financial assistance and...: The Warm Springs Tribe submitted to BIA a request with supporting documentation to modify its...

  13. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  14. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  15. A review of the tribes of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the largest subfamily of leafhoppers, Deltocephalinae, including 38 tribes, 923 genera, and 6683 valid species, is reviewed and revised. An updated phylogeny of the subfamily based on molecular (28S, Histone H3 and morphological data and an expanded taxon sample (37 taxa not included in previous analyses is presented. Based on the results of these analyses and on the morphological examination of many representatives of the subfamily, the classification of the tribes and subtribes of Deltocephalinae is revised. Complete morphological descriptions, illustrations, lists of the included genera, and notes on their distribution, ecology, and important vector species are provided for the 38 recognized tribes and 18 subtribes. A dichotomous key to the tribes is provided. All names in the taxonomic treatments are hyperlinked to online resources for individual taxa which are supported by a comprehensive database for Deltocephalinae compiled using the taxonomic database software package 3I. The online functionality includes an interactive key to tribes and subtribes and advanced database searching options. Each taxon (subspecies through subfamily has a unique taxon webpage providing nomenclatural information, lists of included taxa, an automated description (if available, images (if available, distributional information, bibliographic references and links to outside resources. Some observations and trends regarding the history of taxonomic descriptions in Deltocephalinae are reported. Four new tribes are described: Bahitini tribe nov. (25 genera, Bonsapeiini tribe nov. (21 genera, Phlepsiini tribe nov. (4 genera, and Vartini tribe nov. (7 genera. The circumscription and morphological characterization of Scaphoideini Oman, 1943 (61 genera is substantially revised. Eleven new species are described: Acostemma stilleri sp. nov., Arrugada linnavuorii sp. nov., Drabescus zhangi sp. nov., Parabolopona webbi sp. nov., Goniagnathus emeljanovi

  16. Reindeer breeding along the Finno-Ugric tribes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the reindeer breeding practices among the Finno-Urgic tribes located in the northern territories of the Soviet Union and frontier districts...

  17. Subsistence fishing methods of Nicobari tribes using traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravikumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicobarese are one of the six aboriginal tribes inhabiting Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They account for over 95% of the total tribal population in the islands and majority of them inhabit at Car Nicobar, which is the capital of Nicobar district and popularly called as Coconut Island. The Nicobari tribes are hunters and gatherers who use their indigenous knowledge for exploitation of marine fishery resources using locally available materials. The common fishing methods in vogue are tamatu (trap, thanam kak (spear with rope chok/linreny kak (spear with rubber, kinyav (icthyotoxic seed, thakua kak (line, kel thakua kak (hand line, tamarotha thakua kak (long line, Hanak Inhal Kak (shore seine, Inruon thakua kak (troll line and Inhal (gill net. The Nicobari tribes have inherited the skill for designing and operating these gears from their forefathers. This paper summarises the traditional knowledge existing and commonly practiced among the Nicobari tribes for exploitation of marine fish at Car Nicobar.

  18. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  19. A case of Spinocerebellar Ataxia from ethnic tribe of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the case of a 17-year-old girl belonging to an ethnic tribe (Bodo tribe of Assam, presenting with bilateral cerebellar signs and with history suggestive of an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, who was found to have spinocerebellar ataxia 7 on genetic testing. This case throws light on the probability of more such cases in the multi-ethnic society of the North-Eastern Indian states, which are not studied or reported till date.

  20. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  1. 25 CFR 1000.27 - How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects...

  2. A Step Towards Conservation for Interior Alaska Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Carlo

    2012-07-07

    This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.

  3. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  4. Distributed Denial of Service Tools, Trin00, Tribe Flood Network, Tribe Flood Network 2000 and Stacheldraht.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuolo, P. J.

    2000-02-14

    One type of attack on computer systems is know as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. A DoS attack is designed to prevent legitimate users from using a system. Traditional Denial of Service attacks are done by exploiting a buffer overflow, exhausting system resources, or exploiting a system bug that results in a system that is no longer functional. In the summer of 1999, a new breed of attack has been developed called Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Several educational and high capacity commercial sites have been affected by these DDoS attacks. A DDoS attack uses multiple machines operating in concert to attack a network or site. There is very little that can be done if you are the target of a DDoS. The nature of these attacks cause so much extra network traffic that it is difficult for legitimate traffic to reach your site while blocking the forged attacking packets. The intent of this paper is to help sites not be involved in a DDoS attack. The first tools developed to perpetrate the DDoS attack were Trin00 and Tribe Flood Network (TFN). They spawned the next generation of tools called Tribe Flood Network 2000 (TFN2K) and Stacheldraht (German for Barb Wire). These DDoS attack tools are designed to bring one or more sites down by flooding the victim with large amounts of network traffic originating at multiple locations and remotely controlled by a single client. This paper discusses how these DDoS tools work, how to detect them, and specific technical information on each individual tool. It is written with the system administrator in mind. It assumes that the reader has basic knowledge of the TCP/IP Protocol.

  5. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  6. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) II. Tribe Dorstenieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Dorstenieae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. Wood anatomically the tribe Dorstenieae is fairly homogeneous, Dorstenia deviating most in the juvenilistic composition of its rays,

  7. 25 CFR 170.149 - How do tribes identify transit needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do tribes identify transit needs? 170.149 Section 170.149 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION... do tribes identify transit needs? Tribes identify transit needs during the tribal...

  8. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  9. 25 CFR 18.111 - What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? 18... CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.111 What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? If a tribe repeals its tribal probate code: (a) The repeal will not become effective sooner than...

  10. 43 CFR 30.271 - How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? 30.271 Section 30.271 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? (a) A tribe must pay the full fair market value of...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  12. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance...

  13. 25 CFR 224.66 - How may a tribe reduce the scope of the TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe reduce the scope of the TERA? 224.66... Procedures for Obtaining Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Tera Requirements § 224.66 How may a tribe reduce the scope of the TERA? A tribe may reduce the scope of the TERA by negotiating with the Secretary...

  14. 25 CFR 224.65 - How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA... Procedures for Obtaining Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Tera Requirements § 224.65 How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA? A tribe may assume additional activities related to the development...

  15. Coevolutionary dynamics between tribe Cercopithecini tetherins and their lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Junko S; Ren, Fengrong; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Matsuda, Kenta; Izumi, Taisuke; Misawa, Naoko; Shintaku, Yuta; Wetzel, Katherine S; Collman, Ronald G; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2015-11-04

    Human immunodeficiency virus, a primate lentivirus (PLV), causes AIDS in humans, whereas most PLVs are less or not pathogenic in monkeys. These notions suggest that the co-evolutionary process of PLVs and their hosts associates with viral pathogenicity, and therefore, that elucidating the history of virus-host co-evolution is one of the most intriguing topics in the field of virology. To address this, recent studies have focused on the interplay between intrinsic anti-viral proteins, such as tetherin, and viral antagonists. Through an experimental-phylogenetic approach, here we investigate the co-evolutionary interplay between tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and viral antagonists, Nef and Vpu. We reveal that tribe Cercopithecini tetherins are positively selected, possibly triggered by ancient Nef-like factor(s). We reconstruct the ancestral sequence of tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and demonstrate that all Nef proteins are capable of antagonizing ancestral Cercopithecini tetherin. Further, we consider the significance of evolutionary arms race between tribe Cercopithecini and their PLVs.

  16. Novel Phialophora species from leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of

  17. 78 FR 56979 - Karuk Tribe Disaster #CA-00211

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Karuk Tribe Disaster CA-00211 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. 25 CFR 224.104 - Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures permitting a person or entity to allege that a tribe is not complying with a TERA? 224.104 Section... to allege that a tribe is not complying with a TERA? No. A tribe is not required, but may elect, to... party to allege that a tribe is not complying with its TERA....

  19. Nez Perce Tribe Energy Efficient Facilities Installation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Kinder

    2012-11-12

    Although Idaho's electrical rates are among the lowest in the country, the Nez Perce Tribe's electrical bills take a large bite out of the operating budget every year. Tribal programs are located in forty some buildings, in six counties, in two states. Ninety-five percent, or more, are heated electrically. The age of the Tribal office buildings located in Lapwai, Idaho vary from forty to over a hundred years old. Only sporadic updates, in the buildings themselves, have been made over the years. Working with the Tribe's electrical provider (Avista Corporation), it was determine that a minimum financial commitment could reap large rewards in the form of lower operating costs.

  20. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  1. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L.; Sorter, Andy

    2015-01-13

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  2. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  3. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  4. PIG FARMING PERFORMANCES OF THREE PAPUAN TRIBES: CASE STUDY OF BYAK, ONATE AND ARFAK TRIBES IN PAPUA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Iyai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to depict the pig farming performances of three different nativePapuan tribes, i.e. Byak, Onate and Arfak. Sites in Biak were taken from Samofa District. Sites in Yapenwere taken from South Yapen District comprised of Famboaman, Anotaurei, Mariadei and Mantembuvillages. Site in Manokwari was chosen at Sub-district of Wosi. Participatory research using interviewand observation was done towards 105 pig farmers. One-way analysis of variance and Pearson Chisquare(χ2 were used to analyse data. Several indicators tested were age, education, objectives ofrearing pigs, and species of pigs. The characteristics of pig farmers were similar. The variations of pigfarmers’ characteristics ware found in pigs’ rearing experience, animal number and litter size. Offeredfeeding on each physiological period was different. Similar finding were feeding sources and feedingprocess. Reproduction knowledge and their experience in farrowing management are similar amongstthe tribes. In general experiences and knowledge to prevent infectious diseases in general were similar.The three tribes have relatively similar in managing their pig farming systems.

  5. 25 CFR 1000.16 - What criteria must a Tribe/Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”? To be admitted into the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must either be an Indian Tribe or a Consortium of Indian Tribes and...

  6. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  7. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  8. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  9. 76 FR 709 - Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... partnership between two or more tribes that is authorized by the governing bodies of those tribes to apply for... allowable costs borne by non-Federal grants; by cash donations from non-Federal third parties; or by the... specific geographic focus, integrating strong partnerships, integrating strong science and data,...

  10. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) I. Tribe Castilleae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla, Helicosty

  11. 76 FR 72969 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe... acres, more or less, as the Fort Sill Apache Indian Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of... Apache Indian Reservation for the exclusive use of Indians entitled by enrollment or by tribal...

  12. 78 FR 55737 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian... of the Service Delivery Area (SDA) for the Tejon Indian Tribe. The Tribe's federal recognition was... administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purpose...

  13. 45 CFR 286.220 - What happens if a Tribe fails to meet TANF requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... error or were insufficient, or that the Tribe's actions, in the absence of Federal regulations, were based on a reasonable interpretation of the statute. (b) Within 60 days of receipt of our written notification, the Tribe may submit a written response to us that: (1) Demonstrates that our determination...

  14. 75 FR 22579 - Bishop Paiute Tribe; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bishop Paiute Tribe; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application... Bishop Paiute Tribe filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Bishop Paiute Hydroelectric Project...

  15. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we com...

  16. 25 CFR 224.84 - When may a tribe grant a right-of-way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Leases, Business Agreements, and Rights-Of-Way Under A Tera § 224.84 When may a tribe grant a right-of-way? A tribe may grant a right-of-way under a TERA if the grant...

  17. 25 CFR 224.52 - What may a tribe include in a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a tribe include in a TERA? 224.52 Section 224.52 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE... may a tribe include in a TERA? A TERA under this part: (a) May include development of all or part of...

  18. Communication and Self-Determination: Social Change among the Tlingit-Haida Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, William

    The successful experience of the Tlingit-Haida Native Americans in dealing with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to develop self-determination is an instructive case study. Although the Federal BIA gave verbal encouragement to the tribes to assume their own program responsibilities, the tribes encountered continual blunting tactics from local…

  19. 77 FR 4731 - Review and Submittal of a Tribe's Facility License Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... tribe opens a new facility on lands not eligible for gaming, it does so at the risk of violating IGRA... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 559 RIN 3141-AA48 Review and Submittal of a Tribe's Facility License Information AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. 25 CFR 170.176 - Where can tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where can tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian... tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training? Tribes can get tuition and scholarship assistance for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training from the...

  1. 75 FR 26774 - Notice of Re-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe AGENCY: Indian Health Service. ACTION... expand the geographic boundaries of the Service Delivery Area (SDA) for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe. The...) intention to expand the Cowlitz Tribe's Service Delivery Area to include Columbia County in the State...

  2. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  3. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  4. 25 CFR 170.301 - Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or pay back loans? 170.301 Section 170.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Financing § 170.301 Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds. (b) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to pay...

  5. 45 CFR 286.285 - How do the data collection and reporting requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes? 286.285 Section 286.285 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Requirements § 286.285 How do the data collection and reporting requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes? (a) A Tribe that consolidates its Tribal TANF program into a Public-Law 102-477 plan is required...

  6. 25 CFR 224.41 - When does the Secretary require agreement of more than one tribe to approve a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... one tribe to approve a TERA? 224.41 Section 224.41 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... more than one tribe to approve a TERA? When tribal land held for the benefit of more than one tribe is contemplated for inclusion in a TERA, each appropriate tribal governing body must request a...

  7. 25 CFR 224.55 - Is information a tribe submits throughout the TERA process under this part subject to disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is information a tribe submits throughout the TERA... Resource Agreements Processing Applications § 224.55 Is information a tribe submits throughout the TERA...) Information a tribe submits to the Department throughout the TERA process under this part may be subject...

  8. 25 CFR 224.51 - What is a pre-application consultation between a tribe and the Director?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Director? (a) A tribe interested in entering into a TERA should request a pre-application consultation by...) The required content of an application for a TERA; (4) The energy resource the tribe anticipates... energy resource the tribe anticipates developing under a TERA; and (7) Any other matters applicable...

  9. 25 CFR 224.115 - When in the petition process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.115 Section 224.115 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? The Director must investigate the petitioner's claims of the tribe's noncompliance with a TERA only after making a threshold determination...

  10. 25 CFR 900.153 - Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension, Withholding Or Delay in Payment § 900.153 Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal? Yes. The Indian tribe or tribal organization may request an informal conference... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have...

  11. 45 CFR 309.75 - What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.75 Section 309.75 Public Welfare... procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? A Tribe or Tribal organization... section: (a) A description of the structure of the IV-D agency and the distribution of...

  12. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required...

  13. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and...

  14. 42 CFR 137.304 - May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.304 May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may “buy back” project related services in their...

  15. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in... performing these Federal environmental responsibilities, Self-Governance Tribes will be considered the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal...

  16. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  17. Astronomy of two Indian tribes: Banjaras and Kolams

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, Mayank N; Menon, Kishore; Calamur, Harini

    2014-01-01

    We report field studies of the astronomical beliefs of two Indian tribes: the Banjaras and the Kolams. The Banjaras are an ancient tribe connected with the gypsies of Europe while the Kolams have been foragers until recently. They share their landscape with each other and also with the Gonds whose astronomy was reported previously (Vahia and Halkare, 2013). The primary profession of the Banjaras was trade, based on the large-scale movement of goods over long distances, but their services were taken over by the railways about one hundred years ago. Since then the Banjaras have begun the long journey to a sedentary lifestyle. Meanwhile, the Kolams were foragers until about fifty years ago when the Government of India began to help them lead a settled life. Here, we compare their astronomical beliefs of the Banjaras and the Kolams, which indicate the strong sense of identity that each community possesses. Our study also highlights their perspective about the sky and its relation to their daily lives. We show tha...

  18. American Indians without Tribes in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians.

  19. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  20. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  1. 42 CFR 137.248 - What effect will a retrocession have on a retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribe may request; and (c) Any future request by such Self-Governance Tribe or an Indian Tribe to... retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract or compact under the Act? 137.248 Section 137.248..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137.248 What effect will...

  2. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  3. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  4. ‘Merantau’ - an Informal Entrepreneurial Learning Pattern in the Culture of Minangkabau Tribe in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to expose an informal entrepreneurial learning pattern that is undertaken by the Minangkabau tribe in Indonesia and relate it to cultural dimension and perceived value of a society. This informal entrepreneurial learning pattern is called as ‘Merantau’ - which can simply be meant as ‘to emigrate’, in which the young males (mostly during the ages of 15-20, or even younger leave their homeland; move to other places nationwide or abroad, and running entrepreneurial activities for their daily life. The existence of merantau as an informal cultural based entrepreneurial learning for the young Minangkabau tribe combined with their cultural dimension and perceived values have contributed to the creation of and bring positive impacts to entrepreneurial culture of the Minangkabau tribe. The Minangkabau tribe, as one of tribes in Indonesia, experiences very supportive social environment in which entrepreneurial culture is recognised as part of the way of life. Therefore, Minangkabau tribe is known as one of the most entrepreneurial tribes in Indonesia. This paper considers perceived value and cultural dimension that may bring consequence to entrepreneurial culture of a society, with particular analysis to Minangkabau tribe in Indonesia. Analysis is undertaken by considering the elements and index of cultural dimension and perceived values of a society that can create and intiate entreprenuerial habits and relate them to entrepreneurship. Result of the analysis shows an evidence that culture of a society also plays an important role to create and maintain entrepreneurial habits and experience of a society. Together with cultural dimension of a society, perceived values that a society has, also contributes to the creation of entrepreneurial culture of that society. This is shown in the context of the Minangkabau tribe who is well known as an entrepreneurial tribe in Indonesia. However, this study analyses one single cultural

  5. Analytical & Morphological evaluation of Tribal Women’s lullabies at Kerman Afshar Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The real purpose of this paper is to make an ethnological evaluation of lullabies of Afshar Tribe women at Kerman city. Lullabies are an integrated part of cultural life and social system of current families at Afshar tribe. According to the findings, it is obvious that lullabies have a great root in public culture of ancestors of Kerman Afshar Tribe who were living at Turkish parts of Iran. Some other parts of lullabies are based upon Kerman culture, nature of Kerman and wishes of both cultures (Afshar tribe & natural conditions at Kerman. Due to its location among different important provinces like Fars, Sistan & Baloochestan, Yazd, Isfahan and Bandar Abbas, Kerman province has a different geographical coverage which may cause distribution of various terms, whispers, sings and lullabies rather than agriculture and animal husbandry. This paper is prepared by focusing on library & field method (participative observation & interview with local specialists.

  6. Quotidian of accompanying family members in an environment of care: the emergence of hospital tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia da Silva Santos Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.

  7. Variations and Absolute Continuity of Set Functions on T∞-tribe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-ye; ZHANG Qiang

    2009-01-01

    some properties of the inclusion variation and the disjoint variation of set functions on T∞-tribe are studied in detail. The absolute continuity and singularity of set functions on T∞-tribe are discussed. The triangular norms T∞ and S∞ are considered as the operators of intersection and union between the fuzzy sets. As a result, some important conclusions about the variations and absolute continuity of set functions on T∞-tribe are obtained such as the superadditivity of inclusion variation, the relation between the variations and the equivalence proposition of absolute continuity of set functions on T∞-tribe. In addition, two small mistakes about T∞-measure are pointed out by the counterexamples and are revised.

  8. Ethnobotanical relevance in tribal life: A study on Warli tribe of Thane district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N

    An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...

  9. 25 CFR 224.136 - How will the Director's report address a tribe's noncompliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notice of violation of Federal law or the terms of a TERA. (a) If the Director determines that the tribe has not complied with Federal law or the terms of a TERA, the Director's written report must include...

  10. Colville Confederated Tribes' Performance Project Wildlife Mitigation Acquisitions, Annual Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Richard; Berger, Matthew; Tonasket, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    The Colville Confederated Tribes Wildlife Mitigation Project is protecting lands as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. The Mitigation Project protects and manages 54,606 acres for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species that are important to the Colville Tribes. With the inclusion of 2006 acquisitions, the Colville Tribes have acquired approximately 32,018 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. This annual report for 2006 briefly describes that four priority land acquisitions that were considered for enrollment into the Colville Tribes Mitigation Project during the 2006 contract period.

  11. The structure and musculature of male terminalia in the tribe Xanthorhoini Pierce and related tribes (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae), with particular reference to the Palaearctic and Australian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The musculature of the male genitalia was reviewed for the tribe Xanthorhoini and related tribes (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae). The genitalia morphology of males of 11 species was discussed and illustrated, and nine paired and unpaired genital muscles identified. Muscles m1, m2(10), m5(7), m6(5), m7(6), m8(3) and m21 have similar position in all species considered in the paper. Comparative morphology of the male terminalia and position of extensors of the valvae m3(2) and flexors m4 confirmed the previously uncertain separation of Euphyiini and Scotopterygini. Cataclysmini share musculature characters with the tribe Xanthorhoini. The generic affiliation of Xanthorhoe biriviata (Borkhausen) is questionable considering an unusual location of muscles m4. Generally, the places of attachment of the muscles m3(2) and m4 to the sclerites afford valuable characters for the higher classification of this group.

  12. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  13. No Security Without Us: Tribes and Tribalism in Al Anbar Province, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    generosity, hospitality, self - esteem , honesty, integrity, safeguarding of women, and protection of the weak (see Figure 3). To...of vengeance, it further serves as a measure of deterrence and self -protection. Since retribution for an injury could be directed at any lineage...tribe recurrent problems may find himself ostracized by his own tribe, thus relieving the group of blood liability. Shame and Honor Acquisition of

  14. The interaction between tobacco use and oral health among tribes in central India

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Sunali

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco related practices on oral health of tribes in Central India. The use of smokeless tobacco, gutkha & associated products is on the rise amongst the younger generation making oral precancer & cancer a public health concern. Methodology A pioneering study was conducted to evaluate the tobacco related practices amongst tribes and its impact on oral health. The study included 411 tribals of the Baiga group. Guided dialogu...

  15. Washoe Tribe Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca

    2014-11-06

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.

  16. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  17. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Pablo; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Lanzone, Cecilia; Malleret, Matias Maximiliano; O’Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24) and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52) both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54) of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19) provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups. PMID:26642204

  18. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Suárez

    Full Text Available Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24 and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52 both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54 of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19 provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups.

  19. Chemotaxonomy of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae): antidesmone and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Alexander; Schmidt, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Petra

    2002-07-01

    Selected species of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae, subfamily Phyllanthoideae) have been screened for antidesmone occurrence and its content by quantitative HPLC (UV) and qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The LC-MS analysis allowing the additional detection of 17,18-bis-nor-antidesmone, 18-nor-antidesmone, 8-dihydroantidesmone and 8-deoxoantidesmone was carried out in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Leaf material from herbarium specimens of 13 Antidesma spp., Hyeronima alchorneoides and Thecacoris stenopetala (all subtribe Antidesminae), as well as Maesobotrya barteri, Aporosa octandra (both Scepinae) and Uapaca robynsii (Uapacinae) were analysed. Additionally, freshly collected samples of different plant parts of two Antidesma spp. were investigated to ensure the significance of the results on herbarium specimens and to compare the antidesmone content in bark, root and leaves. Antidesmone could be unambiguously identified in 12 of 13 Antidesma spp., as well as in the two other investigated genera of subtribe Antidesminae, in levels of up to 65 mg/kg plant dry weight. Antidesmone was not found in specimens from other subtribes. Antidesmone-derived compounds occur in much lower concentrations than antidesmone.

  20. South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea rubra (Van Duzee, comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

  1. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-03-18

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  2. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  3. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resolutions that support the tribe's assertion of authority. (4) A narrative statement describing the... exercise the executive, legislative, and judicial functions of the tribal government; (iv) A description...

  4. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  5. TRIBE TRITICEAE L. AND THE BIOCENOTIC MECHANISMS OF ADAPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new

  6. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-06-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.

  7. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  8. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Stanislav; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.

  9. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and population history of medieval East Slavic tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A

    2013-12-01

    The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe.

  10. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  11. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 42 CFR 137.21 - How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.21 Section 137.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? The...

  13. 25 CFR 170.303 - Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a...

  14. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) For each fiscal year covered by the plan, the Tribe's proposed minimum number of hours per week that... requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.80 Section 286.80 Public Welfare... Content and Processing § 286.80 What information on minimum work participation requirements must a...

  15. 78 FR 35048 - Notice of Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... information collection was published on March 27, 2013 (78 FR 18623). No comments were received. This notice...: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the Special... approval for the collection of information for ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR...

  16. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work...

  17. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the...

  18. 42 CFR 137.71 - May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? 137.71 Section 137... Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? Yes, the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe may develop separate...

  19. 25 CFR 900.65 - What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Programmatic Reports and Data Requirements § 900.65 What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?...

  20. 45 CFR 287.20 - May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program? 287.20 Section 287.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.20 May a Public Law 102-477...

  1. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...'s designee, of certain shipments of irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR...

  2. 25 CFR 224.141 - What must the Secretary do if the tribe responds to the Director's order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... complied with the TERA and the Federal law cited in the notice; and (3) If the Secretary determines, after reviewing the tribe's response, that the tribe has not complied with the TERA or with a Federal law, the... comply with the TERA or Federal law and to protect the physical trust asset; or (2) Take any action...

  3. 25 CFR 900.154 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an informal conference? The Indian tribe or tribal organization shall file its request for an... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference? 900.154 Section 900.154 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.382 - What may the Tribe's/Consortium's annual report on self-governance address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may...

  6. 42 CFR 137.350 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a...

  7. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the Chamaedoreeae. The resulting phylogeny fully resolved the generic relationships within the tribe. The exact area of origin of the tribe remains uncertain, but dating analyses indicated an initial diversification of the Chamaedoreeae during the Early Eocene...

  8. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental review purposes? 137.305 Section 137.305 Public...

  9. 42 CFR 137.293 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal action to assume environmental responsibilities for each...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.293 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a...

  10. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section...

  11. 42 CFR 137.295 - May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... own environmental review process? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may develop their own environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process? 137.295 Section 137.295 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  12. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental responsibilities? 137.291 Section 137.291...

  13. 42 CFR 137.298 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....298 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental responsibilities under section 509 of the Act ?...

  14. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.299 Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental...

  15. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  16. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  18. 42 CFR 137.95 - May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Acquisition of Goods and Services from the Ihs § 137.95 May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe...

  19. 42 CFR 137.297 - If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental laws, not the Self-Governance Tribe. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring...

  20. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) III. Tribe Ficeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide

  1. Tribes and States Working Together: A Guide to Tribal-State Child Care Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to increase the understanding of the rationale and benefits of States and Tribes working together to provide quality child care choices and services for the children and families they serve. The guide provides a description of Tribal sovereignty and the government-to-government relationship; an overview of the…

  2. Termitophilous Scarabs of the Tribe Corythoderini: A taxonomic review (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, I.R.M.; Krikken, J.

    1982-01-01

    The scarab tribe Corythoderini is reviewed. All its members appear associated with termites, probably in a symphilous way; the host records all pertain to Odontotermes species. The known range of the Corythoderini falls within the range of the host genus : Africa to Burma. The phylogeny of the coryt

  3. 77 FR 56652 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribe AGENCY: Indian Health Service...) established the geographic boundaries of the Service Delivery Area (SDA) for the newly recognized Mashpee... administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purposes...

  4. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  5. Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Baker, William J; Simmons, Mark P

    2012-05-01

    The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by a gene duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved and the genera were all highly supported except for Johannesteijsmannia and Serenoa. Divergence time analysis estimated the stem of the tribe to be approximately 86 Ma and the crown to be 38 Ma, indicating that significant extinction may have occurred along this branch. Historical biogeographic analysis suggested that Trachycarpeae are of southern North American, Central American, or Caribbean origin and supports previous hypotheses of a Laurasian origin. The biogeography and disjunctions within the tribe were interpreted with respect to divergence times, the fossil record, and geological factors such as the formation of the Greater Antilles--Aves Ridge, the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges, tectonic movement in Southeast Asia, climatic shifts between the Eocene and Pliocene, and volcanism in the Pacific basin. In considering the three major island radiations within Trachycarpeae, Miocene dispersal appears to have been the driving force in allopatric speciation and is highlighted here as an emerging pattern across the tree of life.

  6. 24 CFR 1000.232 - Can an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its IHP? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP? Yes. Section 103(c) of NAHASDA specifically provides that a recipient may submit modifications or revisions of its IHP to HUD. Unless the initial IHP...

  7. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Colorado...

  8. 25 CFR 170.136 - How can a tribe obtain funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.136 How can a tribe obtain funds? (a) To receive funding for programs that serve recreation, tourism, and... and have it ready for development; and (2) Have a viable project ready for improvement or...

  9. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  10. 77 FR 21581 - Kootenai Tribe of Idaho: Chapter 11-Alcohol Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... credit shall be extended to any person, organization, or entity, except that this provision does not.... Liability for Bills. A Liquor Outlet License issued by the Council does not represent any promise or... Chapter is contingent on the agreement of the operator to hold the Tribe harmless from all claims...

  11. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  12. 40 CFR 35.6010 - Indian Tribe and intertribal consortium eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... federally recognized, and when they meet the criteria set forth in 40 CFR 300.515(b) of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (the National Contingency Plan or NCP), except that Indian Tribes shall not be required to demonstrate jurisdiction under 40 CFR 300.515(b)(3) of the NCP to...

  13. 25 CFR 1001.8 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... negotiation grant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT... negotiation grant. (a) Who may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any tribe/consortium that has been...-governance annual funding agreement is eligible to apply for a negotiation grant. Each year, we will...

  14. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B.... N. ``Wine'' means an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the natural sugar content of.... Alcohol Training and Education. The Tribe shall require the Licensee of an Off-Premise Beer Retail...

  15. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is often used for the body of boat and also own the good quality according to Yachai tribe, that is Atam (Scihizomeria serrata Hochr, Batki (Adinandra forbesii Baker. F, Chomach (Gordonia papuana Kobuski, Rupke (Tristania sp., Bao (Dillenia papuana artelli, Top (Buchanania macrocarpa Laut, Mitbo (Cordia Dichtoma Forst., and Yunun (Camnosperma brevipetiolata Volkens. While to part of oar exploit 2 wood species that is Bach (Buchanania Arborescens.Bi and Tup (Litsea ampala Merr. Yachai Tribe recognized 3 boat model owning different size measure and function, that is Junun Ramchai, Junun Pochoi and Junun Toch.

  16. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  17. A Study of Living Megalithic Tradition Among the Gond Tribes, District – Nuaparha, Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mendaly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the existence and continuation of living megalith tradition among the Gond tribe in Nuaparha district of Odisha. The mortuary practice of different tribal community have given many ethnographical data, which is used as a primary source to reconstructing the past social and cultural history of megalithic people.

  18. A Study of Living Megalithic Tradition Among the Gond Tribes, District – Nuaparha, Odisha

    OpenAIRE

    Mendaly, S

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the existence and continuation of living megalith tradition among the Gond tribe in Nuaparha district of Odisha. The mortuary practice of different tribal community have given many ethnographical data, which is used as a primary source to reconstructing the past social and cultural history of megalithic people.

  19. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to...

  1. 77 FR 10551 - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation-Amendment to Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... this Code shall be subject to criminal punishment as provided in the Criminal Code. All contraband... shall have exclusive jurisdiction to enforce this Code and the civil fines, criminal punishment and... or employee of the Confederated Tribes or the Wildhorse Resort & Casino shall be authorized,...

  2. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  3. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  4. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and Water... (3) Is filed with the Secretary of the Commission. See generally 18 CFR 2.19. Statements of...

  5. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and

  6. 45 CFR 309.105 - What procedures governing child support guidelines must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... application of the guidelines would be unjust or inappropriate in a particular case in accordance with criteria established by the Tribe or Tribal organization. Such criteria must take into consideration...

  7. 45 CFR 286.270 - What happens if the Tribe does not satisfy the quarterly reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... part 92, OMB Circulars A-87 and A-133, or any Federal statutes and regulations applicable to the TANF... determine that a Tribe has not submitted to us a complete and accurate Tribal TANF Data Report within...

  8. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects... among metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), regional planning organizations (RPOs),...

  9. 25 CFR 224.72 - How will the Secretary determine whether a tribe has demonstrated sufficient capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... seeks to assume; (c) Materials and information submitted with the application for a TERA, the result of... final proposed TERA or the tribe's plans for establishing that expertise; (f) The financial capacity of... scope of the proposed TERA....

  10. 25 CFR 224.80 - Under what authority will a tribe perform activities for energy resource development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TERA under the authorities provided in the approved TERA. Notwithstanding anything in this part or an approved TERA to the contrary, a tribe will retain all sovereign and other powers it otherwise possesses....

  11. 25 CFR 900.97 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization acquire excess BIA or IHS property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise discretion in a way that gives maximum effect to the request of Indian tribes or tribal... INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  12. Kalispel Tribe of Indians Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Albeni Falls Dam: Flying Goose Ranch Phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-02-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Kalispel Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for wildlife habitat mitigation for the extensive habitat losses caused by Albeni Falls Dam on and near the Kalispel Indian Reservation.

  13. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) IV. Genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens, viz. Broussonetia, Madura s.l. (including Cardiogyne, Chlorophora, and Cudrania), Malaisia, Milicia, Morus, Olmedia, Pachytrophe, Plecospermum, Sloetiopsis, Streblus s.l. (including Paratrophis, Phyllochlamys, Pseudostreblu

  14. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  15. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. Correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 49-56

  16. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  17. Pollen types of the Egyptian species of tribe Lactuceae (subfamily Cichorioideae-Compositae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, A.K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Pollen morphology of forty six Egyptian species representing twenty three genera of the tribe Lactuceae was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seven pollen types were recognized: Geropogon pollen type, Koelpinia pollen type, Lactuca pollen type, Launaea pollen type, Rhagadiolus pollen type, Scolymus pollen type and Scorzonera pollen type. Descriptions, a key, light microscope (LM) and scaning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of each pollen type are provided.

  18. Counterinsurgency: Clear-Hold-Build and the Pashtun Tribes in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    http://www.pashtunforums.com/ literature -32/james- fergusson-taliban-20142/ (accessed 2 December 2011). 25Glatzer, 270. 9 political power is balanced...a single clan or tribe. Historically, unrest has always bubbled up from this stratum-whether against Alexander, the Victorian British, or the Soviet...2012). Fergusson, James. “Pashtunforums.” http://www.pashtunforums.com/ literature -32/james- fergusson-taliban-20142/ (accessed 2 December 2011

  19. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  20. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of damsel bugs representing three tribes in the family Nabidae (Insecta: Hemiptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples

  1. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S.; Garner, Drake M.G.; Cantino, Philip D.; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  2. Seed size and photoblastism in species belonging to tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K

    2013-05-01

    The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae) and taxonomic implications for Schlumbergera and Hatiora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Alice; Zappi, Daniela C; Forest, Félix; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2011-03-01

    Tribe Rhipsalideae is composed of unusual epiphytic or lithophytic cacti that inhabit humid tropical and subtropical forests. Members of this tribe present a reduced vegetative body, a specialized adventitious root system, usually spineless areoles and flowers and fruits reduced in size. Despite the debate surrounding the classification of Rhipsalideae, no studies have ever attempted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among its members or to test the monophyly of its genera using DNA sequence data; all classifications formerly proposed for this tribe have only employed morphological data. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Rhipsalideae using plastid (trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS) markers to evaluate the classifications previously proposed for the group. We also examine morphological features traditionally used to delimit genera within Rhipsalideae in light of the resulting phylogenetic trees. In total new sequences for 35 species of Rhipsalideae were produced (out of 55; 63%). The molecular phylogeny obtained comprises four main clades supporting the recognition of genera Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora and Schlumbergera. The evidence gathered indicate that a broader genus Schlumbergera, including Hatiora subg. Rhipsalidopsis, should be recognized. Consistent morphological characters rather than homoplastic features are used in order to establish a more coherent and practical classification for the group. Nomenclatural changes and a key for the identification of the genera currently included in Rhipsalideae are provided.

  4. Updating freeTribe to Support Efficient Synchronous Awareness in the Web Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Delgadillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work has been reflected fundamentally in theoretical contributions. This contributions have constitute the base to carry out several intents to facilitate the work of the collaborative systems developers, however, current tool-kits, APIs or class libraries only eliminate partially the gap between the technical aspects that impose the information technology and the stressed social character of the process of collaboration in the World Wide Web. In this paper is presented the framework freeTribe, which involve the domain of the distributed groupwares leaning on the Cooperative Model of the methodology AMENITIES, in the middleware platform ICE and in RIA technologies; freeTribe has been designed as a software framework, to maximize its reusability and adaptability with a minimal programming effort. Support for synchronous group tasks in the Web context is increasingly recognized as a desideratum for collaborative systems and several tools have emerged recently that help groups of people with the same goals to work together, but many issues for these collaborative systems remain under studied. We identified synchronous awareness as one of these issues in collaborative systems, and updated freeTribe with four well-accepted kinds of awareness (group awareness, workspace awareness, contextual awareness, and peripheral awareness by the community focusing our interest in its synchronous mechanism for efficient interaction in Web contexts.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Theeae (Theaceae s.s. and its implications for generic delimitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.

  6. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiva Rani Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.

  7. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ankanna, Sade; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ethnomedicinal studies on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area are documented during the period of 2014-2015. The study is mainly focused on medicinal importance of plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat various ailments. Materials and Methods: The information collected on treated ailments, part used, preparation, combination, and addition of ingredients to prepare herbal medicines with the help of standard questionnaire. Results: During the study, 53 types of ailments were treated using 48 medicinal plants belongs to 26 families were documented. Among the medicinal plants, shrubs (15) were most using life form of plants for the preparation of herbal medicines. Leaf part (40%), paste form (33%), and oral administration (63%) of herbal medicines were most preferable. The documented ethnomedicinal importance of this tribe was cross-checked with Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database shows most of the plants were correlated with this database. Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. The correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. PMID:27069725

  8. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  9. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  10. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  11. A new genus of the tribe Caliscelini (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezdilov, Vladimir M; Bourgoin, Thierry; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2014-12-22

    A new genus Annamatissus Gnezdilov et Bourgoin gen. nov., including the new species, Annamatissus tami Gnezdilov et Soulier-Perkins sp. nov. is described in the family Caliscelidae from the Bi-Doup massif in Lam Dong Province of Vietnam. The new taxon represents only the second genus of the tribe Caliscelini known from Vietnam. An identification key to separate Gelastissus Kirkaldy from Annamatissus gen. nov. is provided together with a check list of the Caliscelidae of Vietnam and their distribution. New distribution data in Vietnam are given for Cicimora sicildia Emeljanov, 1998 and Gelastissus hokutonis (Matsumura, 1916).

  12. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  13. Unite the tribes ending turf wars for career and business success

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi

  14. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  15. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  16. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

  17. 25 CFR 900.130 - What role does the Indian tribe or tribal organization play during the performance of a self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... construction schedule and updates as they occur. (8) The Indian tribe or tribal organization shall maintain on... play during the performance of a self-determination construction contract? 900.130 Section 900.130... Construction § 900.130 What role does the Indian tribe or tribal organization play during the performance of...

  18. 25 CFR 224.88 - What must the Director do after receiving notice of a violation or breach from the tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... violation or breach from the tribe? 224.88 Section 224.88 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Implementation of Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Violation Or Breach § 224.88 What must the Director do after receiving notice of a violation or breach from the tribe?...

  19. 25 CFR 224.83 - What must a tribe do after executing a lease or business agreement, or granting a right-of-way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Agreements, and Rights-Of-Way Under A Tera § 224.83 What must a tribe do after executing a lease or business agreement, or granting a right-of-way? Following the execution of a lease, business agreement, or grant of right-of-way under a TERA, a tribe must: (a) Inform the public of approval of the lease,...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.407 - Do the wage and labor standards in the Davis-Bacon Act apply to Tribes and Tribal Consortia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do the wage and labor standards in the Davis-Bacon Act....407 Do the wage and labor standards in the Davis-Bacon Act apply to Tribes and Tribal Consortia? No, wage and labor standards of the Davis-Bacon Act do not apply to employees of Tribes and...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.50 - What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Indians OFFICE OF THE... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A Tribe/Consortium...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.43 - May a Tribe/Consortium use its own resources to meet its self-governance planning and negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use its own resources to meet its self-governance planning and negotiation expenses? Yes, a Tribe... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium use its own resources to meet its self-governance planning and negotiation expenses? 1000.43 Section 1000.43 Indians OFFICE OF...

  3. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? 26.22 Section 26.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes may integrate Job Placement and Training Program funds into their Public Law 102-477 Plan....

  4. 45 CFR 287.165 - What are the data collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW Program with other programs? 287.165 Section... collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW Program with other... Public Law 102-477. This system includes a program report, consisting of a narrative report,...

  5. 25 CFR 224.116 - What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.116 Section 224.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? (a) If the Director... is in compliance with the TERA; (b) The Director may extend the time for determining a...

  6. 25 CFR 224.100 - May a person or entity ask the Secretary to review a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.100 Section 224.100 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary to review a tribe's compliance with a TERA? In accordance with this subpart, a person or entity... with a TERA. However, before filing a petition with the Secretary, a person or entity that may be...

  7. 42 CFR 137.110 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any program income earned pursuant to a compact and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Program Income § 137.110 May a Self-Governance... Medicare, Medicaid, or other program income earned by a Self-Governance Tribe shall be treated...

  8. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  9. 42 CFR 137.18 - What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible...

  10. 42 CFR 137.444 - If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the Secretary take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.444 If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the...

  11. 42 CFR 137.100 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a...

  12. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a...

  13. ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE Triticеae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of adaptation performance of the tribe Triticeae L. representatives were studied according to biochemical markers. It is shown that drought-tolerant tribe representatives are at the subcellular level characterized by presence of alleles of Dreb 1 genes of drought resistance, Glu-D1 of glutenin, Glі-1B1, Gli-6D2, Gli-6D3, Gli-6B2 of gliadin, and high protein content in grain (14.2–18.0%. Plants with low drought resistance exhibit heightened superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves. It is established that the criteria of frost and winter hardiness of plants are: accumulation of high total sugar content in the tillering node (26–38 mg/g as cryoprotectants and energy sources, and economical consumption of them during the autumn-winter period. Exogenously, high levels of plant organism’s adaptability to various stress conditions in winter are expressed as high photoperiodic sensitivity manifesting as weak differentiation of growth points in the fall and late spring vegetation restoration. Adaptive changes at the subcellular level are consistent with drought resistance indices (high leaf index, glossy cover, lingering green color of the leaf, presence of awns, significant growth in dry weight in dry conditions.

  14. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  15. Description of a new bat species of the tribe Scotonycterini (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) from Southwestern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    The tribe Scotonycterini is currently composed of three fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) characterized by white fur patches on the head, specifically around the nose and behind the eyes: Scotonycteris zenkeri, S. ophiodon and Casinycteris argynnis. Herein a new species is described, Casinycteris campomaanensis sp. nov., based on female specimen collected in 2007 near the village Nkoélon-Mvini close to the Campo-Ma'an National Park, southwestern Cameroon. It is readily distinguished from the three other species of Scotonycterini by its body size and craniodental characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the new species is the sister-group to C. argynnis and that the holotype of S. ophiodon is more closely related to Casinycteris than to S. zenkeri, rendering the genus Scotonycteris paraphyletic. Based on these results, morphological characters within the tribe Scotonycterini were reassessed and a new classification is proposed, in which the new species and S. ophiodon are placed in the genus Casinycteris.

  16. Traditional usages of ichthyotoxic plant Barringtonia asiatica (L. Kurz. by the Nicobari tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravikumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.

  17. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IIK SRI SULASMI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulasmi IS, Fatimah S, Nisyawati. 2012. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province. Biodiversitas 13: 152-162. Management of Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco Willd. in Jebak Forest, Batanghari, Jambi is not well documented. It is noted that fruits of D. draco is the best income source for Anak Dalam Jambi people since 1624. They harvest fruits of D. draco as many as they need. The management of Jebak forest is an open access, so all the people of Anak Dalam Jambi Tribe have the same right and responsibility on the forest. However, almost 60% of Jebak Forest area have been severed because of illegal logging for palm oil plantation. This is the reason why people of Suku Anak Dalam such as Sudirman and Suin, try to cultivate D. draco by growing 40 clumps of this species at their latex field. The aim of their activity is to conserve D. draco at their forest. Based on the recent situation, research study of rattan jernang’s management in Jebak Forest is conducted. This research method is semi structural interview. All data are analyzed by description. As a result is the management and cultivation of D. draco in Jebak Forest is very difficult because the availability of seeds are not enough for root stocks.

  18. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  19. The interaction between tobacco use and oral health among tribes in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Sunali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco related practices on oral health of tribes in Central India. The use of smokeless tobacco, gutkha & associated products is on the rise amongst the younger generation making oral precancer & cancer a public health concern. Methodology A pioneering study was conducted to evaluate the tobacco related practices amongst tribes and its impact on oral health. The study included 411 tribals of the Baiga group. Guided dialogue techniques and proforma based evaluation formed a part of the study. Result 53.04% of individuals between 21 to 40yrs are addicted to deleterious habits. There is a marked consumption (72% of tobacco & associated products among the geriatric population (60 yrs & above.Insecure livelihoods, malnutrition & increased stress levels contribute to the stark increase of addiction of tobacco related practices. Conclusion The healthcare infrastructure needs to be upgraded to meet the demands of changing disease profile amongst the vulnerable population. Assessment of impact of disease on existing public health would enable formulation of adaptive measures and suggestions for amelioration.

  20. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  1. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among Nomad Tribe groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Sachdev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is strongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake, Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity is determined by waist circumference. On the other hand, genetic factor has been established as an important non–modifiable predisposing factor. And ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to be investigated. Objectives: To study the prevalence rate of hypertension and various associated risk factors among few select endogamous group of Tribal Population. Methods: Cross-sectional, Tribal population-based study, consisting of a total sample of twelve hundred and eighty-six discrete subjects of age ≥18 years was chosen. BMI, waist circumference, ABO blood group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were determined and correlated with each other. Results: The results were analyzed by applying correlation analysis and chi-square test. This study revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was high among the entire select tribe groups but seen highest in frequency in Bhopa (31%. It further showed that the subjects with blood group B had high blood pressure in the entire tribal groups except Bhopa Tribe. Conclusion: This study provides population based study on hypertensive tendency among select few endogamous tribal populations.

  2. Tribe Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    coined by Durkheim , a contemporary of Weber. It is a social disorder within which society does not propose reliable values to individuals helping them to...societies, as Durkheim argued, are vulnerable to secessions. A band of young men unified by brotherhood of arms can split from the clan and... Durkheim , De la division du travail social, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris p. 123-124. Kilcullen underscores the tendency of the pasthun

  3. Sneaker Tribe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    miji; 周磊

    2014-01-01

    让人烦躁的夏季热度抵不过一抹纯粹白色带来的清爽感受,足下纯白色可以让造型回归最简单的时髦,本期Easy Sneaker为你介绍NIKE三款足下白鞋!Let's focus!

  4. SPORTS TRIBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    miji

    2014-01-01

    生活品质的体现总在细节,运动也从来都不再单单只是运动,女孩更甚!一双品质优的运动鞋不但能轻松满足装备控们的科技需求,更让运动中的造型大加分!女孩们赶紧注目!

  5. 25 CFR 290.11 - May an Indian tribe distribute per capita payments from net gaming revenues derived from either...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May an Indian tribe distribute per capita payments from net gaming revenues derived from either Class II or Class III gaming without a tribal revenue... net gaming revenues derived from either Class II or Class III gaming without a tribal...

  6. Phylogenetic selection of target species in Amaryllidaceae tribe Haemantheae for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and affinity to the serotonin reuptake transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Amaryllidaceae, tribe Haemantheae and Amaryllis belladonna L. as an outgroup, in order to provide a phylogenetic framework for the selection of candidate plants for lead discoveries in relation to Alzheimer´s disease and depression. DNA sequences from t...

  7. 77 FR 15267 - Clean Air Act Full Approval of Title V Operating Permits Program; Southern Ute Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... review of the Tribe's authority to regulate air pollution sources located within the exterior boundaries... jurisdiction to regulate non- Indian-owned air pollution sources located on fee lands within the Reservation... greenhouses gases as part of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration/Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring...

  8. Seed morphology of some tribes of Brassicaceae (implications for taxonomy and species identification for the flora of Egypt)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalik, K. Abdel; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Seed morphology of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of Brassicaceae were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The taxa included representatives of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae, and Sisymbrieae, which all occur in Egypt. Macro- and micromorphol

  9. 25 CFR 224.87 - What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... violation or breach? 224.87 Section 224.87 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... DETERMINATION ACT Implementation of Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Violation Or Breach § 224.87 What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? As soon as practicable after discovering...

  10. 25 CFR 162.201 - Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... violate a federal statute or judicial decision or conflict with our general trust responsibility under... and objectives in any agricultural resource management plan developed by the tribe, or by us in close... meeting records and existing survey documents, reports, and other research from federal agencies,...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.26 - Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from the applicant pool? 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.26 Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool? Once admitted into the applicant pool,...

  12. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments...: (1) Developed in cooperation with State and metropolitan planning organizations; and (2) Included...

  13. 40 CFR 33.304 - Must a Native American (either as an individual, organization, Tribe or Tribal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a Native American (either as an... PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Good Faith Efforts § 33.304 Must a Native American (either as an individual...) A Native American (either as an individual, organization, corporation, Tribe or Tribal...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.150 - How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? 1000.150 Section 1000.150 Housing... receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? (a) As required by section 208...

  15. 25 CFR 224.76 - Upon notification of disapproval, may a tribe re-submit a revised final proposed TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... revised final proposed TERA? 224.76 Section 224.76 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... disapproval, may a tribe re-submit a revised final proposed TERA? Yes, within 45 days of receiving the notice...-submit a revised final proposed TERA, approved by the tribal governing body and signed by the...

  16. 25 CFR 224.117 - Must the Director make a determination of the tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compliance with a TERA? 224.117 Section 224.117 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... compliance with a TERA? (a) Yes. Upon a finding that one of the threshold determinations in § 224.115 has been met, the Director must make a determination of the tribe's compliance with a TERA within the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-governance per year? 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year? (a) Sections 402(b) and (c) of the Act authorize the Director...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.398 - May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested...

  19. 42 CFR 137.203 - May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? 137.203 Section 137.203 Public Health PUBLIC...-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes, in... participate, at its option, in national IHS data reporting activities such as Government Performance...

  20. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  1. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  2. Fruits of icacinaceae (tribe iodeae) from the late paleocene of Western north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Manchester, Steven R; Devore, Melanie L

    2008-07-01

    The Icacinaceae occur pantropically today, but are well represented by fossil fruits of the warm Early Middle Eocene, when tropical plants that currently occupy low latitudes were more widely distributed in higher latitudes. Members of this family are first known in the Late Cretaceous; however, fossil fruits of tribe Iodeae are quite rare before the Eocene. In this paper we describe the first formally recognized Late Paleocene icacinaceous taxa from western North America. We name two new species of Icacinicarya based on anatomically preserved fruits and establish a new genus, Icacinicaryites, for impressions with a strong similarity to Icacinicarya that lack anatomical preservation. These new records from the Almont/Beicegel Creek flora in North Dakota and several localities in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana complement records known from the Early Eocene of England and document an increased diversity of Iodeae and related forms in the Paleogene of western North America.

  3. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  4. STUDY OF THE CRUDE BIRTH RATE AND DELIVERY CONDITION AMONG THE QASHQAI TRIBE, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a cross-sectional demographic survey that was conducted among the Qashqai Tribe of southern Iran in 1973, the crude birth rate was estimated at 48.2 per thousand per year. The most productive age groups, was 25-29 years. Forty-nine, point seven per cent (49.7% or about one half of the total births occurred among married women aged 20 to 29 years Eighty-seven point three per cent (87.3% of the deliveries took place in tents, only one per cent at maternity hospitals. Ninety point one per cent (90.1% of babies were delivered with the help of relative and friends, while only 6.9 per cent of all deliveries took place with the aid of midwives. Eighty-nine point seven per cent (89.7% of deliveries were performed without medical expenses.

  5. Plant folk medicines for gastrointestinal disorders among the main tribes of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.

  6. 《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes Ⅱ)的摇滚风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagou

    2000-01-01

    游戏出版商Sierrs工作室日前宣布同八十年代知名摇滚乐队莫特雷·克鲁签订协议,由该乐队为即将上市的游戏《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes 2)制作音轨音乐。根据协议,莫特雷·克鲁乐队将从他们的新专辑——“新纹身”(New Tattoo)里挑选一支歌曲放入游戏中。《部落Ⅱ》的开发商为Dynamix工作室。

  7. Fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang Tribe of Chandel District, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangaina Kameih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study investigates fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang tribe on the basis of household survey collected from 10 villages of Chandel District (Manipur, interviewing 200 ever married women. The findings indicate that the age group of 15-50 years, comprising of the population at peak productive ages, constitutes 64.39% of Lamkang population. The sex ratio of 1105 reveals the preponderance of females over males. Regression analysis suggests that biological and social factors like age at menarche, age at marriage, age at first conception, women’s education have an inverse relationship with number of conceptions and live births whereas education of husband and type of family are inversely proportional with live birth only.

  8. Meiotic Studies in Some Species of Tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae from Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbir Chand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n=10 and Lactuca lessertiana (2n=2x=16. Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n=2x=10 and 2n=6x=54, Tragopogon dubius (2n=2x=14 and 2n=4x=28, and T. gracilis (2n=2x=14. The chromosome report of 2n=2x=10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  9. Meiotic studies in some species of tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  10. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  11. Identification of a rare blood group, "Bombay (Oh phenotype," in Bhuyan tribe of Northwestern Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgir R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood group serology plays a vital role in transfusion medicine. The Bombay (Oh phenotype is characterized by the absence of A, B, and H antigens on red cells and occurs rarely, especially in tribal populations of India. Aims and Objectives: This is a field-based random population study in the Bhuyan tribal community. The study reports three cases of the rare Bombay (Oh phenotype for the first time in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa. Materials and Methods: Taking informed consent, red blood cells of 836 Bhuyan subjects were tested with three antisera, i.e., anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H (lectin for forward reaction. Agglutinations of plasma with A, B, and O (H red cells (reverse reaction were also tested for the presence or absence of antibodies in the serum. Specialized tests like absorption-elution, titration of naturally occurring antibodies at different temperatures, inhibition of anti-H by O saliva secretor, and determination of secretor status were performed. Results: Three cases of a rare blood group, Bombay (Oh phenotype, (2 out of 244 Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 out of 379 Paudi Bhuyan from Hemgiri and Lahunipara blocks, respectively in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa were detected, giving an incidence of 1 in 122 in Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 in 379 in Paudi Bhuyan, with an average of 1 in 278 among the Bhuyan tribal population. This incidence is high in comparison to earlier studies reported from India. Conclusions: The practice of tribal and territorial endogamy in a smaller effective populations (for example, there are only 3,521 individuals in Paudi Bhuyan results in smaller marital distance and inbreeding, leading to increased homozygous expression of rare recessive genetic characters like the Bombay (Oh phenotype. This study further testifies that the incidence is higher in those states of India where the consanguinity is a common practice.

  12. Strategic Energy Planning (Area 1) Consultants Reports to Citizen Potawatomi Nation Federally Recognized Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae

    2004-12-01

    The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production

  13. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservaton 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard (Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Nespelem, WA)

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980's the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife developed a management plan for Lake Roosevelt on the restoration and enhancement of kokanee salmon populations using hatchery out plants and the restoration of natural spawning runs. The plan was incorporated into the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) in their 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife program as partial mitigation for hydropower caused fish losses resulting from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project, as part of a basin wide effort, is evaluating the status of the natural production kokanee in streams tributary to Lakes Roosevelt and Rufus Woods and is examining entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam. The goal of this project is the protection and enhancement of the natural production kokanee in these two lakes. The project is currently collecting data under four phases or parts. Since 1991, Lake Whatcom Washington origin kokanee have been planted in considerable numbers into the waters of Lake Roosevelt. A natural production kokanee fishery has persisted in the lake since the early 1970's(Cash, 1995), (Scholz, 1991). Historical information alludes to wild Kokanee production in the San Poil River, Nespelem River, Big Sheep Creek, Ora-Pa-Ken Creek, Deep Creek and Onion Creeks. The genetic makeup of the fish within the fishery is unknown, as is their contribution to the fishery. The level of influence by the hatchery out planted stock on wild fish stocks is unknown as well. Project outcomes will indicate the genetic fitness for inclusion of natural production kokanee stocks into current Bonneville Power Administration funded hatchery programs. Other findings may determine contribution/interaction of/between wild/hatchery kokanee stocks found in the waters of Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt.

  14. Comparison of the structure and musculature of male terminalia in the tribe Cidariini Duponchel (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) once again throws into doubt a sister relationship with the Xanthorhoini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olga

    2014-08-25

    The structure and musculature of the male terminalia are described and illustrated in 11 genera of the tribe Cidariini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) from the Holarctic and Oriental regions. Nine genital muscles were identified: m1, m2(10), m3(2), m4, m5(7), m6(5), m7(6), m8(3) and m21. Variation in the insertion of the muscles m1, m3(2), m4, m5(7), m6(5) and m8(3) on the sclerites in several generic groups of the tribe Cidariini is discussed, revealing that the Thera species group does not share some apparently cidariine characters. A comparative analysis of the musculature in the tribes Cidariini and Xanthorhoini questions the sister relationship of these tribes that was suggested by earlier studies. The application of the terms 'anellus lobes' and 'labides' is discussed. 

  15. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  16. 25 CFR 1000.130 - Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or element of a program to be included in a non-BIA AFA? 1000.130... § 1000.130 Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a...

  17. Studies on some wild plant species used by the Mising (Miri tribe of Assam in their traditional food items.

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    N. K. Gam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mising peoples are the second largest plain tribes of Assam inhabitation in the Upper Assam particularly along the bank of river Brahmaputra. They are one of the culturally rich ethnic tribe of Assam, mostly dependent on nature for their livelihood. They rear pigs and poultry in every house hold which is a part of their custom. Fishing in rivers and beels is another important practice of these people. Besides, they use plenty of wild plants as vegetables in their daily food items from time immemorial. The paper deals with the investigation and documentation of some important plant species habitually use in their food items particularly in nonvegetarian dishes. In this study, we also observed that the use of some of these plant species is pertaining to their religious belief and festivals also.

  18. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  19. A Review of Traditional Plants Used in the Treatment of Epilepsy Amongst the Hausa/Fulani Tribes of Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. Muazu; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis in...

  20. Housing pattern and food habit of the Mro-tribe community in Bangladesh: A forest dependence perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Danesh Miah

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted on the housing pattern and food habit of the Mro tribe in Bandarban region, Bangladesh, highlighting their indigenous knowledge. The study was carried out with respect to three income groups. A total of 36 households (12 from each income groups) were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaires. A special type of indigenous knowledge on housing pattern and food habit was explored in the Mro community, which correspond to the severe dependence on forest resources.

  1. Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian popu...

  2. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. (Fabaceae from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

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    Nataliia I. Karpenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. into the genus Securigera DC.

  3. New records of the tribe Bryobiini berlsese (Acari: Tetranychidae: Bryobiinae) from Serbia, with notes about associated predators (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović K.; Stojnić B.; Vidović B.; Radulović Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge and some new faunistic and zoogeographic data of the insufficiently researched tribe Bryobiini in Serbia. In Serbia, this group of mites is represented by eight species, including four species new to Serbian fauna: Bryobia angustisetis Jakobashvili, B. lagodechiana Reck, B. ulmophila Reck and B. vasiljevi Reck. New data on host plant species and families have also been obtained - two new host plant species for B. angustisetis, two ho...

  4. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: a phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries

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    Waengsothorn Surachit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of

  5. IMPACT OF TRIBE TRITICEAE VARIETIES ON STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF SEGETAL GROUP

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    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe

  6. Analysis of whole chloroplast genomes from the genera of the Clauseneae, the curry tribe (Rutaceae, Citrus family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Vikram S; Appelhans, Marc S; Johnson, Gabriel; Carlsen, Monica; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-11

    The Clauseneae (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is a tribe in the Citrus family that, although economically important as it contains the culinary and medicinally-useful curry tree (Bergera koenigii), has been relatively understudied. Due to the recent significant taxonomic changes made to this tribe, a closer inspection of the genetic relationships among its genera has been warranted. Whole genome skimming was used to generate chloroplast genomes from six species, representing each of the four genera (Bergera, Clausena, Glycosmis, Micromelum) in the Clauseneae tribe plus one closely related outgroup (Merrillia), using the published plastome sequence of Citrus sinensis as a reference. Phylogenetically informative character (PIC) data were analyzed using a genome alignment of the seven species, and variability frequency among the species was recorded for each coding and non-coding region, with the regions of highest variability identified for future phylogenetic studies. Non-coding regions exhibited a higher percentage of variable characters as expected, and the phylogenetic markers ycf1, matK, rpoC2, ndhF, trnS-trnG spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer proved to be among the most variable regions. Other markers that are frequently used in phylogenetic studies, e.g. rps16, atpB-rbcL, rps4-trnT, and trnL-trnF, proved to be far less variable. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequences were conducted using Bayesian inference (MrBayes) and Maximum Likelihood (RAxML), yielding highly supported divisions among the four genera.

  7. An Investigative Study on School Drop-outs in Tribal Settings. A Case of Three selected Tribes in South Karnataka

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    Manjunatha B.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The NPE, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA, 1992, recognized the heterogeneity and diversity of the tribal areas while underlining the importance of instruction through the mother tongue and the need for preparing teaching/learning materials in the tribal languages. A working group on Elementary and Adult Education for the Xth Five Year Plan (2002-07 emphasized the need to improve the quality of education of tribal children and to ensure equity as well as further improving access. In general, the tribes that remain geographically isolated are able to retain their traditional cultures and religions longer. On the other hand communities that are either nomadic or live in the periphery of civilized life are prone for drastic changes. Karnataka has a sizable population of tribal people. There are 34.64 lakhs tribals distributed in various regions of Karnataka as per 2001 census. Their education level still min pathetic condition. This paper is based on study conducted on three important tribes viz; Soliga, Jenukuruba and Betta Kurubas Tribes of chamartjangar district of Karnataka state India

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Wahlberg, Niklas; Francini, Ronaldo Bastos; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Brown, Keith S; Paluch, Márlon; Lees, David C; Freitas, André V L

    2008-02-01

    The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use herbaceous plants of the family Violaceae, Acraea and Bematistes feed selectively on plants with cyanoglycosides belonging to many plant families, but preferentially to Passifloraceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feed on Asteraceae only. Here, a molecular phylogeny is proposed for the butterflies of the tribe Acraeini based on sequences of COI, EF-1alpha and wgl. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the tribe is monophyletic, once the genus Pardopsis is excluded, since it appears to be related to Argynnini. The existing genus Acraea is a paraphyletic group with regard to the South American genera, and the species of Acraea belonging to the group of "Old World Actinote" is the sister group of the Neotropical genera. The monophyly of South American clade is strongly supported, suggesting a single colonization event of South America. The New World Actinote (s. str.) is monophyletic, and sister to Abananote+Altinote (polyphyletic). Based on the present results it was possible to propose a scenario for the evolution in host plant use within Acraeini, mainly concerning the use of Asteraceae by the South American genera.

  9. Raw Materials Inventory and Fermentation Process in Lemea Industry The Traditional Food of Rejang Tribe

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    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional food is a food that is processed from surrounding natural and treated hereditary, so it became one of the pillars of food tenacity. Lemea is a traditional food of Rejang tribe that has not been properly inventoried. The purpose of this study is an inventory and characterization of physical, chemical and organoleptic of Lemea from various small industries in the districts. Characterization of traditional food Lemea required as a basis for the agro-industry design of Lemea of Rejang traditional standardized food (raw materials and processes, so resulting in consistent product quality, hygienic and attractive so as to compete with other containers food products, as well as preserving traditional food. The research method used was a survey method, by interviewing a small industry regarding raw materials used and the fermentation process of Lemea. Results show that the raw materials used are Mayan bamboo sprout (Kepahiyang and North Bengkulu District, Kepea bamboo sprout (South Lebong District and all kinds of bamboo sprout in the Rejang Lebong District, depending on available bamboo sprouts. The fish used in Central Bengkulu and Kepahiyang District is Tilapia fish, South Lebong District (White fish, North Bengkulu (Mayung fish. The fermentation process classified on 2 groups, namely (1 fermentation with the addition of rice porridge as a source of glucose and (2 without the addition of fermented rice porridge as a source of glucose. Lemea from various sources have variations in color, aroma, acidity, integrality, turbidity and overall appearance of different.

  10. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  11. [Health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in Malagasi Antemoro Tribe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradellini, Martina; Fiaccadori, Cianzia

    2010-01-01

    A collaboration experience with the Fondation Médical d'Ampasimanjeva nurses, in an international cooperation project,permits to analyse the basic nursing concepts, starting from the local cultural approach. Research main outcome is to describe health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in the Malgasi Antemoro tribe. Closing to the ethnographic research, work has been developed in three different moments: a first job organization starting from a spread literature analysis, the follow work on field about collecting data, and the last data elaboration and discussion Collecting data tool was the focus group which has done with the complete hospital nursing staff, divided by ward places. A fourth one was addressed to a twenty medical patients group. Focus group questions came from the Rising Sun Model guide, by Madeleine Leininger, adapted to the research own needs. Outcomes show an important traditional medicine influence, explained by the way people conceive health, illness, and even life, all elements directly affected the nursing care. It stands out a strong belief that health depends by the ability of person to work. The death concept is saw as a passage's phase to the Razana's spiritual condition. This is the reason supporting fatalism as approach to the death, that appear as an inevitable event managed by God. Disease's concept is related to traditional healers; as a matter of facts, it exists a strong belief that diseases find origin from magician.

  12. The Eco-friendly Tharu Tribe: A Study in Socio-cultural Dynamics

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    Subhash Chandra Verma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tharu culture is very Eco-Friendly, all cultural thing andactivities of this tribe are deeply related with nature. Their residence, food, cloths, art, religion, economy and many other part of life are based on nature and keep ecological balance. Tharu people worship mainly their tribal Goddess (The Earth called as ‘Bhumsen’ in their folk language. There is a well family system in this community. Women have high reputation, enough social and economic rights in their family system. This community has paternal family system but women have high position and more rights, this is a mark able fact. Tharu youth like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. There are many other communities existing in Tharu area by Industrialization and Business, so the process of cultural exchange is running in Tharu area. Tharu youth are attracting tonew and charming life style. They are ignoring their traditional tribal culture that is why the identity of old Tharu culture is under dangerous. They must have to get advance education, communication, technology etc. But care of old culture is must too for keep their identity.

  13. A systematic review of population health interventions and Scheduled Tribes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.

  14. The making and prevention of rain amongst the Pedi tribe of South Africa: A pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempted to respond pastorally to the rainmaking and rain prevention rituals which are practised among the Pedi tribes – also called the Northern-Sotho speaking nation of South Africa. The rituals of rainmaking and rain prevention have been practised among the Pedi for a long time – these rituals are in fact still being practised in some of the villages in and around the Limpopo Province. The rituals are practised in time of drought and also during activities such as weddings or traditional gatherings, this is normally called molato. When the village is experiencing drought, community members, upon instruction from the chief of the village, stage a rain ritual and the moroka [rain making traditional doctor] would take the lead in performing such rituals. Families would also perform rain prevention rituals when a gathering or a wedding is being organised to ensure that the rain does not disturb the gathering and everything goes as planned. Thus the purpose of rainfall rituals is to influence the weather conditions in order to cause rain or drought either for good or for destruction. The mentioned rituals and selected scriptural passages were discussed. This article presented the biblical view of rain and conclusion principles were formulated to understand the Bible’s perspective on the mentioned rituals. These conclusions were used for the formulation of practical guidelines.

  15. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

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    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  16. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the

  17. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages.

  18. 辽金元时期蒙古弘吉剌部领地考%Research of Mongolia Hongjila Tribe During the Liao、Jin and Yuan Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国军; 康建国

    2015-01-01

    弘吉剌部是早期蒙古部落之一,辽金时期开始活跃在北方地区。金章宗时期弘吉剌部强盛,常裹胁蒙古诸部出兵金朝,成为金朝北方“边患”的主要制造者。弘吉剌部在成吉思汗建立蒙古汗国的过程中起了积极的推动作用,因此在成吉思汗将蒙古诸部重新划分为95个千户进行统治时,弘吉剌部成为少数几个能统其国族者。弘吉剌部自始至终同成吉思汗家族保持着联姻关系,元朝时更被封为一字王,地位已不亚于皇族诸王,世守漠南,成为诸藩之首。%Hongjila Tribe is one of the early Mongolian tribes; Liao and Jin period became active in the north. Hongjila tribe is strong in the Period of JinZhangzong, often forced to Mongolia the invasion of rulers, become the rulers of the north"foreign invasion "of the main manufacturers. Hongjila tribe played a positive role in the process when Genghis khan established the Mongol khanate. So in the Genghis khan is re-districting into the 95 thousands households of rules, Hongjila tribe can become one of the few governs their na-tion. Hongjila tribe from beginning to end with Genghis khan family department maintained ties of marriage, when it comes to the Yuan dynasty was the "Yiziwang", the position as to the Kings of the royal family, genera-tions to protect the Monan, become the first of all the captaincy. In this paper, through carding hisrorical process of the rise of Hongjila tribe, research of change of the fief from one the early of Hongjila tribe to the Yuan dy-nasty, reveals the Hongjila tribe historical role of the guards in Monan.

  19. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  20. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  1. Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera.

  2. Social Immunity for not Using Drugs among Adolescent (A Case Study of the Frontier Skouw Tribe Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Gunea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak J. H. Tukayo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the province of Papua, the number of drug abusers in the age group 10-19 years were 4,600 men and 2,000 in women, with the number of drug detention of 25 people in 2013 and 160 in 2014. Drug type of marijuana is so popular in Papua because of its easy access entering of the border in Papua New Gunea through Skouw tribe village. This study aimed to explore concepts and relationships between concepts related to tribal resistance Skouw to not use drugs. The study design was a qualitative approach with ethno methodology. Data were collected by interview, observation and study of the document. The informants were teenagers who do not use drugs, teenagers drug abusers, parents, community leaders, chiefs and (chief of tribe Ondoafi. The results showed empirically drug abusers because teenagers do not become mothers message. Adolescent emotional closeness with the mother in the house drain naturally superstructure value. Teen drug abusers of Skouw tribes have a great desire to leave a drug that is motivated by the advice and affection of mothers who received any circumstances. This study found "Gluten Skouw" as immunity social tribe Skouw ie mother who has two deep meaning, namely mother meaningful mama who gives love and counsel retained by teenagers, and Mrs. meaning "Tribe Skouw" as the norm and the identity of the community Skouw held to avoid drugs.

  3. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  4. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Thevakumar

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7% were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%. Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%, males (56.2%, Negrito (48.6% and live in bamboo house (92.3%. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%, males (35.6% and Negrito (48.6%. The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  5. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568

  6. Palaeoenvironmental shifts drove the adaptive radiation of a noctuid stemborer tribe (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini in the miocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel F A Toussaint

    Full Text Available Between the late Oligocene and the early Miocene, climatic changes have shattered the faunal and floral communities and drove the apparition of new ecological niches. Grassland biomes began to supplant forestlands, thus favouring a large-scale ecosystem turnover. The independent adaptive radiations of several mammal lineages through the evolution of key innovations are classic examples of these changes. However, little is known concerning the evolutionary history of other herbivorous groups in relation with this modified environment. It is especially the case in phytophagous insect communities, which have been rarely studied in this context despite their ecological importance. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of grass-specialist moths from the species-rich tribe Apameini (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. The molecular dating analyses carried out over the corresponding phylogenetic framework reveal an origin around 29 million years ago for the Apameini. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate (i a potential Palaearctic origin of the tribe Apameini associated with a major dispersal event in Afrotropics for the subtribe Sesamiina; (ii a recent colonization from Palaearctic of the New World and Oriental regions by several independent lineages; and (iii an ancestral association of the tribe Apameini over grasses (Poaceae. Diversification analyses indicate that diversification rates have not remained constant during the evolution of the group, as underlined by a significant shift in diversification rates during the early Miocene. Interestingly, this age estimate is congruent with the development of grasslands at this time. Rather than clade ages, variations in diversification rates among genera better explain the current differences in species diversity. Our results underpin a potential adaptive radiation of these phytophagous moths with the family Poaceae in relation with the major environmental shifts that have occurred in the

  7. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-12-01

    Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  8. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rowold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150 and Pygmy (B2b-M112 lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1 the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2 only traces of Khoisan (1.3% and Pygmy (1.3% markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3 the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4 the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5 the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  9. DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsha Keister

    2001-02-01

    DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials Implementing adequate institutional programs and validating preparedness for emergency response to radiological transportation incidents along or near U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shipping corridors poses unique challenges to transportation operations management. Delayed or insufficient attention to State and Tribal preparedness needs may significantly impact the transportation operations schedule and budget. The DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) has successfully used a cooperative planning process to develop strong partnerships with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs to support responder preparedness across the United States. DOE TEPP has found that building solid partnerships with key emergency response agencies ensures responders have access to the planning, training, technical expertise and assistance necessary to safely, efficiently and effectively respond to a radiological transportation accident. Through the efforts of TEPP over the past fifteen years, partnerships have resulted in States and Tribal Nations either using significant portions of the TEPP planning resources in their programs and/or adopting the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program into their hazardous material training curriculums to prepare their fire departments, law enforcement, hazardous materials response teams, emergency management officials, public information officers and emergency medical technicians for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. In addition, through strong partnerships with Federal Agencies and other national programs TEPP provided technical expertise to support a variety of radiological response initiatives and assisted several programs with integration of the nationally recognized MERRTT program

  10. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Cuban genus Girardinus Poey, 1854 and relationships within the tribe Girardinini (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Perea, Silvia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Hernandez, Natividad

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the freshwater fish tribe Girardinini were inferred to test existing colonization and diversification hypotheses for this group in the Caribbean. The genetic material examined was mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 1140 bp) and nuclear (RAG-1 and beta-actin, 2450 bp) DNA from 161 specimens representing 44 ingroup and three outgroup taxa. Our mtDNA and combined data matrix (mtDNA+nuclear DNA) results rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the tribe Girardinini and suggest the need to review the group's current taxonomy. From the data presented here, it may be inferred that the Girardinini diverged from other poeciliid fishes approximately 62 Mya ago in the Palaeocene period. This estimate, however, conflicts with the hypothesis that today's vertebrate fauna is the result of the more recent colonization of the Antillean islands during the Early Oligocene (35-33 Mya ago). The isolation of western, central and eastern Cuba during the Miocene and that of the Juventud Island and Guanahacabibes Peninsula during the Pliocene, are the main geologic events that could have promoted speciation in this group.

  11. The relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIO ADIWIBOWO

    Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.

  12. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badola Hemant K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera. As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt.

  13. Diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in surrounding of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARDAH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Local peoples in a certain area is very depends on plants grow on surrounding them for fulfill daily lifelyhoat such as food, clothing, construction material, medicinal, etc. People knowledge in plants utilized especially as medicinal matter was passed on from generation to generation. Documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge from the local people until to do the research of diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau. Field data collection of medicinal plants was done by direct observation and interview with the figure or tribe-head and community is used medicinal plant in surrounding them. From the survey it result that at least 77 species of plants are used as medicines. Five species from these was categorised as endangered species such as pulai (Alstonia scholaris, gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis, kapung-kapung (Oroxylum indicum, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, and akar kuning (Arcangelisia flava. Kinds of diseases can be cover with ingredient of traditional medicines, the process and method, part of plant used, and species having potency for develop in the future is discussed in this paper.

  14. A revision and key for the tribe Diaphorolepidini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) and checklist for the genus Synophis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander; Arteaga, Alejandro; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; Torres-Carvajal, Omar

    2016-09-28

    The genus Synophis contains a number of enigmatic species, distributed primarily in the Andean highlands of northern South America. Their extreme crypsis and rarity has precluded detailed study of most species. A recent flurry of collection activity resulted in the accession of many new specimens, and the description of 4 new species in 2015, doubling the number of described taxa. However, lingering questions remain regarding the assignment of many new and historical specimens, the morphological limits and geographical ranges of the species, and their phylogenetic relationships. We analyze new and existing morphological and molecular data to produce a new molecular phylogeny and revised morphological descriptions. We validate the previously unavailable tribe name Diaphorolepidini Jenner, Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal tribe nov., describe a 9th species Synophis niceforomariae Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal sp. nov., and offer new Standard Names in English and Spanish for the group: Andean Shadow Snakes and Culebras Andinas de la Sombra, respectively. A variety of features such as vertebrae and hemipenes show an interesting range of variation in the group, which should be evaluated in future studies, to refine species limits and diagnoses further. Cryptic and undiscovered diversity undoubtedly remains, and we hope this summary provides a robust basis for future work.

  15. 25 CFR 900.129 - How do the Secretary and Indian tribe or tribal organization arrive at an overall fair and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the Secretary and Indian tribe or tribal organization arrive at an overall fair and reasonable price for the performance of a construction contract? 900.129 Section 900.129 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? (a) A state, tribe, or local government that receives or plans to begin receiving electronic documents in lieu of...

  17. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  18. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  19. 25 CFR 900.57 - What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization chooses not to take title to property furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.57 What if... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization...

  20. 42 CFR 137.138 - Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law, what is the next step? After the... the acceptance or the deemed acceptance. Rejection of Final Offers ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has...

  1. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash... and Processing § 286.130 Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? (a) For purposes of an individual's time limit for receipt of TANF...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.17 - What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? 1000.17 Section 1000.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? In addition to the...

  3. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? 137.202 Section 137.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information...

  4. 43 CFR 30.263 - May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe exercises its statutory option to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a surviving spouse reserve a life... Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.263 May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe... tribal purchase option is a surviving spouse, the spouse may reserve a life estate in one-half of...

  5. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…

  6. 24 CFR 1000.332 - Will data used by HUD to determine an Indian tribe's or TDHE's formula allocation be provided to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.332 Will data used by HUD... before the allocation? Yes. HUD shall provide notice to the Indian tribe or TDHE of the data to be used... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will data used by HUD to...

  7. 25 CFR 224.161 - How may reassumption affect the tribe's ability to enter into a new TERA or to modify another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into a new TERA or to modify another TERA to administer additional activities or to assume... Reassume § 224.161 How may reassumption affect the tribe's ability to enter into a new TERA or to modify another TERA to administer additional activities or to assume administration of activities that...

  8. 25 CFR 224.172 - May a tribe rescind only some of the activities subject to a TERA while retaining a portion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to a TERA while retaining a portion of those activities? 224.172 Section 224.172 Indians BUREAU OF... rescind only some of the activities subject to a TERA while retaining a portion of those activities? No. A tribe may only rescind a TERA in its entirety, including the authority to approve leases,...

  9. 25 CFR 224.138 - What must the Director do if a tribe's noncompliance has caused imminent jeopardy to a physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Director finds that a tribe's noncompliance with a Federal law or the terms of a TERA has caused... TERA; (2) A description of the physical trust asset and the nature of the imminent jeopardy to a... noncompliance with the TERA or a Federal law has caused imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset....

  10. 25 CFR 900.158 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it does not agree with...

  11. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How...

  12. 42 CFR 137.65 - May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance...

  13. 42 CFR 137.167 - What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167...

  14. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H

  15. The Doryctinae (Braconidae of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marsh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H

  16. One nutritional symbiosis begat another: Phylogenetic evidence that the ant tribe Camponotini acquired Blochmannia by tending sap-feeding insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Seán G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial endosymbiosis has a recurring significance in the evolution of insects. An estimated 10-20% of insect species depend on bacterial associates for their nutrition and reproductive viability. Members of the ant tribe Camponotini, the focus of this study, possess a stable, intracellular bacterial mutualist. The bacterium, Blochmannia, was first discovered in Camponotus and has since been documented in a distinct subgenus of Camponotus, Colobopsis, and in the related genus Polyrhachis. However, the distribution of Blochmannia throughout the Camponotini remains in question. Documenting the true host range of this bacterial mutualist is an important first step toward understanding the various ecological contexts in which it has evolved, and toward identifying its closest bacterial relatives. In this study, we performed a molecular screen, based on PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, to identify bacterial associates of diverse Camponotini species. Results Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gave four important insights: (i Blochmannia occurs in a broad range of Camponotini genera including Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, and did not occur in outgroups related to this tribe (e.g., Notostigma. This suggests that the mutualism originated in the ancestor of the tribe Camponotini. (ii The known bacteriocyte-associated symbionts of ants, in Formica, Plagiolepis, and the Camponotini, arose independently. (iii Blochmannia is nestled within a diverse clade of endosymbionts of sap-feeding hemipteran insects, such as mealybugs, aphids, and psyllids. In our analyses, a group of secondary symbionts of mealybugs are the closest relatives of Blochmannia. (iv Blochmannia has cospeciated with its known hosts, although deep divergences at the genus level remain uncertain. Conclusions The Blochmannia mutualism occurs in Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, in addition to Camponotus, and probably originated in the ancestral lineage leading

  17. Remote Sensing Approach to Drought Monitoring to Inform Range Management at the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Vilaly, M. M.; Van Leeuwen, W. J.; Didan, K.; Marsh, S. E.; Crimmins, , M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation are situated in the Northeastern corner of Arizona in the Colorado River Plateau. For more than a decade, the area has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. Moreover, these persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock production activities, and make this region sensitive to inter-annual climate variability and change. The limited hydroclimatic observations, bolstered by numerous anecdotal drought impact reports, indicate that the region has been suffering through an almost 15-year long drought which is threatening its socio-economic development. The objective of this research is to employ remote sensing data to monitor the ongoing drought and inform management and decision-making. The overall goals of this study are to develop a common understanding of the current status of drought across the area in order to understand the existing seasonal and inter-annual relationships between climate variability and vegetation dynamics. To analyze and investigate vegetation responses to climate variability, land use practices, and environmental factors in Hopi and Navajo nation during the last 22 years, a drought assessment framework was developed that integrates climate and topographical data with land surface remote sensing time series data. Multi-sensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series data were acquired from the vegetation index and phenology project (vip.arizona.edu) from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km, were analyzed to characterize the intra-annual changes of vegetation, seasonal phenology and inter-annual vegetation response to climate variability and environmental factors. Due to the low number of retrieval obtained from TIMESAT software, we developed a new framework that can maximize the number of retrieval. Four vegetation development stages, annual integrated NDVI (Net Primary

  18. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-06-18

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease.

  19. Traditional Use of Plants against Snakebite in Sugali tribes of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKhaleel Basha; Gsudarsanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct ethnobotanical survey in Yerramalais forest among Sugali tribes and collect information on medicinal plants to used to in the treatment of snake bite. Snakebite has been a major cause of mortality of tribals and their livestock. Methods: The study was conducted during 2009-2011 visiting regularly Sugali Thandas and Lobais. Following the method of Jain and Goel. First hand information on their traditional medicine was recorded, repeated enquiries were made to understand their knowledge, methods of diagnosis and treatment. Data were collected on the specific part of the plants used collection, method of usage of the drug and dosage of the drug ,dosage of administration. Results: The paper provides information about Ehanobatanical and Scientific evidences of 23 medicinal plants which are used by sugalis as antidote for snake bite. Conclusion: Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in this area Antidote medicinal plants play an important role in health and livelihood of Sugali Tribal people.

  20. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  1. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: epidemiology and vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuniya, Satinath; Maji, Dipankar; Mandal, Debasis; Mondal, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE) and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189). Attack rate was highest (40%) in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%). VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%). There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  2. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: Epidemiology and vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinath Bhuniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189. Attack rate was highest (40% in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%. VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%. There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  3. Feeding and habitat of slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang in Badui Tribe conservation forest, Rangkasbitung-south Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPARNO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and habitat of slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang in conservation forest located in Rangkasbitung-South Banten has been studied. This study was conducted in protected forest of the Paniga and Kiaralawang Baduy tribe in Cibeo for the inner Baduy and in Tinjoleat forest for the outer Baduy. The Study site was located about 250-610 m above sea level. The collected data consist of the type of feeding, nest sites and health. During the observation there were 61 plant species from 24 families which were dominated by Moraceae and Euphorbiaceae were consumed by slow Loris. Six other kinds of feed consist of small animals: reptile, mammals, aves, and insects. Nest was building on host plant from growing trees and made of litters.

  4. Monetary alloys in Iron Age Armorica (Finistère, France): The singular case of the Osismi tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, M.F., E-mail: maria.guerra@cnrs.fr [ArchAm UMR8096 CNRS, MAE, 21 allée de l’Université, 92023 Nanterre (France); Abollivier, Ph., E-mail: philippe.abollivier@univ-brest.fr [Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, rue de Kergoat, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • No tri-metallic system. • Debasement of gold alloys. • Chronological chemical pattern. • Presence of Sn and Sb. • Attribution of unknown coins. - Abstract: The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au–Ag–Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag–Cu–Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.

  5. 安粉蚧族Antoninini中国种类记述%The tribe Antoninini of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the tribe Antoninini of China. Seven generaand 16 species were studied. Of which, two species are new to science, and are described and illustrated. They are Antonina hubeiana sp. nov. and Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp. nov. The type specimens are deposited in Insect Collections, Beijing Forestry University.%该文研究了粉蚧科安粉蚧族的中国种类,计有7属16种,其中包括2新种,即湖北安粉蚧Antonina hubeianasp.nov.和梵净巢粉蚧Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp.nov.,并提供了该群中国种类的分属分种检索表.新种模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  6. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  7. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  8. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  9. From the Ethnic History of Asia – the Dōnghú, Wūhuán and Xiānbēi Proto-Mongolian Tribes

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    Nenad Vidaković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the history of the Dōnghú, Wūhuán and Xiānbēi Proto-Mongolian tribes in the period from the 4th century B.C. to the end of the 3rd century A.D. The history of the ancient nomadic peoples who lived north of China is written in Chinese dynasty chronicles. Proto-Mongolian tribes from the 1st century B.C. are called Dōnghú in Chinese sources. The earliest news on them originates from the Warring States Period (4th – 3rd century B.C., and tells of a conflict with the northern Chinese states. Other types of sources on the history of the Proto-Mongolian tribes are archaeological findings, which associate Mongolian ethnogenesis with slab grave cultures and the Lower Xiàjiādiàn. Linguists find the materials for the research on Mongolian ethnogenesis in the Altaic linguistic family, which the Mongolian language belongs to as well. Based on the mentioned sources, the change in the political situation in the steppes at the end of the 3rd century B.C., when the people of Xiōngnú created a powerful state and conquered the Dōnghúes, is described in the paper. The remains of the shattered Dōnghúes, who had mostly migrated to the north, have been recorded in Chinese chronicles under new topoethnonyms: Xiānbēi and Wūhuán. The weakening and fall of the Xiōngnúes’ state enabled the Proto-Mongolian tribes to re-enter the historical scene. At the end of the 1st century B.C. the Chinese Hàn Empire firstly established relations with the Wūhuán tribes and in the middle of the 1st century A.D. with the Xiānbēi tribes, too. In the beginning both tribal alliances acknowledged the supreme authority of China and carried out frontier service. Under the guidance of tribal chiefs the tribes started to run an independent policy and attack China’s border areas during the 2nd century A.D. In the conclusion, the author describes the period when the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi tribes were at the peak of their power

  10. Circulation of genotype-I hepatitis B virus in the primitive tribes of Arunachal Pradesh in early sixties and molecular evolution of genotype-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, Bangari P; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective serologic screening of 1077 serum samples collected from the primitive tribe from north-eastern India in 1963 revealed high prevalence of HBV (15% HBsAg carrier rate) and HCV (7% anti-HCV positivity) and co-circulation of multiple HBV genotypes-A, C, D and G. Full genome sequencing classified all the G-genotype samples as genotype-I. Comparison of genotype-I-HBV full-genome sequences representing 1963 (n=5, this study) and 2005 (reported earlier) showed identical recombination break-points of genotypes-A/G/C. Genotype-C and genotype-C-fragment of I-genotype circulating in 1963 were distinctly different. The data demonstrates that the recombination events were not recent. Molecular clock analysis predicted existence of genotype-I in this tribe during 1920s.

  11. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Anatoly B; Fjellberg, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphoruraambigua sp. n. and Oligaphoruraduocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, Oligaphoruranataliae (Fjellberg, 1987), Oligaphorurainterrupta (Fjellberg, 1987), Oligaphorurapingicola (Fjellberg, 1987), and Micraphoruraalnus (Fjellberg, 1987), are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, Oligaphoruragroenlandica (Tullberg, 1876), Oligaphoruraursi (Fjellberg, 1984), Oligaphoruraaborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987), and Micraphoruraabsoloni (Börner, 1901), are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided.

  12. Influence of the drying method in the antioxidant potential and chemical composition of four shrubby flowering plants from the tribe Genisteae (Fabaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Flowers from several common Mediterranean shrubs, such as those from the Cytisus genus and Genista genus (tribe Genisteae/Fabaceae) have long been used for medicinal purposes and seasoning in the northeastern Portuguese region. Despite, the shade-drying traditionally used to process these plants, freeze-drying is claimed to better preserve the quality of medicinal plants. Herein, the effects of drying process in the antioxidants composition and properties of Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus scopa...

  13. Nuevas especies de la tribu Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae para la flora de Brasil New species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae for the Brazil flora

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    Elsa L Cabral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas para la flora de Brasil: Borreria paulista del Estado de São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia del Estado de Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii y Psyllocarpus intermedias del Estado de Bahia.Four new species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae, for Brazil are described and illustrated: Borreria paulista (São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia (Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii and Psyllocarpus intermedius (Bahia.

  14. Study on the Tribe Ochyromerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from East Asia I, Descriptions of New Species of the Genera Endaeus and Endaenidius

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura

    1995-01-01

    This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...

  15. The development rhythm of the flower-bud in some Papilionaceae species. III. Macrosporogenesis, microsporogenesis and early gametogenesis in several species of the Vicieae tribe

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    Wanda Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of the examined species of the tribe Vicieae (Vicia faba, V. sativa, V, villosa, Lathyrus silvester, L. pratensis and Pisum sativum has its peculiar characteristic development rhythm of the bud. A similarity has been demonstrated between the development rhythms of flower buds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum. It was found that mature flowers of autogamous species had long calyces, whereas those of the allogamous species were short as compared with the petals of the corolla.

  16. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

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    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  17. Natural colourant plant and the use of traditionally by tribe of Marori Men-Gey in Wasur National Park, Merauke Regency

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    ANTONIUS ETUS HARBELUBUN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to know the plant species which used as a natural colorant and its exploiting traditionally by Tribe of Marori Men-Gey. This Research was executed at area of Wasur National Park in Merauke regency. Method used was descriptive method with the direct observation technique in field. Result of research indicate that the natural colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as much 7 species included in 6 family that was Vaccinium sp. (Cacinaceae, Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae, Curcuma domestica Val. (Zingiberaceae, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, Ziziplus sp. (Myrtaceae, Gmelina sp. (Verbenaceae and Zyzygium sp (Myrtaceae. Part of plant exploited cover the root, rhizome, bark, rubber, leaf and fruit. From 7 the colorant plant species, 4 species yielding color yellow that was Vaccinium sp., C. domestica, M. citrifolia and M. indica, 2 species yield the riddling that was Ziziplus sp. and Gmelina sp. and also 1 species yielding black color that was Zyzygium sp. Colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as traditional equipments colorant, food colorant and body colorant.

  18. Ethnobotanical studies on the wild edible plants of Irula tribes of Pillur Valley, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Rasingam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical studies and collect information about the wild edible plants collected and utilized by the Irula tribes of Pillur valley, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study was conducted among the Irula peoples of Pillur valley through survey, interview and field work along with the knowledgeable individuals during January 2009 -September 2010. All the traditional and other knowledge related to the collection and consumption of wild edible plants on which the communities depend was documented. Results: A total of 74 plant species have been recorded as wild edible in the study areas, of which, fruits yielding plants ranked first with 42 species, green leaves, tubers, young shoots and flowers ranked next with 26, 7, 4 and 2 species respectively. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the adivasi community in the Pillur Valley continues to have and use the knowledge about the wild edible plants, including their habitat, collection period, sustainable collection, mode of preparation and consumption. To date, this knowledge appear to be fairly well conserved and used as a result of continued reliance of local community on the wild uncultivated foods.

  19. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  20. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

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    Srinivasan Ranganathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003 with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H and species richness index (S were high and species evenness index (J was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19, but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  1. Income, Migration and Social Adjustment of Tribal People in Tripura- A Case Study of ‘Tripuri’ Tribe

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    Suman Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between income, migration and social adjustment of the migrated tribal people with special reference to the ‘Tripuri’ tribe of Tripura, India, with the help of primary data collected from structured interviews using purposive sampling technique. The study reveals that the tribal people who migrated from their native places (rural areas to urban areas, usually suburbs, have a better economic condition and a decent standard of living. Their livelihood patterns have changed after they have migrated to the urban areas. Here, their income levels have also increased along with expenditure. They live in small houses consuming less land, than they did in their native lands. Their standard of living is much below what they have expected before their decision to migrate. They find it difficult to adjust with the local people and the surroundings. The nature of the employment in urban areas is such that the doors of the organised sector do not open to them easily. They are always last to be hired and first to be fired, and they usually get ill-paid jobs and do not have opportunities for education and training. Their children do not get adequate facilities to enrol in the good schools as the cost of living in the urban areas are very high. They are struggling hard socially and culturally to adapt and adjust in the new milieu far from their lush green land.

  2. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'

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    Pegu Shyamanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  3. Development of a high-throughput microsatellite typing approach for forensic and population genetic analysis of wild and domestic African Bovini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greyling, B.J.; Kryger, P.; Plessis, du S.; Hooft, van W.F.; Helden, van P.; Getz, W.M.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Conservation management and forensic traceability of African buffalo and cattle rely on the timely provision of unbiased and accurate genetic information. An approach in which 17 cattle microsatellite markers are co-electrophoresed, following amplification in three core multiplex reactions was estab

  4. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

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    Meyer-Rochow V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  5. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  6. Prevalence of the β(S) gene among scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward class groups in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.

  7. Molecular Biogeography of Tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae: A Madrean-Tethyan Disjunction Pattern with an African Origin of Core Genistoides

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    Ming-Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEAST molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA. The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81 Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor of Thermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30 Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20 Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

  8. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

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    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

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    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  10. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic

  11. Review of the Neotropical scale insects formerly assigned to Coelostomidiidae and here transferred to a new tribe within the Monophlebidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, I; Gullan, P J

    2014-12-24

    This study reviews the status of all Neotropical genera and species of Coelostomidiidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and transfers them to the family Monophlebidae in the Cryptokermesini Foldi & Gullan tribe n. (the tribe Cryptokermini Tao & Hao is recognised here as a nomen nudum). This change of family placement for Neotropical taxa is based on the morphology of adult males, as supported by the phylogenetic study of Hodgson & Hardy (2013), and by unpublished DNA data. New diagnoses are provided for each of the four recognised genera of Cryptokermesini: Cryptokermes Hempel, Mimosicerya Cockerell, Neocoelostoma Hempel and Paracoelostoma Morrison. The genus Nautococcus Vayssière is considered here to be a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Mimosicerya and the type species of Nautococcus, N. schraderae Vayssière, thus becomes M. schraderae (Vayssière) comb. n. Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison is transferred to Mimosicerya as M. mexicana (Morrison) comb. n. Also Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi does not fit the morphological concept of Cryptokermes and is excluded from this genus and revision, and from the new tribe; its taxonomic position is uncertain and requires further study. All type species of the Cryptokermesini, including N. schraderae (as M. schraderae), are redescribed and illustrated based on most female instars and available adult males, examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Adult males are described and illustrated only for M. schraderae and N. xerophila. Keys are provided to distinguish the Neotropical monophlebid tribes Cryptokermesini and Llaveiini and to recognise each cryptokermesine genus based on female instars and first-instar nymphs. The included species of Cryptokermesini and their known distributions are: Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel from Brazil and C. oaxaensis Foldi from Mexico; Mimosicerya hempeli (Cockerell) from Brazil, M. mexicana from Mexico, M. schraderae from Panama and M. williamsi Foldi from Venezuela; Neocoelostoma xerophila

  12. Research of Taiwan Paiwan Tribe Garment Decoration%台湾排湾族服装装饰研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强

    2015-01-01

    台湾原住民中的排湾族服饰最为华丽,最具有原住民服饰的主要特征。通过实地调研,对其服饰的装饰特征进行研究,梳理出服饰款式和色彩的特征,可以为设计师提供更新的创新、创造意识,提升服饰的视觉审美风格和艺术品味,提高服装的附加值和竞争力,并且能够传承与延续传统装饰技法与文化。通过研究台湾原住民中排湾族的服饰形态,从款式装饰、色彩装饰、材料装饰等方面进行分析,探讨排湾族服装的装饰手法,阐述装饰手法在服装设计中运用的意义。%the original Taiwan Paiwan inhabitants have the most gorgeous costumes,which have the main features of aboriginal costumes. This paper tries to study its costumes of decorative features and sum up the characteristics of clothing styles and colors. The designer can provide updates innovation. Designers can get updates innovation, create awareness. Decorative improved visual aesthetic style and artistic taste costumes can increase the added value and competitiveness of the garment, and can enhance the ability of heritage and continuation of the traditional decorative techniques and culture.Through on-the-spot investigation research out of one of original Taiwan inhabitants, bay of forms, from the aspects such as style, color, decoration, decorative materials decoration were analyzed, and explored the Paiwan tribe clothing decoration methods, and the influence of the adornment gimmick for modern fashion design.

  13. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  14. A new myco-heterotrophic genus, Yunorchis, and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Calypsoeae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available We identified a new holomycotrophic orchid that is related to the myco-heterotrophic Calypsoeae. Because chloroplast genes are primarily lacking or are highly divergent, key morphological characters are either reduced or lost from many myco-heterotrophs, and the phylogenetic relationships of weakly supported paraphyletic Calypsoeae within Epidendroideae have been poorly understood in previous molecular systematic studies. Using chloroplast rbcL, psaB, and matK and nuclear Xdh and ITS sequences, we determined the circumscription and systematic positions of the new orchid and the tribe. The results indicate that the epidendroid taxa include most of the clades that are successively sister to the grade of clades representing previously recognized tribes. Calypsoeae comprising four well-supported clades with 12 genera (except for the previous temporarily placed Wullschlaegelia is supported as a monophyletic and sister clade to Epidendreae (excluding Coeliinae. The new orchid is nested in Calypsoeae and is a sister to Dactylostalix and/or Calypso. This new holomycotrophic orchid presents a subumbel inflorescence that grows underground, and flower with a long pedicel reputing the ground to open and two fragments at the base of the hook, which are obviously morphologically different from those of Calypsoeae. To accommodate this species in the current generic circumscription, a new genus Yunorchis was created.

  15. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic

  16. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating

  17. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitogenome sequence of the raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), supports monophyly of the tribe Aterpini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Brandt, Marco A; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan D

    2015-10-25

    The superfamily Curculionoidea is one of the most diverse groups of insects in the world, including many species which are crop pests. Within this group, the native raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin, 1830), is an important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in southern South America. Using a 454 sequencing approach, we sequenced and annotated the mitogenome of A. superciliosus, it, providing the first such information for any species in the tribe Aterpini, subfamily Cyclominae. The assembled mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule 15,121bp in length containing all 37 genes normally found in metazoans. Mitogenome organization and transcriptional orientation in A. superciliosus showed the same pattern that characterizes the suborder Polyphaga. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the tribe Aterpini and the subfamily Cyclominae, recovering this clade in a sister group relationship with Entiminae and Hyperinae. The monophyly of these three subfamilies defines a critical transition to an ectophagous lifestyle in the larvae, from an ancestrally endophagous larval lifestyle in all other lineages. The sequenced mitogenome of A. superciliosus can provide basic data for future studies investigating population history, molecular systematics, stress ecophysiology and phylogeography.

  19. LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT IN KERALA: A STUDY ON THE MUTHUVAN TRIBE OF EDAMALAKKUDY TRIBAL SETTLEMENT IN IDUKKI DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Manjusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edamalakkudy, the first Tribal Grama Panchayath in Kerala was formed during the last delimitation of Local bodies in Kerala (2010. The Muthuvan Tribe is the community in Edamalakkudy and is one of the most isolated forest tribes in the state of Kerala. This paper is an attempt to discuss the origin, history and etymology of the Muthuvans of Edamalakkudy along with their language, dress and ornaments, food pattern, their special traditions in social organisations, life-cycle rituals, religion, political organisation, economy etc. This paper also tries to bring out some of the problems of tribal development in this area. The tribals have been the victims of colonial domination, illiteracy, ignorance, caste prejudice, poverty and isolation. Then contact with the advanced and civilized people brought them into a new market economy and exploitation-both social and economic in nature. Their self-sufficient economy disorganised due to land alienation, deforestation etc. So this paper tries to make a comparative study on the past traditional life and the present condition of the Muthuvans of Edamalakkudy Tribal Grama Panchayath along with some suggestions for their existing problems.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Persian Gazella, Gazella subgutturosa (Artiodactyla: Bovidae based on cytochrome b in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Fadakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persian gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa, exists throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran and has a key role in these frail ecosystems. Habitat degradation and population decline has placed it on the list of vulnerable species in 2008. The phylogenetic relationships of three Persian gazelle populations in the central part of Iran (i.e. Ghamishlou National Park and Wildlife Refuge, Mouteh Wildlife Refuge in Isfahan province and Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area in Yazd province were investigated using parts and short fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (425 base pairs. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree separated the populations of Yazd and Isfahan provinces, but populations within the Isfahan province shared the same clade. All populations were classified as Persian gazelle. The studied populations are facing threats because of road construction, industrial development and urbanization. Accordingly urgent conservation plans are needed to preserve their genetic diversity and prevent them from falling into extinction.

  1. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  2. Survival of European mouflon (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Hawai'i based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Stephens, R.M.; Thompson, T.L.; Danner, R.M.; Kawakami, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable techniques for estimating age of ungulates are necessary to determine population parameters such as age structure and survival. Techniques that rely on dentition, horn, and facial patterns have limited utility for European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), but tooth cementum lines may offer a useful alternative. Cementum lines may not be reliable outside temperate regions, however, because lack of seasonality in diet may affect annulus formation. We evaluated the utility of tooth cementum lines for estimating age of mouflon in Hawai'i in comparison to dentition. Cementum lines were present in mouflon from Mauna Loa, island of Hawai'i, but were less distinct than in North American sheep. The two age-estimation methods provided similar estimates for individuals aged ???3 yr by dentition (the maximum age estimable by dentition), with exact matches in 51% (18/35) of individuals, and an average difference of 0.8 yr (range 04). Estimates of age from cementum lines were higher than those from dentition in 40% (14/35) and lower in 9% (3/35) of individuals. Discrepancies in age estimates between techniques and between paired tooth samples estimated by cementum lines were related to certainty categories assigned by the clarity of cementum lines, reinforcing the importance of collecting a sufficient number of samples to compensate for samples of lower quality, which in our experience, comprised approximately 22% of teeth. Cementum lines appear to provide relatively accurate age estimates for mouflon in Hawai'i, allow estimating age beyond 3 yr, and they offer more precise estimates than tooth eruption patterns. After constructing an age distribution, we estimated annual survival with a log-linear model to be 0.596 (95% CI 0.5540.642) for this heavily controlled population. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press.

  3. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M

    1999-01-01

    Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera.

  4. Tribes Communities Success Stories

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data describes successful EPA projects and partnerships which are restoring local communities and watersheds within the San Francisco Bay Delta Watershed.

  5. Winnebago Tribe Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.

  6. Pamphagidae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) from the Palaearctic Region: taxonomy, classification, keys to genera and a review of the tribe Nocarodeini I.Bolívar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Mustafa

    2016-12-13

    The very rich material of Palaearctic Pamphagidae preserved in the collections including the type specimens of all taxa, the historical unidentified specimens and newly collected material have been studied. 58 genera and 295 species and subspecies are listed. The higher classification of the family is reviewed mainly based on the male phallic complex as well as the traditional and some new external characters. The tribe Haplotropiidini is transferred to the subfamily Thrinchinae. Previously synonymized subfamily Tropidaucheninae is validated as an independent tribe of Pamphaginae. The tribe Nocarodeini is taxonomically reviewed except the genus Bufonocarodes Mistshenko. The male phallic complex is also used as one of the main characters in decisions of the genus group taxa. The following 10 genera are synonymized: Pseudotmethis Bey-Bienko, 1948 and Paratmethis Zheng & He, 1996 (with Filchnerella Karny, 1908), Sinotmethis Bey-Bienko, 1959 and Kanotmethis Yin, 1994 (with Beybienkia Tsyplenkov, 1956), Paktia Pfadt, 1970 (with Mistshenkoella Cejchan, 1969), Pseudosavalania Demirsoy, 1973 (with Paranocarodes I. Bolívar, 1912), Nocaropsis Ramme, 1951 (with Paranothrotes Mistshenko, 1951), Paranocaracris Mistshenko, 1951 and Oronothrotes Mistshenko, 1951 (with Nocaracris Uvarov, 1928) and Savalania Mistshenko, 1951 (with Nocarodes Fischer von Waldheim, 1846). The genera Mistshenkoella Cejchan and Cryptonothrotes La Greca are proposed as subgenera of Saxetania Mistshenko. The following genera are divided: Eremocharis Saussure into 4 species groups, Paranocarodes I. Bolívar into 2 species groups, Paranothrotes Mistshenko into 4 species groups, Nocaracris Uvarov into 7 species groups and Nocarodes Fischer von Waldheim into 4 species groups. The following 24 species and subspecies are synonymized: Tmethis cinerascus cyanipes Werner, 1939 [with Eremopeza angusta (Uvarov, 1934)], Iranotmethis cyanipennis cyanipes Bey-Bienko, 1951 [with Iranotmethis cyanipennis iranicus

  7. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie Ida Cetti

    2016-01-01

    As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous...

  8. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia: evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broska Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed

  9. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia): evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broska, Igor; Petrík, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia) is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800-850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer) to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700-750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types) correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms "a granite duplex" within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed partial reduction.

  10. FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

    2009-03-30

    Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

  11. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801: Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of L. dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates, provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini.

  12. Influence of the drying method in the antioxidant potential and chemical composition of four shrubby flowering plants from the tribe Genisteae (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-11-01

    Flowers from several common Mediterranean shrubs, such as those from the Cytisus genus and Genista genus (tribe Genisteae/Fabaceae) have long been used for medicinal purposes and seasoning in the northeastern Portuguese region. Despite, the shade-drying traditionally used to process these plants, freeze-drying is claimed to better preserve the quality of medicinal plants. Herein, the effects of drying process in the antioxidants composition and properties of Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus scoparius, Cytisus striatus and Pterospartum tridentatum were evaluated. Freeze-dried P. tridentatum revealed the highest antioxidant properties (EC(50) values ≤ 0.15 mg/ml). Freeze-drying benefits were confirmed showing, the samples submitted to this process, higher antioxidant activity and higher concentrations of hydrophilic (phenolics, ascorbic acid and sugars) and lipophilic (tocopherols, chlorophylls and lycopene) compounds. This process could be applied in scale-up treatments of the studied plants for cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Population structure and phylogeography of Toda buffalo in Nilgiris throw light on possible origin of aboriginal Toda tribe of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Sadana, D K; Joshi, B K

    2011-08-01

    We report the genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of the endangered Toda buffalo of Nilgiris in South India with Kanarese and two other riverine buffalo breeds. The upgma phylogeny drawn using Nei's distance grouped South Kanara and Toda buffaloes at a single node while Marathwada and Murrah together formed a separate node. Principal component analysis was performed with pairwise interindividual chord distances which revealed clustering of Murrah and Marathwada buffaloes distinctly, while individuals of Toda and South Kanara breeds completely intermingled with each other. Furthermore, there were highly significant group variances (p Nilgiris along the Western Ghats. Considering the close social, economic and cultural association of Todas with their buffaloes, the present study supports the theory of migration of Toda tribe from Kanarese/Mysore region along with their buffaloes.

  14. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among hill-tribe school children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-07-01

    The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.

  15. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  16. Historical biogeography of the Angelica group (Apiaceae tribe Selineae) inferred from analyses of nrDNA and cpDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yang LIAO; Stephen R.DOWNIE; Yan YU; Xing-Jin HE

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes of Asia-centered angiosperm groups have been significantly affected by the multistage uplift of the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau since the Late Tertiary.The divergence time of the largely East Asian Angelica group (Apiaceae,subfamily Apioideae,tribe Selineae) was initially analyzed using BEAST and nrDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence data from 96 representatives of tribe Selineae and relatives.Further analyses of the biogeographical history of the Angelica group were carried out using BEAST,S-DIVA,RASP,and LAGRANGE on datasets containing all or some of the following loci:nrDNA internal and external transcribed spacers; cpDNA rps16 intron; and cpDNA rps16-trnK,rpl32-trnL,and trnL-trnT intergenic spacers.The results suggested that the Angelica group was originally present in the East Palearctic during the global cooling of the late Middle Miocene (13.6 Mya) and that the Angelica s.s.clade originated in the same region at 10.2Mya.Subsequent diversifications of the Angelica s.s.clade intensified in the East Palearctic during the middle Late Miocene (10.0-7.0 Mya) and in the eastern Himalayan Zone during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (<4.0Mya).These diversifications likely corresponded with plateau uplift-driven climatic changes.Considering elevational reconstructions,the differential responses to altitude appear to be the primary factor explaining the recent radiation of the group in the eastern Himalayas.The North American species of the Angelica group were retrieved as polyphyletic and their migrations involved six independent dispersals to North America at least since the middle Late Miocene,including four times from northeast Asia and twice from Europe.

  17. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos. No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum. Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this

  18. Type specimens of the traditional Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ant tribes deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil: Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidatt ini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Antunes Ulysséa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant types of 12 traditional Myrmicinae ant tribes (Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidattini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini housed in the Formicidae Collection of the Hymenoptera Laboratory, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP, Brazil, completing the publication of Myrmicinae types deposited in this institution. We adopted the traditional classification for Myrmicinae tribes to follow the already published catalogues regarding the Attini, Cephalotini, Dacetini and Solenopsidini and published catalogues in this series. In total, the present catalogue includes types of 213 nominal species, of which 169 are still valid. Twelve species listed here are represented by holotypes only, 28 by holotypes and paratypes, 102 species by paratypes only, 65 species by syntypes, and five species by lectotypes and paralectotypes. We record the label information, morphological condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes, and type status, following the recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN.

  19. The relationship between A’te and the mother in the"Mouse Tribe I"%《鼠族Ⅰ》中阿特与母亲的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑛

    2013-01-01

    "Mouse Tribe"is a famous American cartoonist Art Spiegelman's works, tells real experience of the A’te’s parents escape from the Nazi Holocaust:as Poland Jewish parents during the period of Nazi Ruled Poland, have the experience of inhumane treatment and trying to escape.Although the mother in the Nazis who survived, but later in the Dutch act, but A’te is the arch-criminal for mother Dutch act.In"Mouse tribe", not to directly give the relationship with the mother.Based on the analysis of the"Mouse tribe"is inserted into the mouse tribe in another comic in the pages of"picture-in-picture", draw A’te and mother are not in harmony.%  《鼠族》是美国著名漫画家阿特·斯皮格曼的作品,讲述了阿特父母从纳粹大屠杀中逃生的真实经历:身为波兰犹太人的父母在纳粹德国统治波兰期间,所遭受的非人待遇和想尽办法逃生的痛苦经历。母亲虽然在纳粹的魔爪下幸存了,但却在后来自杀了,但阿特却被认为是母亲自杀的罪魁祸首。《鼠族》中并没有直接给出阿特与母亲的关系如何。通过分析在《鼠族Ⅰ》中被插入的另一本漫画中的几页“画中画”,可以得出阿特和母亲的关系并不融洽。

  20. Comparative morphological study of the Neotropical Cleomenini genera and their transference to the tribes Rhopalophorini Blanchard and Rhinotragini Thomson (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the affinities of the hitherto considered Neotropical Cleomenini genera, a detailed morphological comparative study was carried out based on representatives of their type species and other congeneric species. The results, when compared with representatives of Cleomenes Thomson and other non Neotropical Cleomenini genera together with representatives of Rhopalophorini Blanchard and Rhinotragini Thomson, show that: 1 Listroptera Audinet-Serville, 1834, Dihammaphora Chevrolat, 1859, Haenkea Tippmann, 1953, Aguassay Napp & Mermudes, 2001 and Timabiara Napp & Mermudes, 2001 form a very homogeneous group, not related to other Cleomenini, but sharing several synapomorphies with the Rhopalophorini; therefore they are herein transferred to this tribe; 2 the affinities of Dihammaphoroides Zajciw, 1967, were not clearly defined, needing further investigations; nevertheless, the genus is tentatively included in Rhopalophorini due to its morphological similarity with Dihammaphora and allied genera; 3 Pandrosos Bates, 1867 is brought back to Rhinotragini, in which it was originally placed. Therefore, the tribe Cleomenini Lacordaire is no longer represented in the New World.Estudo morfológico comparado dos gêneros neotropicais de Cleomenini e sua transferência para as tribos Rhopalophorini Blanchard e Rhinotragini Thomson (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae. Com o objetivo de esclarecer as afinidades dos atuais gêneros neotropicais de Cleomenini, foi feito um estudo detalhado da morfologia de representantes das espécies-tipo e/ou de espécies congenéricas. Para efeitos de comparação, foram estudados representantes de Cleomenes Thomson e de outro gêneros não neotropicais de Cleomenini, além de representantes de Rhopalophorini Blanchard e de Rhinotragini Thomson. Os resultados evidenciaram: 1 Listroptera Audinet-Serville, 1834, Dihammaphora Chevrolat, 1859, Haenkea Tippmann, 1953, Aguassay Napp & Mermudes, 2001 e Timabiara

  1. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Williams

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes, consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of

  2. Interfaceamentos contemporâneos: tecnologias digitais e tribos urbanas no contexto escolar Contemporary interfaces: digital technologies and urban tribes in the context of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Cássia da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa sobre juventudes, tribos urbanas e as interfaces com as tecnologias de informação e comunicação, no contexto escolar de Palmas-TO. Foram estudados jovens que se assumem como integrantes de tribos que circulam pela cidade e estudam no Centro de Ensino Médio - CEM. A investigação esteve atrelada a uma perspectiva formativa escolar oficial e a seleção e oferta de conteúdos paralelos, mediados pelas tecnologias digitais, que possibilitam interações coletivas e reorganizam as experiências de vida dos sujeitos. O método, análise de conteúdo, foi adotado para a leitura e a interpretação das informações obtidas durante o processo da pesquisa. Os resultados indicam que tipologias distintas de jovens circulam no cenário escolar, convivem com as ofertas das políticas educacionais e formativas e negociam mais sentidos e significados da cultura digital em suas vidas.The article presents the results of a piece or research about juveniles, "urban tribes" and their interactions with information technology and communication in the school context of Palmas-TO Those studied were youths, seeing themselves as members of tribes circulating the city, and studying at the Centre for Middle Teen Education. The investigation was carried out according to an official school perspective and the selection and offering of parallel contents, provided via digital technologies, permitted collective interactions and helped reorganize of the life experiences of the subjects. During the research process, the method -analysis of contents - was adopted for the study of the literature and the interpretation of the information obtained. The results show that distinct youth types circulate the school scene, living alongside the educational policies. Also, these types are able to negotiate a broad range of feelings and meanings from the digital culture pervading their lives.

  3. Timing and host plant associations in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Apioninae, Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera) indicate an ancient co-diversification pattern of beetles and flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sven; Friedman, Ariel L L; Astrin, Jonas J; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Letsch, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Host plant shifts of insects can lead to a burst of diversification driven by their arrival in a new adaptive zone. In this context, our study aims to explore timing and patterns in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera), particularly in relation to affiliations with their host plants. The classification of Apionini is difficult because of their relatively uniform appearance. Most taxa live mono- or oligophagously on members of Asteraceae or Fabaceae, but many are associated with other plant families, like Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Polygonaceae. However, a comprehensive hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Apionini is still missing. In the present study, we reconstructed trees and estimated divergence times among tribes. These results were further used to reconstruct the ancestral host plant use in Apionini weevils and to infer if the divergence timing of putative subtribes corresponds with the occurrence and radiation of their specific host plant groups. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of most subtribes, with the exceptions of Oxystomatina, Kalcapiina and Aspidapiina. The subribe Aplemonina is inferred to be sister to all remaining Apionini. Divergence time estimates indicate the first occurrence of Apionini in the Upper Cretaceous and a simultaneous occurrence of several families of flowering plants and the occupation by Apionini weevil herbivores. These conspicuous coincidences support either an ancient co-diversification scenario or an escalating diversification in weevils induced by the radiation of flowering plants.

  4. Measles vaccine coverage and immune response in children of Caiabi and Metuktire Indian tribes living in malarial endemic area: Parque indígena do Xingu, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, R; Baruzzi, R G; Souza, V A; Ferreira, A W; Avila, S L

    2001-07-01

    Measles vaccination efficiency was evaluated in children from two Indian tribes - Caiabi and Metuktire - living in the Amazon region, in the Parque Indigena do Xingu (PIX). The population sample, selected at random, made up 37 Caiabi and 28 Metuktire children, aged from 20-75 months (40%). For operational and epidemiological reasons, measles vaccine is given from 6 months of age. The average age of children when they received the vaccine was 11.5 months for the first dose and 20 months for the second. The search for IgG antibodies against measles virus and Plasmodium falciparum was made through immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Measles vaccine coverage has reached 60% at 12 months of age and 92% at 18 months, whereas post-vaccine serum conversion was 95% in Caiabi children (geometric mean of titres (GMT) 126) and 89% in Metuktire (GMT 109). The difference in GMT is not statistically significant. Seventy-three per cent of Caiabi children (GMT 101) and 100% of Metuktire children (GMT135) were plasmodium antibody positive, showing they had been exposed to malarial infection. Despite the differences detected, the immune response to measles vaccine was satisfactory in both groups, with a positive percentage consistent with that achieved in non-malarial areas in Americas. The results show the efficiency of a vaccination programme in an indigenous area despite the difficulties in reaching the villages and maintaining the cold chain, and also despite the malaria endemicity.

  5. A tribo Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The tribe Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira de Jesus Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi baseado na análise morfológica de espécimes de herbários nacionais e provenientes de coletas. A tribo está representada no Estado por oito gêneros: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2 spp., Sapium P.Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1sp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. e Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Os gêneros com maior distribuição no Estado são Maprounea, Sapium e Sebastiania, ocorrendo em todas as zonas fitogeográficas. Actinostemon, Mabea e Senefeldera sao restritos a floresta atlantica. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.The study was based on morphological analysis of specimens from various national herbaria as well as collected material. The tribe is represented in the study area by eight genera: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2, Sapium P. Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1 spp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. and Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Widely distributed genera are Sapium and Sebastiania occurring in all phytogeographical zones. Actinostemon, Senefeldera and Mabea are restricted to the Atlantic rainforest. Identification keys to genera and species, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments are presented.

  6. Novas espécies de Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae New species from Coussarea Aubl. and Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gomes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies da família Rubiaceae, relacionadas à tribo Coussareae são descritas e ilustradas. São elas: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis e F. picinguabae. Os táxons aqui apresentados tiveram como base material coletado na Serra do Parati, situada na divisa entre os Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, nas proximidades do litoral. Essa serra integra o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina e possui cobertura vegetal predominante da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, sendo essa a área de distribuição e o hábitat dos novos táxons.Four new species of the Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae are described and illustrated: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis and F. picinguabae. They are based on the material collected in the Parati Mountains, located on the border between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, near the coast. This mountainous area is part of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, which is covered mainly by Atlantic Rain Forest. These new taxa are found in this forest within the Park.

  7. The closest relatives of cacti: insights from phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences with special emphasis on relationships in the tribe Anacampseroteae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Reto

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular and morphological systematic investigations revealed that the cacti are most closely related to Anacampseroteae, Portulaca and Talinum of the family Portulacaceae (ACPT clade of suborder Portulacineae). A combined analysis of ndhF, matK, and nad1 sequence data from the chloroplast and the mitochondrial genomes indicates that the tribe Anacampseroteae is the sister group of the family Cactaceae. This clade, together with Portulaca, is well characterized by the presence of axillary hairs or scales. Relationships within Anacampseroteae are characterized by a grade of five species of Grahamia s.l. from North and South America, and Grahamia australiana is found to be sister to the genera Anacampseros and Avonia. A comparison of vegetative characteristics indicates an evolutionary transition from woody subshrubs to dwarf perennial and highly succulent herbs during the diversification of Anacampseroteae. Available evidence from the present investigation as well as from previously published studies suggests that a revised classification of Portulacineae on the basis of inferred phylogenetic relationships might consist of a superfamily that includes Cactaceae and the three genera Anacampseros s.l. (including Avonia and Grahamia s.l.), Portulaca, and Talinum (including Talinella), either referred to three monogeneric families or to a paraphyletic family Portulacaceae*.

  8. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  9. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  10. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kavanaugh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Ecology, evolution, and the long-term surveillance of vector-borne Chagas disease: a multi-scale appraisal of the tribe Rhodniini (Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Monteiro, Fernando A; Jaramillo O, Nicolás; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease incidence has sharply declined over the last decade. Long-term disease control will, however, require extensive, longitudinal surveillance systems capable of detecting (and dealing with) reinvasion-reinfestation of insecticide-treated dwellings by non-domiciliated triatomines. Sound surveillance design calls for reliable data on vector ecology, and these data must cover different spatial scales. We conducted a multi-scale assessment of ecological and evolutionary trends in members of the tribe Rhodniini, including (i) a macroscale analysis of Rhodniini species richness and composition patterns across the Americas, and (ii) a detailed, mesoscale case-study of ecological and behavioural trends in Rhodnius neglectus and R. nasutus. Our macroscale overview provides some comprehensive insights about key mechanisms/processes probably underlying ecological and genetic diversification in the Rhodniini. These insights translate into a series of testable hypotheses about current species distributions and their likely causes. At the landscape scale, we used geometric morphometrics to identify dubious specimens as either R. neglectus or R. nasutus (two near-sibling species), and studied palm tree populations of these two vector taxa in five geographical areas. The data suggest that deforestation and the associated loss of habitat and host diversity might increase the frequency of vector-human contact (and perhaps Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates in vectors). Surveillance in central-northeastern Brazil should prioritise deforested landscapes where large palm trees (e.g., Attalea, Mauritia, Copernicia, Acrocomia or Syagrus) occur near houses. We anticipate that, by helping define the distribution patterns and ecological preferences of each species, multi-scale research will significantly strengthen vector surveillance systems across Latin America.

  12. Os wannabees e suas tribos: adolescência e distinção na Internet The wannabees and their tribes: adolescence and distinction in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia da Silva Pereira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Observando uma rede virtual de relacionamento, o Orkut, é possível identificar um sistema de classificação determinado pela forma com que os usuários interagem dentro das comunidades. O wannabe é um dos tipos que fazem parte desse universo. Os principais objetivos deste artigo são analisar de que forma a adolescência constrói sua identidade a partir de processos de distinção e controle social na Internet, tomando os aspectos relacionados ao gênero e ao corpo como centrais para a discussão, e refletir sobre os significados atribuídos, nessa fase da vida, a conceitos como "estilo de vida" e "estado de espírito" dentro de dois tipos de comunidades virtuais: a dos "góticos", tribo urbana detentora de uma dada feminilidade, e a das "pró-anas", estritamente virtual, que defende as práticas da anorexia como um estilo de vida.Orkut is a virtual relationship network through which it is possible to identify a system of classification determined by the way users interact inside of the communities. The wannabee is one of the types that are part of this universe. The main goals of this article are to analyze how adolescence constructs its identity from distinction and social control processes in the Internet, taking the aspects related to gender and body as central issues for discussion, and to reflect on the meanings attributed, in this phase of life, to concepts as "life style" and "mood", inside two types of virtual communities: the "gothics", urban tribe representative of one given femininity, and the "pro-anas", strictly virtual, that defends anorexic practices as a life style.

  13. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  14. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species, Orthoptera (17 species, Hemiptera (16 species, Hymenoptera (15 species and Odonata (9 species, are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  15. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  16. Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion

  17. Genetic diversity of hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency, and ABO and Rhesus blood groups in two isolates of a primitive Kharia Tribe in Sundargarh District of Northwestern Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgir, R S

    2010-09-01

    Tribal communities constitute about 8.2% of the total population of India. Their health needs are even larger than elsewhere in India; this study investigates the genetic diversity in relation to hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency and, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in two sects, i.e. Dudh (converted Christian) and Dhelki (Hinduised) Kharia, a primitive tribe in Sundargarh district of Orissa in Central-Eastern India. A randomized screening of 767 Kharia tribals (377 males and 390 females) belonging to all age groups and both sexes was done. Laboratory analysis was carried out following the standard methodology and techniques. Contrasting differences were observed in the frequency of hematological genetic disorders such as β-thalassemia, sickle cell, hemoglobin E, G6PD deficiency, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups between the two subgroups. Dudh Kharia had no hemoglobin variant allele other than the high prevalence of β-thalassemia trait (8.1%), whereas, their counterpart Dhelki Kharia had the high prevalence of sickle cell allele (12.4%), hemoglobin E allele (3.2%), and β-thalassemia allele (4.0%). Frequency distribution of hemoglobin variants between Dudh and Dhelki Kharia tribe was statistically highly significant (p blood group was 1.1% in Dudh Kharia and absent in Dhelki Kharia (p < 0.05). This study showed genetic isolation of the two sects of Kharia tribe. Antimalarial drugs administration needs to be done with caution. Hematological disorders pose a major health challenge having multifaceted implications in public health genetics.

  18. Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas

    Full Text Available The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI, Phyllostomus discolor (PDI and Tonatia saurophila (TSA, representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps, confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by

  19. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  20. The comparative phylogeography of fruit bats of the tribe Scotonycterini (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) reveals cryptic species diversity related to African Pleistocene forest refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline

    2015-03-01

    The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial

  1. First Post-Operative Urinary Kidney Injury Biomarkers and Association with the Duration of AKI in the TRIBE-AKI Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Steven G.; Nadkarni, Girish N.; Garg, Amit X.; Koyner, Jay; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; McArthur, Eric; Shlipak, Michael G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that assessment of the duration of AKI, in addition to magnitude of rise in creatinine alone, adds prognostic information for long-term survival. We evaluated whether post-operative kidney injury biomarkers in urine collected immediately after cardiac surgery associate with duration of serum creatinine elevation. Methods We studied 1199 adults undergoing cardiac surgery in a prospective cohort study (TRIBE-AKI) and examined the association between the levels of five urinary biomarkers individually at 0–6 hours after surgery: interleukin-18 (IL-18), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and albumin with duration of serum creatinine-based AKIN criteria for AKI (0 (no AKI), 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 days). Results Overall, 407 (34%) patients had at least stage 1 AKI, of whom 251 (61.7%) had duration of 1–2 days, 118 (28.9%) had duration 3–6 days, and 38 (9.3%) had duration of ≥7 days. Higher concentrations of all biomarkers (per log increase) were independently associated with a greater odds of a longer duration of AKI; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using ordinal logistic regression were the following: IL-18: 1.22, 1.13–1.32; KIM-1: 1.36, 1.21–1.52; albumin 1.20, 1.09–1.32; L-FABP 1.11, 1.04–1.19; NGAL 1.06, 1.00–1.14). AKI duration of 7 days or longer was associated with a 5-fold adjusted risk of mortality at 3 years. Conclusions There was an independent dose-response association between urinary levels of injury biomarkers immediately after cardiac surgery and longer duration of AKI. Duration of AKI was also associated with long term mortality. Future studies should explore the potential utility of these urinary kidney injury biomarkers to enrich enrollment of patients at risk for longer duration of AKI into trials of interventions to prevent or treat post-operative AKI. PMID:27537050

  2. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  3. Investigation about Religious Belief of the Six Tribes of Kumbum Monastey in History and Present Situation%塔尔寺六族宗教信仰的历史与现状考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海云

    2011-01-01

    塔尔寺六族在历史上以藏传佛教格鲁派为其主流宗教信仰,兼及原始宗教中的自然崇拜。随着社会文化的变迁,六族信仰呈现出多元化、世俗性的特征,本文调查塔尔寺六族主流宗教信仰,汉文化影响下的道教信仰,民间信仰及民间禁忌等信仰现状,借以对河湟地区藏族社会的宗教信仰做一概貌性展示。%The Six Tribes of Kumbum Monastey regard the Gelupa of Tibetan Buddhism and the natural worship as their mainstream religious belief.With the changing of society,the six tribes' beliefs presented the features of variety and secularity,the current situation of belief that this paper investigated are the mainstream religious belief of the six tribes,the moral belief under the Han groups' cultural influence,the folk belief as well as folk taboos,etc.By the way,it made a general presentation of Tibetan society's religious belief in Hehuang area.

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are currently of special concern regionally and are important to the culture and subsistence needs of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. The mission of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is to restore and maintain these native trout and the habitats that sustain them in order to provide subsistence harvest and recreational fishing opportunities for the Reservation community. The adfluvial life history strategy exhibited by westslope cutthroat and bull trout in the Lake Coeur d'Alene subbasin makes these fish susceptible to habitat degradation and competition in both lake and stream environments. Degraded habitat in Lake Coeur d'Alene and its associated streams and the introduction of exotic species has lead to the decline of westslope cutthroat and listing of bull trout under the endangered species act (Peters et al. 1998). Despite the effects of habitat degradation, several streams on the Reservation still maintain populations of westslope cutthroat trout, albeit in a suppressed condition (Table 1). The results of several early studies looking at fish population status and habitat condition on the Reservation (Graves et al. 1990; Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996) lead the Tribe to aggressively pursue funding for habitat restoration under the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) resident fish substitution program. Through these efforts, habitat restoration needs were identified and projects were initiated. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is currently involved in implementing stream habitat restoration projects, reducing the transport of sediment from upland sources, and monitoring fish populations in four watersheds on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation (Figure 1). Restoration projects have included riparian plantings, addition of large woody debris to streams, and complete channel reconstruction to restore historical natural

  5. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time.

  6. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  7. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión gené- tica, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus . Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromo- soma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos perte- necientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejem- plares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus , lo cual esta- ría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemen- te originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santan- dereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  8. Prospects for population expansion of the exotic aoudad (Ammotragus lervia; Bovidae) in the Iberian Peninsula: clues from habitat suitability modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinello, Jorge; Acevedo, Pelayo; Hortal, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    ) environmental variables (climate and habitat type), and (2) potential aoudad landscape avoidance and human disturbance variables. We compared both niche descriptions to study the impact of human interference on niche selection of the species. ENFA models were calibrated using data on the population expanded...

  9. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  10. Taboos of Tibetan Nomadic Tribes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TaboosofTibetanNomadicTribesAOHONGTibetanfolkloreincludesvariouskindsofcelebrations,sacrificialOfferings,andweddingandfuneral...

  11. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  12. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  13. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and a key to genera of Neotropical Lasiopteridi unplaced to tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J; Etienne, Jean

    2015-10-12

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, new genus, Anapeza Gagné, new genus, and Pellacara Gagné, new genus, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.; Anapeza tumida Gagné, new species, and Pellacara postica, new species, were both reared from Psychotria mapourioides DC. The three new genera belong to Lasiopteridi but are unassigned to tribe. A key to the adult stage of these and 23 other Neotropical genera of unplaced Lasiopteridi whose adults are known is provided.

  14. “蚁族”的留京动机、需要满足程度与主观幸福感的关系%Relationship of Ant Tribe's Motivation, Need Satisfaction, and Subjective Well-being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤; 蒋奖; 邱辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:基于自我决定理论,探讨“蚁族”的留京动机(包括自主动机和受控动机)与主观幸福感的关系,以及基本心理需要满足程度在其中所起的中介作用.方法:采用自我整合量表、需要满意度量表、生活满意度量表、积极和消极情感量表对171名“蚁族”进行调查,使用回归分析对数据进行处理.结果:①自主动机显著正向预测主观幸福感,受控动机显著负向预测主观幸福感;②基本心理需要满足程度在自主动机和受控动机与主观幸福感的关系中起完全中介作用.结论:“蚁族”的自主动机可显著提升主观幸福感,受控动机降低主观幸福感,这种影响通过基本心理需要满足程度起作用.%Objective: Following self-determination theory to explore the impact of the autonomous and controlled motivation of staying in Beijing on subjective well-being and the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Methods: Data were collected from 171 graduated students called Ant Tribe, working in Beijing, with Self-concordance Scale, Need Satisfaction Scale, Satisfaction With life Scale (SWLS) and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and were analyzed by linear regression. Results: Subjective well-being could be positively predicted by autonomous motivation and negatively predicted by controlled motivation. The relationship between autonomous and controlled motivation and subjective well-being was completely mediated by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Conclusion: The subjective well-being of Ant Tribe could be promoted by autonomous motivation and undermined by controlled motivation, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs played mediating roles between the relationships.

  15. Evolutionary patterns of two major reproduction candidate genes (Zp2 and Zp3 reveal no contribution to reproductive isolation between bovine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beja-Pereira Albano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been established that mammalian egg zona pellucida (ZP glycoproteins are responsible for species-restricted binding of sperm to unfertilized eggs, inducing the sperm acrosome reaction, and preventing polyspermy. In mammals, ZP apparently represents a barrier to heterospecific fertilization and thus probably contributes to reproductive isolation between species. The evolutionary relationships between some members of the tribe Bovini are complex and highly debatable, particularly, those involving Bos and Bison species for which interspecific hybridization is extensively documented. Because reproductive isolation is known to be a major precursor of species divergence, testing evolutionary patterns of ZP glycoproteins may shed some light into the speciation process of these species. To this end, we have examined intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of two ZP genes (Zp2 and Zp3 for seven representative species (111 individuals from the Bovini tribe, including five species from Bos and Bison, and two species each from genera Bubalus and Syncerus. Results A pattern of low levels of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence was detected for the two sequenced fragments each for Zp2 and Zp3. At intraspecific level, none of neutrality tests detected deviations from neutral equilibrium expectations for the two genes. Several haplotypes in both genes were shared by multiple species from Bos and Bison. Conclusions Here we argue that neither ancestral polymorphism nor introgressive hybridization alone can fully account for haplotype sharing among species from Bos and Bison, and that both scenarios have contributed to such a pattern of haplotype sharing observed here. Additionally, codon-based tests revealed strong evidence for purifying selection in the Zp3 coding haplotype sequences and weak evidence for purifying selection in the Zp2 coding haplotype sequences. Contrary to a general genetic pattern that

  16. Grindelia, A New Naturalized Genus of the Tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China%胶菀属——中国菊科紫菀族的一个新归化属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范香媛; 张淑梅; 高天刚

    2011-01-01

    报道中国东北辽宁省发现的菊科(Asteraceae)紫菀族(Astereae)一个新归化属胶菀属(Grindelia).它在外形上接近于旋覆花属(Inula),但区别在于胶菀属花药基部钝,花柱分枝顶端附属物呈披针形或三角形,冠毛鳞片状.依据在中国所采集的标本描述了该属在中国的唯一代表种胶菀(Grindelia squarrosa)的形态特征,并讨论了其自然分布和进入中国的可能途径.%Grindelia, a new naturalized genus of the tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China, was found in Liaoning,Nortestem China.Morpholopcally it is related to the genus Inula, but differs in the obtuse anther base, lanceolate to deltate style-branch appendages, pappi of scales.GrindeLia squarrosa , the only one represented species of the genus is described based on the specimens collected in China.Its natural distribution and possible pathways into China are also discussed.

  17. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the butterfly tribe Satyrini (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) with emphasis on the utility of ribosomal mitochondrial genes 16s rDNA and nuclear 28s rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-07-09

    The tribe Satyrini is one of the most diverse groups of butterflies, but no robust phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has been achieved. Two rarely used 16s and 28s ribosomal and another seven protein-coding genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Satyrini, with further aim to evaluate the informativeness of the ribosomal genes. Our maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses consistently recovered three well-supported clades for the eleven sampled subtribes of Satyrini: clade I includes Eritina and Coenonymphina, being sister to the clade II + clade III; clade II contains Parargina, Mycalesina and Lethina, and the other six subtribes constitute clade III. The placements of the taxonomically unstable Davidina Oberthür and geographically restricted Paroeneis Moore in Satyrina are confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. The close relationships of Callerebia Butler, Loxerebia Watkins and Argestina Riley are well-supported. We suggest that Rhaphicera Butler belongs to Lethina. The partitioned Bremer support (PBS) values of MP analysis show that the 16s rDNA contributes well to the nodes representing all the taxa from subtribe to species levels, and the 28s rDNA is informative at the subtribe level. Furthermore, our ML analyses show that the ribosomal genes 16s rDNA and 28s rDNA are informative, because most node support values are lower in the ML tree after the removal of them than that in ML tree constructed based on the full nine-gene dataset. This indicates that some other ribosomal genes should be tentatively used through combining with traditionally used protein-coding genes in further analysis on phylogeny of Satyrini, providing that proper representatives are sampled.

  19. Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga Clave para los adultos de las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Libonatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dytiscids constitute the world's most speciose family of water beetles, whose identifi cation in Argentina is problematic with current keys. In this work, a key (both in English and Spanish to the eight subfamilies, 16 tribes and 31 genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina is presented. The key was constructed using stable qualitative characters of the external morphology and chaetotaxy, easily visualizable and interpretable. Characters such as size and shape of the body, color pattern and geographic distribution were also used. Illustrations of a great number of morphological structures as well as SEM micrographs were included to aid in the interpretation of the text. One subfamily (Hydrodytinae and fi ve genera (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp and an unpublished genus of the subfamily Laccophilinae are cited for the fi rst time for Argentina.Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identifi cación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfi ca. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.

  20. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  1. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    As part of an ongoing project to restore fisheries resources in tributaries located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, this report details the activities of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries Program for FY 1997 and 1998. This report (1) analyses the effect introduced species and water quality have on the abundance of native trout in Coeur d'Alene Lake and selected target tributaries; (2) details results from an ongoing mark-recapture study on predatory game fish; (3) characterizes spawning habitats in target tributaries and evaluates the effects of fine sediment on substrate composition and estimated emergence success; and (4) provides population estimates for westslope cutthroat trout in target tributaries. Low dissolved oxygen values in the hypolimnion of Coeur d'Alene Lake continue to be a cause for concern with regard to available fisheries habitat. Four sample sites in 1997 and eight sample sites in 1998 had measured levels of dissolved oxygen below what is considered optimum (6.0 mg/L) for cutthroat trout. As well, two sample points located north of the Coeur d'Alene River showed hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen deficits. This could lead to a more serious problem associated with the high concentration of heavy metals bound up in the sediment north of the Coeur d'Alene River. Most likely these oxygen deficits are a result of allochthonous input of organic matter and subsequent decomposition. Sediment loading from tributaries continues to be a problem in the lake. The build up of sediments at the mouths of all incoming tributaries results in the modification of existing wetlands and provides ideal habitat for predators of cutthroat trout, such as northern pike and largemouth bass. Furthermore, increased sediment deposition provides additional substrate for colonization by aquatic macrophytes, which serve as forage and habitat for other non-native species. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of

  2. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    As part of an ongoing project to restore fisheries resources in tributaries located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, this report details the activities of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries Program for FY 1997 and 1998. This report (1) analyses the effect introduced species and water quality have on the abundance of native trout in Coeur d'Alene Lake and selected target tributaries; (2) details results from an ongoing mark-recapture study on predatory game fish; (3) characterizes spawning habitats in target tributaries and evaluates the effects of fine sediment on substrate composition and estimated emergence success; and (4) provides population estimates for westslope cutthroat trout in target tributaries. Low dissolved oxygen values in the hypolimnion of Coeur d'Alene Lake continue to be a cause for concern with regard to available fisheries habitat. Four sample sites in 1997 and eight sample sites in 1998 had measured levels of dissolved oxygen below what is considered optimum (6.0 mg/L) for cutthroat trout. As well, two sample points located north of the Coeur d'Alene River showed hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen deficits. This could lead to a more serious problem associated with the high concentration of heavy metals bound up in the sediment north of the Coeur d'Alene River. Most likely these oxygen deficits are a result of allochthonous input of organic matter and subsequent decomposition. Sediment loading from tributaries continues to be a problem in the lake. The build up of sediments at the mouths of all incoming tributaries results in the modification of existing wetlands and provides ideal habitat for predators of cutthroat trout, such as northern pike and largemouth bass. Furthermore, increased sediment deposition provides additional substrate for colonization by aquatic macrophytes, which serve as forage and habitat for other non-native species. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of

  3. The Nilgiri Tahr (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae: Nilgiritragus hylocrius Ogilby, 1838 in the Agastyamalai range, Western Ghats, India: population status and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Hopeland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius Ogilby, 1838 has not been comprehensively surveyed in the southern Western Ghats, India.  Here we present results of a survey conducted in 2012 and 2013 in 25 sites where Nilgiri Tahr was reported in Agastyamalai range south of the Shencottah gap.  The objectives of the survey were to assess population status; evaluate threats and propose conservation measures. In each site the geographical coordinates were noted.  If Nilgiri Tahr (=Tahr were sighted, the number and herd structure were recorded.  Indirect signs of Tahr presence such as faecal pellets and feedback from local informants were noted in sites with no direct sightings of Tahr.  The total sightings were 247 Tahr in 10 sites, and indication of Tahr presence in seven sites.  Only two populations viz. Kalamalai-Varraiattumudi and Muthukulivayal-Balamore were large (>30 individuals.  Tahr were not present in eight sites: of which four had earlier records of Tahr presence, and the other four had no prior data.  There was a significant positive association between percentage of young (kids and yearlings and number of Tahr sighted.  Illegal hunting was widespread in the past, and continues to be a serious threat.  Loss of Tahr grazing habitat to successional processes resulting in increased tree cover, is a long term threat that could increase with climate change.  A landscape level management plan to reconnect small populations, rehabilitate Tahr in sites where they have disappeared, use fire to restore short grass habitats, and stringent curb on illegal hunting is required for the long term viability of the Nilgiri Tahr in this region.  

  4. Independent confirmation of a diagnostic sheep/goat peptide sequence through DNA analysis and further exploration of its taxonomic utility within the Bovidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Michael G.; Robinson, Terence; Campos, Paula F.

    2013-01-01

    Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach that amplif......Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach...... that amplifies the diagnostic sequence from exon 41 of the COL1A2 gene. Using DNA analysis, we confirmed that this COL1A2 peptide discriminates between goat and sheep species reliably, but is limited as a more general phylogenetic marker. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  5. 陕西府谷晚中新世蓝牛化石%LATE MIOCENE BOSELAPHINI (BOVIDAE, ARTIODACTYLA) FROM FUGU, SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆群

    2005-01-01

    尽管中国发现的中新羚(偶蹄目,牛科,蓝牛族)化石较少,但由于其重要的生物年代学意义而备受重视,被作为与欧洲Vallesian期动物群对比的重要分子.描述了新近在陕西府谷喇嘛沟发现的头骨标本.依据下颌骨形态与牙齿特征,将其归入Miotragocerus gregarius (Schlosser,1903).新发现的材料完善了该种的鉴定特征:中等大小的蓝牛类;角心强烈后倾,中等分散度,具前后两条棱,横断面呈椭圆形;雄性个体角心前的额骨部分强烈隆升,雌性个体则无明显隆起;脑颅部分成梯形,其最大宽度在角心后,最小宽度在枕骨位置上;基枕骨前后突之间没有沟槽发育;P2与P3具发育且后置的次尖;p4下后尖前后向扩展.对比研究表明,该种较Miotragocerus spectabilis原始,而后者为中国发现的蓝牛类的最后代表且于中新世末期绝灭.对比巴基斯坦以及欧洲的蓝牛,认为中国的Miotragocerus可能与欧洲的种类关系较为密切,而不同于巴基斯坦的Tragoportax.最新的研究资料表明,Miotragocerus在中国主要发现于晚中新世中晚期(Turolian期),可能在8 Ma之前从欧洲迁移至东亚,由于剧烈的气候及生态环境的改变于晚中新世末期与Urmiatheriinae等大型牛科化石一起绝灭.%Though rarely reported from china, Miotragocerus has long been considered as one of the Vallesian equivalent indicators in the comparison with European faunas. Study on new specimens of Miotragocerus gregarius improves its diagnostic characters. Comparison with European and Pakistan taxa reveals that Miotragocerus possibly migrated into Eastern Asia before 8 Ma, and evolved independently into M. Spectabilis, which went extinct at the end of Lated Miocene together with some large bovids, such as all genera of Urmiatheriinae, due to dramatically climated and ecological changes at the and of the Late Miocene.

  6. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  7. Histology, histochemistry and fine structure of the Harderian gland, lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid of the European bison, Bison bonasus bonasus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The macroscopic anatomy and the microscopic and ultrastructural features of the Harderian gland (HG, lacrimal gland (LG and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE of the adult European bison are described. In addition, morphometric studies were conducted and were followed by statistical analysis of the results. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialysed iron. Analysis of the staining showed that the HG has a multilobular tubuloalveolar structure with mixed secretion. The LG and the SGTE have a multilobar tubuloacinar structure with serous secretion in the LG and mucoserous in the SGTE. The TEM study demonstrates that the secretory cells of the HG, LG and SGTE have similar ultrastructural appearance, with two types of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm of all studied glands. The histochemical staining methods and the TEM study revealed the secretory activity in the HG, LG and SGTE ducts. The structural studies can be important for establishing relations between morphological structure and functions of these glands. It can have clinical implications especially when taking into consideration the protective mechanisms of the eye.

  8. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas europeas a esta raza.

  9. A note on the behaviour of Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae in lowland Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Pokharel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies provide the reasons behind habitat preferences of animals and their fitness to survive and propagate.  The Four-horned Antelope, an endangered endemic species to the Indian subcontinent was monitored at Ratamate area of Babai Valley in Bardia National Park, Nepal.  We used ad libitum sampling and focal animal sampling within the rule for continuous recording of ‘all-occurrences’ of ‘vigilance’ behaviour. We found that the Four-horned Antelope remains ‘alert and vigilant’ during 40% of its behavioural time budget when it scans the surroundings with raised head, with or without chewing. In the event of sudden threat it ‘freezes’, lying down still and hiding in the ground cover.  Therefore, maintenance of ground cover should form a regular practice in conservation management of the Four-horned Antelope. 

  10. Population status, distribution and potential threats of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae along the Tinau River of Rupandehi District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Aryal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research.  The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull.  The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest.  A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects.  The average group size was five.  The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females.  The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.  

  11. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there epigenetic factors involved that might also explain low observed twin concordance? The genetic (and

  12. Hill tribes struggling for a land deal

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Das Hochland Nordthailands isi ein Beispiel für eine widersprüchliche Situation die entsteht, wenn ein zentralistisches Regierungssystem seine Kontrolle auf entlegene Gebiete ausdehnt und auf traditionellen Wanderfeldbau auftrifft. Auf Regierungsseite zeichnet sich die Politik durch unterschiedliche Interessen der Walderhaltung einerseits und Integration von ethnischen Minderheiten andererseits aus. Die Bergstämme ihrerseits erstreben Landsicherheit um ihre Subsistenzwirtschaft zu sichern. So...

  13. Research on the Public Rental Housing Supply of the Housing Security Problems of"College Students Ant Tribe":Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs%解决“大学生蚁族”住房保障问题的公租房供给研究--基于马斯洛需求层理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆允

    2016-01-01

    At present, the college students ant tribe is the social low income class. The government should solve their housing problems from the supply of public rental housing. Based on the analysis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in order to solve the supply of public rental housing of college students ant tribe, the government should adjust the entry criteria of public rental housing for the college students ant tribe to solve their physiological requirements, enhance the property management services of public rental housing to solve their security requirements, improve the construction site selection and design of public rental housing to solve their social requirements, create the community culture of public rental housing to solve their respect requirements and additional services of public rental housing to solve their requirements of self realization.%当前大学生蚁族作为社会低收入阶层,政府应从公租房的供给着手解决其居住问题。基于马斯洛需求层次理论分析,政府应在对大学生蚁族的公租房供给方面做到:从生理需求出发,调整大学生蚁族申请公租房租住准入条件;从安全需求出发,提升大学生蚁族公租房物业管理服务;从社会需求出发,改进大学生蚁族公租房建筑选址和设计方案;从尊重需求出发,营造大学生蚁族公租房租住社区文化;从自我实现需求出发,探索大学生蚁族公租房附加服务。

  14. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-06-27

    The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic. Two subordinate groups are recognized within present Cladomorphinae, which differ considerably in numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs. The first group and here regarded as Cladomorphinae sensu stricto is formed by the mostly South American Cladomorphini + Cranidiini + Cladoxerini, while the second group is formed by the predominantly Caribbean Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini.        Members of the first group (= Cladomorphini sensu stricto) share the dorsally carinate basitarsus in which the two dorsal carinae are melted with another, increasingly elongated gonapophyses VIII of females which are noticeably longer than gonapophyses IX and lamellate as well as strongly displaced medioventral carina of the profemora. Cranidiini + Cladomorphini share the strongly elongated and filiform gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in the females, specialized poculum of males and presence of a median line in the eggs. Cranidiini differs from all other tribes of Cladomorphinae by the entirely unarmed legs of both sexes, distinctly broadened and leaf-like body and prominent longitudinal keel of the mesosternum of females, prominently enlarged poculum and spinulose phallus of males as well as the conspicuous narrowing of the posteromedian gap of the internal micropylar plate of the eggs and noticeably separated median line. Cladomorphini is characteristic

  15. PARÁMETROS GENÉTICOS PARA CARACTERÍSTICAS REPRODUCTIVAS EN UNA POBLACIÓN DE BÚFALOS (BUBALUS BUBALIS ARTIODACTYLA, BOVIDAE EN EL MAGDALENA MEDIO COLOMBIANO GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN A POPULATION OF BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS ARTIODACTYLA: BOVIDAE IN THE MIDDLE MAGDALENA REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Bolívar Vergara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se hizo para estimar los componentes de (covarianza y parámetros genéticos para edad al primer parto (EPP e intervalo entre partos (IEP en una población bufalina en el Magdalena Medio Colombiano. Las características evaluadas fueron EPP, IEP entre primer y segundo parto (IEP1-2, IEP entre segundo y tercer parto (IEP2-3 , e IEP entre tercer y cuarto parto (IEP3-4 en un modelo animal multicaracterístico. El IEP con todos los partos (IEPtotal fue analizado en un modelo animal unicaracterístico. Las estimativas de los componentes de varianza fueron obtenidos por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida libre de derivadas. Las heredabilidades encontradas fueron 0,42; 0,11; 0,07; 0,31 y 0,05±0,061 para EPP, IEP1-2 , IEP2-3 , IEP3-4 y IEPtotal, respectivamente. La heredabilidad encontrada para EPP, sugiere que la selección por esta característica es factible en esta población. La heredabilidad para IEPtotal indica que esta característica está muy influenciada por factores ambientales y genéticos no aditivos. Las correlaciones genéticas entre los diferentes IEP fueron altas y positivas. Las correlaciones genéticas entre EPP y los IEP variaron ampliamente.The research was carried out to estimate (covariance components and genetic parameters for age at first calving (AFC and calving interval (CI in a population of buffaloes located in Middle Magdalena region of Colombia. The traits evaluated were AFC, CI between first and second calving (CI1-2, CI between second and third calving (CI2-3 and CI between third and fourth calving(CI3-4, using animal model multitrait. A single-trait animal model was used for IEP considering all calving (CItotal. Estimative of (covariance components were obtained by the method of derivative free restricted maximum likelihood. Estimates of heritability were 0.42, 0.11, 0.07, 0.31, and 0.05 ± 0.061 for AFC, CI1-2, CI2-3, CI3-4, and CItotal, respectively. The heritability found for AFC, suggest that selection for these traits is feasible in this population. The heritability for CItotal indicates that this trait is strongly influenced by environmental and non-additives genetic factors. Genetic correlations among different IEP were high and positive. Genetic correlations between AFC and the IEP varied widely.

  16. PALEOZOOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102487 Chen Guanfang(Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100044,China);Zhang Zhaoqun Taxonomy and Evolutionary Process of Neogene Bovidae from China(Vertebrata Palasiatica,ISSN1000-3118,CN11-1905/Q,47(4),2009,p.265-281,1 table,56 refs.)Key words:Bovidae,ChinaBovidae is one of the most diversified groups of

  17. Environ: E00514 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utturosa [TAX:157669], Gazella prewalskii, Gazella [TAX:9933], Procapra picticaudata [TAX:59540], Pantholops... Others: Bovidae Gazella subgutturosa, Gazella gutturosa, Gazella prewalskii, Procapra picticaudata, Panthol

  18. 清入关前满洲民族联合过程与满洲对索伦部的政策%Combined Process of Manchu Nationality and Policies of Manchu Carried out to the Tribe of Suolun before Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦震

    2015-01-01

    明清之际,满洲崛起于东北,以居住在辽宁东部的建州女真和吉林松花江沿岸至南部的海西女真为主体,联合东北其他少数民族形成满洲共同体。满洲的民族联合过程属于聚合过程,血缘、文化相近的民族或部落、部族汇聚为一个民族共同体。在满洲民族联合的过程中,索伦部一些人员加入满洲,成为新满洲,融入到满洲共同体中。对于满洲民族联合过程的发展做出了重要贡献。满洲对于仍居住在黑龙江北的索伦部,实行朝贡赏赐、联姻、编旗设佐政策,淡化其民族认同,加强其对满洲的政治认同。%During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Manchu rose in the northeast, forming a Manchu community concluding Nvzhen nationality which lived in the eastern part of Liaoning, Haixi Jurchens who lived from the Songhua River to the south as well as other ethnics in Northeast of China.The combined process of Manchu belongs to the polymerization process that ethnic, tribe or clan of blood and common culture gathered a national community .In the Manchu ethnic joint process, Suolun staff joined the Manchu to be-come the new Manchuria into the Manchu community , which made important contributions to the development of the combined process of Manchu nationality.Manchu carried out such policies as the tribute reward , the marriage and setting eight flags to Suolun who still lived in the north of Heilongjiang.In addition, it weaked Suolun’ s ethnic identity to strengthen the political identity of Manchu.

  19. Characterizing adaptive morphological patterns related to diet in Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)%牛科(哺乳纲:偶蹄目)动物与食物有关的适应形态模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel MENDOZA; Paul PALMQVIST

    2006-01-01

    Morphological patterns in the craniodental structure of extant bovids indicative of ecological adaptations for feeding behavior were identified by stepwise discriminant analysis (SCDA). The analyses were carried out using 28 craniodental measurements from 72 extant bovid species. The discriminant functions obtained allow the characterization of six different types of dietary adaptations: general grazers, fresh-grass grazers, mixed-feeders from open habitat, browsers,mixed-feeders from closed habitat, and frugivores. The predictive ability of the algorithms was tested with 1 063 specimens, most of them lacking one or more measurements. The mean predictive ability of the discriminant functions over these specimens (94 % ) is only slightly lower than over the species used to obtain them (98 % ). Given that the algorithms involve small sets of craniodental measurements, they can also be applied to non-complete specimens from archaeological assemblages. These algorithms, combined with those obtained using postcranial measurements for estimating adaptations related to locomotor performance and habitat choice, are useful for deriving inferences on the autecology of ancient bovids and may be used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (6): 988- 1008, 2006].%利用逐步分辨分析方法(Stepwise discriminant analysis,SCDA)检测了广义牛科动物的颅齿部结构,这些结构特征可以作为采食行为生态适应特征.在本研究中,测量了72种广义牛科动物的28个颅齿部结构.逐步分辨分析方法得出了6种采食方式适应类型:一般粗食者、新鲜禾草粗食者、开阔生境混合型采食者、精食者、郁闭生境混合型采食者、食果者.用103个标本检测了分辨指标的预测能力,所用标本为缺损标本,大多数缺少一项或多项结构.从这些标本获得的分辨函数的平均预测能力为94%,比用72种广义牛科动物标本建立的分辨函数的平均预测能力(98%)低一些.从一个颅齿部结构小样本建立的分辨函数可以用于考古发掘物中不完整标本的研究.这些指标与用颅下结构测量建立的运动能力和生境选择的指标相结合,可以推断古牛科动物的个体生念学以及古环境重建[动物学报52(6):988-1008,2006].

  20. Characterizing adaptive morphological patterns related to habitat use and body mass in Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)%牛科(哺乳纲:偶蹄目)动物与生境利用有关的适应形态模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel MENDOZA; Paul PALMQVIST

    2006-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the postcranial skeleton of extant bovids reveals patterns of osteological features indicative of ecological adaptations for habitat use and body size. The morphological patterns that characterize the postcranial anatomy of bovid species from each habitat type were identified with stepwise canonical discriminant analysis and decision trees, a technique based on machine learning. The analyses were carried out using 43 measurements from 110 extant bovid species. The discriminant functions and decision trees obtained allow a perfect discrimination among bovids adapted to open plains, forests and mountainous areas (100 % of correct reclassifications obtained in all comparisons), using sets of variables measured in all major limb bones as well as combinations of variables derived exclusively from single limb elements. Given that the adjusted algorithms involve small sets of postcranial measurements, they can also be applied to noncomplete specimens preserved in archaeological and paleontological assemblages, thus being useful for estimating the locomotor performances of ancient taxa. These algorithms, indicative of ecological adaptations for habitat use, combined with those adjusted with craniodental measurements for estimating the dietary preferences of bovid species, have the potential for characterizing the paleoautecology of extinct taxa and may be used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. We also analyze if multiple regression equations show higher predictive ability for estimating body mass than simple regression equations, and propose the best algorithms obtained from postcranial morphological variables measured in each single major limb bone [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (6): 971-987, 2006].%对广义牛科动物颅后骨骼的多元变量分析揭示了牛科生境利用和体型之间的骨学特征.利用逐步分辨分析方法和一个基于机器学习的决策树方法鉴别了每种生境中牛科动物颅后解剖结构的形态特征.从110个广义牛科动物测量了43个指标进行了这项分析.利用所有主要肢骨测量值和以单根肢骨测量为主的测量值获得的分辨函数和决策树可以完美地区分适应开阔生境、森林和山地的牛科动物(在所有分析中得到了100%正确的再分类).由于调整的函数仅涉及到很小的颅后骨骼测量集,这些函数可以应用于研究考古学和古生物学发掘物中保存的不完整标本.这些表征生境利用的生态适应函数与那些用颅齿部性状建立、用于推测牛科动物食物选择的函数结合,具有刻画已灭绝的分类类群的古个体生态学和重建古环境的潜力.我们还分析了多元回归是否较单一因子回归表现出较高的预测能力,并提出了从每一种单根主要肢骨测量的颅后形态变量得到的最好代数函数[动物学报52(6):971-987,2006].

  1. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ipinza-Regla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B. La metodología incluyó siembras en medios de cultivos nutritivos, selectivos y diferenciales. Posteriormente y según el microorganismo a seguir se continuó con algunas pruebas bioquímicas específicas correspondientes a cada caso. En el presente estudio se decidió investigar la presencia de seis agentes patógenos importantes por su frecuencia en caso de infección en humanos: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Pseudomona aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Campylobacter jejuni. En los resultados de este estudio se detectaron cuatro potenciales patógenos: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., P. aeruginosa y E. coli. Además se encontraron otros agentes microbianos: Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia vulneris, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcencens biog.1, Ewingella americana, Providencia rettgeri, Bacillus spp., Enterobacter aglomerans, Stomatococcus spp., Morganella morganii. Las muestras Control A resultaron negativas. Las muestras de hormigas fueron positivos en 95,23%, en cambio, las muestras controles B presentaron desarrollo bacteriano en 90,47% de los casos, siendo ambos estadísticamente mayores al control A (P < 0,05. Se logró confirmar que L. humile es capaz de transportar agentes microbianos en una lechería de cabras.

  2. A False Foundation? AQAP, Tribes and Ungoverned Spaces in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    amir 07/02/2007 Eight Spanish tourists killed in suicide bombing outside Madina Marib 01/13/2008 AQLY releases first issue of online journal Sada al...group’s own logo, distinct from that used by AQAP’s main publication, Sada al-Malahim, were typically a combination of after-action reports and calls to...al-Malahim, 29 March 2009; Hammam bin Abdullah, “Al-Hukm bi-ghayir ma Anzal Allah,” Sada al-Malahim (10), 11; `Adil al-`Abab, “Haqiqat al-Hukkam

  3. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  4. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  5. Capturing the imaginary: Students and other tribes in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbonés Aran, N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis wants to contribute to operationalize insights into student identities, urban images and city/educational marketing and management communication. Instead of harping on the discourse of managing and increasing the positive image of Amsterdam, this thesis aims to give insight into a more r

  6. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... thereto; soft drink establishments, public buildings, public meeting halls, lobbies, halls and dining room... reasonably necessary to carry out this ordinance. Liabilities imposed under this ordinance shall be a lien... filled out completely in order to be considered. 6.3. Issuance of License. The General Council may...

  7. Coevolutionary dynamics between tribe Cercopithecini tetherins and their lentiviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Junko S. Takeuchi; Fengrong Ren; Rokusuke Yoshikawa; Eri Yamada; Yusuke Nakano; Tomoko Kobayashi; Kenta Matsuda; Taisuke Izumi; Naoko Misawa; Yuta Shintaku; Wetzel, Katherine S.; Collman, Ronald G.; Hiroshi Tanaka; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Yoshio Koyanagi

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus, a primate lentivirus (PLV), causes AIDS in humans, whereas most PLVs are less or not pathogenic in monkeys. These notions suggest that the co-evolutionary process of PLVs and their hosts associates with viral pathogenicity, and therefore, that elucidating the history of virus-host co-evolution is one of the most intriguing topics in the field of virology. To address this, recent studies have focused on the interplay between intrinsic anti-viral proteins, such as ...

  8. Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2009-08-01

    Processing fluency, or the subjective experience of ease with which people process information, reliably influences people's judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. Experimenters have manipulated processing fluency using a vast array of techniques, which, despite their diversity, produce remarkably similar judgmental consequences. For example, people similarly judge stimuli that are semantically primed (conceptual fluency), visually clear (perceptual fluency), and phonologically simple (linguistic fluency) as more true than their less fluent counterparts. The authors offer the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Because every cognition falls along a continuum from effortless to demanding and generates a corresponding fluency experience, the authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment.

  9. Pascua Yaqui Tribe Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvayo, Maria

    2014-05-30

    In 2012, PYT was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program to conduct a Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study that would define the technical and economic viability of renewable energy on tribal lands. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was hired by PYT to complete the study. Through this study, Red Mountain concluded that there are viable opportunities for solar at Tortuga Ranch, the Casino del Sol and a third site near the Justice Center on Camino de Oeste.

  10. 40 CFR 131.35 - Colville Confederated Tribes Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... observable effects (i.e., considering lethality, growth, reduced reproduction, etc.) over a relatively long... turbidity; (iv) Cause injury to, are toxic to, or produce adverse physiological responses in humans, animals..., industrial, agricultural). (B) Stock watering. (C) Fish and shellfish: Salmonid migration, rearing,...

  11. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    -exchange to create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...... literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory...

  12. The -gliadin-like -prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng-Fei Qi; Cheng-Xing Le; Zhao Wang; Yu-Bin Liu; Qing Chen; Zhen-Zhen Wei; Bin-Jie Xu; Zheng-Yuan Wei; Shou-Fen Dai; Yu-Ming Wei; You-Liang Zheng

    2014-04-01

    The -prolamins are important components of seed storage proteins in wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, the -prolamin genes from the diploid Triticeae species were systemically characterized. Most of the -prolamins (except 75 K -secalins) characterized were defined as -gliadin-like -prolamins, since they shared same characteristic model structure with -gliadins. Over one-third of these putatively functional -prolamin peptides contained different number of cysteine residues as compared to the eight residues present in -gliadins. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses showed the conservation of -prolamin genes in Triticeae species under evolutionary selection. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these -prolamin genes can not be clearly separated according to their genomic origins, reflecting the conservation of -gliadin-like -prolamin genes after the divergence of Triticeae species. A screening of coeliac disease (CD) toxic epitopes shows that the -prolamins from some other genomes contain much fewer epitopes than those from the A, S (B) and D genomes of wheat. These findings contribute to better understanding of -prolamin family in Triticeae and build a ground for breeding less CD-toxic wheat cultivars.

  13. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over...... from tribal and peasant communities. In modern, urban organizations the presence of pre-industrial norms is seen in the continued importance of in-group/out-group differention, gift exchange and kinship obligations. The paper suggests an explanation of the continued permanence of pre...

  14. Variations of body physique in Santhals: an Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Malik, S L

    2010-06-01

    In order to assess sex differences in body physique in Santhals, a cross sectional sample of 800 adult Santhals (400 males and 400 females) was collected from West Bengal (India) using multistage cluster random sampling. The present study aims to explore the body physique of Santhals of West Bengal, where both males and females do backbreaking labor work. This type of research is rare in tribal communities, especially in India. Anthropometric Somatotyping, the method forwarded by Heath and Carter, is followed in the present study, which is a technique of rating human body physique and composition through anthropometric measurements. The results suggest that the Santhal males and females are predominately Mesomorphic in their body physique. Mean somatotype of Santhal males and females are 1.98-4.81-3.98 and 3.16-5.43-3.17 respectively. Variation among Santhal females is more than males in terms of their body physique. Males in general are linear and muscular, whereas females are lean to fatty, but muscular.

  15. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    OpenAIRE

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical variation within the large genus Anthospermum is discussed. Secondary woodiness is likely to occur in a number of Anthospermum species; other species of the genus have “normal” wood structure or are...

  16. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical v

  17. 76 FR 28446 - Policy on Consultation With Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... University (DOIU), in collaboration with Bureaus, Offices, Tribal colleges and universities, and other... Bureau and Office reporting requirements; e. Striving to enhance trusting and on-going relationships...

  18. Patrones de distribución geográfica de la riqueza de especies de roedores de la tribu Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae en Sudamérica: Evaluando la importancia de los procesos de colonización y extinción Geographic patterns of richness distribution of rodents species from the Oryzomyini tribe (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in South America: Evaluating the importance of colonization and extinction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELYN VALENCIA-PACHECO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La tribu de roedores Oryzomyini es la más diversa dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae. Está constituida por 120 especies y 31 géneros, de las cuales 83 son endémicas del continente sudamericano. Este grupo exhibe una extensa distribución que abarca toda la región Neotropical, caracterizada por la presencia de una mayor riqueza en la Amazonia con una disminución monotónica hacia el sur y norte de Sudamérica. Este es un patrón bastante conocido en la mayoría de los taxones, por lo que se han propuesto varios mecanismos causales. Sin embargo, se desconocen los mecanismos que dan cuenta de este gradiente latitudinal en la riqueza de especies de Oryzomyini. Debido a que estas especies son originarias de la Amazonia, y que a través de su historia colonizaron ambientes nuevos y más variables (sur y norte, se evaluó la hipótesis fuente-sumidero, mediada por procesos de colonización y extinción, como potencial explicación al patrón de riqueza observado. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se reunió una base de datos de distribución y riqueza de especies por grado de latitud para todo el continente sudamericano. Posteriormente se evaluó el grado de anidamiento mediante los índices de T (temperatura, BR (discrepancia y NODF. Nuestros resultados evidenciaron un grado de anidamiento significativo en la distribución de Oryzomyini, y un anidamiento significativo separadamente en filas y columnas de la matriz. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la dinámica fuente-sumidero afecta el patrón de distribución de la riqueza de roedores Oryzominos, a través de un proceso de colonización durante su expansión en Sudamérica que fue mediado por los rangos de tolerancia de las especies. Finalmente, las especies menos tolerantes se habrían extinguido, lo que determinaría un menor número de especies hacia el sur y norte de la Amazonia.The Oryzomyini rodent tribe is the most diverse taxon within the Sigmodontinae subfamily. This tribe includes 120

  19. Jóvenes de otros mundos: ¿Tribus urbanas? ¿Culturas juveniles? Aportaciones desde contextos no occidentales Jovens de outros mundos: Tribos urbanas? Culturas jovens? Contribuições dos contextos no occidentais Young people of other worlds: Urban tribes? Youth cultures? Contributions from nonwestern contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez García

    2010-07-01

    traditional methodologies for the investigation between generational groups in western contexts. Although the basically urban character of these associations is defended, it discusses to the relevance of the application of the concepts of "urban tribe" and "youth culture" in cultural scenes like the represented ones in societies that have undergone a fast transition to a modernity imposed by the transnational networks. In this sense, the objective is the refining of those conceptual tools offering a new perspective of which it considers the historical and social peculiarities of the construction of "young" the social category in other places. Finally, the text tries to vindicate the Anthropology like an empirical and non a priori discipline.

  20. Environ: E00093 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available taurus [TAX:9913] Same as: D06721 Bovidae (Cattle family) Oriental bezoar Major component: Bile acid [CPD:C01558] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  1. 78 FR 23286 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Cervidae Equidae Felidae (does not include jaguar, ocelot or margay) Lemuridae Mustelidae (does not include... period. Families Cercopithecidae Felidae (does not include jaguar, margay or ocelot) Hylobatidae... Bovidae Equidae Felidae (does not include jaguar, margay or ocelot) Hominidae Hylobatidae...

  2. The Discussion on the Wars of Hada Tribe and Yehe Tribe%哈达、叶赫"构兵"不息原因浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱广军

    2005-01-01

    哈达、叶赫同为明代后期扈伦四部中的著名部落,在其发展过程中,战争成为两部关系的主题.探究其原因,一方面是由于明朝"以夷制夷"的羁縻政策,另一方面是因为双方发展过程中的利益纠葛及由此产生的争端.其中,前者是两部纷争的根源.结果,双方在战争中互相削弱,最终走向共同灭亡.

  3. Indian Reservations, Current federally recognized reservation boundary of the Makah Tribe, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Makah Tribe.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described...

  4. Toxoplasma Gondii in animali da reddito e rischio per l'uomo tramite il consumo di carne

    OpenAIRE

    Condoleo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii è un protozoo del phylum Apicomplexa, parassita di numerose specie animali e dell’uomo. Gli ospiti definitivi di T. gondii sono felidi domestici e selvatici, incluso il gatto domestico, i quali sono gli unici in grado di diffondere oocisti con le feci. Gli ospiti intermedi del protozoo comprendono numerose specie di mammiferi ed uccelli, incluso ovini, caprini, bovini, bufali, equini ed uomo. La toxoplasmosi è riconosciuta come una importante causa di infertilità negli ovini...

  5. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices..., including among other things, ale, beer, stout, porter, and the like. Malt beverages are exclusive of...

  6. Mortuary Rite Among the Mishing Tribe in aRural Context of Assam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arifur Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Death is one of the urgent crises event in human society that occur during the lifecycle of each individual. It has anintegral relation with religion, especially with rites and rituals, through which the deceased person is appeased withthe intervention of supernatural. FurtherInore, the death rites, popularly known as funeral rites, which incorporatethe deceased into the world of the dead are more extensively elaborated and assigned the greatest importance.Mourning is integral element related with the death and during the event social life is suspended for all thoseaffected by it and length of the period increases with the closeness of social ties with the deceased. In every society,there are certain customs related to death, as well as disposal of the corpse which reflect the parochial belief systemassociated with the event. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the customs associated with disposalof the death, integral parochial religious rites and rituals among the Mishings of Upper Assam, India.

  7. Prevalence of sickle cells in Irula, Kurumba, Paniya & Mullukurumba tribes of Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Balakrishnan, K; Pitchappan, R M

    1994-11-01

    A total of 1377 tribals, comprising Irulas (536), Paniyas (196), Kurumbas (87), Mullukrurumbas (156) and Soligas (402), living in the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India were studied for sickle cell trait between 1981-85. Patients attending various tribal clinics at Arayure, Kozhikarai, Kothagiri and Biligiri Rengan hills for various ailments were screened at random by solubility test and by acetate paper electrophoresis, if required. HbAS carrier frequency was 30-37.8 per cent in all the tribals studied except Kurumbas (19.5%). The frequency of carriers were more (37.8%) on the western part of Nilgiris (Nedungode, Kappala and adjoining regions) than the eastern part (30%). Further, the prevalence of carriers was higher (47-49%) in the 10-19 yr age group amongst Paniyas and Mullukurumbas living in the western part of Nilgiris. An episodic, epidemic of malaria so rampant during the early part of this century in the western parts of Nilgiris might have eliminated many children with HbAA and hence the higher frequency of HbAS in this particular age group.

  8. Ethno medical knowledge of plants used by irula tribes, chengal combai, the nilgiris, tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, M; Balasubramaniam, V; Arthi, H

    2005-04-01

    A total of 22 species of plants used by Irula community people are described based on ethnomedical field survey. These plants belong to 17 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts like cough, cold, body ache, earache, stomachache, headache, diarrhea, snake bite, rheumatism etc. the botanical names, followed by their local names have also been given.

  9. Education Development among Bedouin Tribes of the Negev Desert. [Paper and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    About 60,000 Bedouins live in the Negev Desert, which comprises 60% of Israel. Of these, about half live in towns, a third live in settlements of huts for all or part of the year, while a sixth continue to follow traditional nomadic practices. The number of Bedouin children enrolled in school has grown from 150 in 1950 to about 16,000 in 1986.…

  10. 78 FR 46985 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... collaborative efforts to address issues associated with diabetes and obesity in AI/AN youth including food insecurity, prenatal stressors, depression and adverse childhood events. i. Provide DDTP with current factual... Date listed in the Key Dates section on page one of this announcement. Late applications will not...

  11. 78 FR 18623 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... providing information; to train personnel and to be able to respond to a collection of information, to... scheduling an appointment with the point of contact given in the ADDRESSES section. A valid...

  12. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer..., but not limited to, a determination that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...

  13. Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. LIBONATTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identificación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfica. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.

  14. Away with Good Bantus: De-Linking African Language Literature from Culture, "Tribe" and Propriety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nomalanga

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…

  15. Ricardo Piglia: el lector de la tribu / Ricardo Piglia: reader tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fernández Cobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the writer and Argentine Ricardo Piglia profesor stands at the center of the academic debate on literary education based on the idea that his poetic reading hypothesis provides a framework capable to build viable research on the formation of the reading and literary competence. His ideas about circuits of knowledge production about reading, types of readers, the debate on the canon narrative and intertextuality, are considered fundamental to the discussion and to contribute to the discussion on how we should teach literature in a context governed by new technologies and the new reading.

  16. 78 FR 49533 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... controls will be proposed by the awardee and will be subject to IHS approval. These activities must be... entities who meet the following criteria. Eligible applicants that can apply for this funding opportunity...://www.Grants.gov or https://www.ihs.gov/dgm/index.cfm?module=dsp_dgm_funding . Questions regarding...

  17. Analysis of form and function in North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, D; Simpson, B

    1997-11-01

    Simple and multivariate linear models were used to demonstrate the influence of mechanical design and climate on stem morphology and branching architecture in 25 species of North American columnar cacti. The effect of phyletic inertia was tested by the method of independent contrasts. Stem girth was found to increase significantly slower with increased height within taxa (cross-sectional stem area ;ps [plant height] 0.603), than across taxon (cross-sectional stem area ;ps [plant height] 1.451). Juveniles are shown to be mechanically overbuilt and subsequently grow into more slender adult forms determined in part by structural limitations and the optimization of other stem functions. We make a structural analogy of relatively rigid columnar cacti to concrete columns and compare plants and models with similar growth forms lacking woody skeletons (barrel cacti). Taxa with woody support achieved a surface-to-volume ratio six times greater than taxa without woody support. Across taxon, cooler winter temperatures were associated with larger stem girths, and greater annual precipitation was associated with less frequent branching. The relationship between total plant surface and volume approaches isometry within taxa, but across taxon average individuals are scaled replicates. We hypothesize that architecture and average plant height are adjusted, in an evolutionary sense, to maintain geometric similitude between surface and volume along a climatic gradient.

  18. 76 FR 45272 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes Funding Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Native Youth Meeting held December 1, 2009 (contact DDTP for this report). ] Reconvene childhood obesity... support all reporting required under the ACA, Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act... information. Include information regarding technologies currently used (i.e., hardware, software,...

  19. 75 FR 44011 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... meeting halls; lobbies, halls and dining rooms of hotels, restaurants, theaters, gaming facilities... set out in this section. Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a separate violation of... service. The notice will set out the right of the alleged violation to be represented by Counsel...

  20. Ethnomedicinal Wisdom Among Local Tribes in Hamirpur Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was focused at documentation, analysis and interpretation of ethnomedicinal phyto wisdom in Hamirpur District of Himachal Pradesh. The impoverished tribal and rural people of Hamirpur District (Himachal Pradesh, India do not receive satisfactory primary healthcare. They have crudely been stillexploiting traditionally the medicinal plants existing in their surrounding environment for diverse purposes including ethnomedicine use. The objective of the study was to document ethnobotanical knowledge primarily of notable herbs employed by the different backward people, whether tribal or rural, in the area under study.Ethnomedicinal data was accessed through structural interviews, and discussions with the tribal/rural informants, healers, medicine-men/women, etc. (with age between 45-65. Minimum five to eight informants were taken into consideration for each claim. This investigation brought on record that people of the study area(Hamirpur generally utilize about 50 plants species belonging several distinct families. Different plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruit, stem-bark and root are most commonly employed. A fair wide range of diseases are treated by people of Hamirpur district using local medicinal plants. These ethnomedicinal claims may aid in finding novel phytoconstituents for welfare of mankind. The data would be useful for further scientific exploration.