WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovini tribe bovidae

  1. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  2. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  3. Fossil Bovidae from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1958-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 Order Artiodactyla Owen............... 8 Family Bovidae Gray................ 8 Subfamily Bovinae Gill................ 8 Duboisia santeng (Dubois).............. 8 Epileptobos groeneveldtii (Dubois)............ 19 Hemibos triquetricornis Rütimeyer............

  4. The species of Cortinarius, section Bovini, associated with conifers in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare; Lindström, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Cortinarius bovinus and morphologically similar conifer-associated species were studied using material mainly from northern Europe. To stabilize the nomenclature, relevant types were examined. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated with rDNA ITS and nuclear rpb2 sequences as well as morphological data. We recognize seven species: C. bovinus (neotypified) and six new species, C. anisochrous, C. bovinaster, C. bovinatus, C. fuscobovinus, C. fuscobovinaster and C. oulankaënsis. Their taxonomy, ecology, distribution and relationships are discussed, and a key to species is provided. Based on our phylogeny and morphological data the species were placed in section Bovini. PMID:23709480

  5. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation.

  6. Creating Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Elisa

    2000-01-01

    Suggests the use of the "tribal" metaphor to foster team building and collaborative learning in college classes. Offers examples of how linking students in the classroom in tribes builds identification and interdependence through such activities as creating a group myth and participating in membership rituals. The tribal metaphor has also led to…

  7. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and

  8. Climate-linked temporal and spatial patterns in the evolution of African bovidae

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Tim F. (Dr. phil. nat.)

    2012-01-01

    Climate and subsequent environmental changes are regarded as one driver of species evolution. Against this background the present study investigates the evolutionary history of the mammalian family Bovidae (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia), today the most species-rich family of large herbivores on the African continent. Temporal and spatial patterns in that group’s evolution are the focus of the present study and were investigated using methods and data deriving from multiple disciplines (palaeonto...

  9. Consumer Tribes: Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Janowitz, Klaus M.

    2008-01-01

    Der 2007 erschienene Sammelband Consumer Tribes bietet einen systematischen Überblick über Vergemeinschaftungen in modernen Gesellschaften, die als (Sub-) Cultures of Consumption, Brand Communities oder eben als Consumer Tribes bezeichnet werden. Die einzelnen Beiträge sind geographisch weit gestreut - aus Nordamerika, wie aus unterschiedlichen europäischen Ländern. Herausgeber sind der kanadische Marketer Rob Kozinets, auch als Protagonist der Netnographie-Methode bekannt, Bernard Cova, ...

  10. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  11. Oneida Tribe Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst

    2014-08-15

    Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.

  12. The Tribe of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the claim that the international academic community of educational technologies seems to have functioned in a "tribal" way, having formed themselves around tribe-like patterns. It therefore addresses the research question: What are these claimed tribe-like practices that such a community exhibits? This question is…

  13. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  14. Entrepreneurial Business Development Through Building Tribes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2015-01-01

    this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a......Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From...

  15. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  16. STATUS OF SCHEDULE TRIBES IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Subramanyachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schedule Tribes (ST’s are Indian population groups that are explicitly recognized by the constitution of India order 1950. The order lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its first schedule. In Andhra Pradesh 33 types of Schedule Tribes are living in 8 districts. ST’s are 6.6% are in total population of Andhra Pradesh. They have rich heritage along with their innocent life style. As they are living in hill areas and forests they have some peculiar characters like indications of primitive traits, distinctive culture, and shyness of contact with other communities, geographical isolation, backwardness etc. So, for their development central and state governments are implementing different programmes and schemes since 1951. After the Ministry of Tribal affairs were constituted in 1999, there is more focus on development of Schedule Tribes in Indian society especially in Andhra Pradesh. The persisting problems like low literacy and high drop-outs, inadequate health services, lack of nutrition food, extreme poverty, and ineffective implementation of schemes etc are putting them away from economic development. Hence, there should be more commitment by both central and state government and local bodies to develop Schedule Tribes in the society. As literacy is 37% NGO’s and other voluntary organizations have to play key role to bring awareness among schedule tribes regarding programs and scheme for their development. Awareness and participation of Schedule Tribes in the implementation of policies leads to prosperity of ST community in the state as well as country.

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

    2008-10-22

    The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

  18. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Per Olof;

    2013-01-01

    Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. ...

  20. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  1. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings

  2. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, ter, B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Malanea and Chomelia Jacq. are sufficiently similar in their wood anatomical characters to warrant retention in the same tribe. Machaonia, Timonius and Dichilanthe are anomalous. Suggestions are given ...

  3. Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) from Hong Kong: first record of the genus and tribe from continental China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George W. C. HO; Shek Shing MAR; Richard M. K. SAUNDERS

    2009-01-01

    Populations of Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) are described and illustrated from Tai Mo Shah in Hong Kong, southern China. This represents the first report of the genus and tribe from continental China.

  4. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  5. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  6. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  7. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  8. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  9. Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental

    2014-04-01

    The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.

  10. Astronomy of the Korku Tribe of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh; Dahedar, Purushottam

    2016-08-01

    The Korku are an ancient tribe of India believed to be of Austro-Asian origin. They trace their origin to the eastern Indian region of Chota Nagpur but large numbers of these people are settled in the forest reserves of central India. We visited twelve villages almost exclusively populated by Korku people in Northern Maharashtra about 200 km north of the city of Amravati, and focused on recording their astronomical beliefs. While living in the same Satpuda Mountain ranges, these groups differ in their astronomical beliefs from other tribes in the region. They focus on the Big Dipper (part of Ursa Major), and also show an understanding of some other aspects of the sky. They are particularly fascinated by eclipses (but treat solar and lunar eclipses the same) and have elaborate ways of measuring time. They also are aware of conjunctions of Mars and Venus and consider these to be of importance for marriages. They also are fascinated by Taurus. In this paper we report on the astronomical beliefs of the Korkus and compare these with the astronomical beliefs of other tribes in the region that have already been reported.

  11. Operating TANF: Opportunities and Challenges for Tribes and Tribal Consortia.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Hillabrant; Mack B. Rhoades; Jr., \\,; Nancy Pindus

    2003-01-01

    Federal law permits American Indian tribes to operate TANF programs for their members, an option that entails benefits as well as risks and costs. This reports discusses the experiences of 10 tribes and examines the benefits, as well as challenges and lessons, from the experience. It notes that tribes have adopted strategies to prepare participants for employment; improve education, job skills, and work experience; and address barriers to employment. Significant challenges remain, however, pa...

  12. Council of Energy Resources Tribes 1993 summer internship report: Nez Perce Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.

  13. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  14. Legends from the Dakota, Ojibwe, and Winnebago Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Seven legends of the Dakota, Ojibwe, and Winnebago tribes are presented, each in a separate booklet, and many feature the common character, or trickster, of the tribe's legends. The booklets follow a picture book format with large type, limited number of words per page, and black-and-white illustrations accompanying all text. The Dakota legends…

  15. Spermiotaxonomy of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C

    2016-01-01

    The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27050980

  16. [How are You, My Tribe? The Health Relationship Among the Tribe, Ethnic Group, and the Self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirisir, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health. PMID:27250955

  17. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Country and those persons and businesses doing business on and/or visiting the Tribe's Indian Country. The... Tribe's Indian Country. (3) Any person who resides, conducts business, engages in a business transaction... Tribe's Indian Country shall secure a business license from the Tribe in the manner provided for...

  18. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards in its dealings with Indian tribes. (c) The Commission will endeavor to work with Indian tribes on... tribal governments and cultures and to educate tribes about the Commission's various statutory functions... process and the importance of tribal participation, to learn more about each tribe's culture, and...

  19. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  20. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  1. Reindeer breeding along the Finno-Ugric tribes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the reindeer breeding practices among the Finno-Urgic tribes located in the northern territories of the Soviet Union and frontier districts...

  2. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schrire, B D

    1988-01-01

    The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysic...

  3. A case of Spinocerebellar Ataxia from ethnic tribe of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the case of a 17-year-old girl belonging to an ethnic tribe (Bodo tribe of Assam, presenting with bilateral cerebellar signs and with history suggestive of an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, who was found to have spinocerebellar ataxia 7 on genetic testing. This case throws light on the probability of more such cases in the multi-ethnic society of the North-Eastern Indian states, which are not studied or reported till date.

  4. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  5. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  6. 25 CFR 1000.27 - How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects...

  7. A Step Towards Conservation for Interior Alaska Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Carlo

    2012-07-07

    This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.

  8. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  9. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  10. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance...

  11. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... Funds § 115.810 May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds? A tribe may apply to...

  12. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  13. 43 CFR 30.271 - How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? 30.271 Section 30.271 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? (a) A tribe must pay the full fair market value of...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  15. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) II. Tribe Dorstenieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Dorstenieae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. Wood anatomically the tribe Dorstenieae is fairly homogeneous, Dorstenia deviating most in the juvenilistic composition of its rays,

  16. 25 CFR 18.111 - What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? 18... CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.111 What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? If a tribe repeals its tribal probate code: (a) The repeal will not become effective sooner than...

  17. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise prohibited by law. (a) Tribes may issue bonds or enter into other debt financing instruments under... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes....

  18. Strange country this: lesbianism and North American Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, J

    1986-05-01

    This article is an exploration of historical names and functions of gay and lesbian people among traditional North American Indian tribes. Some detailed descriptions of individual offices are included, such as "manly hearted" women and shamanic cross-dressing men, as well as the original definition of "dyke" and "ceremonial lesbian" as described by Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo). PMID:3531323

  19. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  20. 78 FR 39820 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster #SD-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster SD-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation (FEMA-4123-DR), dated 06/25/2013. Incident:...

  1. 42 CFR 136.360 - Leases with Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leases with Indian tribes. 136.360 Section 136.360 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE... pursuant to paragraph (a) shall be subject to the requirements of section 322 of the Economy Act (40...

  2. Economic Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Measures: Tribal Case Studies with the Yurok Tribe, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, and the Pascua Yaqui Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Thomas L.; Auberle, William M.; Eastwood, John D.; Laroche, David R.; Slack, Robert P.; Smith, Dean H.; Ormond, Amanda S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of three energy-efficiency case studies conducted with three different Native American tribes in the western United States is presented. The case studies demonstrate that energy-efficiency is economically feasible and has the potential to reduce air pollution, and can potentially help tribes meet other important tribal objectives.

  3. Nez Perce Tribe Energy Efficient Facilities Installation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Kinder

    2012-11-12

    Although Idaho's electrical rates are among the lowest in the country, the Nez Perce Tribe's electrical bills take a large bite out of the operating budget every year. Tribal programs are located in forty some buildings, in six counties, in two states. Ninety-five percent, or more, are heated electrically. The age of the Tribal office buildings located in Lapwai, Idaho vary from forty to over a hundred years old. Only sporadic updates, in the buildings themselves, have been made over the years. Working with the Tribe's electrical provider (Avista Corporation), it was determine that a minimum financial commitment could reap large rewards in the form of lower operating costs.

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  5. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L.; Sorter, Andy

    2015-01-13

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  6. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  7. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego O. Di Pietro; Leandro Alcalde; Williams, Jorge D.

    2014-01-01

    We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus) and fully-aquatic (Faran...

  8. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) in the Marquesas Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Warren Wagner; David Lorence

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) have come to light and are described herein: Coprosma fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Coprosma meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and Coprosma temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also...

  9. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  10. Phylogeny of the herbaceous tribe spermacoceae (rubiaceae) based on plastid dna data

    OpenAIRE

    Groeninckx, Inge; Dessein, Steven; Ochoterena, Helga; Person, Clases; MOTLEY, TIMOTHY J.; Karehed, Jesper; Bremer, Birgitta; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In its current circumscription, the herbaceous tribe Spermacoceae s.l. (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae) unites the former tribes Spermacoceae s. str., Maneltieae, and the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia group. Within Spermacoceae, an(] particularly within the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia group, the generic delimitations tire problematic. Up until now, molecular studies have focused on specific taxonomic problems within the tribe. This study is the first to address phylogenetic relationships within Spermacoceae front a t...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.16 - What criteria must a Tribe/Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”? To be admitted into the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must either be an Indian Tribe or a Consortium of Indian Tribes and...

  12. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  13. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  14. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we com...

  15. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) I. Tribe Castilleae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla, Helicosty

  16. 30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement; Part XI—Management accounting; sections 884.13(e) (1), (2), and (3)—Purpose of Hopi Tribe plan... Memorandum from the Hopi Tribe Office of Financial Management to DNR dated September 7, 1995—Purchasing... Figure 5; Preface to Amended Reclamation Plan—Introductory paragraph, program goals and objectives,...

  17. 77 FR 50121 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes National Indian... Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes on the National Indian Health Outreach and Education... national Indian organization plans to demonstrate improved health education and outreach services to...

  18. 77 FR 50128 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian... Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes on the National Indian Health Outreach and Education... national Indian organization plans to demonstrate improved health education and outreach services to...

  19. Unfinished Justice: Completing the Restoration and Acknowledgement of California Indian Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Allogan

    1989-01-01

    Examines circumstances of Californian Indians' unacknowledged and terminated tribes, the legal history and current status of their claims, and cultural and economic problems facing many tribes. Recommends a study of California Indian conditions leading to appropriate comprehensive federal legislation. Includes lists of restoration and…

  20. 76 FR 72969 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe... acres, more or less, as the Fort Sill Apache Indian Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of... Apache Indian Reservation for the exclusive use of Indians entitled by enrollment or by tribal...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6110 - Indian Tribe-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6110 Indian Tribe-lead... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Tribe-lead remedial...

  2. 25 CFR 115.817 - How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process...

  3. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and went to hospital for treatment than urban tribes. Odds ratio show that rural, male, old-aged, educated up to primary, not in labor force, currently married, and Hindu tribes were more likely to be hospitalized in Madhya Pradesh. Odds ratio also depicts that the household that have no drainage, used water from tube well and hand pump were more likely to be ailing.

  4. 25 CFR 170.301 - Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or pay back loans? 170.301 Section 170.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Financing § 170.301 Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds. (b) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to pay...

  5. 25 CFR 900.153 - Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension, Withholding Or Delay in Payment § 900.153 Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal? Yes. The Indian tribe or tribal organization may request an informal conference... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have...

  6. 45 CFR 309.75 - What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.75 Section 309.75 Public Welfare... procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? A Tribe or Tribal organization... section: (a) A description of the structure of the IV-D agency and the distribution of...

  7. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in... performing these Federal environmental responsibilities, Self-Governance Tribes will be considered the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal...

  8. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  9. 42 CFR 137.304 - May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.304 May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may “buy back” project related services in their...

  10. 42 CFR 137.66 - May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on...-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.66 May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may keep Interest Earned on...

  11. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  12. 42 CFR 137.178 - May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at the Federal Records Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Records § 137.178 May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at the Federal Records Centers? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, patient records...

  13. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and...

  14. 25 CFR 900.232 - What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest arises... conflict of interest, the Indian tribe or tribal organization must immediately disclose the conflict to the... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if...

  15. 25 CFR 900.233 - When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Conflicts of Interest § 900.233 When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? An Indian tribe or tribal organization must maintain... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization...

  16. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  17. Astronomy of two Indian tribes: Banjaras and Kolams

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, Mayank N; Menon, Kishore; Calamur, Harini

    2014-01-01

    We report field studies of the astronomical beliefs of two Indian tribes: the Banjaras and the Kolams. The Banjaras are an ancient tribe connected with the gypsies of Europe while the Kolams have been foragers until recently. They share their landscape with each other and also with the Gonds whose astronomy was reported previously (Vahia and Halkare, 2013). The primary profession of the Banjaras was trade, based on the large-scale movement of goods over long distances, but their services were taken over by the railways about one hundred years ago. Since then the Banjaras have begun the long journey to a sedentary lifestyle. Meanwhile, the Kolams were foragers until about fifty years ago when the Government of India began to help them lead a settled life. Here, we compare their astronomical beliefs of the Banjaras and the Kolams, which indicate the strong sense of identity that each community possesses. Our study also highlights their perspective about the sky and its relation to their daily lives. We show tha...

  18. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  19. 42 CFR 137.248 - What effect will a retrocession have on a retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribe may request; and (c) Any future request by such Self-Governance Tribe or an Indian Tribe to... retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract or compact under the Act? 137.248 Section 137.248..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137.248 What effect will...

  20. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  1. Bleeding disorders in the tribe: result of consanguineous in breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhany Munira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and clinical features of bleeding disorders in the tribe as a result of consanguineous marriages. Design Cross Sectional Study Introduction Countries in which consanguinity is a normal practice, these rare autosomal recessive disorders run in close families and tribes. Here we describe a family, living in village Ali Murad Chandio, District Badin, labeled as haemophilia. Patients & Methods Our team visited the village & developed the pedigree of the whole extended family, up to seven generations. Performa was filled by incorporating patients, family history of bleeding, signs & symptoms, and bleeding from any site. From them 144 individuals were screened with CBC, bleeding time, platelet aggregation studies & RiCoF. While for PT, APTT, VWF assay and Factor VIII assay, samples were kept frozen at -70 degrees C until tested. Results The family tree of the seven generations comprises of 533 individuals, 63 subjects died over a period of 20 years and 470 were alive. Out of all those 144 subjects were selected on the basis of the bleeding history. Among them 98(68.1% were diagnosed to have a bleeding disorder; 44.9% patients were male and 55.1% patients were female. Median age of all the patients was 20.81, range (4 months- 80 yrs. The results of bleeding have shown that majority had gum bleeding, epistaxis and menorrhagia. Most common bleeding disorder was Von Willebrand disease and Platelet functional disorders. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages keep all the beneficial and adversely affecting recessive genes within the family; in homozygous states. These genes express themselves and result in life threatening diseases. Awareness, education & genetic counseling will be needed to prevent the spread of such common occurrence of these bleeding disorders in the community.

  2. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and...

  3. 78 FR 52538 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education Funding Opportunity Announcement Type: New Limited Competition. Funding... National Indian Health Outreach and Education (NIHOE) III funding opportunity that includes outreach...

  4. A new genus of the tribe Pambolini from Australia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Quicke, D.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Pambolini (Braconidae: Rhyssalinae), Notiopambolus gen. nov. (typespecies: N. depressicauda spec. nov.) from Australia is described and fully illustrated. The new taxon is related to the Palaearctic genus Dimeris Ruthe, 1854.

  5. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. 35.6155 Section 35.6155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Enforcement Cooperative...

  6. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... defined by this Ordinance shall establish prima facie intent of unlawfully keeping liquor for sale... the obligations imposed upon the licensee by the MBRC, by the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, or any...

  7. Analytical & Morphological evaluation of Tribal Women’s lullabies at Kerman Afshar Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The real purpose of this paper is to make an ethnological evaluation of lullabies of Afshar Tribe women at Kerman city. Lullabies are an integrated part of cultural life and social system of current families at Afshar tribe. According to the findings, it is obvious that lullabies have a great root in public culture of ancestors of Kerman Afshar Tribe who were living at Turkish parts of Iran. Some other parts of lullabies are based upon Kerman culture, nature of Kerman and wishes of both cultures (Afshar tribe & natural conditions at Kerman. Due to its location among different important provinces like Fars, Sistan & Baloochestan, Yazd, Isfahan and Bandar Abbas, Kerman province has a different geographical coverage which may cause distribution of various terms, whispers, sings and lullabies rather than agriculture and animal husbandry. This paper is prepared by focusing on library & field method (participative observation & interview with local specialists.

  8. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    OpenAIRE

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN; ELISA MARKUS KESAULIJA; SERLLY LANOEROE

    2005-01-01

    This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is ...

  9. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  10. Washoe Tribe Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca

    2014-11-06

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.

  11. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  12. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Suárez

    Full Text Available Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24 and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52 both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54 of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19 provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups.

  13. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  14. South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea rubra (Van Duzee, comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

  15. The matrilocal tribe: an organization of demic expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2011-07-01

    This article integrates (1) research in the historical dynamics of state societies relating group solidarity and group expansion to cultural frontiers, (2) comparative research in anthropology relating matrilocality to a particular variety of internal politics and a particular form of warfare, and (3) interdisciplinary reconstructions of large-scale "demic expansions" and associated kinship systems in prehistory. The argument is that "metaethnic frontiers," where very different cultures clash, are centers for the formation of larger, more enduring, and more militarily effective groups. In small-scale non-state societies, the major path toward the formation of such groups is the establishment of cross-cutting ties among men. This often involves the adoption of matrilocal norms. The current distribution of matrilocality and matrilineality around the world may be partly a residue of major demic expansions in prehistory involving matrilocal tribes. This hypothesis is evaluated with a range of evidence, including information regarding the spread of two language families, Bantu and Austronesian. PMID:22388807

  16. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O. Di Pietro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae: Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus and fully-aquatic (Farancia abacura dipsadids. All species of Hydrops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share four features: (1 The anterior border of the angular is higher than the posterior border of the splenial, (2 the vomerine processes of the premaxilla are long, (3 the ascending process of the premaxilla overlaps the horizontal lamina of the nasals, and (4 an anterior projection of the prefrontal is present. All species of Helicops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share three features: (1 A vertical lamina of the nasal with a notch, (2 a single foramen rotundum, and (3 the presence of a ventral projection of the transverse crista of the basioccipital. Finally, we found small, paired parietal foramina in most of the dipsadids studied here, which are filled with a Sudan-Black-positive tissue of possible nervous origin.

  17. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  18. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and population history of medieval East Slavic tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A

    2013-12-01

    The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe.

  19. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  20. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Stanislav; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.

  1. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. PMID:26639100

  2. 13 CFR 124.109 - Do Indian tribes and Alaska Native Corporations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as the tribe's constitution or business charter. (ii) Evidence of its recognition as a tribe eligible... the two previous tax years showing operating revenues in the primary industry in which the...

  3. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  4. Alkaloids from the Tribe Bocconieae (Papaveraceae: A Chemical and Biological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelong Yu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.

  5. Taxonomic Significance of Glume Morphology and Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in some Taxa of Tribe Aveneae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerical classification of tribe Aveneae (Poaceae is discussed regarding the glume morphology and silica skeleton morphologies. The present study dealt with 18 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe to cover as many groups as possible within Aveneae. The total of 31 structural characters and 71 character states were scored comparatively. The resulted data matrix was analyzed under a combination of Euclidean distance measure and Ward’s clustering method included in the program package PC-ORD version 5. The resulted dendrogram separated the tribe into five basic sub-ordinate groups created from three major groups A, B and C. The taxonomic significance of these results was discussed. The results showed congruence between the clustering and PCA method, in suggesting three major groups and 5 sub-ordinate groups.

  6. 42 CFR 137.21 - How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.21 Section 137.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? The...

  7. 25 CFR 900.154 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an informal conference? The Indian tribe or tribal organization shall file its request for an... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference? 900.154 Section 900.154 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work...

  9. 78 FR 35048 - Notice of Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... information collection was published on March 27, 2013 (78 FR 18623). No comments were received. This notice...: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the Special... approval for the collection of information for ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR...

  10. 25 CFR 170.303 - Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a...

  11. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding agreement? 137.275 Section 137.275 Public...-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding agreement? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may choose to assume construction programs in a construction...

  12. 42 CFR 137.344 - May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project agreements? 137.344 Section 137.344 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.344 May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may reallocate funds...

  13. 42 CFR 137.350 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completing a construction project in accordance with the negotiated construction project agreement? 137.350...-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with the...

  14. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental review purposes? 137.305 Section 137.305 Public...

  15. 42 CFR 137.295 - May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... own environmental review process? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may develop their own environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process? 137.295 Section 137.295 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  16. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.299 Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental...

  17. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section...

  18. 42 CFR 137.293 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal action to assume environmental responsibilities for each...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.293 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a...

  19. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the...

  20. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  1. 42 CFR 137.203 - May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.203 May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes,...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.382 - What may the Tribe's/Consortium's annual report on self-governance address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.24 - If an Indian tribe assumes environmental review responsibility, how will HUD assist the Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If an Indian tribe assumes environmental review responsibility, how will HUD assist the Indian tribe in performing the environmental review? 1000.24 Section 1000.24 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  4. 42 CFR 137.71 - May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? 137.71 Section 137... Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? Yes, the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe may develop separate...

  5. 25 CFR 900.65 - What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Programmatic Reports and Data Requirements § 900.65 What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?...

  6. 42 CFR 137.298 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....298 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental responsibilities under section 509 of the Act ?...

  7. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class...

  8. 25 CFR 224.115 - When in the petition process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When in the petition process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.115 Section 224.115 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? The Director must investigate...

  9. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  10. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  12. 42 CFR 137.297 - If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental laws, not the Self-Governance Tribe. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring...

  13. 42 CFR 137.306 - How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having lead, cooperating, or joint lead agency status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.306 How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having lead, cooperating, or joint lead agency status? Self-Governance Tribes may be...

  14. 42 CFR 137.95 - May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Acquisition of Goods and Services from the Ihs § 137.95 May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe...

  15. 42 CFR 137.122 - May a Self-Governance Tribe with a stable base budget receive other funding under its funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe with a stable base... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.122 May a Self-Governance Tribe... may include non-recurring funds, other recurring funds, and other funds the Self-Governance Tribe...

  16. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for the Makah Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RobertLynette; John Wade; Larry Coupe

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to determine the technical feasibility, economic viability, and potential impacts of installing and operating a wind power station and/or small hydroelectric generation plants on the Makah reservation. The long-term objective is to supply all or a portion of Tribe's electricity from local, renewable energy sources in order to reduce costs, provide local employment, and reduce power outages. An additional objective was for the Tribe to gain an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating such plants on the reservation. The Makah Indian Reservation, with a total land area of forty-seven square miles, is located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Four major watersheds drain the main Reservation areas and the average rainfall is over one hundred inches per year. The reservation's west side borders the Pacific Ocean, but mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain between 500 and 1,900 feet in elevation. Approximately 1,200 tribal members live on the Reservation and there is an additional non-Indian residential population of about 300. Electric power is provided by the Clallam County PUD. The annual usage on the reservation is approximately 16,700 mWh. Project Work Wind Energy--Two anemometer suites of equipment were installed on the reservation and operated for a more than a year. An off-site reference station was identified and used to project long-term wind resource characteristics at the two stations. Transmission resources were identified and analyzed. A preliminary financial analysis of a hypothetical wind power station was prepared and used to gauge the economic viability of installation of a multi-megawatt wind power station. Small Hydroelectric--Two potential sites for micro/small-hydro were identified by analysis of previous water resource studies, topographical maps, and conversations with knowledgeable Makah personnel. Field trips were

  17. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solangy Usme-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity.

  18. 76 FR 709 - Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... coordination with other environmental programs (tribal, EPA, other federal agency programs, etc.). EPA strongly... October 25, 2006, at 71 FR 62441. Tribes should contact their EPA Regional Tribal NPS Coordinator for... projects that are damaged or destroyed due to a natural disaster (e.g., earthquakes, storm events,...

  19. Gender Inequity in Education and Employment in the Scheduled Castes and Tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana

    1993-01-01

    Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)

  20. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  1. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  2. Radioactive waste management and indigenous peoples: the example of the Chemehuevi tribe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many American Indian Tribes were historically amenable to being involved with the nuclear industry because it seemed likely that it would boost ailing Tribal economies. Today that dream has soured and most of the uranium mining operations on Indian reservations have ceased, but Tribes are left having to deal with abandoned mines and mill tailings, sick Indian mine workers, and polluted reservation environments. The proximity of radioactive wastes facilities with Tribes lands poses in itself a risk which is aggravated by the fact that hazardous materials usually have to be transported through reservation communities to get to or from the site. The California state government is also planning to construct a low level radioactive waste management facility in Ward Valley, which is adjacent to the Chemehuehi Indian reservation, about 20 miles away. There is here a risk that contaminated surface water from Ward Valley could seep into the underground aquifer from which the Indian Tribe draw their water. Radioactive waste is as can be seen a real problem in India that will not go away. Indeed, even if the producing of nuclear wastes are stopped by the end of the decade, humanity would still have to deal with the wastes that currently are stored in interim and long term storage sites. (O.M.)

  3. Tribes and States Working Together: A Guide to Tribal-State Child Care Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to increase the understanding of the rationale and benefits of States and Tribes working together to provide quality child care choices and services for the children and families they serve. The guide provides a description of Tribal sovereignty and the government-to-government relationship; an overview of the…

  4. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) III. Tribe Ficeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide

  5. 'Forest governmentality': A genealogy of subject-making of forest-dependent 'scheduled tribes' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, P.; Arts, B.J.M.; Dijk, van H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical trajectories of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and to appropriate and legalise forests in tribal areas. It builds upon Foucault's notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’ subject-m

  6. 25 CFR 224.85 - When may a tribe enter into a lease or business agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may a tribe enter into a lease or business agreement? 224.85 Section 224.85 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.232 - Can an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its IHP? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP? Yes. Section 103(c) of NAHASDA specifically provides that a recipient may submit modifications or revisions of its IHP to HUD. Unless the initial IHP...

  8. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  9. CARPOECOLOGY OF SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE RANUNCULEAE IN CENTRAL PART OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Devyatov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure and sculpture of fruitlet surfaces of Ceratocephala, Ficaria, Myosurus and Ranunculus belonging to the tribe Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae were studied. Carpoecological peculiarities: relation between fruit morphology, pericarp structure and ecological adaptation, as well as habitat, phenology, way of fruit distribution of the species studied and preservation of fruits in a seed bank of soil are indicated for each group.

  10. 78 FR 46985 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian... as part of the Annual National U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Tribal Budget and Policy... I. Funding Opportunity Description Statutory Authority The Indian Health Service (IHS) is...

  11. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  12. 77 FR 56652 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Service Unit population since 1979. \\52\\ This is a newly recognized Tribe, as documented at 67 FR 46329... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee... public that the Indian Health Service (IHS) established the geographic boundaries of the Service...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to...

  14. Differential alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, 1968-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C M; Dufour, M; Bertolucci, D

    1989-01-01

    Tribal differences in alcohol-related mortality were examined among 11 Indian tribes living in Oklahoma. Data on alcohol-related deaths from 1968 to 1978 were compiled and assigned to various tribes on the basis of population distributions by county. Results showed significant differences in alcohol-related mortality among the various tribes. Of the 267,238 total deaths in Oklahoma during the study period, 9.3% of Indian deaths were alcohol-related while only 3.2% of those among blacks and 2.4% of those among whites were classified as such. Indian males and females are far more likely to die of alcohol-related deaths than their black and white counterparts. Cheyenne-Arapaho, Comanche and Kiowa areas (located in the western++ part of the state) have higher alcohol-related deaths than Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole and Pawnee areas (located in eastern Oklahoma). Indian residents of the Seminole area have the lowest percentage of deaths identified as alcohol-related. The patterns which emerge may be due to different cultural and historical factors among the Indian tribes. PMID:2784011

  15. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  16. Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar Tribes of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Abilash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project was to study the inter genetic diversity within and between Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar tribal populations of Tamil Nadu and to compare these populations with other populations of India and other parts of the world. 50 Poliyar, 24 Malaikuravar and 20 Palliyar samples were taken for the study. Mitochondrial DNA makers HVR1 and from Y-chromosome, SNPs were analysed. The high frequency of C 6 T at 16223 locus of HVR1 region suggests that these populations might fall into “M” haplogroup. Median Joining Network analysis reveals that three populations are endogamous as they showed very less haplotypes. In the Neighbour Joining Tree, Poliyar are clustering with Palliyar, palliyan and kadar tribes of TamilNadu. Malaikuravar are clustering with satmani tribal population whereas Palliyar are clustering with palliyan and kadar tribes of TamilNadu. The mismatch distribution graph reveals that population growth is constant in paliyar while it is expanding in case of Malaikuravar. The Poliyar tribes show this tribes going to show the bottle neck. Y-SNP analysis revealed that Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar, fall into haplogroup VI, VIII and X suggesting that they must have migrated from South India, Pakistan, South Asia and Central Asia, as there haplotypes are found predominantly in the above region. To elucidate their migration routes, subhaplotyping needed to be done.

  17. 77 FR 4731 - Review and Submittal of a Tribe's Facility License Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... review its regulations, and the process the Commission should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680 (Nov... documentation, while other comments stated that tribes should not be required to provide documents that should... effect on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.228 - If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved? 1000.228 Section 1000.228 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  19. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  20. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... June 8, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-14131, on page 33318, in the first column, last complete sentence in the... Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction... American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one...

  1. The Tribes Approach. A Resource Manual for Educators of Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallahassee Urban League, Inc., FL.

    Intended for use as a planning tool by adult educators and program administrators, this manual is designed to offer guidance for the development of instructional, self-help, and training programs geared toward rural adults with low education and/or skills. Part I focuses on the "Tribes" process, an educational strategy built around positive peer…

  2. 50 CFR 300.64 - Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, and must comply with the treaty Indian vessel and gear... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes. 300.64 Section 300.64 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  3. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is often used for the body of boat and also own the good quality according to Yachai tribe, that is Atam (Scihizomeria serrata Hochr, Batki (Adinandra forbesii Baker. F, Chomach (Gordonia papuana Kobuski, Rupke (Tristania sp., Bao (Dillenia papuana artelli, Top (Buchanania macrocarpa Laut, Mitbo (Cordia Dichtoma Forst., and Yunun (Camnosperma brevipetiolata Volkens. While to part of oar exploit 2 wood species that is Bach (Buchanania Arborescens.Bi and Tup (Litsea ampala Merr. Yachai Tribe recognized 3 boat model owning different size measure and function, that is Junun Ramchai, Junun Pochoi and Junun Toch.

  4. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 545 Marriott Drive, Suite 700, Nashville, TN 37214; Telephone... Indian Country of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana in accordance with federal law, the laws of the State... otherwise: (a) ``Alcoholic beverage'' means any fluid or any solid capable of being converted into...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6010 - Indian Tribe and intertribal consortium eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... federally recognized, and when they meet the criteria set forth in 40 CFR 300.515(b) of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (the National Contingency Plan or NCP), except that Indian Tribes shall not be required to demonstrate jurisdiction under 40 CFR 300.515(b)(3) of the NCP to...

  6. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  7. 77 FR 10551 - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation-Amendment to Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... this Code shall be subject to criminal punishment as provided in the Criminal Code. All contraband... shall have exclusive jurisdiction to enforce this Code and the civil fines, criminal punishment and... or employee of the Confederated Tribes or the Wildhorse Resort & Casino shall be authorized,...

  8. Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

  9. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... accompanied by a nonrefundable application fee, as set by the Tribal Council, and such other information and... fee; d. The Tribal Council finds that granting the license (or renewal thereof) would create a threat... inspection and audit by the Tribe at any time following the end of each year and for eighteen (18)...

  10. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and

  11. 25 CFR 900.97 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization acquire excess BIA or IHS property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise discretion in a way that gives maximum effect to the request of Indian tribes or tribal... INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  12. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects... among metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), regional planning organizations (RPOs),...

  13. PATTERN OF CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONS, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND OBESITY INDICES AMONG BAIGA AND GOND TRIBES OF MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Saini, Kapoor AK, Satwanti Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition with a rise of non-communicable disease burden like cardiovascular disease. Aims: The overall aim was to provide detailed information on the current cardiovascular functions, nutritional status and obesity indices among Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pradesh and to compare with other population groups in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 177 males of Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pra...

  14. Determinants of family planning acceptance and changing social norms among the tribes of Tamil Nadu – A qualitative exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan Yadav; Patil, Rajan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies done among tribes that explore the contribution of changing social norms which influences the acceptance of family planning methods. Objective: To discover various changing traditional social norms that influence tribal people to accept contraceptive methods. Methodology: Ten in-depth interviews were conducted among Toda and Irula tribes of Nilagiri district, Tamil Nadu. Family planning acceptors were interviewed and sampling was purposive to get data ri...

  15. Protecting Indigenous Peoples through Right to Natural Resources: Lesson from the Existence of Navajo Tribe in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Trib...

  16. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. Correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 49-56

  17. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  18. Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance for the tribe senecioneae (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features. (author)

  19. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  20. Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated.

  1. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) III. Tribe Ficeae

    OpenAIRE

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter, B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide vessels. On the basis of these characters. Ficus can easily be recognised within the family. No correlation between wood anatomy and subgeneric classification as proposed by recent taxonomists cou...

  2. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Theeae (Theaceae s.s. and its implications for generic delimitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.

  4. Updating freeTribe to Support Efficient Synchronous Awareness in the Web Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Delgadillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work has been reflected fundamentally in theoretical contributions. This contributions have constitute the base to carry out several intents to facilitate the work of the collaborative systems developers, however, current tool-kits, APIs or class libraries only eliminate partially the gap between the technical aspects that impose the information technology and the stressed social character of the process of collaboration in the World Wide Web. In this paper is presented the framework freeTribe, which involve the domain of the distributed groupwares leaning on the Cooperative Model of the methodology AMENITIES, in the middleware platform ICE and in RIA technologies; freeTribe has been designed as a software framework, to maximize its reusability and adaptability with a minimal programming effort. Support for synchronous group tasks in the Web context is increasingly recognized as a desideratum for collaborative systems and several tools have emerged recently that help groups of people with the same goals to work together, but many issues for these collaborative systems remain under studied. We identified synchronous awareness as one of these issues in collaborative systems, and updated freeTribe with four well-accepted kinds of awareness (group awareness, workspace awareness, contextual awareness, and peripheral awareness by the community focusing our interest in its synchronous mechanism for efficient interaction in Web contexts.

  5. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S.; Garner, Drake M.G.; Cantino, Philip D.; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  6. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data

    OpenAIRE

    Listman, JB; Malison, RT; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A.; Gelernter, J

    2011-01-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple polit...

  7. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  8. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  9. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  10. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  11. Comparative Survey of Entomophagy and Entomotherapeutic Practices in Six Tribes of Eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), f...

  12. Folklore claims of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Bhil Tribes of Dhar District Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawa KS,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical survey was carried out during 2012-2014 in the some ethnomedicinal plants used by tribal communities of Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh. The present paper exclusively deals with the Bhil tribe folk medicinal plants which are used for treating various ailments and disease in their day to day life. They are settled agriculturist and have a very rich knowledge on plant based resources utilization for their survival since time immemorial. During the investigation it has recorded 24 plant species belonging to 24 genera and 21 families which are widely used as medicines by this ethnic community. Some plants used for other purposes are also mentioned.

  13. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  14. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  15. Unite the tribes ending turf wars for career and business success

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi

  16. Protecting Indigenous Peoples through Right to Natural Resources: Lesson from the Existence of Navajo Tribe in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Tribe has a right to equitable benefit sharing in natural resources and fair court proceeding for breach. As a result, the existence of rights for natural resources requires the U.S federal government to ensure fair administration of natural resources in order to mitigate an economic exploitation of natural resources in indigenous land.

  17. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... Process § 137.311 Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the...

  18. Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangeli, Reginald H.

    Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

  19. 42 CFR 137.138 - Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.138 Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law, what is the next step? After...

  20. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.55 - Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this subpart? 1000.55 Section 1000.55 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.55 Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI...

  2. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government that receives or plans to begin receiving electronic documents in lieu of paper... state, tribe, or local government must submit an application that complies with paragraph (b)(1) of this... state, tribe, or local government that does not have an existing electronic document receiving...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.68 - May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process § 1000.68 May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its... technical assistance to the Tribe/Consortium in the drafting of its planning grant application. ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to...

  4. 42 CFR 137.18 - What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible...

  5. 42 CFR 137.110 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any program income earned pursuant to a compact and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Program Income § 137.110 May a Self-Governance... Medicare, Medicaid, or other program income earned by a Self-Governance Tribe shall be treated...

  6. 42 CFR 137.444 - If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the Secretary take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.444 If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the...

  7. 42 CFR 137.100 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a...

  8. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  9. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.50 - What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Indians OFFICE OF THE... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A Tribe/Consortium...

  11. 25 CFR 20.209 - Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part? 20.209 Section 20.209 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT....209 Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part? Yes,...

  12. 25 CFR 224.116 - What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.116 Section 224.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? (a) If the...

  13. Traditional usages of ichthyotoxic plant Barringtonia asiatica (L. Kurz. by the Nicobari tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravikumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.

  14. The interaction between tobacco use and oral health among tribes in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Sunali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco related practices on oral health of tribes in Central India. The use of smokeless tobacco, gutkha & associated products is on the rise amongst the younger generation making oral precancer & cancer a public health concern. Methodology A pioneering study was conducted to evaluate the tobacco related practices amongst tribes and its impact on oral health. The study included 411 tribals of the Baiga group. Guided dialogue techniques and proforma based evaluation formed a part of the study. Result 53.04% of individuals between 21 to 40yrs are addicted to deleterious habits. There is a marked consumption (72% of tobacco & associated products among the geriatric population (60 yrs & above.Insecure livelihoods, malnutrition & increased stress levels contribute to the stark increase of addiction of tobacco related practices. Conclusion The healthcare infrastructure needs to be upgraded to meet the demands of changing disease profile amongst the vulnerable population. Assessment of impact of disease on existing public health would enable formulation of adaptive measures and suggestions for amelioration.

  15. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  16. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IIK SRI SULASMI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulasmi IS, Fatimah S, Nisyawati. 2012. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province. Biodiversitas 13: 152-162. Management of Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco Willd. in Jebak Forest, Batanghari, Jambi is not well documented. It is noted that fruits of D. draco is the best income source for Anak Dalam Jambi people since 1624. They harvest fruits of D. draco as many as they need. The management of Jebak forest is an open access, so all the people of Anak Dalam Jambi Tribe have the same right and responsibility on the forest. However, almost 60% of Jebak Forest area have been severed because of illegal logging for palm oil plantation. This is the reason why people of Suku Anak Dalam such as Sudirman and Suin, try to cultivate D. draco by growing 40 clumps of this species at their latex field. The aim of their activity is to conserve D. draco at their forest. Based on the recent situation, research study of rattan jernang’s management in Jebak Forest is conducted. This research method is semi structural interview. All data are analyzed by description. As a result is the management and cultivation of D. draco in Jebak Forest is very difficult because the availability of seeds are not enough for root stocks.

  17. ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE Triticеae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of adaptation performance of the tribe Triticeae L. representatives were studied according to biochemical markers. It is shown that drought-tolerant tribe representatives are at the subcellular level characterized by presence of alleles of Dreb 1 genes of drought resistance, Glu-D1 of glutenin, Glі-1B1, Gli-6D2, Gli-6D3, Gli-6B2 of gliadin, and high protein content in grain (14.2–18.0%. Plants with low drought resistance exhibit heightened superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves. It is established that the criteria of frost and winter hardiness of plants are: accumulation of high total sugar content in the tillering node (26–38 mg/g as cryoprotectants and energy sources, and economical consumption of them during the autumn-winter period. Exogenously, high levels of plant organism’s adaptability to various stress conditions in winter are expressed as high photoperiodic sensitivity manifesting as weak differentiation of growth points in the fall and late spring vegetation restoration. Adaptive changes at the subcellular level are consistent with drought resistance indices (high leaf index, glossy cover, lingering green color of the leaf, presence of awns, significant growth in dry weight in dry conditions.

  18. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  19. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  20. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among Nomad Tribe groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Sachdev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is strongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake, Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity is determined by waist circumference. On the other hand, genetic factor has been established as an important non–modifiable predisposing factor. And ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to be investigated. Objectives: To study the prevalence rate of hypertension and various associated risk factors among few select endogamous group of Tribal Population. Methods: Cross-sectional, Tribal population-based study, consisting of a total sample of twelve hundred and eighty-six discrete subjects of age ≥18 years was chosen. BMI, waist circumference, ABO blood group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were determined and correlated with each other. Results: The results were analyzed by applying correlation analysis and chi-square test. This study revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was high among the entire select tribe groups but seen highest in frequency in Bhopa (31%. It further showed that the subjects with blood group B had high blood pressure in the entire tribal groups except Bhopa Tribe. Conclusion: This study provides population based study on hypertensive tendency among select few endogamous tribal populations.

  1. Phylogenetics of tribe Collabieae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae based on four chloroplast genes with morphological appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guo Xiang

    Full Text Available Collabieae (Orchidaceae is a long neglected tribe with confusing tribal and generic delimitation and little-understood phylogenetic relationships. Using plastid matK, psaB, rbcL, and trnH-psbA DNA sequences and morphological evidence, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Collabieae were assessed as a basis for revising their tribal and generic delimitation. Collabieae (including the previously misplaced mycoheterotrophic Risleya is supported as monophyletic and nested within a superclade that also includes Epidendreae, Podochileae, Cymbidieae and Vandeae. Risleya is nested in Collabiinae and sister to Chrysoglossum, a relationship which, despite their great vegetative differences, is supported by floral characters. Ania is a distinct genus supported by both morphological and molecular evidence, while redefined Tainia includes Nephelaphyllum and Mischobulbum. Calanthe is paraphyletic and consists four clades; the genera Gastrorchis, Phaius and Cephalantheropsis should be subsumed within Calanthe. Calanthe sect. Ghiesbreghtia is nested within sect. Calanthe, to which the disputed Calanthe delavayi belongs as well. Our results indicate that, in Collabieae, habit evolved from being epiphytic to terrestrial.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.26 - Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from the applicant pool? 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.26 Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool? Once admitted into the applicant pool,...

  3. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments...: (1) Developed in cooperation with State and metropolitan planning organizations; and (2) Included...

  4. 40 CFR 33.304 - Must a Native American (either as an individual, organization, Tribe or Tribal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a Native American (either as an... PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Good Faith Efforts § 33.304 Must a Native American (either as an individual...) A Native American (either as an individual, organization, corporation, Tribe or Tribal...

  5. 75 FR 62395 - Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in... address: tribalFMAP@hhs.gov . Submitting Comments: We welcome comments from the public on the calculation... paragraphs (1), (2), and (5) of section 474(a), the calculation of the per capita income of the Indian...

  6. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? 137.351 Section 137... Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? Yes,......

  7. Clarification of the Phylogenetic Framework of the Tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) Inferred from Multiple Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoling; Chiba, Hideyuki; Huang, Zhenfu; Fei, Wen; Wang, Min; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Members of the skipper tribe Baorini generally resemble each other and are characterized by dark brown wings with hyaline white spots. These shared characteristics have caused difficulties with revealing the relationships among genera and species in the group, and some conflicting taxonomic views remain unresolved. The present study aims to infer a more comprehensive phylogeny of the tribe using molecular data, to test the monophyly of the tribe as well as the genera it includes in order to clarify their taxonomic status, and finally to revise the current classification of the group. In order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree, the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S genes as well as the nuclear EF-1α and 28S genes were analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The analysis included 67 specimens of 41 species, and we confirmed the monophyly of Baorini, and revealed that 14 genera are well supported. The genus Borbo is separated into three clades: Borbo, Pseudoborbo, and Larsenia gen. nov. We confirmed that Polytremis is polyphyletic and separated into three genera: Polytremis, Zinaida, and Zenonoida gen. nov., and also confirmed that the genus Prusiana is a member of the tribe. Relationships among some genera were strongly supported. For example, Zenonia and Zenonoida were found to be sister taxa, closely related to Zinaida and Iton, while Pelopidas and Baoris were also found to cluster together. PMID:27463803

  8. 25 CFR 1000.398 - May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-governance per year? 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year? (a) Sections 402(b) and (c) of the Act authorize the Director...

  10. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR 71331... ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951; May 4, 1994) and... Register (62 FR 46517; Sept. 3, 1997), this proposed rule would be a matter of compatibility between...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.204 - How does an Indian tribe designate itself as recipient of the grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe designate itself as recipient of the grant? 1000.204 Section 1000.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.222 - Are there separate IHP requirements for small Indian tribes and small TDHEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there separate IHP requirements for small Indian tribes and small TDHEs? 1000.222 Section 1000.222 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  13. 24 CFR 1000.336 - How may an Indian tribe, TDHE, or HUD challenge data or appeal HUD formula determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may an Indian tribe, TDHE, or HUD challenge data or appeal HUD formula determinations? 1000.336 Section 1000.336 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING,...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.402 - Are State recognized Indian tribes eligible for guarantees under title VI of NAHASDA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are State recognized Indian tribes eligible for guarantees under title VI of NAHASDA? 1000.402 Section 1000.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.208 - What happens if an Indian tribe had two IHAs as of September 30, 1996?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an Indian tribe had two IHAs as of September 30, 1996? 1000.208 Section 1000.208 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.326 - What if a formula area is served by more than one Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if a formula area is served by more than one Indian tribe? 1000.326 Section 1000.326 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…

  18. 24 CFR 1000.150 - How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? 1000.150 Section 1000.150 Housing... receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? (a) As required by section 208...

  19. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  20. 25 CFR 900.48 - If the Indian tribe or tribal organization does not propose different standards, what basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribes or tribal organizations shall develop their own definition for “major procurement transactions... organization will consider such matters as the contractor's integrity, its compliance with public policy, its..., or anything of monetary value from contractors, potential contractors, or parties to...

  1. Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Schure, Marc B.; Kile, Molly L.; Harding, Anna; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Uesugi, Sandra; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) members' perspectives about their environment and its connections with their health including views on environ...

  2. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  3. Fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang Tribe of Chandel District, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangaina Kameih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study investigates fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang tribe on the basis of household survey collected from 10 villages of Chandel District (Manipur, interviewing 200 ever married women. The findings indicate that the age group of 15-50 years, comprising of the population at peak productive ages, constitutes 64.39% of Lamkang population. The sex ratio of 1105 reveals the preponderance of females over males. Regression analysis suggests that biological and social factors like age at menarche, age at marriage, age at first conception, women’s education have an inverse relationship with number of conceptions and live births whereas education of husband and type of family are inversely proportional with live birth only.

  4. Plant folk medicines for gastrointestinal disorders among the main tribes of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.

  5. STUDY OF THE CRUDE BIRTH RATE AND DELIVERY CONDITION AMONG THE QASHQAI TRIBE, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a cross-sectional demographic survey that was conducted among the Qashqai Tribe of southern Iran in 1973, the crude birth rate was estimated at 48.2 per thousand per year. The most productive age groups, was 25-29 years. Forty-nine, point seven per cent (49.7% or about one half of the total births occurred among married women aged 20 to 29 years Eighty-seven point three per cent (87.3% of the deliveries took place in tents, only one per cent at maternity hospitals. Ninety point one per cent (90.1% of babies were delivered with the help of relative and friends, while only 6.9 per cent of all deliveries took place with the aid of midwives. Eighty-nine point seven per cent (89.7% of deliveries were performed without medical expenses.

  6. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKamey, Stuart H; Wallner, Adam M; Porter, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia.

  7. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  8. Proselytization in India. An Ethnographic Account of the tribes in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimai Joy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Religion as one of the basic institution is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings which continues to have major influence upon the human society and especially to those individuals or communities who lives a religious life. This paper is an attempt to explain the proselytization in India basing on hill tribes in North-East India. The people had a traditional religion which was a belief in the spirits but during the reign of British in India, Christianity swept over the entire region and these tribal communities has since then embraced Christianity. Christianity is now strongly rooted among these tribal communities. The paper is an outcome of my research to establish the coming of Christianity and the process of conversion among the tribal communities.

  9. A cholera epidemic among the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry, Andaman, and Nicobar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunan, Attayoor P; Ghosh, Asit R; Roy, Subarna; Gupte, Mohan D; Sehgal, Subhash C

    2004-12-01

    Cholera has not been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. In October 2002, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred among the Nicobarese tribe of the Nancowry group of islands. The outbreak affected 16 of the 45 inhabited villages of three islands with an attack rate of 12.8% and a case fatality ratio of 1.3%. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor was isolated from 18 of the 67 patients tested. A study conducted in one of the villages indicated that the outbreak was started there by a person who traveled to a nearby village where an outbreak was occurring. No specific water source could be identified as the source of infection because persons consuming water from all wells were affected. Water samples from 55 sources were tested and 38 of them were contaminated with Escherichia coli. The possible sources of V. cholerae are effluents from ships or poachers from neighboring countries where cholera is endemic. PMID:15642977

  10. 《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes Ⅱ)的摇滚风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagou

    2000-01-01

    游戏出版商Sierrs工作室日前宣布同八十年代知名摇滚乐队莫特雷·克鲁签订协议,由该乐队为即将上市的游戏《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes 2)制作音轨音乐。根据协议,莫特雷·克鲁乐队将从他们的新专辑——“新纹身”(New Tattoo)里挑选一支歌曲放入游戏中。《部落Ⅱ》的开发商为Dynamix工作室。

  11. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservaton 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard (Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Nespelem, WA)

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980's the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife developed a management plan for Lake Roosevelt on the restoration and enhancement of kokanee salmon populations using hatchery out plants and the restoration of natural spawning runs. The plan was incorporated into the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) in their 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife program as partial mitigation for hydropower caused fish losses resulting from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project, as part of a basin wide effort, is evaluating the status of the natural production kokanee in streams tributary to Lakes Roosevelt and Rufus Woods and is examining entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam. The goal of this project is the protection and enhancement of the natural production kokanee in these two lakes. The project is currently collecting data under four phases or parts. Since 1991, Lake Whatcom Washington origin kokanee have been planted in considerable numbers into the waters of Lake Roosevelt. A natural production kokanee fishery has persisted in the lake since the early 1970's(Cash, 1995), (Scholz, 1991). Historical information alludes to wild Kokanee production in the San Poil River, Nespelem River, Big Sheep Creek, Ora-Pa-Ken Creek, Deep Creek and Onion Creeks. The genetic makeup of the fish within the fishery is unknown, as is their contribution to the fishery. The level of influence by the hatchery out planted stock on wild fish stocks is unknown as well. Project outcomes will indicate the genetic fitness for inclusion of natural production kokanee stocks into current Bonneville Power Administration funded hatchery programs. Other findings may determine contribution/interaction of/between wild/hatchery kokanee stocks found in the waters of Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt.

  12. Identification of a rare blood group, "Bombay (Oh phenotype," in Bhuyan tribe of Northwestern Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgir R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood group serology plays a vital role in transfusion medicine. The Bombay (Oh phenotype is characterized by the absence of A, B, and H antigens on red cells and occurs rarely, especially in tribal populations of India. Aims and Objectives: This is a field-based random population study in the Bhuyan tribal community. The study reports three cases of the rare Bombay (Oh phenotype for the first time in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa. Materials and Methods: Taking informed consent, red blood cells of 836 Bhuyan subjects were tested with three antisera, i.e., anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H (lectin for forward reaction. Agglutinations of plasma with A, B, and O (H red cells (reverse reaction were also tested for the presence or absence of antibodies in the serum. Specialized tests like absorption-elution, titration of naturally occurring antibodies at different temperatures, inhibition of anti-H by O saliva secretor, and determination of secretor status were performed. Results: Three cases of a rare blood group, Bombay (Oh phenotype, (2 out of 244 Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 out of 379 Paudi Bhuyan from Hemgiri and Lahunipara blocks, respectively in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa were detected, giving an incidence of 1 in 122 in Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 in 379 in Paudi Bhuyan, with an average of 1 in 278 among the Bhuyan tribal population. This incidence is high in comparison to earlier studies reported from India. Conclusions: The practice of tribal and territorial endogamy in a smaller effective populations (for example, there are only 3,521 individuals in Paudi Bhuyan results in smaller marital distance and inbreeding, leading to increased homozygous expression of rare recessive genetic characters like the Bombay (Oh phenotype. This study further testifies that the incidence is higher in those states of India where the consanguinity is a common practice.

  13. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  14. Strategic Energy Planning (Area 1) Consultants Reports to Citizen Potawatomi Nation Federally Recognized Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae

    2004-12-01

    The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production

  15. Genetic Characteristics on Exon 1 and Exon 2 of FSHβ Gene in the Species of Family Bovidae%牛科物种FSHβ基因外显子1和外显子2遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈福; 李大林; 袁跃云; 吴志勇; 袁峰; 霍金龙; 苗永旺

    2013-01-01

    conducted on the data obtained in this study and retrieved from NCBI database which included homolo-gous DNA sequences in some species such as cattle, goat and sheep. For the exon 1 of FSHfi gene, one substitution and one deletion were identified in the water buffalo, namely c. - 49 A > G and c. -31delG. The former was simultaneously present in river and swamp buffalo which c. -49A was major allele, whereas the latter was only found in swamp buffalo which exist in heterozygosis and its gene fre-quency was 0. 077. Substitution c. -37G > A and c. - 12T > C were identified in the exon 1 of FSHβ gene in yak, which were linked together, but no SNP was found in the exonl of FSHβ gene in gayal. For the exon 2 of FSHβ gene, substitution c. 132G > A was detected in river and swamp buffalo, but the gene frequencies at this locus are different in two kind of buffalo. Substitution c. 9C > T and c. 21C > T were found in the exon 2 of FSHβ gene of yak, which also existed in cattle. The exon 2 of FSHβ gene in gayal was still monomorphic. The results by bioinformatics analysis revealed the SNPs found in the exon 2 of FSHβ gene of some bovine species were all synonymous, which indicated that it was highly conservative in phylogenesis. In the species of family Bovidae, the amino acid encoded by codon 36 of FSHβ gene in goat and sheep was different with other bovine species, which can be used as the genetic marker to distinguish them from other bovine species.

  16. Sero-epidemiological study of hepatitis A virus infection among hill-tribe youth and household environmental sanitation, a hill-tribe community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Tongpradit, Supranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa

    2003-09-01

    A cross-sectional analytic study of 190 hill-tribe youth in a community in the north of Thailand was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of HAV and factors related to positive anti-HAV antibody. The studied youth, whose ages ranged from 15 to 24 years, were interviewed about socio-economic status and personal hygiene. Blood specimens were collected to detect anti-HAV by ELISA commercial kit. Household environmental sanitation conditions were observed and drinking water samples were screened for bacterial contamination using SI2 medium. Following the anti-HAV assay, the studied youth were divided into two groups: anti-HAV positive, and anti-HAV negative. The studied variables of the two groups were analyzed by chi2 test to find factors related to anti-HAV positivity. The results revealed that 87% of the studied youth were positive for anti-HAV. There was no statistically significant difference between age group/gender and anti-HAV positivity, p = 0.46 and 0.16, respectively. Approximately 35.79 to 45.79% washed their hands with soap before preparing food, before eating and after using the latrine. About 88% did not improve the potability of their drinking water. The results of screening for bacterial contamination in drinking water samples found that 73.53% were contaminated with coliform bacteria. Factors related to positive anti-HAV antibody included monthly income, number of household members, use of latrine, hand-washing with soap after using latrine, household refuse management and control of insects and rodents; p = 0.04, 0.007, 0.013, 0.008, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively. The findings suggested that appropriate household environmental management should be improved in this community to reduce HAV transmission. PMID:15115130

  17. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must... include, but are not limited to: Poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education levels...

  18. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent ...

  19. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  20. Studies on some wild plant species used by the Mising (Miri tribe of Assam in their traditional food items.

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    N. K. Gam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mising peoples are the second largest plain tribes of Assam inhabitation in the Upper Assam particularly along the bank of river Brahmaputra. They are one of the culturally rich ethnic tribe of Assam, mostly dependent on nature for their livelihood. They rear pigs and poultry in every house hold which is a part of their custom. Fishing in rivers and beels is another important practice of these people. Besides, they use plenty of wild plants as vegetables in their daily food items from time immemorial. The paper deals with the investigation and documentation of some important plant species habitually use in their food items particularly in nonvegetarian dishes. In this study, we also observed that the use of some of these plant species is pertaining to their religious belief and festivals also.

  1. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    OpenAIRE

    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-01-01

    Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L.), Bonda, Chun aru...

  2. Housing pattern and food habit of the Mro-tribe community in Bangladesh: A forest dependence perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Danesh Miah

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted on the housing pattern and food habit of the Mro tribe in Bandarban region, Bangladesh, highlighting their indigenous knowledge. The study was carried out with respect to three income groups. A total of 36 households (12 from each income groups) were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaires. A special type of indigenous knowledge on housing pattern and food habit was explored in the Mro community, which correspond to the severe dependence on forest resources.

  3. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Rochow V; Chakravorty Jharna; Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionn...

  4. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. (Fabaceae) from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia I. Karpenko; Vladislava A. Badanina

    2014-01-01

    The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae) at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. i...

  5. Managing Boundaries, Healing the Homeland: Ecological Restoration and the Revitalization of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, 1933 â 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Tomblin, David Christian

    2009-01-01

    The main argument of this dissertation is that the White Mountain Apache Tribeâ s appropriation of ecological restoration played a vital role in reinstituting control over knowledge production and eco-cultural resources on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in the second half of the twentieth century. As a corollary, I argue that the shift in knowledge production practices from a paternalistic foundation to a community-based approach resulted in positive consequences for the ecological healt...

  6. Diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in surrounding of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Riau

    OpenAIRE

    WARDAH; FRANCISCA MURTI SETYOWATI

    2007-01-01

    Local peoples in a certain area is very depends on plants grow on surrounding them for fulfill daily lifelyhoat such as food, clothing, construction material, medicinal, etc. People knowledge in plants utilized especially as medicinal matter was passed on from generation to generation. Documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge from the local people until to do the research of diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau. Field data co...

  7. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  8. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...

  9. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: a phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries

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    Waengsothorn Surachit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Wahlberg, Niklas; Francini, Ronaldo Bastos; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Brown, Keith S; Paluch, Márlon; Lees, David C; Freitas, André V L

    2008-02-01

    The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use herbaceous plants of the family Violaceae, Acraea and Bematistes feed selectively on plants with cyanoglycosides belonging to many plant families, but preferentially to Passifloraceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feed on Asteraceae only. Here, a molecular phylogeny is proposed for the butterflies of the tribe Acraeini based on sequences of COI, EF-1alpha and wgl. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the tribe is monophyletic, once the genus Pardopsis is excluded, since it appears to be related to Argynnini. The existing genus Acraea is a paraphyletic group with regard to the South American genera, and the species of Acraea belonging to the group of "Old World Actinote" is the sister group of the Neotropical genera. The monophyly of South American clade is strongly supported, suggesting a single colonization event of South America. The New World Actinote (s. str.) is monophyletic, and sister to Abananote+Altinote (polyphyletic). Based on the present results it was possible to propose a scenario for the evolution in host plant use within Acraeini, mainly concerning the use of Asteraceae by the South American genera.

  11. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

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    Gosai Kuldip

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59% than the underground plant parts (23.41%. Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species, followed by fruit (4. Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.

  12. Polyphase deformation of the cover sequence and granitic rocks of the Zobor part of the Tribeč Mts.

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    Rudolf Lénárt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč Mts. is a significant morphostructure of crystalline basement protruding from beneath Mesozoic and Neogene sediments. With respect to geological composition is divided into two parts. The Rázdiel part is situated on northeast side and comprises the Tatricum, Veporicum, and Hronicum tectonic units. The Tatricum and Fatricum units are presented in the Zobor part which is located on southwest. Kinematics and tectonic evolution of the Tatricum tectonic unit were the objects of study in the Zobor part of the Tribeč Mts. The Tatricum unit contains cover sedimentary sequence in stratigraphic range from the Early Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The crystalline basement comprises granitic rocks affected by mylonitization. Four main tectonic events took place since the Cretaceous to the Neogene. The first phase of ductile deformation (Late Cretaceous is characterized by mylonitization of granitic rocks, folding and thrusting of the cover sequence with the sense of movement top to the NW. During the second phase (Cretaceous/Palaeogene steep mylonitic/shear zones within the granitic rocks were generated in a sinistral transpression with semi-ductile to ductile conditions. The third phase (Palaeogene is characterized by tectonic unroofing which was realized on normal listric faults in semi-brittle conditions. In the final phase of the deformation evolution (Neogene were generated normal faults separating the Tribeč horst structure against to Neogene depressions.

  13. [Health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in Malagasi Antemoro Tribe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradellini, Martina; Fiaccadori, Cianzia

    2010-01-01

    A collaboration experience with the Fondation Médical d'Ampasimanjeva nurses, in an international cooperation project,permits to analyse the basic nursing concepts, starting from the local cultural approach. Research main outcome is to describe health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in the Malgasi Antemoro tribe. Closing to the ethnographic research, work has been developed in three different moments: a first job organization starting from a spread literature analysis, the follow work on field about collecting data, and the last data elaboration and discussion Collecting data tool was the focus group which has done with the complete hospital nursing staff, divided by ward places. A fourth one was addressed to a twenty medical patients group. Focus group questions came from the Rising Sun Model guide, by Madeleine Leininger, adapted to the research own needs. Outcomes show an important traditional medicine influence, explained by the way people conceive health, illness, and even life, all elements directly affected the nursing care. It stands out a strong belief that health depends by the ability of person to work. The death concept is saw as a passage's phase to the Razana's spiritual condition. This is the reason supporting fatalism as approach to the death, that appear as an inevitable event managed by God. Disease's concept is related to traditional healers; as a matter of facts, it exists a strong belief that diseases find origin from magician.

  14. Nutritional Status among Females of Bhaina Tribe of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India: An Anthropological Insight

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    Huidrom Suraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of malnutrition increases, being one of the significant national issues in a developing country like India. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the sociodemographic profile and nutritional status among the Bhaina tribes of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 161 females (2–75 years were screened for anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was evaluated in four groups of female categories: preschool: 2–5 years (n=11, children: 6#x2013;12 years (n=28, adolescent: 13–18 years (n=22, and adults >18 years (n=100 using the age specific cutoff points of body mass index (BMI. Statistical analysis was performed using MS EXCEL and SPSS software. More than 30% of the studied population is observed to be illiterate and unemployed. Significant age group difference is observed for anthropometric variables considered in the present study. Overall prevalence of thinness among the studied population was 32.3% (critical. Occurrence of thinness was found to be highest among children (57.1%. Occupation with wage labourer is significantly higher among parents of normal children (26.6% than parents of undernourished children (19.6%. Findings of the present study suggest significance of anthropological approach in understanding nutritional status among different ethnic groups, specifically tribal community.

  15. Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S C

    2000-10-01

    Floral development was compared among three taxa in caesalpinioid tribe Detarieae sensu lato: Amherstia nobilis and Tamarindus indica have racemose, helically arranged inflorescences, while Brownea latifolia has cauliflorous capitate flower clusters that arise as racemes. All have acropetal flower order; initiation and development are sequential in all except Brownea, which is synchronous. All have paired persistent showy bracteoles. Floral symmetry is dorsiventral (zygomorphic) in all except Brownea, with radial symmetry at anthesis. Sepals initiate helically on a circular floral apex, starting with a median abaxial sepal, in all. Petals are initiated helically in Brownea, and unidirectionally in Amherstia and Tamarindus. Stamens are initiated unidirectionally in each stamen whorl in all except Amherstia, in which the outer whorl is bidirectional. The carpel initiates concurrently with the petals in Brownea, and with the outer stamens in the other taxa. The two upper (adaxial) sepal primordia become fused during development in all, so that the calyx appears tetramerous. Some reduced petals occur in Amherstia and Tamarindus, and some reduced stamens occur in all. All produce a hypanthium by zonal growth, and all except Tamarindus have the gynoecium attached adaxially to the hypanthial rim. PMID:11034916

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  17. The Eco-friendly Tharu Tribe: A Study in Socio-cultural Dynamics

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    Subhash Chandra Verma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tharu culture is very Eco-Friendly, all cultural thing andactivities of this tribe are deeply related with nature. Their residence, food, cloths, art, religion, economy and many other part of life are based on nature and keep ecological balance. Tharu people worship mainly their tribal Goddess (The Earth called as ‘Bhumsen’ in their folk language. There is a well family system in this community. Women have high reputation, enough social and economic rights in their family system. This community has paternal family system but women have high position and more rights, this is a mark able fact. Tharu youth like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. There are many other communities existing in Tharu area by Industrialization and Business, so the process of cultural exchange is running in Tharu area. Tharu youth are attracting tonew and charming life style. They are ignoring their traditional tribal culture that is why the identity of old Tharu culture is under dangerous. They must have to get advance education, communication, technology etc. But care of old culture is must too for keep their identity.

  18. Raw Materials Inventory and Fermentation Process in Lemea Industry The Traditional Food of Rejang Tribe

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    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional food is a food that is processed from surrounding natural and treated hereditary, so it became one of the pillars of food tenacity. Lemea is a traditional food of Rejang tribe that has not been properly inventoried. The purpose of this study is an inventory and characterization of physical, chemical and organoleptic of Lemea from various small industries in the districts. Characterization of traditional food Lemea required as a basis for the agro-industry design of Lemea of Rejang traditional standardized food (raw materials and processes, so resulting in consistent product quality, hygienic and attractive so as to compete with other containers food products, as well as preserving traditional food. The research method used was a survey method, by interviewing a small industry regarding raw materials used and the fermentation process of Lemea. Results show that the raw materials used are Mayan bamboo sprout (Kepahiyang and North Bengkulu District, Kepea bamboo sprout (South Lebong District and all kinds of bamboo sprout in the Rejang Lebong District, depending on available bamboo sprouts. The fish used in Central Bengkulu and Kepahiyang District is Tilapia fish, South Lebong District (White fish, North Bengkulu (Mayung fish. The fermentation process classified on 2 groups, namely (1 fermentation with the addition of rice porridge as a source of glucose and (2 without the addition of fermented rice porridge as a source of glucose. Lemea from various sources have variations in color, aroma, acidity, integrality, turbidity and overall appearance of different.

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  20. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  1. A systematic review of population health interventions and Scheduled Tribes in India

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    Labonté Ronald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.

  2. The making and prevention of rain amongst the Pedi tribe of South Africa: A pastoral response

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    David K. Semenya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempted to respond pastorally to the rainmaking and rain prevention rituals which are practised among the Pedi tribes – also called the Northern-Sotho speaking nation of South Africa. The rituals of rainmaking and rain prevention have been practised among the Pedi for a long time – these rituals are in fact still being practised in some of the villages in and around the Limpopo Province. The rituals are practised in time of drought and also during activities such as weddings or traditional gatherings, this is normally called molato. When the village is experiencing drought, community members, upon instruction from the chief of the village, stage a rain ritual and the moroka [rain making traditional doctor] would take the lead in performing such rituals. Families would also perform rain prevention rituals when a gathering or a wedding is being organised to ensure that the rain does not disturb the gathering and everything goes as planned. Thus the purpose of rainfall rituals is to influence the weather conditions in order to cause rain or drought either for good or for destruction. The mentioned rituals and selected scriptural passages were discussed. This article presented the biblical view of rain and conclusion principles were formulated to understand the Bible’s perspective on the mentioned rituals. These conclusions were used for the formulation of practical guidelines.

  3. Gender Disparities in the Prevalence of Undernutrition and the Higher Risk among the Young Women of Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background High undernutrition is a grave concern in India. Marginalized populations like Indian tribes have been under the serious stress of such nutritional extreme. Women, in particular, are the worst sufferers. Gender-related comprehensive studies regarding the prevalence and risks of undernutrition among the tribes have not been properly pursued in India; the vulnerability of the young females has least been examined. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during January 2011 to December 2013 among 1066 males and 1090 females (n = 2156) in the 20–60 years age group belonging to the nine major tribes; Santals, Oraons and Koras (West Bengal): Santals, Bhumijs and Bathudis (Odisha): Dhodias, Kuknas and Chaudharis (Gujarat). The undernutrition burden was estimated and such risks were analyzed for the women in comparison to the men. The overall undernutrition among the females was found to be 47.4% (95% CI 44.4–50.4) against 32.1% (95% CI 29.3–34.9) among males, indicating about a half of the female population undernourished. The odds of risks for underweight status among females were observed to be high in comparison to males with an odds of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6–2.2; p≤0.001) for the overall undernutrition category, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.3; p≤0.001) for the mild undernutrition category, 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1–1.6; p≤0.01) for combined moderate and mild undernutrition category and 3.3 (95% CI at 2.3–4.6; p≤0.001) for severe undernutrition category. The young females were observed with a high prevalence of undernutrition along with increased risk. The 30-year mean BMI trend of the Indian population in comparison to the males, females, and overall tribal population places the tribal females at the highest risk. Conclusion Indian tribes are suffering from the higher prevalence of undernutrition by further highlighting a high gender bias. The health and empowerment of adolescent and young tribal girls needs additional focus. Overall, no

  4. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

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    Schaefer Hanno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the

  5. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages.

  6. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages. PMID:20979205

  7. 辽金元时期蒙古弘吉剌部领地考%Research of Mongolia Hongjila Tribe During the Liao、Jin and Yuan Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国军; 康建国

    2015-01-01

    弘吉剌部是早期蒙古部落之一,辽金时期开始活跃在北方地区。金章宗时期弘吉剌部强盛,常裹胁蒙古诸部出兵金朝,成为金朝北方“边患”的主要制造者。弘吉剌部在成吉思汗建立蒙古汗国的过程中起了积极的推动作用,因此在成吉思汗将蒙古诸部重新划分为95个千户进行统治时,弘吉剌部成为少数几个能统其国族者。弘吉剌部自始至终同成吉思汗家族保持着联姻关系,元朝时更被封为一字王,地位已不亚于皇族诸王,世守漠南,成为诸藩之首。%Hongjila Tribe is one of the early Mongolian tribes; Liao and Jin period became active in the north. Hongjila tribe is strong in the Period of JinZhangzong, often forced to Mongolia the invasion of rulers, become the rulers of the north"foreign invasion "of the main manufacturers. Hongjila tribe played a positive role in the process when Genghis khan established the Mongol khanate. So in the Genghis khan is re-districting into the 95 thousands households of rules, Hongjila tribe can become one of the few governs their na-tion. Hongjila tribe from beginning to end with Genghis khan family department maintained ties of marriage, when it comes to the Yuan dynasty was the "Yiziwang", the position as to the Kings of the royal family, genera-tions to protect the Monan, become the first of all the captaincy. In this paper, through carding hisrorical process of the rise of Hongjila tribe, research of change of the fief from one the early of Hongjila tribe to the Yuan dy-nasty, reveals the Hongjila tribe historical role of the guards in Monan.

  8. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  9. Partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes: Establishing an Advisory Committee for Pharmacogenetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763

  10. Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera.

  11. The Usage of Animals in the Lives of the Lanoh and Temiar Tribes of Lenggong, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the Orang Asli communities are natives that comprise the Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay peoples. Traditionally, the Orang Asli live in isolated forests or in forest peripheries. Although Globalisation occurs in Malaysia, its occurrence does not affect the traditional values of the said Orang Asli, who still depend on the natural environment to live. Nature provides the Orang Asli with a community resource for acquiring animals that are not just consumed as food, but also used in medicine, hunting and myth creation. This study intends to identify the animal species and the methods the Senoi and Negrito use these animals, within the aspects of their diet, medicine, hunting methods and their myth creation. Empirical data collection is focused only on the Lanoh and Temiar tribes who live in Lenggong. The method of data collection involves in-depth interviews with key informants that comprise Tok Batins (tribal chiefs and focus groups from the chosen Orang Asli village communities in Kampung Air Bah and Kampung Lubuk Chupak, Lenggong. The findings of this study reveal a wide variety of animals are still being hunted by the Orang Asli community for food and medicine. Apart from that, there are specific beliefs regarding the animals hunted narrated through myths and legends. Therefore, this study is significant in order to determine that the animal usage in the lives of the Orang Asli community continue for the sake of the demands of their heritage and families in order to preserve its pristine continuity. This is because while findings show that wildlife is still used by the Orang Asli, their usage among the younger generation is increasingly eroded due to such factors as wildlife extinction, dwindling availability, new religious taboos and modern progress which continues to find its place within the Orang Asli community.

  12. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568

  13. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-12-01

    Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  14. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rowold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150 and Pygmy (B2b-M112 lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1 the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2 only traces of Khoisan (1.3% and Pygmy (1.3% markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3 the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4 the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5 the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  15. [A careful look to postmodern tribes: caring for adolescent health in the context of their everyday lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Nóbrega, Juliana Fernandes; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; da Silva, Fernanda Pravato; Carraro, Cláudia Anita Gomes; Alves, Cristiane

    2013-09-01

    This is a theoretical reflection, based on Michel Maffesoli's Comprehensive Sociology, which is concerned with the health care of adolescents in contemporary everyday life, and particularly with the phenomenon of urban tribes. These are understood as groups of people who have emotional ties, building a bond of sociality towards a common goal. This study focuses on the importance to take into account the lifestyle of adolescents and aims to raise awareness among health professionals about such issues, seeking for strategies tuned with reality and care needs in order to promote health, devising ways to improve caring, rethinking health policies for adolescents in contemporary society. PMID:24344604

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY KUKNA TRIBES OF JHAVADA VILLAGES OF WAGHAI FOREST, DANGS DT, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Navaroja D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Kukna tribes in Jhavada villages of Dangs district, Gujarat located in Waghai forest. There are 46 plant species belonging to 30 families were identified from the study site based on the information collected from herbal healers to cure diseases such as diarrhoea, skin disease, cough, cold, ulcer, diabetes, constipation and Jaundice. Study of indigenous knowledge and herbal medical practices has very much welcoming by modern drug designers due to their positive results. The goal is to preserve, manage and use the biodiversity and the tribal knowledge for their welfare and others.

  17. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badola Hemant K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera. As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt.

  18. Austro-Asiatic tribes of Northeast India provide hitherto missing genetic link between South and Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mohan Reddy

    Full Text Available Northeast India, the only region which currently forms a land bridge between the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, has been proposed as an important corridor for the initial peopling of East Asia. Given that the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family is considered to be the oldest and spoken by certain tribes in India, Northeast India and entire Southeast Asia, we expect that populations of this family from Northeast India should provide the signatures of genetic link between Indian and Southeast Asian populations. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-Chromosome SNP and STR data of the eight groups of the Austro-Asiatic Khasi from Northeast India and the neighboring Garo and compared with that of other relevant Asian populations. The results suggest that the Austro-Asiatic Khasi tribes of Northeast India represent a genetic continuity between the populations of South and Southeast Asia, thereby advocating that northeast India could have been a major corridor for the movement of populations from India to East/Southeast Asia.

  19. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L., Bonda, Chun aru  (D. daemona Roxb., Karondi aru (D.bellophylla L., Pani aru (D. oppositifolia L. and Arguna (Cycas spp. to fulfill their food, medicinal and nutritional requirements particularly in harsh climatic conditions. They eat various wild leafy vegetables like Kolod (Lathyrus sativa L.,Bilo (Pisum sativum L., Kulthi (Microtylum uniflorumLam., Banana stem (Musa superba L. Ban poi (Basella alba L.. They also utilize NTFPs like Bamboo karda (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad exJC Wendl., Moha (Madhuca indica J.F Gmel., Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., fruits. Some wild mushrooms like Banschattu, Ambachattu (Agaricus spp. after drying and crushing were eaten by them. Indigenous practices of Saora tribes to cope up extreme environmental conditions and utilization of forest products during drought were discussed in the paper.

  20. The relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIO ADIWIBOWO

    Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.

  1. Diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in surrounding of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARDAH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Local peoples in a certain area is very depends on plants grow on surrounding them for fulfill daily lifelyhoat such as food, clothing, construction material, medicinal, etc. People knowledge in plants utilized especially as medicinal matter was passed on from generation to generation. Documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge from the local people until to do the research of diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau. Field data collection of medicinal plants was done by direct observation and interview with the figure or tribe-head and community is used medicinal plant in surrounding them. From the survey it result that at least 77 species of plants are used as medicines. Five species from these was categorised as endangered species such as pulai (Alstonia scholaris, gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis, kapung-kapung (Oroxylum indicum, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, and akar kuning (Arcangelisia flava. Kinds of diseases can be cover with ingredient of traditional medicines, the process and method, part of plant used, and species having potency for develop in the future is discussed in this paper.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  3. 25 CFR 1000.17 - What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? 1000.17 Section 1000.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? In addition to the...

  4. An Analysis of Huarui (dpav-ris) Tibetan Tribes' Social Forms%华锐藏族部落社会形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洲塔; 吕志祥; Qin Lili

    2010-01-01

    @@ Historically, the Huarui(dpav-ris) Tibetans inhabited areas including Tianzhu in Gansu Province, Huangcheng to the south of Gansu, and some regions in the east of Qinghai Province.The existence and development of the Huarui tribes also maintained the progress of these areas.

  5. 25 CFR 900.158 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it does not agree with...

  6. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

  7. 25 CFR 1000.251 - What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without good cause and does not correct the failure... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.251 What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without...

  8. 42 CFR 137.325 - What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... perform a construction project under section 509 of the Act ? 137.325 Section 137.325 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.325 What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section 509 of the Act ? (a) A...

  9. 25 CFR 224.83 - What must a tribe do after executing a lease or business agreement, or granting a right-of-way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Implementation of Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Leases, Business... agreement, or granting a right-of-way? Following the execution of a lease, business agreement, or grant of... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a tribe do after executing a lease or...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.332 - Will data used by HUD to determine an Indian tribe's or TDHE's formula allocation be provided to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.332 Will data used by HUD... before the allocation? Yes. HUD shall provide notice to the Indian tribe or TDHE of the data to be used... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will data used by HUD to...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.69 - How can a Tribe/Consortium obtain comments or selection documents received or utilized after OSG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a Tribe/Consortium obtain comments or selection documents received or utilized after OSG has made a decision on a planning grant application? 1000.69... selection documents received or utilized after OSG has made a decision on a planning grant application?...

  12. 42 CFR 137.65 - May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance...

  13. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How...

  14. 42 CFR 137.167 - What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167...

  15. 25 CFR 900.57 - What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization chooses not to take title to property furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.57 What if... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization...

  16. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  17. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  18. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? 137.202 Section 137.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information...

  19. 24 CFR 1000.28 - May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26? 1000.28 Section 1000.28 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.328 - What is the minimum amount that an Indian tribe may receive under the need component of the formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the minimum amount that an Indian tribe may receive under the need component of the formula? 1000.328 Section 1000.328 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.210 - What happens to existing 1937 Act units in those jurisdictions for which Indian tribes do not or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to existing 1937 Act units in those jurisdictions for which Indian tribes do not or cannot submit an IHP? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  2. 24 CFR 1000.506 - If the TDHE is the recipient, must it submit its monitoring evaluation/results to the Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the TDHE is the recipient, must it submit its monitoring evaluation/results to the Indian tribe? 1000.506 Section 1000.506 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.334 - May Indian tribes, TDHEs, or HUD challenge the data from the U.S. Decennial Census or provide an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May Indian tribes, TDHEs, or HUD challenge the data from the U.S. Decennial Census or provide an alternative source of data? 1000.334 Section 1000.334 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.550 - If the TDHE is the recipient, does it have to submit a copy of its audit to the Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the TDHE is the recipient, does it have to submit a copy of its audit to the Indian tribe? 1000.550 Section 1000.550 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.340 - What if an Indian tribe is allocated less funding under the IHBG Formula than it received in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if an Indian tribe is allocated less funding under the IHBG Formula than it received in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 for operating subsidy and modernization? 1000.340 Section 1000.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued)...

  6. 24 CFR 1000.408 - How does an Indian tribe or TDHE show that it has made efforts to obtain financing without a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or TDHE show that it has made efforts to obtain financing without a guarantee and cannot complete such financing in a timely manner? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.327 - What is the order of preference for allocating the IHBG formula needs data for Indian tribes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the order of preference for allocating the IHBG formula needs data for Indian tribes in Alaska not located on reservations due to the unique circumstances in Alaska? 1000.327 Section 1000.327 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  8. 43 CFR 30.263 - May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe exercises its statutory option to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a surviving spouse reserve a life... Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.263 May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe... tribal purchase option is a surviving spouse, the spouse may reserve a life estate in one-half of...

  9. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.212 - What is the role of the Tribe/Consortium when a bureau initiates a public meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT.../Consortium should meet to plan and discuss the conduct of the meeting, meeting protocols, and general... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of the Tribe/Consortium when a...

  11. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H

  12. The Doryctinae (Braconidae of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marsh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H

  13. One nutritional symbiosis begat another: Phylogenetic evidence that the ant tribe Camponotini acquired Blochmannia by tending sap-feeding insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Seán G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial endosymbiosis has a recurring significance in the evolution of insects. An estimated 10-20% of insect species depend on bacterial associates for their nutrition and reproductive viability. Members of the ant tribe Camponotini, the focus of this study, possess a stable, intracellular bacterial mutualist. The bacterium, Blochmannia, was first discovered in Camponotus and has since been documented in a distinct subgenus of Camponotus, Colobopsis, and in the related genus Polyrhachis. However, the distribution of Blochmannia throughout the Camponotini remains in question. Documenting the true host range of this bacterial mutualist is an important first step toward understanding the various ecological contexts in which it has evolved, and toward identifying its closest bacterial relatives. In this study, we performed a molecular screen, based on PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, to identify bacterial associates of diverse Camponotini species. Results Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gave four important insights: (i Blochmannia occurs in a broad range of Camponotini genera including Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, and did not occur in outgroups related to this tribe (e.g., Notostigma. This suggests that the mutualism originated in the ancestor of the tribe Camponotini. (ii The known bacteriocyte-associated symbionts of ants, in Formica, Plagiolepis, and the Camponotini, arose independently. (iii Blochmannia is nestled within a diverse clade of endosymbionts of sap-feeding hemipteran insects, such as mealybugs, aphids, and psyllids. In our analyses, a group of secondary symbionts of mealybugs are the closest relatives of Blochmannia. (iv Blochmannia has cospeciated with its known hosts, although deep divergences at the genus level remain uncertain. Conclusions The Blochmannia mutualism occurs in Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, in addition to Camponotus, and probably originated in the ancestral lineage leading

  14. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

  15. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  16. 安粉蚧族Antoninini中国种类记述%The tribe Antoninini of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the tribe Antoninini of China. Seven generaand 16 species were studied. Of which, two species are new to science, and are described and illustrated. They are Antonina hubeiana sp. nov. and Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp. nov. The type specimens are deposited in Insect Collections, Beijing Forestry University.%该文研究了粉蚧科安粉蚧族的中国种类,计有7属16种,其中包括2新种,即湖北安粉蚧Antonina hubeianasp.nov.和梵净巢粉蚧Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp.nov.,并提供了该群中国种类的分属分种检索表.新种模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  17. Traditional Use of Plants against Snakebite in Sugali tribes of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKhaleel Basha; Gsudarsanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct ethnobotanical survey in Yerramalais forest among Sugali tribes and collect information on medicinal plants to used to in the treatment of snake bite. Snakebite has been a major cause of mortality of tribals and their livestock. Methods: The study was conducted during 2009-2011 visiting regularly Sugali Thandas and Lobais. Following the method of Jain and Goel. First hand information on their traditional medicine was recorded, repeated enquiries were made to understand their knowledge, methods of diagnosis and treatment. Data were collected on the specific part of the plants used collection, method of usage of the drug and dosage of the drug ,dosage of administration. Results: The paper provides information about Ehanobatanical and Scientific evidences of 23 medicinal plants which are used by sugalis as antidote for snake bite. Conclusion: Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in this area Antidote medicinal plants play an important role in health and livelihood of Sugali Tribal people.

  18. Cytogenetic studies in some representatives of the subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae in South Africa. 3. The tribe Poeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on chromosome numbers for the tribe Poeae, which is represented in South Africa mainly by naturalized exotics. Chromosome numbers of 67 specimens, representing 26 species and 11 genera, are presented. These numbers include the first reports on Poa binata Nees (n = 3x = 21 and n = 4x = 28, Puccinellia acroxantha C.A.Sm. & CE.Hubb. (n = 3x = 21 and P. angusta (Nees C.A.Sm. & C.E.Hubb. (n = x = 7. New ploidy levels are reported for Catapodium rigidum (L. CE.Hubb.(n = 2x = 14, Festuca caprina Nees (n = 2x = 14 and F. scabra Vahl (n = x = 7.

  19. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Rai, Ritu; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab; Sarker, Dilip De

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Preparation of daily traditional drink by the indigenous tribes is a common phenomenon in India. Oraon tribes in Malda district of West Bengal, India are very much practiced in making of their own native brew, known as Chullu. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the whole Chullu procedure technology of the region and its socioeconomic effect on Oraon. Ethnomedicinal investigation of local plants involved in Chullu preparation was another aspect of this study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2012 to June 2013. Consecutive field surveys were performed to collect information from Chullu producers to focus the procedure technology of local brew by means of semi-structured individual interviews, informal interviews and group discussion. A semi-structured questionnaire process was also performed to obtain the information regarding the ethnic use of plant species involved in Chullu preparation. Results: The present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The index of importance value was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of Chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of Chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. PMID:26401382

  20. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  1. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  2. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Wilkerson

    Full Text Available The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K. Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1 restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2 enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3 maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4 correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new

  3. Karyotype analysis of seven species of the tribe Lophiohylini (Hylinae, Hylidae, Anura, with conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques

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    Simone Gruber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Few species of the tribe Lophiohylini have been karyotyped so far, and earlier analyses were performed mainly with standard staining. Based on the analysis of seven species with use of routine banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, the karyotypes were compared and the cytogenetic data were evaluated in the light of the current phylogenies. A karyotype with 2n = 24 and NOR in the chromosome 10 detected by Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe was shared by Aparasphenodon bokermanni Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Itapotihyla langsdorffii (Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus sp., T. mesophaeus (Hensel, 1867, and T. typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758. Phyllodytes edelmoi Peixoto, Caramaschi et Freire, 2003 and P. luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824 had reduced the diploid number from 2n = 24 to 2n = 22 with one of the small-sized pairs clearly missing, and NOR in the large chromosome 2, but the karyotypes were distinct regarding the morphology of chromosome pairs 4 and 6. Based on the cytogenetic and phylogenetic data, it was presumed that the chromosome evolution occurred from an ancestral type with 2n = 24, in which a small chromosome had been translocated to one or more unidentified chromosomes. Whichever hypothesis is more probable, other rearrangements should have occurred later, to explain the karyotype differences between the two species of Phyllodytes Wagler, 1830. The majority of the species presented a small amount of centromeric C-banded heterochromatin and these regions were GC-rich. The FISH technique using a telomeric probe identified the chromosome ends and possibly (TTAGGGn-like sequences in the repetitive DNA out of the telomeres in I. langsdorffii and P. edelmoi. The data herein obtained represent an important contribution for characterizing the karyotype variability within the tribe Lophiohylini scarcely analysed so far.

  4. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  5. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae

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    Anatoly Babenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphorura ambigua sp. n. and O. duocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, O. nataliae (Fjellberg, 1987, O. interrupta (Fjellberg, 1987, O. pingicola (Fjellberg, 1987, and Micraphorura alnus (Fjellberg, 1987, are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, O. groenlandica (Tullberg, 1876, O. ursi (Fjellberg, 1984, O. aborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987, and M. absoloni (Börner, 1901, are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided.

  6. A re-evaluation of the milliped genus Motyxia Chamberlin : with a re-diagnosis of the tribe Xystocheirini and remarks on the bioluminescence (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Rowland M.

    2011-01-01

    Motyxia Chamberlin is comprised of eight species of bioluminescent xystocheirine millipeds in which the gonopodal solenomere arises at different positions, from basally and subbasally on the acropodite to being fused with the companion acropodal branch and detaching proximad or near midlength. Previous synonymies of Amplocheir Chamberlin and LuminodeslnllS Loomis and Davenport under Motyxia are confirmed as is its assignment to the tribe Xystocheirini, which is redefined. Component species ar...

  7. Nuevas especies de la tribu Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae para la flora de Brasil New species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae for the Brazil flora

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    Elsa L Cabral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas para la flora de Brasil: Borreria paulista del Estado de São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia del Estado de Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii y Psyllocarpus intermedias del Estado de Bahia.Four new species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae, for Brazil are described and illustrated: Borreria paulista (São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia (Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii and Psyllocarpus intermedius (Bahia.

  8. Multiple-Locus Departures from Panmictic Equilibrium within and between Village Gene Pools of Amerindian Tribes at Different Stages of Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Neel, James V.; Liu, Wanda

    1983-01-01

    A comparative analysis of departures from multiple-locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is presented for a set of four tribal Indian groups (the Yanomama, Makiritare, Wapishana and Ticuna) from the lowlands of South America. These tribes span a range of agglomeration and acculturation from the most traditional, swidden horticulturalists to frontier townspeople. The small-group social organization typical of traditional horticulturalists leads to substantial departures from tribal panmixia, as man...

  9. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika. III : Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bukinga, F. M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Van Steenberge, M.; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochro...

  10. Nuevas especies de la tribu Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) para la flora de Brasil New species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) for the Brazil flora

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa L. Cabral; Nélida M Bacigalupo

    1997-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas para la flora de Brasil: Borreria paulista del Estado de São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia del Estado de Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii y Psyllocarpus intermedias del Estado de Bahia.Four new species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae), for Brazil are described and illustrated: Borreria paulista (São Paulo), B. rosmariinifolia (Minas Gerais), Mitracarpus steyermarkii and Psyllocarpus intermedius (Bahia).

  11. Study on the Tribe Ochyromerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from East Asia I, Descriptions of New Species of the Genera Endaeus and Endaenidius

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura

    1995-01-01

    This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...

  12. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  13. Modelling the geomorphic history of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians) with the CHILD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staškovanová, Veronika; Minár, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Numerical models were developed in order to provide a suitable computational framework for exploring research questions related to long-term landscape evolution. We used the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model to prove three hypotheses concerning the processes contributing to the neotectonic landscape evolution of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians): (1) simultaneous planation and uplift; (2) temporally and spatially varying uplift; (3) exhumation of a part of the area from below Neogene sediments. Given the size of the area, its lithological variability and the insufficient knowledge of the palaeogeographical settings, using a detachment-limited model to express river incision into bedrock as well as water (rill) erosion on hillslopes proved the best solution. Results of the simulations were compared with real topography through hypsographic curves and the distribution of remnants of planation surfaces. The real surface corresponds best to a combination of the hypotheses (2) and (3), with more intensive Quaternary tectonic uplift of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. and the adjacent Rázdiel part of the Tribeč Mts., and exhumation of a mature palaeosurface from below Miocene sediments in the east of the Tribeč Mts.

  14. Natural colourant plant and the use of traditionally by tribe of Marori Men-Gey in Wasur National Park, Merauke Regency

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    ANTONIUS ETUS HARBELUBUN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to know the plant species which used as a natural colorant and its exploiting traditionally by Tribe of Marori Men-Gey. This Research was executed at area of Wasur National Park in Merauke regency. Method used was descriptive method with the direct observation technique in field. Result of research indicate that the natural colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as much 7 species included in 6 family that was Vaccinium sp. (Cacinaceae, Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae, Curcuma domestica Val. (Zingiberaceae, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, Ziziplus sp. (Myrtaceae, Gmelina sp. (Verbenaceae and Zyzygium sp (Myrtaceae. Part of plant exploited cover the root, rhizome, bark, rubber, leaf and fruit. From 7 the colorant plant species, 4 species yielding color yellow that was Vaccinium sp., C. domestica, M. citrifolia and M. indica, 2 species yield the riddling that was Ziziplus sp. and Gmelina sp. and also 1 species yielding black color that was Zyzygium sp. Colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as traditional equipments colorant, food colorant and body colorant.

  15. Collection, identification and shelf life enhancement of wild edible fungi used by ethnic tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)

  16. INCLUSION IN LAW AND EXCLUSION IN PRAXIS: THE SCHEDULED TRIBES & OTHER TRADITIONAL FOREST DWELLERS (RECOGNITION OF FOREST RIGHTS ACT 2006

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    Pradip Prabhu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In this comment, the author describes the intricacies of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006. He highlights the role of the forest dwellers in urging the legislature for the enactment of such a legislation. According to the author it is unjustified on the part of the government to acquire forest land without following the due process of law. Throughout his work the author focuses on answering the question as to whether the Forest Rights Law can replace a conservation regime based on the exclusion of the citizens from the forests.

  17. Antimicrobial and antimalarial properties of medicinal plants used by the indigenous tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M Punnam; Pillai, C R; Sunish, I P; Vijayachari, P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J. syringifolium, D. andamanica, C. indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M. andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P. tithymaloides, J. syringifolium and D. andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The in vitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants. PMID:27174207

  18. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov. PMID:24870868

  19. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  20. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  1. Application of simulation technique on debris flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in the Daniao tribe, Eastern Taiwan

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    M. P. Tsai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991 rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.

  2. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegu Shyamanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  3. Ethnobotanical studies on the wild edible plants of Irula tribes of Pillur Valley, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Rasingam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical studies and collect information about the wild edible plants collected and utilized by the Irula tribes of Pillur valley, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study was conducted among the Irula peoples of Pillur valley through survey, interview and field work along with the knowledgeable individuals during January 2009 -September 2010. All the traditional and other knowledge related to the collection and consumption of wild edible plants on which the communities depend was documented. Results: A total of 74 plant species have been recorded as wild edible in the study areas, of which, fruits yielding plants ranked first with 42 species, green leaves, tubers, young shoots and flowers ranked next with 26, 7, 4 and 2 species respectively. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the adivasi community in the Pillur Valley continues to have and use the knowledge about the wild edible plants, including their habitat, collection period, sustainable collection, mode of preparation and consumption. To date, this knowledge appear to be fairly well conserved and used as a result of continued reliance of local community on the wild uncultivated foods.

  4. The phylogenetic utility of chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers and the phylogeny of the Rubiaceae tribe Spermacoceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårehed, Jesper; Groeninckx, Inge; Dessein, Steven; Motley, Timothy J; Bremer, Birgitta

    2008-12-01

    The phylogenetic utility of chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, petD, rps16, trnL-F) and nuclear (ETS, ITS) DNA regions was investigated for the tribe Spermacoceae of the coffee family (Rubiaceae). ITS was, despite often raised cautions of its utility at higher taxonomic levels, shown to provide the highest number of parsimony informative characters, in partitioned Bayesian analyses it yielded the fewest trees in the 95% credible set, it resolved the highest proportion of well resolved clades, and was the most accurate region as measured by the partition metric and the proportion of correctly resolved clades (well supported clades retrieved from a combined analysis regarded as "true"). For Hedyotis, the nuclear 5S-NTS was shown to be potentially as useful as ITS, despite its shorter sequence length. The chloroplast region being the most phylogenetically informative was the petD group II intron. We also present a phylogeny of Spermacoceae based on a Bayesian analysis of the four chloroplast regions, ITS, and ETS combined. Spermacoceae are shown to be monophyletic. Clades supported by high posterior probabilities are discussed, especially in respect to the current generic classification. Notably, Oldenlandia is polyphyletic, the two subgenera of Kohautia are not sister taxa, and Hedyotis should be treated in a narrow sense to include only Asian species. PMID:18950720

  5. Rapid radiation, ancient incomplete lineage sorting and ancient hybridization in the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Egger, Bernd; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2010-04-01

    The evolutionary history of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini, the sister group of the species flocks of Lake Malawi and the Lake Victoria region, was reconstructed from 2009 bp DNA sequence of two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and control region) and from 1293 AFLP markers. A period of rapid cladogenesis at the onset of the diversification of the Tropheini produced a multitude of specialized, predominantly rock-dwelling aufwuchs-feeders that now dominate in Lake Tanganyika's shallow habitat. Nested within the stenotopic rock-dwellers is a monophyletic group of species, which also utilize more sediment-rich habitat. Most of the extant species date back to at least 0.7 million years ago. Several instances of disagreement between AFLP and mtDNA tree topology are attributed to ancient incomplete lineage sorting, introgression and hybridization. A large degree of correspondence between AFLP clustering and trophic types indicated fewer cases of parallel evolution of trophic ecomorphology than previously inferred from mitochondrial data. PMID:19853055

  6. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  7. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

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    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  8. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  9. Prevalence of the β(S) gene among scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward class groups in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.

  10. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

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    Meyer-Rochow V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  11. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

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    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  12. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic

  13. Review of the Neotropical scale insects formerly assigned to Coelostomidiidae and here transferred to a new tribe within the Monophlebidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, I; Gullan, P J

    2014-12-24

    This study reviews the status of all Neotropical genera and species of Coelostomidiidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and transfers them to the family Monophlebidae in the Cryptokermesini Foldi & Gullan tribe n. (the tribe Cryptokermini Tao & Hao is recognised here as a nomen nudum). This change of family placement for Neotropical taxa is based on the morphology of adult males, as supported by the phylogenetic study of Hodgson & Hardy (2013), and by unpublished DNA data. New diagnoses are provided for each of the four recognised genera of Cryptokermesini: Cryptokermes Hempel, Mimosicerya Cockerell, Neocoelostoma Hempel and Paracoelostoma Morrison. The genus Nautococcus Vayssière is considered here to be a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Mimosicerya and the type species of Nautococcus, N. schraderae Vayssière, thus becomes M. schraderae (Vayssière) comb. n. Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison is transferred to Mimosicerya as M. mexicana (Morrison) comb. n. Also Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi does not fit the morphological concept of Cryptokermes and is excluded from this genus and revision, and from the new tribe; its taxonomic position is uncertain and requires further study. All type species of the Cryptokermesini, including N. schraderae (as M. schraderae), are redescribed and illustrated based on most female instars and available adult males, examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Adult males are described and illustrated only for M. schraderae and N. xerophila. Keys are provided to distinguish the Neotropical monophlebid tribes Cryptokermesini and Llaveiini and to recognise each cryptokermesine genus based on female instars and first-instar nymphs. The included species of Cryptokermesini and their known distributions are: Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel from Brazil and C. oaxaensis Foldi from Mexico; Mimosicerya hempeli (Cockerell) from Brazil, M. mexicana from Mexico, M. schraderae from Panama and M. williamsi Foldi from Venezuela; Neocoelostoma xerophila

  14. 中越茜草科栀子族植物拾零%Miscellaneous notes on the tribe Gardenieae (Rubiaceae) from China and Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美德; 陈文红; 税玉民

    2007-01-01

    报道了中国茜草科Rubiaceae栀子族tribe Gardenieae一新记录属和二新记录种: 越南茜属Rubovietnamia Tirveng.、长管越南茜R.aristata Tirveng.和中越大果茜Fosbergia petelotii Merr.ex Tirveng.& Sastre;以及越南茜草科栀子族的一新记录种,即大围山紫冠茜Rothmannia daweishanensis Y.M.Shui & W.H.Chen.

  15. Cytogenetic studies in some representatives of the subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae in South Africa. 2. The tribe Aveneae, subtribes Phalaridinae and Alopecurinae

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    J. J. Spies

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on chromosome numbers for the subtribes Phalaridinae and Alopecurinae (tribe Aveneae which are. to a large extent, naturalized in South Africa. Chromosome numbers of 34 specimens, representing nine species and four genera, are presented. These numbers include the first report on Agrostis avenacea Gmel. (n = 4x = 28. New ploidv levels are reported for Phalaris aquatica L. (n = x = 7, Agrostis barbuligera Stapf var. barbuligera (n = 2x = 14 and n = 4x = 28 and A.  lachnantha Nees var.  lachnantha (n = 3x = 21.

  16. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: FY 1999 Watershed Restoration Projects : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Shawn W.

    2001-03-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  17. TriMEDB: A database to integrate transcribed markers and facilitate genetic studies of the tribe Triticeae

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    Yoshida Takuhiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent rapid accumulation of sequence resources of various crop species ensures an improvement in the genetics approach, including quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis as well as the holistic population analysis and association mapping of natural variations. Because the tribe Triticeae includes important cereals such as wheat and barley, integration of information on the genetic markers in these crops should effectively accelerate map-based genetic studies on Triticeae species and lead to the discovery of key loci involved in plant productivity, which can contribute to sustainable food production. Therefore, informatics applications and a semantic knowledgebase of genome-wide markers are required for the integration of information on and further development of genetic markers in wheat and barley in order to advance conventional marker-assisted genetic analyses and population genomics of Triticeae species. Description The Triticeae mapped expressed sequence tag (EST database (TriMEDB provides information, along with various annotations, regarding mapped cDNA markers that are related to barley and their homologues in wheat. The current version of TriMEDB provides map-location data for barley and wheat ESTs that were retrieved from 3 published barley linkage maps (the barley single nucleotide polymorphism database of the Scottish Crop Research Institute, the barley transcript map of Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, and HarvEST barley ver. 1.63 and 1 diploid wheat map. These data were imported to CMap to allow the visualization of the map positions of the ESTs and interrelationships of these ESTs with public gene models and representative cDNA sequences. The retrieved cDNA sequences corresponding to each EST marker were assigned to the rice genome to predict an exon-intron structure. Furthermore, to generate a unique set of EST markers in Triticeae plants among the public domain, 3472 markers were

  18. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  19. LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT IN KERALA: A STUDY ON THE MUTHUVAN TRIBE OF EDAMALAKKUDY TRIBAL SETTLEMENT IN IDUKKI DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Manjusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edamalakkudy, the first Tribal Grama Panchayath in Kerala was formed during the last delimitation of Local bodies in Kerala (2010. The Muthuvan Tribe is the community in Edamalakkudy and is one of the most isolated forest tribes in the state of Kerala. This paper is an attempt to discuss the origin, history and etymology of the Muthuvans of Edamalakkudy along with their language, dress and ornaments, food pattern, their special traditions in social organisations, life-cycle rituals, religion, political organisation, economy etc. This paper also tries to bring out some of the problems of tribal development in this area. The tribals have been the victims of colonial domination, illiteracy, ignorance, caste prejudice, poverty and isolation. Then contact with the advanced and civilized people brought them into a new market economy and exploitation-both social and economic in nature. Their self-sufficient economy disorganised due to land alienation, deforestation etc. So this paper tries to make a comparative study on the past traditional life and the present condition of the Muthuvans of Edamalakkudy Tribal Grama Panchayath along with some suggestions for their existing problems.

  20. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  1. The Heavenly Cow Rupan and the Festival of Ceremonial Torture Gai-Goheri: Myth, Rituals and Sacrifice among the People of the Bhil Tribe of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Sahay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gai-Goheri, the festival of ceremonial torture, is a popular ritualamong the people of the Bhil tribe of Western India. Beliefs and myths of this festival play an important role in forming a series of rituals, which include not only the buttock-burning of the cattle but also their decorations and worshipping. The ritual, in which the villagers, while in religious mood, prostrate before hundreds of running cattle and get seriously hurt, is the climax of the festival.Villagers then inhale the smoke of burning dhup (perfumed sawdust, dance and drink liquor in a state of trance.This article makes a serious attempt to analyse the festival of ceremonial torture, as well as the associated rituals, along with the related mythological story of the cow named Rupan, which has presented a pragmatic charter of the primitive faith, vouching for the efficacies of the festival. The socio-economic system of the tribe has also helped in making the entire celebration amply adaptable even today.

  2. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitogenome sequence of the raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), supports monophyly of the tribe Aterpini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Brandt, Marco A; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan D

    2015-10-25

    The superfamily Curculionoidea is one of the most diverse groups of insects in the world, including many species which are crop pests. Within this group, the native raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin, 1830), is an important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in southern South America. Using a 454 sequencing approach, we sequenced and annotated the mitogenome of A. superciliosus, it, providing the first such information for any species in the tribe Aterpini, subfamily Cyclominae. The assembled mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule 15,121bp in length containing all 37 genes normally found in metazoans. Mitogenome organization and transcriptional orientation in A. superciliosus showed the same pattern that characterizes the suborder Polyphaga. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the tribe Aterpini and the subfamily Cyclominae, recovering this clade in a sister group relationship with Entiminae and Hyperinae. The monophyly of these three subfamilies defines a critical transition to an ectophagous lifestyle in the larvae, from an ancestrally endophagous larval lifestyle in all other lineages. The sequenced mitogenome of A. superciliosus can provide basic data for future studies investigating population history, molecular systematics, stress ecophysiology and phylogeography.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Persian Gazella, Gazella subgutturosa (Artiodactyla: Bovidae based on cytochrome b in central Iran

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    Davoud Fadakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persian gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa, exists throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran and has a key role in these frail ecosystems. Habitat degradation and population decline has placed it on the list of vulnerable species in 2008. The phylogenetic relationships of three Persian gazelle populations in the central part of Iran (i.e. Ghamishlou National Park and Wildlife Refuge, Mouteh Wildlife Refuge in Isfahan province and Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area in Yazd province were investigated using parts and short fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (425 base pairs. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree separated the populations of Yazd and Isfahan provinces, but populations within the Isfahan province shared the same clade. All populations were classified as Persian gazelle. The studied populations are facing threats because of road construction, industrial development and urbanization. Accordingly urgent conservation plans are needed to preserve their genetic diversity and prevent them from falling into extinction.

  5. Survival of European mouflon (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Hawai'i based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Stephens, R.M.; Thompson, T.L.; Danner, R.M.; Kawakami, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable techniques for estimating age of ungulates are necessary to determine population parameters such as age structure and survival. Techniques that rely on dentition, horn, and facial patterns have limited utility for European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), but tooth cementum lines may offer a useful alternative. Cementum lines may not be reliable outside temperate regions, however, because lack of seasonality in diet may affect annulus formation. We evaluated the utility of tooth cementum lines for estimating age of mouflon in Hawai'i in comparison to dentition. Cementum lines were present in mouflon from Mauna Loa, island of Hawai'i, but were less distinct than in North American sheep. The two age-estimation methods provided similar estimates for individuals aged ???3 yr by dentition (the maximum age estimable by dentition), with exact matches in 51% (18/35) of individuals, and an average difference of 0.8 yr (range 04). Estimates of age from cementum lines were higher than those from dentition in 40% (14/35) and lower in 9% (3/35) of individuals. Discrepancies in age estimates between techniques and between paired tooth samples estimated by cementum lines were related to certainty categories assigned by the clarity of cementum lines, reinforcing the importance of collecting a sufficient number of samples to compensate for samples of lower quality, which in our experience, comprised approximately 22% of teeth. Cementum lines appear to provide relatively accurate age estimates for mouflon in Hawai'i, allow estimating age beyond 3 yr, and they offer more precise estimates than tooth eruption patterns. After constructing an age distribution, we estimated annual survival with a log-linear model to be 0.596 (95% CI 0.5540.642) for this heavily controlled population. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press.

  6. Test-day milk yield as a selection criterion for dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Tonhati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great demand for buffalo milk by-products the interest in technical-scientific information about this species is increasing. Our objective was to propose selection criteria for milk yield in buffaloes based on total milk yield, 305-day milk yield (M305, and test-day milk yield. A total of 3,888 lactations from 1,630 Murrah (Bubalus bubalis cows recorded between 1987 and 2001, from 10 herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Covariance components were obtained using the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to a bivariate animal model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were considered as random, and contemporary group and lactation order as fixed effects. The heritability estimates were 0.22 for total milk yield and 0.19 for M305. For test-day yields, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.12 to 0.30, with the highest values being observed up to the third test month, followed by a decline until the end of lactation. The present results show that test-day milk yield, mainly during the first six months of lactation, could be adopted as a selection criterion to increase total milk yield.

  7. Test-day milk yield as a selection criterion for dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Tonhati; Mário Fernando Cerón-Muñoz; João Ademir de Oliveira; Lenira El Faro; André Luís Ferreira Lima; Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Due to the great demand for buffalo milk by-products the interest in technical-scientific information about this species is increasing. Our objective was to propose selection criteria for milk yield in buffaloes based on total milk yield, 305-day milk yield (M305), and test-day milk yield. A total of 3,888 lactations from 1,630 Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) cows recorded between 1987 and 2001, from 10 herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Covariance components were obtained using...

  8. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Allais-Bonnet; Cécile Grohs; Ivica Medugorac; Stefan Krebs; Anis Djari; Alexander Graf; Sébastien Fritz; Doris Seichter; Aurélia Baur; Ingolf Russ; Stéphan Bouet; Sophie Rothammer; Per Wahlberg; Diane Esquerré; Chris Hoze

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We con...

  9. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  10. Molecular Systematics of Boraginaceae Tribe Boragineae Based on ITS1 and trnL Sequences, with Special Reference to Anchusa s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILGER, H. H.; SELVI, F.; PAPINI, A.; BIGAZZI, M.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Boragineae is one of the main tribes of Boraginaceae, but delimitation and intergeneric classification of this group are unclear and have not yet been studied using DNA sequences. In particular, phylogenetic relationships in Anchusa s.l. still need to be elucidated in order to assess its taxonomic boundaries with respect to the controversial segregate genera Hormuzakia, Gastrocotyle, Phyllocara and Cynoglottis. • Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 51 taxa of tribe Boragineae were investigated by comparative sequencing of the trnLUAA intron of the plastid genome and of the ITS1 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Exemplar taxa from 16 genera of Boragineae and all subgenera of Anchusa s.l. were included, along with two selected outgroups from tribes Lithospermeae and Cynoglosseae. • Key results Phylogenies generated by maximum parsimony and combined ITS1-trnL sequences support the monophyly of the tribe and a split into two clades, Pentaglottis and the remainder of Boragineae. The latter contains two large monophyletic groups. The first consists of three moderately to well-supported branches, Borago–Symphytum, Pulmonaria–Nonea and Brunnera. In the Pulmonaria–Nonea subclade, the rare endemic Paraskevia cesatiana is sister to Pulmonaria, and Nonea appears to be paraphyletic with respect to Elizaldia. The second main group corresponds to the well-supported clade of Anchusa s.l., with the megaphyllic, polyploid herb Trachystemon orientalis as sister taxon, although with low support. Anchusa s.l. is highly paraphyletic to its segregate genera and falls into four subclades: (1) Phyllocara, Hormuzakia, Anchusa subgenus Buglossum and A. subgenus Buglossoides; (2) Gastrocotyle; (3) A. subgenus Buglossellum and Cynoglottis; and (4) A. subgenus Anchusa, Lycopsis and Anchusella. All species of Anchusa subg. Anchusa, including the South African A. capensis, are included in a single unresolved clade. Anchusa subgenus Limbata is also

  11. Winnebago Tribe Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.

  12. The Fierce Tribe

    OpenAIRE

    Weems, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    In this ethnography that documents the folk nature of popular culture, Mickey Weems applies interdisciplinary interpretation to a subject that demands such a breakdown of intellectual boundaries. The Circuit, an expression of gay culture, comprises large dance events—gatherings, celebrations, communions, festivals. Music and dance drive complex, shared performances—electronic house music played by professional DJs and mass ecstatic dancing that engenders communitas. Other performances, from d...

  13. Tribes Communities Success Stories

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data describes successful EPA projects and partnerships which are restoring local communities and watersheds within the San Francisco Bay Delta Watershed.

  14. Interrelationships between maternal DHA in erythrocytes, milk and adipose tissue. Is 1wt% DHA the optimal human milk content? Data from four Tanzanian tribes differing in lifetime stable intakes of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Koops, Jan-Hein; Muller, Stefan; de Graaf, Deti; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-section

  15. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous US and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1998, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional ten (10) watershed

  16. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia: evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broska Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed

  17. FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

    2009-03-30

    Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

  18. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801: Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of L. dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates, provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini.

  19. Influence of the drying method in the antioxidant potential and chemical composition of four shrubby flowering plants from the tribe Genisteae (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-11-01

    Flowers from several common Mediterranean shrubs, such as those from the Cytisus genus and Genista genus (tribe Genisteae/Fabaceae) have long been used for medicinal purposes and seasoning in the northeastern Portuguese region. Despite, the shade-drying traditionally used to process these plants, freeze-drying is claimed to better preserve the quality of medicinal plants. Herein, the effects of drying process in the antioxidants composition and properties of Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus scoparius, Cytisus striatus and Pterospartum tridentatum were evaluated. Freeze-dried P. tridentatum revealed the highest antioxidant properties (EC(50) values ≤ 0.15 mg/ml). Freeze-drying benefits were confirmed showing, the samples submitted to this process, higher antioxidant activity and higher concentrations of hydrophilic (phenolics, ascorbic acid and sugars) and lipophilic (tocopherols, chlorophylls and lycopene) compounds. This process could be applied in scale-up treatments of the studied plants for cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Tengku Shahrul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. Methods To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Results Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102 were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150 of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139 of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211 of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Conclusion Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  1. Historical biogeography of the Angelica group (Apiaceae tribe Selineae) inferred from analyses of nrDNA and cpDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yang LIAO; Stephen R.DOWNIE; Yan YU; Xing-Jin HE

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes of Asia-centered angiosperm groups have been significantly affected by the multistage uplift of the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau since the Late Tertiary.The divergence time of the largely East Asian Angelica group (Apiaceae,subfamily Apioideae,tribe Selineae) was initially analyzed using BEAST and nrDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence data from 96 representatives of tribe Selineae and relatives.Further analyses of the biogeographical history of the Angelica group were carried out using BEAST,S-DIVA,RASP,and LAGRANGE on datasets containing all or some of the following loci:nrDNA internal and external transcribed spacers; cpDNA rps16 intron; and cpDNA rps16-trnK,rpl32-trnL,and trnL-trnT intergenic spacers.The results suggested that the Angelica group was originally present in the East Palearctic during the global cooling of the late Middle Miocene (13.6 Mya) and that the Angelica s.s.clade originated in the same region at 10.2Mya.Subsequent diversifications of the Angelica s.s.clade intensified in the East Palearctic during the middle Late Miocene (10.0-7.0 Mya) and in the eastern Himalayan Zone during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (<4.0Mya).These diversifications likely corresponded with plateau uplift-driven climatic changes.Considering elevational reconstructions,the differential responses to altitude appear to be the primary factor explaining the recent radiation of the group in the eastern Himalayas.The North American species of the Angelica group were retrieved as polyphyletic and their migrations involved six independent dispersals to North America at least since the middle Late Miocene,including four times from northeast Asia and twice from Europe.

  2. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  3. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos. No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum. Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this

  4. A synopsis of the tribe Lachnophorini, with a new genus of Neotropical distribution and a revision of the Neotropical genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: ( geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; ( hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; ( pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay

  5. 《鼠族Ⅰ》中阿特与母亲的关系%The relationship between A’te and the mother in the"Mouse Tribe I"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑛

    2013-01-01

      《鼠族》是美国著名漫画家阿特·斯皮格曼的作品,讲述了阿特父母从纳粹大屠杀中逃生的真实经历:身为波兰犹太人的父母在纳粹德国统治波兰期间,所遭受的非人待遇和想尽办法逃生的痛苦经历。母亲虽然在纳粹的魔爪下幸存了,但却在后来自杀了,但阿特却被认为是母亲自杀的罪魁祸首。《鼠族》中并没有直接给出阿特与母亲的关系如何。通过分析在《鼠族Ⅰ》中被插入的另一本漫画中的几页“画中画”,可以得出阿特和母亲的关系并不融洽。%"Mouse Tribe"is a famous American cartoonist Art Spiegelman's works, tells real experience of the A’te’s parents escape from the Nazi Holocaust:as Poland Jewish parents during the period of Nazi Ruled Poland, have the experience of inhumane treatment and trying to escape.Although the mother in the Nazis who survived, but later in the Dutch act, but A’te is the arch-criminal for mother Dutch act.In"Mouse tribe", not to directly give the relationship with the mother.Based on the analysis of the"Mouse tribe"is inserted into the mouse tribe in another comic in the pages of"picture-in-picture", draw A’te and mother are not in harmony.

  6. Status of hepatitis B infection - a decade after hepatitis B vaccination of susceptible Nicobarese, an indigenous tribe of Andaman & Nicobar (A&N) islands with high hepatitis B endemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Ghosal, S.R.; Roy, Subarna; Sugunan, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, home to six primitive tribes, constituting about 10 per cent of the total population of these Islands have been detected with high endemicity of hepatitis B infection. During 2000, a total of 936 individuals ≤ 45 yr, negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody anti-HBs were vaccinated with three doses of a recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine in two villages of Car Nicobar Islands. The present study was undertaken...

  7. The relationship between A’te and the mother in the"Mouse Tribe I"%《鼠族Ⅰ》中阿特与母亲的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑛

    2013-01-01

    "Mouse Tribe"is a famous American cartoonist Art Spiegelman's works, tells real experience of the A’te’s parents escape from the Nazi Holocaust:as Poland Jewish parents during the period of Nazi Ruled Poland, have the experience of inhumane treatment and trying to escape.Although the mother in the Nazis who survived, but later in the Dutch act, but A’te is the arch-criminal for mother Dutch act.In"Mouse tribe", not to directly give the relationship with the mother.Based on the analysis of the"Mouse tribe"is inserted into the mouse tribe in another comic in the pages of"picture-in-picture", draw A’te and mother are not in harmony.%  《鼠族》是美国著名漫画家阿特·斯皮格曼的作品,讲述了阿特父母从纳粹大屠杀中逃生的真实经历:身为波兰犹太人的父母在纳粹德国统治波兰期间,所遭受的非人待遇和想尽办法逃生的痛苦经历。母亲虽然在纳粹的魔爪下幸存了,但却在后来自杀了,但阿特却被认为是母亲自杀的罪魁祸首。《鼠族》中并没有直接给出阿特与母亲的关系如何。通过分析在《鼠族Ⅰ》中被插入的另一本漫画中的几页“画中画”,可以得出阿特和母亲的关系并不融洽。

  8. Comprehensive phylogeny, biogeography and new classification of the diverse bee tribe Megachilini: Can we use DNA barcodes in phylogenies of large genera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunz, V; Packer, L; Vieu, J; Arrigo, N; Praz, C J

    2016-10-01

    Classification and evolutionary studies of particularly speciose clades pose important challenges, as phylogenetic analyses typically sample a small proportion of the existing diversity. We examine here one of the largest bee genera, the genus Megachile - the dauber and leafcutting bees. Besides presenting a phylogeny based on five nuclear genes (5480 aligned nucleotide positions), we attempt to use the phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial DNA barcodes, which are rapidly accumulating and already include a substantial proportion of the known species diversity in the genus. We used barcodes in two ways: first, to identify particularly divergent lineages and thus to guide taxon sampling in our nuclear phylogeny; second, to augment taxon sampling by combining nuclear markers (as backbone for ancient divergences) with DNA barcodes. Our results indicate that DNA barcodes bear phylogenetic signal limited to very recent divergences (3-4 my before present). Sampling within clades of very closely related species may be augmented using this technique, but our results also suggest statistically supported, but incongruent placements of some taxa. However, the addition of one single nuclear gene (LW-rhodopsin) to the DNA barcode data was enough to recover meaningful placement with high clade support values for nodes up to 15 million years old. We discuss different proposals for the generic classification of the tribe Megachilini. Finding a classification that is both in agreement with our phylogenetic hypotheses and practical in terms of diagnosability is particularly challenging as our analyses recover several well-supported clades that include morphologically heterogeneous lineages. We favour a classification that recognizes seven morphologically well-delimited genera in Megachilini: Coelioxys, Gronoceras, Heriadopsis, Matangapis, Megachile, Noteriades and Radoszkowskiana. Our results also lead to the following classification changes: the groups known as Dinavis, Neglectella

  9. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Williams

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes, consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of

  10. Interfaceamentos contemporâneos: tecnologias digitais e tribos urbanas no contexto escolar Contemporary interfaces: digital technologies and urban tribes in the context of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Cássia da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa sobre juventudes, tribos urbanas e as interfaces com as tecnologias de informação e comunicação, no contexto escolar de Palmas-TO. Foram estudados jovens que se assumem como integrantes de tribos que circulam pela cidade e estudam no Centro de Ensino Médio - CEM. A investigação esteve atrelada a uma perspectiva formativa escolar oficial e a seleção e oferta de conteúdos paralelos, mediados pelas tecnologias digitais, que possibilitam interações coletivas e reorganizam as experiências de vida dos sujeitos. O método, análise de conteúdo, foi adotado para a leitura e a interpretação das informações obtidas durante o processo da pesquisa. Os resultados indicam que tipologias distintas de jovens circulam no cenário escolar, convivem com as ofertas das políticas educacionais e formativas e negociam mais sentidos e significados da cultura digital em suas vidas.The article presents the results of a piece or research about juveniles, "urban tribes" and their interactions with information technology and communication in the school context of Palmas-TO Those studied were youths, seeing themselves as members of tribes circulating the city, and studying at the Centre for Middle Teen Education. The investigation was carried out according to an official school perspective and the selection and offering of parallel contents, provided via digital technologies, permitted collective interactions and helped reorganize of the life experiences of the subjects. During the research process, the method -analysis of contents - was adopted for the study of the literature and the interpretation of the information obtained. The results show that distinct youth types circulate the school scene, living alongside the educational policies. Also, these types are able to negotiate a broad range of feelings and meanings from the digital culture pervading their lives.

  11. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA) of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes), consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri) encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled) and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of coresident symbionts

  12. Comparative morphological study of the Neotropical Cleomenini genera and their transference to the tribes Rhopalophorini Blanchard and Rhinotragini Thomson (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the affinities of the hitherto considered Neotropical Cleomenini genera, a detailed morphological comparative study was carried out based on representatives of their type species and other congeneric species. The results, when compared with representatives of Cleomenes Thomson and other non Neotropical Cleomenini genera together with representatives of Rhopalophorini Blanchard and Rhinotragini Thomson, show that: 1 Listroptera Audinet-Serville, 1834, Dihammaphora Chevrolat, 1859, Haenkea Tippmann, 1953, Aguassay Napp & Mermudes, 2001 and Timabiara Napp & Mermudes, 2001 form a very homogeneous group, not related to other Cleomenini, but sharing several synapomorphies with the Rhopalophorini; therefore they are herein transferred to this tribe; 2 the affinities of Dihammaphoroides Zajciw, 1967, were not clearly defined, needing further investigations; nevertheless, the genus is tentatively included in Rhopalophorini due to its morphological similarity with Dihammaphora and allied genera; 3 Pandrosos Bates, 1867 is brought back to Rhinotragini, in which it was originally placed. Therefore, the tribe Cleomenini Lacordaire is no longer represented in the New World.Estudo morfológico comparado dos gêneros neotropicais de Cleomenini e sua transferência para as tribos Rhopalophorini Blanchard e Rhinotragini Thomson (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae. Com o objetivo de esclarecer as afinidades dos atuais gêneros neotropicais de Cleomenini, foi feito um estudo detalhado da morfologia de representantes das espécies-tipo e/ou de espécies congenéricas. Para efeitos de comparação, foram estudados representantes de Cleomenes Thomson e de outro gêneros não neotropicais de Cleomenini, além de representantes de Rhopalophorini Blanchard e de Rhinotragini Thomson. Os resultados evidenciaram: 1 Listroptera Audinet-Serville, 1834, Dihammaphora Chevrolat, 1859, Haenkea Tippmann, 1953, Aguassay Napp & Mermudes, 2001 e Timabiara

  13. Análise cladística da tribo Rhopalophorini Blanchard, 1845 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae Cladistic analysis of the tribe Rhopalophorini Blanchard, 1845 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalophorini is primarily a New World group. Of the 23 known genera, 19 were described from the Neotropical region. A cladistic analysis of the American genera was carried out with 91 morphological characters. The genera Ozodes Audinet-Serville and Lissozodes Bates, recently transferred to Necydalopsini, were included in the analysis in order to investigate their relationships with the Rhopalophorini. The results suggested that their shared similarities with the Rhopalophorini are symplesiomorphies at the level considered in the analysis, so they are maintained in Necydalopsini, and Neozodes Zajciw, indicated as the sister group of Ozodes, is herein transferred to this tribe. In the same way, Elaphopsis Audinet-Serville is transferred to Ibidionini. Rhopalophorini, as defined in the present work, is a monophyletic group and includes 17 American genera. Within Rhopalophorini, Argyrodines + Parozodes constitute the basalmost group, and Cycnoderus is the sister group of the two major clades formed, one by Ischionodonta, Disaulax, Cosmisoma, Closteropus and Gurubira, and the other, by Rhopalophora, Coremia, Merocoremia, Dirocoremia, Thalusia and Lathusia; the relationships of Rhopalophorella, Rhopalina and Muxbalia remain inconclusive. A phylogenetic classification of Rhopalophorini at the genus level is proposed.

  14. Novas espécies de Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae New species from Coussarea Aubl. and Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae

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    Mario Gomes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies da família Rubiaceae, relacionadas à tribo Coussareae são descritas e ilustradas. São elas: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis e F. picinguabae. Os táxons aqui apresentados tiveram como base material coletado na Serra do Parati, situada na divisa entre os Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, nas proximidades do litoral. Essa serra integra o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina e possui cobertura vegetal predominante da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, sendo essa a área de distribuição e o hábitat dos novos táxons.Four new species of the Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae are described and illustrated: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis and F. picinguabae. They are based on the material collected in the Parati Mountains, located on the border between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, near the coast. This mountainous area is part of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, which is covered mainly by Atlantic Rain Forest. These new taxa are found in this forest within the Park.

  15. Medicinal Plants Used by a Mbyá-Guarani Tribe Against Infections: Activity on KPC-Producing Isolates and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Barth, Afonso Luís; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2015-11-01

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for treatment of infectious diseases by an indigenous Mbyá-Guarani tribe from South Brazil was assessed by evaluating the antibiotic and antibiofilm activities against relevant bacterial pathogens. Aqueous extracts from 10 medicinal plants were prepared according to indigenous Mbyá-Guarani traditional uses. To evaluate antibiotic (OD600) and antibiofilm (crystal violet method) activities, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 and seven multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacterial clinical isolates were challenged with the extracts. Furthermore, the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing bacteria and the ability of these isolates to form biofilm were evaluated. The plants Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Maytenus ilicifolia, Bidens pilosa and Verbena sp. showed the best activity against bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The majority of KPC-producing isolates, which showed strong ability to form biofilm and a multidrug resistance profile, was inhibited by more than 50% by some extracts. The Enterobacter cloacae (KPC 05) clinical isolate was the only one resistant to all extracts. This study confirms the importance of indigenous traditional medicinal knowledge and describes for the first time the ability of these plants to inhibit biofilm formation and/or bacterial growth of multi-drug resistant KPC-producing isolates. PMID:26749812

  16. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  17. Os wannabees e suas tribos: adolescência e distinção na Internet The wannabees and their tribes: adolescence and distinction in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia da Silva Pereira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Observando uma rede virtual de relacionamento, o Orkut, é possível identificar um sistema de classificação determinado pela forma com que os usuários interagem dentro das comunidades. O wannabe é um dos tipos que fazem parte desse universo. Os principais objetivos deste artigo são analisar de que forma a adolescência constrói sua identidade a partir de processos de distinção e controle social na Internet, tomando os aspectos relacionados ao gênero e ao corpo como centrais para a discussão, e refletir sobre os significados atribuídos, nessa fase da vida, a conceitos como "estilo de vida" e "estado de espírito" dentro de dois tipos de comunidades virtuais: a dos "góticos", tribo urbana detentora de uma dada feminilidade, e a das "pró-anas", estritamente virtual, que defende as práticas da anorexia como um estilo de vida.Orkut is a virtual relationship network through which it is possible to identify a system of classification determined by the way users interact inside of the communities. The wannabee is one of the types that are part of this universe. The main goals of this article are to analyze how adolescence constructs its identity from distinction and social control processes in the Internet, taking the aspects related to gender and body as central issues for discussion, and to reflect on the meanings attributed, in this phase of life, to concepts as "life style" and "mood", inside two types of virtual communities: the "gothics", urban tribe representative of one given femininity, and the "pro-anas", strictly virtual, that defends anorexic practices as a life style.

  18. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

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    Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species, Orthoptera (17 species, Hemiptera (16 species, Hymenoptera (15 species and Odonata (9 species, are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  19. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  20. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

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    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  1. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  2. First Post-Operative Urinary Kidney Injury Biomarkers and Association with the Duration of AKI in the TRIBE-AKI Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Steven G.; Nadkarni, Girish N.; Garg, Amit X.; Koyner, Jay; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; McArthur, Eric; Shlipak, Michael G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that assessment of the duration of AKI, in addition to magnitude of rise in creatinine alone, adds prognostic information for long-term survival. We evaluated whether post-operative kidney injury biomarkers in urine collected immediately after cardiac surgery associate with duration of serum creatinine elevation. Methods We studied 1199 adults undergoing cardiac surgery in a prospective cohort study (TRIBE-AKI) and examined the association between the levels of five urinary biomarkers individually at 0–6 hours after surgery: interleukin-18 (IL-18), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and albumin with duration of serum creatinine-based AKIN criteria for AKI (0 (no AKI), 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 days). Results Overall, 407 (34%) patients had at least stage 1 AKI, of whom 251 (61.7%) had duration of 1–2 days, 118 (28.9%) had duration 3–6 days, and 38 (9.3%) had duration of ≥7 days. Higher concentrations of all biomarkers (per log increase) were independently associated with a greater odds of a longer duration of AKI; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using ordinal logistic regression were the following: IL-18: 1.22, 1.13–1.32; KIM-1: 1.36, 1.21–1.52; albumin 1.20, 1.09–1.32; L-FABP 1.11, 1.04–1.19; NGAL 1.06, 1.00–1.14). AKI duration of 7 days or longer was associated with a 5-fold adjusted risk of mortality at 3 years. Conclusions There was an independent dose-response association between urinary levels of injury biomarkers immediately after cardiac surgery and longer duration of AKI. Duration of AKI was also associated with long term mortality. Future studies should explore the potential utility of these urinary kidney injury biomarkers to enrich enrollment of patients at risk for longer duration of AKI into trials of interventions to prevent or treat post-operative AKI. PMID:27537050

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish and Wildlife Program Habitat Protection Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory

  4. Variance component estimates applying random regression models for test-day milk yield in Caracu heifers (Bos taurus Artiodactyla, Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira El Faro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random regression models (RRM were used to estimate covariance functions for 2,155 first-lactation milk yields of native Brazilian Caracu heifers. The models included contemporary group (defined as year-month of test and paddock fixed effects, and quadratic effect of age of cow at calving. Genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted by a random regression model and Legendre polynomials of days in milk (DIM. Schwarz's Bayesian information criteria (BIC indicated that the best RRM assumed a six coefficient function for both random effects and a sixth order variance function for residual structure. Akaike's information criteria suggested a model with the same number of coefficients for both effects and a residual structure fitted by a step function with 15 variances. Phenotypic, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual variances were higher at the beginning and declined during lactation. The RRM heritability estimates were 0.09 to 0.26 and generally higher at the beginning and end of lactation. Some unexpected negative genetic correlations emerged when higher order covariance functions were used. A model with four coefficients for additive genetic covariance function explains more parsimoniously the changes in genetic variation with DIM since the genetic parameter was more acceptable and BIC was close to that for a six coefficient covariance function.

  5. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  6. Prospects for population expansion of the exotic aoudad (Ammotragus lervia; Bovidae) in the Iberian Peninsula: clues from habitat suitability modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinello, Jorge; Acevedo, Pelayo; Hortal, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    We studied the geographical distribution and habitat suitability of an introduced ungulate, the aoudad (Ammotragus lervia), that is currently expanding its range in south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We assessed the niche of the species using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) on (1) environme...

  7. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time.

  8. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are currently of special concern regionally and are important to the culture and subsistence needs of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. The mission of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is to restore and maintain these native trout and the habitats that sustain them in order to provide subsistence harvest and recreational fishing opportunities for the Reservation community. The adfluvial life history strategy exhibited by westslope cutthroat and bull trout in the Lake Coeur d'Alene subbasin makes these fish susceptible to habitat degradation and competition in both lake and stream environments. Degraded habitat in Lake Coeur d'Alene and its associated streams and the introduction of exotic species has lead to the decline of westslope cutthroat and listing of bull trout under the endangered species act (Peters et al. 1998). Despite the effects of habitat degradation, several streams on the Reservation still maintain populations of westslope cutthroat trout, albeit in a suppressed condition (Table 1). The results of several early studies looking at fish population status and habitat condition on the Reservation (Graves et al. 1990; Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996) lead the Tribe to aggressively pursue funding for habitat restoration under the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) resident fish substitution program. Through these efforts, habitat restoration needs were identified and projects were initiated. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is currently involved in implementing stream habitat restoration projects, reducing the transport of sediment from upland sources, and monitoring fish populations in four watersheds on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation (Figure 1). Restoration projects have included riparian plantings, addition of large woody debris to streams, and complete channel reconstruction to restore historical natural

  9. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  10. Taboos of Tibetan Nomadic Tribes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TaboosofTibetanNomadicTribesAOHONGTibetanfolkloreincludesvariouskindsofcelebrations,sacrificialOfferings,andweddingandfuneral...

  11. Zhuge Liang's Thou of National Policies ---To be in amity with various Rong tribes in the west; Pacify the Yi and Yue tribes in the south%试析诸葛亮的民族政策思想——“西和诸戎,南抚夷越”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史成虎

    2011-01-01

    和抚怀柔是诸葛亮“西和诸戎,南抚夷越”民族思想的核心思想,其民族政策思想集中体现在蜀汉民族政策当中。针对南中少数民族,诸葛亮坚持攻心为上、心战为上的指导思想:采取了调整郡县设置,以削弱地方大姓、夷王的势力;推行夷汉官吏交流制度,以加强蜀汉政权对南中的管理;重视先进经济文化传播,以推动南中经济社会发展;因俗而治,以笼络南中各少数民族等措施。而对西部、西北少数民族,也是怀柔和抚与军事镇压两手并用。诸葛亮开明的民族思想和切合实际的民族政策,对民族地区的稳定和蜀汉政权的巩固有着积极意义。诸葛亮“和抚怀柔”民族政策思想对当下处理民族和民族问题仍不乏有借鉴价值。%To be in amity with various Rong tribes in the west and pacify the Yi and Yue tribes in the south isZhuge Liang's national thought, among which the policy of appeasement is the core concept. His thought of national policies may be most demonstrated in the national policy of the Kingdom of Shuhan. He insists that psychological offense is the best tactics when connecting with minorities in Nam Trung. His measures include: making adjustment on the system of prefectures and counties to weaken the power and influence of the local tyrants and kings of Yi, carrying out the communication system between Yi-Han officials to strengthen the administration, attaching importance to the propagation of advanced economy & culture to push the Nam Trung's economy and society ahead, and administrating according to the customs to win over various minorities there, etc. Military suppression and consolidation measures are used simultaneously for the minorities in the west and northwest. Zhuge's enlightened national ideology and ,practical national policy are of great significance to the stability and consolidation of the area and the regime of Shuhan. We can

  12. 基于传播学理论的皖南古聚落发展过程研究——以黄田古聚落为例%Research of Tribes' Development Processing of South Anhui Province basedon Communication Theories:A Case of Huangtian Old Tribes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珎

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we found that the basic rules of development processing of south Anhui province obey the regular pattern of communication theories. In other words, the two-way propagation mechanisms adhere to the process which is characteristic of communication's aggregation and divergent. We analyzed the dynamic development processing from the standpoint of cross discipline subjects thought the on-the-spot investigation and thinking of south Anhui province recently. In order to boost the protection and development of old tribes, several meaningful urban planning strategies have been proposed for enhancing the communication's divergent through the analysis of different factors that impact the aggregation of communications.%皖南古聚落的发展过程遵循传播学的基本规律,具有双向传播机制,即多维信息向古聚落的聚集性传播和以古聚落为信息源的发散性传播.通过对黄田古聚落的实地调研和思考,试图从交叉学科的角度分析和解释其动态发展过程.研究不同要素通过聚集性传播对古聚落发展的影响,并针对在大众传播时代如何增强发散性传播为促进古聚落的保护和发展提供了规划策略.

  13. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  14. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  15. Wissadula Medik. (Malvaceae no Brasil: novas espécies e combinação Wissadula Medik. (Malvaceae in Brazil: new species and combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo G. Bovini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Duas novas espécies e uma nova combinação são apresentadas para o gênero Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula delicata Bovini, W. krapovickasiana Bovini e Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectivamente, além de novos sinônimos. Para as espécies apresentadas, são fornecidas descrições, ilustrações e chaves de reconhecimento para distingui-las das espécies relacionadas.Two new species and a new combination are presented for genus Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula krapovickasiana Bovini, W. delicata Bovini and Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectively, plus new synonyms. Descriptions, illustrations and keys to distinguish these species from similar species are supplied.

  16. 基于多种群改进差分进化算法的环境/经济电力调度优化%Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Optimization Using Multi-Tribe Modified Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱寒晗; 何川; 麦立

    2015-01-01

    应用多种群改进差分进化算法求解环境/经济电力调度( Environmental/Economic Dis-patch, EED)这一多目标优化问题。将多种群策略引入差分进化算法,有助于保持群体多样性,有效避免经典差分进化算法的早熟收敛问题。采用自适应变异因子及交叉因子,使算法在搜索初期保持全局搜索能力,在搜索后期增强局部搜索能力,加快收敛速度。将该算法应用到IEEE 30节点-6机组系统的环境/经济调度优化,仿真计算结果以及与其他算法的对比分析验证了该算法的有效性。%A multi-tribe modified differential evolution algorithm is presented for solving environmental /economic dispatch(EED)multi-objective optimization problem.The multi-tribe strategy is introduced into differential evolution algorithm , to maintain the diversity of the group , and effectively avoid the premature convergence problem in classical differential evolution algorithm .The adaptive mutation and crossover factors are used to keep the global searching ability in the early stage , and to enhance the local searching ability in the late stage to accelerate convergence .The algorithm is applied to obtain environmental/economic power dispatch optimization solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 6-unit system.The results obtained are compared with other algorithms to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm .

  17. Phylogeny of the tribe Menispermeae (Menispermaceae) reconstructed by ITS sequence data%根据ITS序列证据重建防己科 蝙蝠葛族的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪亚平; 陈之端; 路安民

    2001-01-01

    The phylogeny of the tribe Menispermeae (Menispermaceae) represented by 20 species of 9 genera in China, was reconstructed based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) (including ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S rRNA gene ) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Three species of two genera in the tribe Tinosporeae were designated as outgroups. Direct PCR sequencing method was used in the study. The sizes of ITS within trib. Menispermeae range from 527 to 601 bp. The aligned length is 667 bp, which provides 281 phylogenetically informative sites when gaps are treated as missing. The results of phylogenetic analyses show that: ① trib.Menispermeae is a monophyletic group strongly supported by a bootstrap value of 100%; ②Pachygone valida, whose systematic position was uncertain in the previous classification, should be placed in the Cocculus. ③Sinomenium and Menispermum are two close genera of the tribe. Their sequcences are very similar to each other, with ITS1 having 41 to 73 bp longer than that of the other genera in trib.Menispermeae. ④Stephania and Cyclea are also closely related. The former forms two major clades, which are approximately consistent with the two traditional subgenera: subgen. Stephania and subgen. Tuberiphania. The species of Cyclea are mutually little diverged in complete ITS sequences, and they comprise a sister clade to the genus Stephania.%研究了国产防己科蝙蝠葛族trib. Menispermeae 9属20种和外类群青牛胆族trib. Tinosporeae 2属3种植物完整的ITS(包括5.8S rDNA)序列。 trib. Menispermeae的ITS长527~601 bp,排序后长667 bp。当gap处理为missing时具281个有信息位点。 PAUP软件分析结果表明:① trib. Menispermeae是一个单系类群,该分支得到bootstrap 100%的支持;②确定了存疑种 Pachygone valida的系统学位置, 该种是Cocculus属的成员;③ Sinomenium 和Menispermum两属有很近的系统学关系, 组成族内稳定的一支,它们

  18. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  19. “蚁族”的留京动机、需要满足程度与主观幸福感的关系%Relationship of Ant Tribe's Motivation, Need Satisfaction, and Subjective Well-being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤; 蒋奖; 邱辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:基于自我决定理论,探讨“蚁族”的留京动机(包括自主动机和受控动机)与主观幸福感的关系,以及基本心理需要满足程度在其中所起的中介作用.方法:采用自我整合量表、需要满意度量表、生活满意度量表、积极和消极情感量表对171名“蚁族”进行调查,使用回归分析对数据进行处理.结果:①自主动机显著正向预测主观幸福感,受控动机显著负向预测主观幸福感;②基本心理需要满足程度在自主动机和受控动机与主观幸福感的关系中起完全中介作用.结论:“蚁族”的自主动机可显著提升主观幸福感,受控动机降低主观幸福感,这种影响通过基本心理需要满足程度起作用.%Objective: Following self-determination theory to explore the impact of the autonomous and controlled motivation of staying in Beijing on subjective well-being and the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Methods: Data were collected from 171 graduated students called Ant Tribe, working in Beijing, with Self-concordance Scale, Need Satisfaction Scale, Satisfaction With life Scale (SWLS) and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and were analyzed by linear regression. Results: Subjective well-being could be positively predicted by autonomous motivation and negatively predicted by controlled motivation. The relationship between autonomous and controlled motivation and subjective well-being was completely mediated by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Conclusion: The subjective well-being of Ant Tribe could be promoted by autonomous motivation and undermined by controlled motivation, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs played mediating roles between the relationships.

  20. 叶盲蝽族系统分类学研究简史(半翅目:盲蝽科:叶盲蝽亚科)%Brief Introduction of Systematics of Tribe Phylini ( Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 刘国卿

    2011-01-01

    叶盲蝽族(Phylini)隶属于盲蝽科(Miridae)叶盲蝽亚科(Phylinae),是种类较多的类群世界已知226属近2000种,主要分布于古北区、东洋区、新北区和埃塞俄比亚区等.回顾了叶盲蝽族的研究历史,分析了叶盲蝽族(Phylini)分类系统的建立过程,总结了我国叶盲蝽族的研究状况.%Tribe Phylini belongs to the subfamily Phylinae and family Miridae with more species. Up to present,226 genera and about 2000 spe cies of Phylini have been known all around the world. They are mainly distributed in the Palaearctic, Nearctic, Oriental and Ethiopian Region. This paper reviews the research history of Phylini ,analyzes the building process of its c lassification system,and summarizes the research conditions of Phylini in China.

  1. Molecular phylogenetics, diversification, and systematics of Tibicen Latreille 1825 and allied cicadas of the tribe Cryptotympanini, with three new genera and emphasis on species from the USA and Canada(Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathy B R; Marshall, David C; Moulds, Maxwell S; Simon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    North America has a diverse cicada fauna with multiple genera from all three Cicadidae subfamilies, yet molecular phylogenetic analyses have been completed only for the well-studied periodical cicadas (Magicicada Davis). The genus Tibicen Latreille, a large group of charismatic species, is in need of such work because morphological patterns suggest multiple groups with complicated relationships to other genera in the tribe Cryptotympanini. In this paper we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, of 35 of the 38 extant USA species and subspecies of the genus Tibicen together with their North American tribal allies (Cornuplura Davis, Cacama Davis), selected Tibicen species from Eurasia, and representatives of other Eurasian and Pacific cryptotympanine genera. This tree shows that Tibicen contains several well-supported clades, one predominating in eastern and central North America and related to Cryptotympana Stål and Raiateana Boulard, another in western North America related to Cacama and Cornuplura, and at least two clades in Eurasia. We also present a morphological cladistic analysis of Tibicen and its close allies based on 27 characters. Character states identified in the cladistic analysis define three new genera, two for North American taxa (Hadoa gen. n. and Neotibicen gen. n.) including several Mexican species, and one for Asian species (Subsolanus gen. n.). Using relaxed molecular clocks and literature-derived mtDNA rate estimates, we estimate the timeframe of diversification of Tibicen clades and find that intergeneric divergence has occurred since the late Eocene, with most extant species within the former Tibicen originating after the mid-Miocene. We review patterns of ecology, behavior, and geography among Tibicen clades in light of the phylogenetic results and note that the study of these insects is still in its early stages. Some Mexican species formerly placed in Tibicen are here transferred to Diceroprocta

  2. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, James K

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes-Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892-are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand's initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea.

  3. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Liebherr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes–Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892–are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY; Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY; Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY. Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: M. amplipennis (Broun, M. eplicatus (Broun, M. placens (Broun, M. bellorum, sp. n., M. rectus, sp. n., and M. spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand’s initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the butterfly tribe Satyrini (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) with emphasis on the utility of ribosomal mitochondrial genes 16s rDNA and nuclear 28s rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-07-09

    The tribe Satyrini is one of the most diverse groups of butterflies, but no robust phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has been achieved. Two rarely used 16s and 28s ribosomal and another seven protein-coding genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Satyrini, with further aim to evaluate the informativeness of the ribosomal genes. Our maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses consistently recovered three well-supported clades for the eleven sampled subtribes of Satyrini: clade I includes Eritina and Coenonymphina, being sister to the clade II + clade III; clade II contains Parargina, Mycalesina and Lethina, and the other six subtribes constitute clade III. The placements of the taxonomically unstable Davidina Oberthür and geographically restricted Paroeneis Moore in Satyrina are confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. The close relationships of Callerebia Butler, Loxerebia Watkins and Argestina Riley are well-supported. We suggest that Rhaphicera Butler belongs to Lethina. The partitioned Bremer support (PBS) values of MP analysis show that the 16s rDNA contributes well to the nodes representing all the taxa from subtribe to species levels, and the 28s rDNA is informative at the subtribe level. Furthermore, our ML analyses show that the ribosomal genes 16s rDNA and 28s rDNA are informative, because most node support values are lower in the ML tree after the removal of them than that in ML tree constructed based on the full nine-gene dataset. This indicates that some other ribosomal genes should be tentatively used through combining with traditionally used protein-coding genes in further analysis on phylogeny of Satyrini, providing that proper representatives are sampled.

  5. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa

    OpenAIRE

    S.D. Gad; S.K. Shyama

    2009-01-01

    Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%). In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and teak (Tectona grandis) trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square...

  6. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  7. Independent confirmation of a diagnostic sheep/goat peptide sequence through DNA analysis and further exploration of its taxonomic utility within the Bovidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Michael G.; Robinson, Terence; Campos, Paula F.;

    2013-01-01

    Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach that amplif......Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach...... that amplifies the diagnostic sequence from exon 41 of the COL1A2 gene. Using DNA analysis, we confirmed that this COL1A2 peptide discriminates between goat and sheep species reliably, but is limited as a more general phylogenetic marker. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  8. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano; Usaquén Martínez William

    2006-01-01

    La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es e...

  9. A note on the behaviour of Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae in lowland Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Pokharel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies provide the reasons behind habitat preferences of animals and their fitness to survive and propagate.  The Four-horned Antelope, an endangered endemic species to the Indian subcontinent was monitored at Ratamate area of Babai Valley in Bardia National Park, Nepal.  We used ad libitum sampling and focal animal sampling within the rule for continuous recording of ‘all-occurrences’ of ‘vigilance’ behaviour. We found that the Four-horned Antelope remains ‘alert and vigilant’ during 40% of its behavioural time budget when it scans the surroundings with raised head, with or without chewing. In the event of sudden threat it ‘freezes’, lying down still and hiding in the ground cover.  Therefore, maintenance of ground cover should form a regular practice in conservation management of the Four-horned Antelope. 

  10. 陕西府谷晚中新世蓝牛化石%LATE MIOCENE BOSELAPHINI (BOVIDAE, ARTIODACTYLA) FROM FUGU, SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆群

    2005-01-01

    尽管中国发现的中新羚(偶蹄目,牛科,蓝牛族)化石较少,但由于其重要的生物年代学意义而备受重视,被作为与欧洲Vallesian期动物群对比的重要分子.描述了新近在陕西府谷喇嘛沟发现的头骨标本.依据下颌骨形态与牙齿特征,将其归入Miotragocerus gregarius (Schlosser,1903).新发现的材料完善了该种的鉴定特征:中等大小的蓝牛类;角心强烈后倾,中等分散度,具前后两条棱,横断面呈椭圆形;雄性个体角心前的额骨部分强烈隆升,雌性个体则无明显隆起;脑颅部分成梯形,其最大宽度在角心后,最小宽度在枕骨位置上;基枕骨前后突之间没有沟槽发育;P2与P3具发育且后置的次尖;p4下后尖前后向扩展.对比研究表明,该种较Miotragocerus spectabilis原始,而后者为中国发现的蓝牛类的最后代表且于中新世末期绝灭.对比巴基斯坦以及欧洲的蓝牛,认为中国的Miotragocerus可能与欧洲的种类关系较为密切,而不同于巴基斯坦的Tragoportax.最新的研究资料表明,Miotragocerus在中国主要发现于晚中新世中晚期(Turolian期),可能在8 Ma之前从欧洲迁移至东亚,由于剧烈的气候及生态环境的改变于晚中新世末期与Urmiatheriinae等大型牛科化石一起绝灭.%Though rarely reported from china, Miotragocerus has long been considered as one of the Vallesian equivalent indicators in the comparison with European faunas. Study on new specimens of Miotragocerus gregarius improves its diagnostic characters. Comparison with European and Pakistan taxa reveals that Miotragocerus possibly migrated into Eastern Asia before 8 Ma, and evolved independently into M. Spectabilis, which went extinct at the end of Lated Miocene together with some large bovids, such as all genera of Urmiatheriinae, due to dramatically climated and ecological changes at the and of the Late Miocene.

  11. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  12. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas europeas a esta raza.

  13. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  14. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    As part of an ongoing project to restore fisheries resources in tributaries located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, this report details the activities of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries Program for FY 1997 and 1998. This report (1) analyses the effect introduced species and water quality have on the abundance of native trout in Coeur d'Alene Lake and selected target tributaries; (2) details results from an ongoing mark-recapture study on predatory game fish; (3) characterizes spawning habitats in target tributaries and evaluates the effects of fine sediment on substrate composition and estimated emergence success; and (4) provides population estimates for westslope cutthroat trout in target tributaries. Low dissolved oxygen values in the hypolimnion of Coeur d'Alene Lake continue to be a cause for concern with regard to available fisheries habitat. Four sample sites in 1997 and eight sample sites in 1998 had measured levels of dissolved oxygen below what is considered optimum (6.0 mg/L) for cutthroat trout. As well, two sample points located north of the Coeur d'Alene River showed hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen deficits. This could lead to a more serious problem associated with the high concentration of heavy metals bound up in the sediment north of the Coeur d'Alene River. Most likely these oxygen deficits are a result of allochthonous input of organic matter and subsequent decomposition. Sediment loading from tributaries continues to be a problem in the lake. The build up of sediments at the mouths of all incoming tributaries results in the modification of existing wetlands and provides ideal habitat for predators of cutthroat trout, such as northern pike and largemouth bass. Furthermore, increased sediment deposition provides additional substrate for colonization by aquatic macrophytes, which serve as forage and habitat for other non-native species. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of

  15. Digital tribes in the university classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Palacios Picos; Luis Torrego Egido; Alfonso Gutiérrez Martín

    2010-01-01

    Se ha extendido el discurso que afirma que los profundos cambios en las TIC experimentados en la última década han modificado también radicalmente el aprendizaje de nuestros estudiantes universitarios, considerados todos ellos nativos digitales. En este artículo se sostiene, sin embargo, que dichos cambios no son tan inmediatos, automáticos o beneficiosos como el discurso dominante sobre la bondad de las TIC pretende hacernos creer, y que dan lugar a múltiples y variadas situaciones intermedi...

  16. Hill tribes struggling for a land deal

    OpenAIRE

    Puginier, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    Das Hochland Nordthailands isi ein Beispiel für eine widersprüchliche Situation die entsteht, wenn ein zentralistisches Regierungssystem seine Kontrolle auf entlegene Gebiete ausdehnt und auf traditionellen Wanderfeldbau auftrifft. Auf Regierungsseite zeichnet sich die Politik durch unterschiedliche Interessen der Walderhaltung einerseits und Integration von ethnischen Minderheiten andererseits aus. Die Bergstämme ihrerseits erstreben Landsicherheit um ihre Subsistenzwirtschaft zu sichern. So...

  17. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there epigenetic factors involved that might also explain low observed twin concordance? The genetic (and

  18. Shanyan's Mystical Patrilineal Tribes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUIXIAOJIE

    2003-01-01

    SHANYAN, "perilous terrain" in Tibetan, is believed to be site of the largest primitive forest in the upper reaches of the Jinsha River. Located south of Baiyu County in Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, Shanyan is characterized by its harsh torrents, hazardous reefs and daunting mountain ridges. These topographic barriers have isolated the township and preserved the tribal traditions of the ethnic minorities that live here.

  19. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there epigenetic factors involved that might also explain low observed twin concordance? The genetic (and epigenetic) models for different IFEs, their comorbidities, and their similarities to other neurodevelopmental disorders deserve investigation in the coming years. In so doing, we will probably learn much about normal brain functioning. This is because these disorders, perhaps more than any other human brain disease, are disorders of functional brain systems (even though these functional networks may not yet be fully defined). In June 2012, an international group of clinical and basic science researchers met in London under the auspices of the Waterloo Foundation to discuss and debate these issues in relation to IFEs. This Waterloo Foundation Symposium on the Idiopathic Focal Epilepsies: Phenotype to Genotype witnessed presentations that explored the clinical phenomenology, phenotypes and endophenotypes, and genetic approaches to investigation of these disorders. In parallel, the impact of these epilepsies on children and their families was reviewed. The papers in this supplement are based upon these presentations. They represent an updated state-of-the-art thinking on the topics explored. The symposium led to the formation of international working groups under the umbrella of "Luke's Idiopathic Focal Epilepsy Project" to investigate various aspects of the idiopathic focal epilepsies including: semiology and classification, genetics, cognition, sleep, high-frequency oscillations, and parental resources (see www.childhood-epilepsy.org). The next sponsored international workshop, in June 2014, was on randomised controlled trials in IFEs and overnight learning outcome measures. PMID:27435520

  20. Research on the Public Rental Housing Supply of the Housing Security Problems of"College Students Ant Tribe":Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs%解决“大学生蚁族”住房保障问题的公租房供给研究--基于马斯洛需求层理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆允

    2016-01-01

    At present, the college students ant tribe is the social low income class. The government should solve their housing problems from the supply of public rental housing. Based on the analysis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in order to solve the supply of public rental housing of college students ant tribe, the government should adjust the entry criteria of public rental housing for the college students ant tribe to solve their physiological requirements, enhance the property management services of public rental housing to solve their security requirements, improve the construction site selection and design of public rental housing to solve their social requirements, create the community culture of public rental housing to solve their respect requirements and additional services of public rental housing to solve their requirements of self realization.%当前大学生蚁族作为社会低收入阶层,政府应从公租房的供给着手解决其居住问题。基于马斯洛需求层次理论分析,政府应在对大学生蚁族的公租房供给方面做到:从生理需求出发,调整大学生蚁族申请公租房租住准入条件;从安全需求出发,提升大学生蚁族公租房物业管理服务;从社会需求出发,改进大学生蚁族公租房建筑选址和设计方案;从尊重需求出发,营造大学生蚁族公租房租住社区文化;从自我实现需求出发,探索大学生蚁族公租房附加服务。

  1. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic. Two subordinate groups are recognized within present Cladomorphinae, which differ considerably in numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs. The first group and here regarded as Cladomorphinae sensu stricto is formed by the mostly South American Cladomorphini + Cranidiini + Cladoxerini, while the second group is formed by the predominantly Caribbean Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini.        Members of the first group (= Cladomorphini sensu stricto) share the dorsally carinate basitarsus in which the two dorsal carinae are melted with another, increasingly elongated gonapophyses VIII of females which are noticeably longer than gonapophyses IX and lamellate as well as strongly displaced medioventral carina of the profemora. Cranidiini + Cladomorphini share the strongly elongated and filiform gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in the females, specialized poculum of males and presence of a median line in the eggs. Cranidiini differs from all other tribes of Cladomorphinae by the entirely unarmed legs of both sexes, distinctly broadened and leaf-like body and prominent longitudinal keel of the mesosternum of females, prominently enlarged poculum and spinulose phallus of males as well as the conspicuous narrowing of the posteromedian gap of the internal micropylar plate of the eggs and noticeably separated median line. Cladomorphini is characteristic

  2. PALEOZOOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102487 Chen Guanfang(Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100044,China);Zhang Zhaoqun Taxonomy and Evolutionary Process of Neogene Bovidae from China(Vertebrata Palasiatica,ISSN1000-3118,CN11-1905/Q,47(4),2009,p.265-281,1 table,56 refs.)Key words:Bovidae,ChinaBovidae is one of the most diversified groups of

  3. 清入关前满洲民族联合过程与满洲对索伦部的政策%Combined Process of Manchu Nationality and Policies of Manchu Carried out to the Tribe of Suolun before Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦震

    2015-01-01

    明清之际,满洲崛起于东北,以居住在辽宁东部的建州女真和吉林松花江沿岸至南部的海西女真为主体,联合东北其他少数民族形成满洲共同体。满洲的民族联合过程属于聚合过程,血缘、文化相近的民族或部落、部族汇聚为一个民族共同体。在满洲民族联合的过程中,索伦部一些人员加入满洲,成为新满洲,融入到满洲共同体中。对于满洲民族联合过程的发展做出了重要贡献。满洲对于仍居住在黑龙江北的索伦部,实行朝贡赏赐、联姻、编旗设佐政策,淡化其民族认同,加强其对满洲的政治认同。%During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Manchu rose in the northeast, forming a Manchu community concluding Nvzhen nationality which lived in the eastern part of Liaoning, Haixi Jurchens who lived from the Songhua River to the south as well as other ethnics in Northeast of China.The combined process of Manchu belongs to the polymerization process that ethnic, tribe or clan of blood and common culture gathered a national community .In the Manchu ethnic joint process, Suolun staff joined the Manchu to be-come the new Manchuria into the Manchu community , which made important contributions to the development of the combined process of Manchu nationality.Manchu carried out such policies as the tribute reward , the marriage and setting eight flags to Suolun who still lived in the north of Heilongjiang.In addition, it weaked Suolun’ s ethnic identity to strengthen the political identity of Manchu.

  4. Characterizing adaptive morphological patterns related to habitat use and body mass in Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)%牛科(哺乳纲:偶蹄目)动物与生境利用有关的适应形态模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel MENDOZA; Paul PALMQVIST

    2006-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the postcranial skeleton of extant bovids reveals patterns of osteological features indicative of ecological adaptations for habitat use and body size. The morphological patterns that characterize the postcranial anatomy of bovid species from each habitat type were identified with stepwise canonical discriminant analysis and decision trees, a technique based on machine learning. The analyses were carried out using 43 measurements from 110 extant bovid species. The discriminant functions and decision trees obtained allow a perfect discrimination among bovids adapted to open plains, forests and mountainous areas (100 % of correct reclassifications obtained in all comparisons), using sets of variables measured in all major limb bones as well as combinations of variables derived exclusively from single limb elements. Given that the adjusted algorithms involve small sets of postcranial measurements, they can also be applied to noncomplete specimens preserved in archaeological and paleontological assemblages, thus being useful for estimating the locomotor performances of ancient taxa. These algorithms, indicative of ecological adaptations for habitat use, combined with those adjusted with craniodental measurements for estimating the dietary preferences of bovid species, have the potential for characterizing the paleoautecology of extinct taxa and may be used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. We also analyze if multiple regression equations show higher predictive ability for estimating body mass than simple regression equations, and propose the best algorithms obtained from postcranial morphological variables measured in each single major limb bone [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (6): 971-987, 2006].%对广义牛科动物颅后骨骼的多元变量分析揭示了牛科生境利用和体型之间的骨学特征.利用逐步分辨分析方法和一个基于机器学习的决策树方法鉴别了每种生境中牛科动物颅后解剖结构的形态特征.从110个广义牛科动物测量了43个指标进行了这项分析.利用所有主要肢骨测量值和以单根肢骨测量为主的测量值获得的分辨函数和决策树可以完美地区分适应开阔生境、森林和山地的牛科动物(在所有分析中得到了100%正确的再分类).由于调整的函数仅涉及到很小的颅后骨骼测量集,这些函数可以应用于研究考古学和古生物学发掘物中保存的不完整标本.这些表征生境利用的生态适应函数与那些用颅齿部性状建立、用于推测牛科动物食物选择的函数结合,具有刻画已灭绝的分类类群的古个体生态学和重建古环境的潜力.我们还分析了多元回归是否较单一因子回归表现出较高的预测能力,并提出了从每一种单根主要肢骨测量的颅后形态变量得到的最好代数函数[动物学报52(6):971-987,2006].

  5. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ipinza-Regla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B. La metodología incluyó siembras en medios de cultivos nutritivos, selectivos y diferenciales. Posteriormente y según el microorganismo a seguir se continuó con algunas pruebas bioquímicas específicas correspondientes a cada caso. En el presente estudio se decidió investigar la presencia de seis agentes patógenos importantes por su frecuencia en caso de infección en humanos: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Pseudomona aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Campylobacter jejuni. En los resultados de este estudio se detectaron cuatro potenciales patógenos: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., P. aeruginosa y E. coli. Además se encontraron otros agentes microbianos: Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia vulneris, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcencens biog.1, Ewingella americana, Providencia rettgeri, Bacillus spp., Enterobacter aglomerans, Stomatococcus spp., Morganella morganii. Las muestras Control A resultaron negativas. Las muestras de hormigas fueron positivos en 95,23%, en cambio, las muestras controles B presentaron desarrollo bacteriano en 90,47% de los casos, siendo ambos estadísticamente mayores al control A (P < 0,05. Se logró confirmar que L. humile es capaz de transportar agentes microbianos en una lechería de cabras.

  6. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    J Ipinza-Regla; D González; Figueroa, G

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B). La metodolo...

  7. 76 FR 28446 - Policy on Consultation With Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... use of neutral facilitation and other collaborative problem-solving approaches to promote effective... U.S.C. 479a. Tribal Consultation Team--The Secretary's designee has established and may develop a plan of action for the continued involvement of a joint Federal-Tribal Team including...

  8. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that organizational behaviour and business relations in African countries reflect preindustrial social norms typical of kinship based, rural communities such as in-group/out-group differentiation, reliance on kinship and the use of gift-exchange to c...... of social distance and reciprocity showing how this theory explains behaviours in and between African organizations.......-exchange to create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...... literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory...

  9. 75 FR 7448 - Species Recovery Grants to Tribes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... used to recover, manage, or improve current management strategies for a given species. Proposals... with appropriate subject-matter expertise and may be from federal or state agencies, academic... sections of the Federal funding opportunity announcement; e. Applicant's prior award performance;...

  10. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical v

  11. Pascua Yaqui Tribe Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvayo, Maria

    2014-05-30

    In 2012, PYT was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program to conduct a Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study that would define the technical and economic viability of renewable energy on tribal lands. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was hired by PYT to complete the study. Through this study, Red Mountain concluded that there are viable opportunities for solar at Tortuga Ranch, the Casino del Sol and a third site near the Justice Center on Camino de Oeste.

  12. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over......-industrial cultural traits and offers a theory showing their inner, social logic. Drawing on examples from the existing literature on African management it is shown how the pre-industrial norms are manifested in organizational practice and business.......The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over...... from tribal and peasant communities. In modern, urban organizations the presence of pre-industrial norms is seen in the continued importance of in-group/out-group differention, gift exchange and kinship obligations. The paper suggests an explanation of the continued permanence of pre...

  13. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... property involved in the violation of the ordinance, and violation of this ordinance shall be prima facie... on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953)). This amendment further regulates and controls the sale... by any state department of motor vehicles; 2.4.2. United States Active Duty Military card; or...

  14. Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2009-08-01

    Processing fluency, or the subjective experience of ease with which people process information, reliably influences people's judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. Experimenters have manipulated processing fluency using a vast array of techniques, which, despite their diversity, produce remarkably similar judgmental consequences. For example, people similarly judge stimuli that are semantically primed (conceptual fluency), visually clear (perceptual fluency), and phonologically simple (linguistic fluency) as more true than their less fluent counterparts. The authors offer the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Because every cognition falls along a continuum from effortless to demanding and generates a corresponding fluency experience, the authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment.

  15. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  16. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  17. Capturing the imaginary: Students and other tribes in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Arbonés Aran

    2015-01-01

    This thesis wants to contribute to operationalize insights into student identities, urban images and city/educational marketing and management communication. Instead of harping on the discourse of managing and increasing the positive image of Amsterdam, this thesis aims to give insight into a more r

  18. 40 CFR 131.35 - Colville Confederated Tribes Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Analysis of Pollutants” (40 CFR part 136). When a testing method is not available for a particular... Armstrong Creek Class III Barnaby Creek Class II Bear Creek Class III Beaver Dam Creek Class II Bridge Creek... Class II Granite Creek Class II Grizzly Creek Class III Haley Creek Class III Hall Creek Class II...

  19. The -gliadin-like -prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng-Fei Qi; Cheng-Xing Le; Zhao Wang; Yu-Bin Liu; Qing Chen; Zhen-Zhen Wei; Bin-Jie Xu; Zheng-Yuan Wei; Shou-Fen Dai; Yu-Ming Wei; You-Liang Zheng

    2014-04-01

    The -prolamins are important components of seed storage proteins in wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, the -prolamin genes from the diploid Triticeae species were systemically characterized. Most of the -prolamins (except 75 K -secalins) characterized were defined as -gliadin-like -prolamins, since they shared same characteristic model structure with -gliadins. Over one-third of these putatively functional -prolamin peptides contained different number of cysteine residues as compared to the eight residues present in -gliadins. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses showed the conservation of -prolamin genes in Triticeae species under evolutionary selection. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these -prolamin genes can not be clearly separated according to their genomic origins, reflecting the conservation of -gliadin-like -prolamin genes after the divergence of Triticeae species. A screening of coeliac disease (CD) toxic epitopes shows that the -prolamins from some other genomes contain much fewer epitopes than those from the A, S (B) and D genomes of wheat. These findings contribute to better understanding of -prolamin family in Triticeae and build a ground for breeding less CD-toxic wheat cultivars.

  20. Patrones de distribución geográfica de la riqueza de especies de roedores de la tribu Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae en Sudamérica: Evaluando la importancia de los procesos de colonización y extinción Geographic patterns of richness distribution of rodents species from the Oryzomyini tribe (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in South America: Evaluating the importance of colonization and extinction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELYN VALENCIA-PACHECO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La tribu de roedores Oryzomyini es la más diversa dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae. Está constituida por 120 especies y 31 géneros, de las cuales 83 son endémicas del continente sudamericano. Este grupo exhibe una extensa distribución que abarca toda la región Neotropical, caracterizada por la presencia de una mayor riqueza en la Amazonia con una disminución monotónica hacia el sur y norte de Sudamérica. Este es un patrón bastante conocido en la mayoría de los taxones, por lo que se han propuesto varios mecanismos causales. Sin embargo, se desconocen los mecanismos que dan cuenta de este gradiente latitudinal en la riqueza de especies de Oryzomyini. Debido a que estas especies son originarias de la Amazonia, y que a través de su historia colonizaron ambientes nuevos y más variables (sur y norte, se evaluó la hipótesis fuente-sumidero, mediada por procesos de colonización y extinción, como potencial explicación al patrón de riqueza observado. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se reunió una base de datos de distribución y riqueza de especies por grado de latitud para todo el continente sudamericano. Posteriormente se evaluó el grado de anidamiento mediante los índices de T (temperatura, BR (discrepancia y NODF. Nuestros resultados evidenciaron un grado de anidamiento significativo en la distribución de Oryzomyini, y un anidamiento significativo separadamente en filas y columnas de la matriz. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la dinámica fuente-sumidero afecta el patrón de distribución de la riqueza de roedores Oryzominos, a través de un proceso de colonización durante su expansión en Sudamérica que fue mediado por los rangos de tolerancia de las especies. Finalmente, las especies menos tolerantes se habrían extinguido, lo que determinaría un menor número de especies hacia el sur y norte de la Amazonia.The Oryzomyini rodent tribe is the most diverse taxon within the Sigmodontinae subfamily. This tribe includes 120