Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these
MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike
The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5-8 million years ago (MYA). Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in coding sections of the genome
Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the
CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 Order Artiodactyla Owen............... 8 Family Bovidae Gray................ 8 Subfamily Bovinae Gill................ 8 Duboisia santeng (Dubois).............. 8 Epileptobos groeneveldtii (Dubois)............ 19 Hemibos triquetricornis Rütimeyer............
Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).
About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and
Vlerk, van der I.M.
The plates I—XI contain illustrations of all the skulls and horn-cores of Bovidae from the Quaternary of the Netherlands, brought together in the National Museum of Geology at Leyden, Holland. They were all photographed with the occiputs vertical or what is thought to be vertical. They are described
Tan, Shuai; Wang, Zhihong; Jiang, Lichun; Peng, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong
Blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur , is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding mountains, which are the highest-elevation areas in the world. Classical morphological taxonomy suggests that there are two subspecies in genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Artiodactyla), namely Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis . However, the validity and geographic characteristics of these subspecies have never been carefully discussed and analyzed. This may be partially because previous studies have mainly focused on the vague taxonomic status of Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep). Thus, there is an urgent need to investigate the evolutionary relationship and taxonomy system of this genus. This study enriches a previous dataset by providing a large number of new samples, based on a total of 225 samples covering almost the entire distribution of blue sheep. Molecular data from cytochrome b and the mitochondrial control region sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of this species. The phylogenetic inferences show that vicariance plays an important role in diversification within this genus. In terms of molecular dating results and biogeographic analyses, the striking biogeographic pattern coincides significantly with major geophysical events. Although the results raise doubt about the present recognized distribution range of blue sheep, they have corroborated the validity of the identified subspecies in genus Pseudois . Meanwhile, these results demonstrate that the two geographically distinct populations, the Helan Mountains and Pamir Plateau populations, have been significantly differentiated from the identified subspecies, a finding that challenges the conventional taxonomy of blue sheep.
Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien
Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440
Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…
Molecular phylogenetics has provided unprecedented resolution in the ruminant evolutionary tree. However, molecular age estimates using only one or a few (often misapplied) fossil calibration points have produced a diversity of conflicting ages for important evolutionary events within this clade. I here identify 16 fossil calibration points of relevance to the phylogeny of Bovidae and Ruminantia and use these, individually and together, to construct a dated molecular phylogeny through a reanalysis of the full mitochondrial genome of over 100 ruminant species. The new multi-calibrated tree provides ages that are younger overall than found in previous studies. Among these are young ages for the origin of crown Ruminantia (39.3-28.8 Ma), and crown Bovidae (17.3-15.1 Ma). These are argued to be reasonable hypotheses given that many basal fossils assigned to these taxa may in fact lie on the stem groups leading to the crown clades, thus inflating previous age estimates. Areas of conflict between molecular and fossil dates do persist, however, especially with regard to the base of the rapid Pecoran radiation and the sister relationship of Moschidae to Bovidae. Results of the single-calibrated analyses also show that a very wide range of molecular age estimates are obtainable using different calibration points, and that the choice of calibration point can influence the topology of the resulting tree. Compared to the single-calibrated trees, the multi-calibrated tree exhibits smaller variance in estimated ages and better reflects the fossil record. The use of a large number of vetted fossil calibration points with soft bounds is promoted as a better approach than using just one or a few calibrations, or relying on internal-congruency metrics to discard good fossil data. This study also highlights the importance of considering morphological and ecological characteristics of clades when delimiting higher taxa. I also illustrate how phylogeographic and paleoenvironmental
Full Text Available In this paper cranial, dental and postcraneal fossil remains of the Bovidae family from Tarazona de Aragón are described. There are two forms in this Middle Miocene paleontological site of the Ebro Basin according to the metric and morphological characteristics of the dentition and hom cores. One form is referred to Eotragus and classified as E. aff. sansaniensis, showing more developed features than the other Iberian forms of the same genus. The other form is classified provisionally as aff. Tethytragus because it is quite similar to the Iberian Tethytragus langai and differs from Eotragus. The two bovids from Tarazona show differences in size, hypsodoncy and dental morphology, especially the differences of development and prominence of the styles/stylideds and ribs are obvious.Se describen restos fósiles dentarios, craneales y postcraneales pertenecientes a la familia Bovidae del yacimiento de Tarazona de Aragón. Según las características morfológicas y métricas de la dentición y los núcleos óseos, existen dos formas en este yacimiento del Mioceno medio de la Cuenca del Ebro. Una ha sido atribuida al género Eotragus y clasificada como E. aff. sansaniensis, mostrando características más derivadas que el resto de las formas ibéricas del mismo género. La otra se clasifica, provisionalmente, como aff. Tethytragus, ya que guarda similitudes con la especie ibérica Tethytragus langai y diferencias evidentes con respecto a Eotragus. Los dos taxones se diferencian netamente respecto a la talla, hipsodoncia y morfología de la dentición; sobre todo, las diferencias de desarrollo y prominencia de los estilos/estílidos y costillas mismos son evidentes.
Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst
Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.
Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,
The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.
Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig
Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From thi...... of electronic word of mouth in social network environments....... this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a...
Woodcock, Clarence; And Others
A source document, illustrated with many black and white photographs of tribe members and activities, provides a brief history of the American Indian tribes, now called the Flatheads, living on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana and describes some of their cultural traditions, particularly their ceremonial dances. The booklet traces the…
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer
The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.
Michael G Walsh
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features. The current investigation modeled RVF risk throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a function of a suite of biotic and abiotic landscape features using machine learning methods. Intermittent wetland, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density were associated with increased landscape suitability to RVF outbreaks. These results suggest the role of wildlife hosts and distinct hydrogeographic landscapes in RVF virus circulation and subsequent outbreaks may be underestimated. These results await validation by studies employing a deeper, field-based interrogation of potential wildlife hosts within high risk taxa.
The result of the research shows that there is a social change in Bajo society living permanently in Karimunjawa that is, the change of daily behavior in the society, social interaction with other tribes, values held by the society and social institution, structure and social classes. Social change occurring to Bajo society in Karimunjawa brings positive influences. The social changes among others are awareness towards the importance of education, Bajo society has new jobs other than fisherman, the increase of income, living standard, also modernization in fisheries system. The negative impact as a consequence of the social changes is faded culture, changes in life orientation and views of life, and consumerism in the society.
Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.
Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty
United States. Bonneville Power Administration
This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.
Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,
Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts
The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar
The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Holt, Jeffrey W.
The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.
Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.
Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E
A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.
Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental
The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.
Sturtevant, William C.
Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.
The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.
This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the... OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts § 115.804 Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the tribe receives through direct pay? No...
Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.
The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.
Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio
We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.
Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza
We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.
Rapp, James; Albert, Steve
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded: The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA"). Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization. An intern program. Staff training. Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.
Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof
this largest of all lamioid tribes. We included 143 accessions corresponding to 121 species, representing both Old and New World species, and all 12 recognized genera of tribe Stachydeae. Both nuclear and plastid data corroborate monophyly of the tribe, with Melittis as sister to all remaining Stachydeae...... subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan ... When countries such as Jordan and Yemen adopted political pluralism, the ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.
Thwing, C J; Arruda, E; Vieira Filho, J P; Castelo Filho, A; Gwaltney, J M
In early 1985, the Parakana-Apiterewa, a small, primitive Indian tribe, was contacted in the southern Amazon Basin. The tribe was thought to have been totally isolated from civilization until recent development of their land. Blood specimens were collected in 1985, shortly after the discovery of the tribe, and analyzed for the presence of rhinovirus-neutralizing antibody to nine different immunotypes. Six to forty-seven percent of the serum samples tested contained antibody to at least one immunotype of rhinovirus. The prevalence of rhinovirus antibody in the Parakana-Apiterewa Indians was similar to that reported in United States populations, suggesting that there had been considerable direct or indirect contact in the past between tribe members and persons in the outside world.
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...
Brookshire, Daniel; Kaza, Nikhil
The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development
Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)
The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.
... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects up...
Spielman, R S; Fajans, S S; Neel, J V; Pek, S; Floyd, J C; Oliver, W J
Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and pancreatic polypeptide in response to a standard oral glucose load were studied in the Yanomama and the Marubo, two relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes of the Brazilian Amazon. The findings in the two tribes differed significantly from each other and in the degree of deviation from control subjects. The average responses in both tribes differed significantly from those of age- and sex-matched Caucasoid control subjects studied in Ann Arbor, Michigan; however, of the two tribes, the Marubo, the more acculturated group, resembled the controls more closely. Plasma concentrations of glucose and the hormones at three time points (fasting, 1 h, 2 h) were compared by means of a multivariate analysis. When the Marubo were compared with the control subjects, the only highly significant difference was in the plasma glucose concentrations (all three points were higher in the Marubo); however, the Yanomama differed significantly from the control subjects with respect to all four plasma indicators (p less than 0.05). Unlike the Marubo, the Yanomama showed no significant rise in plasma glucose at 1 h and no decrease at 2 h. Neither tribe exhibited the bimodality of the 2 h glucose value characteristic of acculturated Amerindians, such as the Pima, but the samples studied were small.
Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.
Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz
In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated.
... relationship between the United States and Indian tribes as defined by treaties, statutes, and judicial... between these agencies and tribes. In essence, this means that consultation should involve direct contact...
B. D. Schrire
Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do tribes identify transit needs? 170.149 Section 170... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.149 How do tribes identify transit needs? Tribes identify transit needs during the tribal transportation...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a cultural...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe create and adopt its own tribal probate code... PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.101 May a tribe create and adopt its own tribal probate code? Yes. A tribe may create and adopt a tribal probate code. ...
... Preference § 170.917 Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees? This section... payment schedule. Tribes may consider requesting direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees from... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment...
... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Dorstenieae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. Wood anatomically the tribe Dorstenieae is fairly homogeneous, Dorstenia deviating most in the juvenilistic composition of its rays,
Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...
Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.
Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
The Yul shul (Yushu) ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums ...
Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.
A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and
The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis
Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)
The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.
Full Text Available Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP located in Bukit Barisan Mountains, Sumatera Utara. A Mandailing tribe who lives around the BGNP, has the unique local knowledge, such as processing young stem of rattan (Calamus manan into pakkat (traditional food and use rimbang (Solanum torvum to neutralize toxins. These local knowledge could be lost because it only inherited orally from generation to generation. This study was aimed to reveal ethnobotany knowledge of Mandailing Tribe. The study was conducted in November 2015 in four villages around the BGNP, Sibanggor Jae, Hutabaringin Julu, Pastap Jae, and Botung Villages. Data were collected by interviewing informants in each village as well as the field survey through two approaches, emic and etic. A total of 262 plant species is used by Mandailing Tribe for subsistence and commercial needs. The highest utilization is for food (106 species, followed by traditional medicines (81 species, firewood (29 species, building materials (35 species, and animal feed (25 species. People also used plant for household appliances, agricultural equipment, art materials, ropes and wrap, and pest control materials. Eme/rice (Oryza sativa have the highest Index of Cultural Significance (ICS values. The existence of this species is maintained for its local wisdom. Thus, involvement of local community will give great contribution to manage and conserve the BGNP area.
Das, Protiva Rani; Islam, Md. Tabibul; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healer...
Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda
Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.
Khai C Ang
Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.
Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)
Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).
Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste... INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.903 Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of Energy (DOE) has...
... Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance by...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...
The Mandais are a little known tribe of Bangladesh inhabiting the north central regions, particularly Tangail district of Bangladesh. Their population has been estimated to be less than 10,000 people. Although the tribe has for the most part assimilated with the mainstream Bengali-speaking population, they to some extent ...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...
... tribe may purchase all or part of the available interests specified in the probate decision. A tribe may... option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.261 How does...
... contain the items listed below. (a) Proof that the tribe has notified its members of its intent to remove... proof that the tribe has notified its members of intent to transfer the funds. The resolution must... governing body has the legal authority to withdraw funds from trust status and that the withdrawal does not...
..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...
... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (the National Contingency Plan or NCP), except that Indian... jurisdiction is not needed for the Tribe to carry out the support agency activities of the work plan. (b... substantially the same as a State, the subpart O definition of “State” does not include Indian Tribes because...
... on the availability of funds, the person's relative medical priority, and the actual availability and.... Sublette, WY. Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians of Aroostook, ME.\\3\\ Maine. Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of..., Sheridan, MT, Valley, MT. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Ashland, WI, Iron, WI. Tribe of Chippewa...
... about current Federal regulations governing child welfare automation, please contact Mr. Peter Howe... consultation reflects our growing familiarity with the automation needs and preferences of Tribes and our... citing the related section of regulations or program guidance. (1) What are the obstacles for your Tribe...
...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in Managing...) announces the availability for public review of a draft national plan to assist States, Federal agencies... Management, National Park Service, and FWS; St. Regis Mohawk Tribe; Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife...
... Tribal Trust Funds § 115.807 Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? Upon... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds? 1200.34 Section 1200.34 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.34 Can a tribe withdraw...
Fifty-one Brazilian species and varieties of Swartzia Schreber and eight other genera from the tribe Swartzieae were examined. Features with the greatest diagnostic value for the tribe are intervascular pit size, ray width and frequency, storied structure, axial parenchyma strand length, parenchyma band width, and vessel diameter. We analyzed the wood anatomical data...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla,
... ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirit of wine, commonly produced by the fermentation or... benefit of the Tribe. (j) ``Tribe'' means the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of... and wine shall be purchased from distributors licensed by the Michigan Liquor Control Commission. (f...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process the...
Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE
We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...
... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and are...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe receive funds before BIA publishes the notice... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.614 Can a tribe receive funds before BIA publishes the notice of funding availability? A tribe can receive funds before BIA publishes the notice of funding availability...
....935 How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative dispute resolution process? (a) To begin the ADR process, a direct service tribe must write to the BIA Regional Director or the Chief of BIA... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...
... IV-E plan development grants intended to assist Indian Tribes to develop their programs and prepare... the Social Security Act.) B. Calculation of FMAP for Indian Tribes The formula for calculating FMAP... Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the Title IV-E Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Kinship...
...-477 federal funding sources) in the plan. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources... tribe incorporate assistance from other sources into a tribal redesign plan? Yes, when a tribe redesigns...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.293 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate... project agreement? No, the Self-Governance Tribe may adopt a single resolution or take equivalent Tribal...
... a tribe receive information about its trust account(s)? The OTFM is required to provide each tribe... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How often will a tribe receive information about its trust account(s)? 115.801 Section 115.801 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.
This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.
... agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa...-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the agency's policies and procedures...
Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..
Sabino, C.V.S.; Prous, A.P.; Wuest, I.; Guapindaia, V.
There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organizations, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There is little evidence of seasonal migrations between the coastal and inland areas of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more in isolation, and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions.The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the river Amazon. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen, and the finest ceramics that could have been exported from one village or region to another can be found. Outside this region, pottery was generally plain, except the tupiguarani, which was partly decorated. In this study some limited possibilities were tested, in three different cultural and regional contexts, to find out if the application of chemical analysis to economically and politically 'simple' societies can produce any results of additional archaeological relevance. (author)
An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...
Silvia da Silva Santos Passos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. (a) Who may be...
against his troops.45 The British fared no better when they occupied the region in the late 19th century . They artificially divided the Pashtun tribes...and Afghanistan. Alexander the Great invaded the valley in the fourth century B.C. and the local inhabitants burned their homes and took up arms...a single clan or tribe. Historically, unrest has always bubbled up from this stratum-whether against Alexander, the Victorian British, or the Soviet
Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James
Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...
We describe σ-additive states on effect-tribes by integrals. Effect-tribes are monotone σ-complete effect algebras of functions where operations are defined pointwise. Then we show that every state on an effect algebra is an integral through a Borel regular probability measure. Finally, we show that every σ-convex combination of extremal states on a monotone σ-complete effect algebra is a Jauch-Piron state.
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.
Full Text Available Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in laboratory conditions for comparative studies of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Thirteen different plant species are used by these four tribes for preparation of starter cultures using soaked rice flour. Markhamia stipulate (Wall. Seem. is common to all communities for starter cake preparation. Litsea monopetala (Roxb. Pers. is used by all three communities except Jamatia. The use of Ananus comosus Mill. is common among Debbarma and Jamatia tribes, whereas that of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is common among Molsom and Koloi tribes. However, Aporusa diocia (Roxb. Muell., Combretum indicum (L. DeFilipps., and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. are used only by Debbarma tribe for unique tangy flavor. The physicochemical properties of rice beer varied within tribes for its moisture content, carbohydrate content, reducing sugar, and alcohol percentage. The concentration of alcohol increases with aging and prolonged fermentation. The plants reported here are also reported for having nutritional and medicinal benefits for the metabolic stability in humans, which make the process more prospective for commercialization if a standard for maintaining a quality and associated risk can be determined.
Rising atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic emissions alters local atmospheric gas exchange rates in estuaries, causing alterations of the seawater carbonate system and reductions in pH broadly described as coastal acidification. These changes in marine chemistry have been demonstrated to negatively affect a variety of coastal and estuarine organisms. The naturally dynamic carbonate chemistry of estuaries driven by biological activity, hydrodynamic processes, and intensive biogeochemical cycling has led to uncertainty regarding the role of rising atmospheric CO2 as a driver in these systems, and the suggestion that altered atmospheric exchange may be relatively unimportant to estuarine biogeochemistry. In this presentation, we illustrate how rising atmospheric CO2 from 1765 through 2100 interacts with the observed local carbonate chemistry dynamics of a seagrass bed, and calculated how pHT, pCO2, and Ωaragonite respond. This presentation is part of an informal meeting with the Tulalip Tribes of Tulalip, WA to update them on the progress of the ORD/Region 10 RARE project in the Snohomish estuary to study drivers of coastal acidification. Multiple processes, including primary production and respiration, river runoff, cultural eutrophication, oceanic upwelling, and atmospheric exchange contribute to the characteristically dynamic carbonate conditions in these habitats, with potential interactions amongst these processes leading to coastal acidification. As a
MacCourt, D. C.
This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.
Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O
The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.
Pandey, G D; Tiwary, R S
This study examines fertility behavior among 604 eligible couples in Hill Korwa tribes in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Low fertility patterns are compared to those of neighboring Gonds and nontribals from rural Jabalpur. The Hill Korwa are a subtribe of the Korwa, who remained in the hills and dense forests. Over 60% live in three tehsils of Surguja district, including Ambikapur tehsil where the study was conducted. Data were obtained in March 1991. Eligible couples were those where both partners live together and the noncontracepting wife is under age 50 and nonmenopausal. Only 3% were literate. Female marriage age was about 15 years. The median age was 23.8 years. 92% lived below the poverty line. The average number of children ever born (CEB) per couple was 1.9, compared to 2.5 for the Gond and 2.9 for nontribal couples. The CEB in a reproductive lifetime was 2.9, compared to 5.3 for Gond women and 5.9 for nontribal women. Fecundity among Hill Korwa women was 66% lower at younger ages (16-17 years and 17-18 years), and the differences increased with an increase in age at marriage. Hill Korwas had a low female age at marriage, low literacy, low percentages engaged in agriculture, and higher percentages living above the poverty line.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe request trust funds from a tribal trust account? 115.815 Section 115.815 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Withdrawing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.815 How does a tribe request trust...
Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Hasan, Nur; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Rahman, Md Ashikur; Khan, Jakia Alam; Hoque, Nazia Tasnim; Bhuiyan, Md Ruhul Quddus; Mou, Sadia Moin; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of t...
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.
Tosi Anthony J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini are a species-rich group of primates that have attracted considerable attention from both primatologists and evolutionary biologists. The complex speciation pattern has made the elucidation of their relationships a challenging task, and many questions remain unanswered. SINEs are a class of non-autonomous mobile elements and are essentially homoplasy-free characters with known ancestral states, making them useful genetic markers for phylogenetic studies. Results We identified 151 novel Alu insertion loci from 11 species of tribe Cercopithecini, and used these insertions and 17 previously reported loci to infer a phylogenetic tree of the tribe Cercopithecini. Our results robustly supported the following relationships: (i Allenopithecus is the basal lineage within the tribe; (ii Cercopithecus lhoesti (L'Hoest's monkey forms a clade with Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkey and Erythrocebus patas (patas monkey, supporting a single arboreal to terrestrial transition within the tribe; (iii all of the Cercopithecus except C. lhoesti form a monophyletic group; and (iv contrary to the common belief that Miopithecus is one of the most basal lineages in the tribe, M. talapoin (talapoin forms a clade with arboreal members of Cercopithecus, and the terrestrial group (C. lhoesti, Chlorocebus aethiops and E. patas diverged from this clade after the divergence of Allenopithecus. Some incongruent loci were found among the relationships within the arboreal Cercopithecus group. Several factors, including incomplete lineage sorting, concurrent polymorphism and hybridization between species may have contributed to the incongruence. Conclusion This study presents one of the most robust phylogenetic hypotheses for the tribe Cercopithecini and demonstrates the advantages of SINE insertions for phylogenetic studies.
T. Z. Moskalets
Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new
Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M
South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.
Mervin W Nielson
Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.
Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven
Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.
The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.
Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A
To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.
Liu, M.; Lowry, P. P.; Magee, A. R.
Fruit structure of Apiaceae was studied in 19 species representing the 10 genera of the tribe Heteromorpheae. Our results indicate this group has a woody habit, simple leaves, heteromorphic mericarps with lateral wings. fruits with bottle-shaped or bulging epidermal cells which have thickened and cutinized outer wall, regular vittae (one in furrow and two in commissure) and irregular vittae (short, dwarf, or branching and anatosmosing), and dispersed druse crystals. However, lateral winged mericarps, bottle-shaped epidermal cells, and branching and anatosmosing vittae are peculiar in the tribe Heteromorpheae of Apioideae sub family. Although many features share with other early-diverging groups of Apiaceae, including Annesorhiza clade, Saniculoideae sensu lato, Azorelloideae, Mackinlayoideae, as well as with Araliaceae. Our study shows that fruit anatomy can be used to define the tribe by molecular phylogenetic studies and support that Heteromorpheae are close to Annesorhiza clade and both are placed in the basal position of Apioideae. (author)
Hunting is one of the aspects that influence number of wild animals. The article aims at describing semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara as an alternative for wild animal conservation. The data collection methods are guided interview, in-depth interview and participant observation. The findings show that in the semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara, traditional wisdom is represented by hunting techniques and equipments. It is likely that rapid semi-commercial hunting conducted by certain members of Baar tribe causes sharp decline in the population of wild animals. On the other hand, annual traditional hunting which strictly follows traditional code of conduct can maintain Timor deer population in Timor. Keywords: hunting, population, semi-commercial, traditional, Timor deer
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: email@example.com
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.
Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.
The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe
...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may deem...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year? 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may...
...-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes, in... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? 137.203 Section 137.203 Public Health PUBLIC...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the IRRTIP...
Long, Jian-Kun; Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
Planthoppers of the tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae) from China, are reviewed. A key to the three genera of Chinese Achilini is given. A new genus and species of the tribe from southwestern China: Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov., is described. A new genus and species record for China, Cixidia kasparyani Anufriev, is also given.
... and Individual Indians AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the Special Trustee for American... information for ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR 115,'' OMB Control No. 1035-0004. This... . Individuals providing comments should reference ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR 115...
... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State...
... Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane...) for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights... casino-resort facility, parking structure, site retail, commercial building, tribal cultural center, and...
... Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane... statement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains casino... determination by the Secretary of the Interior; and (2) development of a casino-resort facility, parking...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane... Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains casino and mixed use project, City...
... Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.51 What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do? 900.51 Section 900.51 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...
... Evaluations § 1000.367 Will the Department evaluate a Tribe's/Consortium's performance of non-trust related... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the Department evaluate a Tribe's/Consortium's performance of non-trust related programs? 1000.367 Section 1000.367 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...
... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.21 Section 137.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? The Indian...
... tribes may submit plans to operate such programs at any time in the future. Indian tribes not operating... lands identifying themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) was available for 143. For the... for the AI/AN population specifically. The data established that, using AI/AN data when it is...
... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT... standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying out a self-determination contract? 900.42 Section 900.42... carrying out a self-determination contract? An Indian tribe shall expend and account for contract funds in...
...-Governance Eligibility § 1000.21 When does a Tribe/Consortium have a “material audit exception”? A Tribe/Consortium has a material audit exception if any of the audits that it submitted under § 1000.17(c...
...-GOVERNANCE Appeals Pre-Award Disputes § 137.426 May an Indian Tribe get an extension of time to file a notice... time period. If the Indian Tribe has a valid reason for not filing its notice of appeal on time, it may...
... Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Establishing Self-Governance Base Budgets § 1000.106 Once a Tribe... renegotiates funding levels: (a) It must negotiate all funding levels in the AFA using the process for determining residuals and funding amounts on the same basis as other Tribes; and (b) It is eligible for...
... identify holistic management objectives; and (5) Identify actions to be taken to reach established... tribe's agricultural resource management plan? 162.201 Section 162.201 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management plan...
... Indian Preference § 170.916 May tribes impose taxes or fees on those performing IRR Program services? Yes... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes impose taxes or fees on those performing IRR Program services? 170.916 Section 170.916 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...
... ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.31 As a Tribe, what is my... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...
Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.
Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Müller, Kai F.; Field, Dawn; Altman, Naomi S.; dePamphilis, Claude W.
The PlantTribes database (http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/tribe.html) is a plant gene family database based on the inferred proteomes of five sequenced plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Medicago truncatula, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. We used the graph-based clustering algorithm MCL [Van Dongen (Technical Report INS-R0010 2000) and Enright et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 1575–1584)] to classify all of these species’ protein-coding genes into putative gene families, ca...
Albino M. Sakakibara
Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula
Arvind B Chavhan
Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.
... language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or other federal law(s) and a tribe uses those trust funds in direct violation of those laws, absent an approved... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust...
... services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? 137.95 Section 137.95 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may...-Governance Tribe, on a reimbursable basis, including payment in advance with subsequent adjustment. Prompt...
... Programs Establishing Self-Governance Base Budgets § 1000.107 Must a Tribe/Consortium with a base budget or... residual amounts? No, if a Tribe/Consortium negotiated amounts before January 16, 2001, it does not need to.... (c) Self-governance Tribes/Consortia are eligible for funding amounts for new or available programs...
...-governance activities for a member Tribe, that planning activity and report may be used to satisfy the planning requirements for the member Tribe if it applies for self-governance status on its own. (b) Submit... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member Tribe...
...) Planning and Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.54 How will a Tribe/Consortium know... Director will notify the Tribe/Consortium by letter whether it has been selected to receive an advance... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a Tribe/Consortium know whether or not it has...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...
Feb 11, 2013 ... which are practised among the Pedi tribes – also called the Northern-Sotho speaking ... against the well being of a southern African society [is a lack of rain]. .... generation], meaning that it is the responsibility of the older.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance...
Bose, P.; Arts, B.J.M.; Dijk, van H.
This paper analyses the historical trajectories of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and to appropriate and legalise forests in tribal areas. It builds upon Foucault's notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’
... White-Nose Syndrome in Bats; Draft National Plan; Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Fish and... plan to assist States, Federal agencies, and Tribes in managing white-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats. See... to WhiteNoseBats@fws.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Jeremy Coleman, National WNS...
Describes the use of drama to give meaning and understanding to a unit on Native Americans. Students worked in small groups or "tribes" to research cultural attributes, and then acted out tribal rituals and created costumes and artifacts. The group work and the active roleplaying helped students to develop a new understanding of…
The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...
Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the largest morning glory genus, Ipomoea, is not monophyletic, and nine other segregate genera are derived from within Ipomoea. Therefore, systematic research is focused on the monophyletic tribe Ipomoeeae (c. 650-900 species). We used whole plastid genomes to ...
... issues covered by the state's OSHA-approved occupational safety and health plan. Federal OSHA retained... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 Michigan State Plan; Change in Level of Federal Enforcement: Indian Tribes AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...
... 884.13(f)(2), concerning a description of aesthetic, cultural and recreational conditions of the Hopi... 7, 1995—Purchasing procedures. (c) Revisions to, additions of, or deletions of the following plan... Participation; Section VIII—Organization of the Hopi Tribe; Section XII—Description of Aesthetic, Cultural and...
Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.
Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae constitutes a horticulturally valuable group of American endemics, characterized by disploidy and polyploidy (x = 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; 2n = 10-150). It is a clade putatively descended (in part) from an ancient hybridization event. Its taxonomy at the generic leve...
... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator, as...
This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.
Osman, A K [South Valley University, Faculty of Science, Qena (Egypt). Dept. of Botany
A systematic study of 25 taxa belonging to 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae of Compositae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on 19 main pollen grains characters. On the basis of UPGMA (Unpaired Group Method off Averaging) clustering and PCO (Principal Component Analysis), two main groups and five subgroups are recognized. (author)
A systematic study of 25 taxa belonging to 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae of Compositae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on 19 main pollen grains characters. On the basis of UPGMA (Unpaired Group Method off Averaging) clustering and PCO (Principal Component Analysis), two main groups and five subgroups are recognized. (author)
... Tribal governing body such as, but not limited to, the exercise of police powers affecting (or relating to) the health, safety, and welfare of the affected population; taxation; and the exercise of the... Indian Tribe to administer an effective Underground Injection Control program which should include: (1) A...
... exercise of police powers affecting (or relating to) the health, safety, and welfare of the affected population; taxation; and the exercise of the power of eminent domain; and (3) Identify the source of the... capability of the Indian Tribe to administer an effective, environmentally sound NPDES permit program. The...
Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)
... ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To...; (b) Identify the regulation to be waived and the reasons for the request; (c) Identify the programs...
Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.
Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…
Leivas, M.; Chairman, Sr.
Many American Indian Tribes were historically amenable to being involved with the nuclear industry because it seemed likely that it would boost ailing Tribal economies. Today that dream has soured and most of the uranium mining operations on Indian reservations have ceased, but Tribes are left having to deal with abandoned mines and mill tailings, sick Indian mine workers, and polluted reservation environments. The proximity of radioactive wastes facilities with Tribes lands poses in itself a risk which is aggravated by the fact that hazardous materials usually have to be transported through reservation communities to get to or from the site. The California state government is also planning to construct a low level radioactive waste management facility in Ward Valley, which is adjacent to the Chemehuehi Indian reservation, about 20 miles away. There is here a risk that contaminated surface water from Ward Valley could seep into the underground aquifer from which the Indian Tribe draw their water. Radioactive waste is as can be seen a real problem in India that will not go away. Indeed, even if the producing of nuclear wastes are stopped by the end of the decade, humanity would still have to deal with the wastes that currently are stored in interim and long term storage sites. (O.M.)
Smith, Dean Howard
Argues that economic development on American Indian reservations can strengthen a tribe's ability to maintain its culture if all development plans are formulated with consideration for their total societal impact. Discusses holistic approaches to development and business management, spiritual concerns, implications for higher education, and…
Wells, A.; Huisman, J.
Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan
YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN
Full Text Available This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is often used for the body of boat and also own the good quality according to Yachai tribe, that is Atam (Scihizomeria serrata Hochr, Batki (Adinandra forbesii Baker. F, Chomach (Gordonia papuana Kobuski, Rupke (Tristania sp., Bao (Dillenia papuana artelli, Top (Buchanania macrocarpa Laut, Mitbo (Cordia Dichtoma Forst., and Yunun (Camnosperma brevipetiolata Volkens. While to part of oar exploit 2 wood species that is Bach (Buchanania Arborescens.Bi and Tup (Litsea ampala Merr. Yachai Tribe recognized 3 boat model owning different size measure and function, that is Junun Ramchai, Junun Pochoi and Junun Toch.
Black, F L
HLA B-C haplotypes exhibit common disequilibria in populations drawn from four continents, indicating that they are subject to broadly active selective forces. However, the A-B and A-C associations we have examined show no consistent disequilibrium pattern, leaving open the possibility that these disequilibria are due to descent from common progenitors. By examining HLA haplotype distributions, I have explored the implications that would follow from the hypothesis that biological selection played no role in determining A-C disequilibria in 10 diverse tribes of the lower Amazon Basin. Certain haplotypes are in strong positive disequilibria across a broad geographic area, suggesting that members of diverse tribes descend from common ancestors. On the basis of the extent of diffusion of the components of these haplotypes, one can estimate that the progenitors lived less than 6,000 years ago. One widely encountered lineage entered the area within the last 1,200 years. When haplotype frequencies are used in genetic distance measurements, they give a pattern of relationships very similar to that obtained by conventional chord measurements based on several genetic markers; but more than that, when individual haplotype disequilibria in the several tribes are compared, multiple origins of a single tribe are discernible and relationships are revealed that correlate more closely to geographic and linguistic patterns than do the genetic distance measurements.
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide
Chen, X.; Achterberg, van C.
The subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China is revised. In total 150 species, belonging to 24 genera, are treated and keyed. One genus (Heia gen. nov.; type species: Heia robustipes spec. nov.) and 69 species are described as new to science.
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
... within or across their reservations. Agreement State licensees will be required to provide advance...-recognized Tribal governments. Agreement State licensees will be required to provide advance notifications... Tribal official or Tribal official's designee, the NRC will add the Tribe to the list of advance...
... operations on Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Trust Land. The enactment of a tribal ordinance governing liquor and... continued operation and strengthening of the tribal government and the delivery of tribal government... dining rooms of hotels, restaurants, theaters, gaming facilities, entertainment centers, stores, garages...
Lopes, J C; Chatrou, L W; Mello-Silva, R; Rudall, P J; Sajo, M G
Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have arisen several times in different lineages. The majority of androdioecious species of Annonaceae belong to the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae. In addition to these species, Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti was recently confirmed to be androdioecious. Here, we describe the morphology of male and bisexual flowers of Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti, and investigate the evolution of androdioecy in Malmeeae. The phylogeny of tribe Malmeeae was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood of 32 taxa, using DNA sequences of 66 molecular markers of the chloroplast genome, sequenced by next generation sequencing. The reconstruction of ancestral states was performed for characters associated with sexual systems and floral morphology. The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed three main groups in Malmeeae, (Malmea (Cremastosperma, Pseudoxandra)) sister to the rest of the tribe, and (Unonopsis (Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum)) sister to (Mosannona, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus fragrans, Pseudomalmea, Ruizodendron ovale). Hermaphroditism is plesiomorphic in the tribe, with four independent evolutions of androdieocy, which represents a synapomorphy of two groups, one that includes three genera and 14 species, the other with a single genus of seven species. Male flowers are unisexual from inception and bisexual flowers possess staminodes and functional stamens. Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti is structurally androdioecious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.171 Where do Self-Governance Tribes send their audit reports? (a) For fiscal years ending on or before June 30, 1996, the audit report must be sent to: National... years, beginning after June 30, 1996, the audit report must be sent to: Single Audit Clearinghouse, 1201...
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I [EPA-HQ-OA-2010-0992 FRL-9239-4] Proposed Final Policy on Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of document for public comment. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is...
Abid, R.; Alam, J.
Cypselas of 5 species distributed in 3 genera of the tribe Mutisieae (s.l.) were examined from Pakistan to assess their taxonomic significance. Micro morphological characters of cypsela including shape, pappus and carpopodium have been proved very rewarding to evaluate the taxonomic decisions both at the generic and specific levels. (author)
This paper is based on the anthropological investigation into ethno-healing practices among two tribes, namely Gond and Halba, in six forest villages of the Kanker district, Chhattisgarh, India. A team of two social anthropologists and one ethnobotanist camped in these villages for three months and conducted the ...
Liu, Bo; Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo
This study examines the moderating role of dispositional optimism on the relationship between perceived stress and depression of the Chinese "Ant Tribe." A total of 427 participants from an Ant Tribe community completed the measures of perceived stress, optimism, and depression. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that dispositional optimism moderated the association between perceived stress and depression. The Ant Tribe with high perceived stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low perceived stress at low dispositional optimism level. However, the impact of perceived stress on depression was insignificant in the high dispositional optimism group. © The Author(s) 2015.
Petersen, A.; Nasser, E.; Stone, D.; Krosby, M.; Whitley-Binder, L.; Morgan, H.; Rupp, D. E.; Dello, K.; Dalton, M. M.; Fox, M.; Rodgers, K.
The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes reside in the Upper Snake River Watershed in southeast Idaho. Their lives and culture are intertwined with the lands where they live; lands which continue to sustain the Tribes cultural, spiritual, dietary and economic needs. Climate change presents a new threat to the region requiring innovative approaches to prepare for changes as well as to protect the natural resources within the region. As a critical first step in building climate resilience, the Tribes worked with Adaptation International, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) and the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI) to complete a collaborative climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning process. This presentation provides an overview of collaborative process, shares the results of the project, and includes a 3-minute video presentation. The project started with the identification of 34 plant and animal species to focus the vulnerability assessment. OCCRI analyzed detailed downscaled climate projections for two key climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and timescales (2050s and 2080s). CIG then used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to develop initial relative vulnerability results for these species. A core team of Tribal staff members from various departments refined these results, drawing upon and integrating rich local and traditional knowledges of the natural environmental and cultural resources. The adaptation planning phase of the project continued in a similar collaborative manner with the project team identifying promising adaptation actions and working directly with Tribal staff to refine and customize these strategies. Tailoring the actions to the local context provides a framework for action that the Tribes can continue to build on in the future. By engaging in these efforts to identify vulnerable species and adaptation strategies and actions to minimize the negative effects of climate
Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.
The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and
...? 1000.24 Section 1000.24 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.24 If an Indian tribe assumes...
..., Marshall, IN, St. Joseph, IN, Starke, IN, Van Buren, MI. Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Boyd, NE,\\45\\ Burt, NE..., Campbell, SD, South Dakota. Corson, SD, Dewey, SD, Emmons, ND, Grant, ND, Morton, ND, Perkins, SD, Sioux...
... (FMRs); and (7) Indian Health Service projections based upon birth and death rate data provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. (b) An Indian tribe or TDHE may not challenge data or HUD formula...
... the date and time of receipt, and is sent to at least one address that does not share the same access... documents has been determined with legal certainty by the issuing state, tribe, or local government. In the...
... alcoholic beverage business is seeking to be licensed. (e) No such license shall be transferred without the..., Chairman, Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone ATTEST: /s/ Vera Johnny, Acting Recording Secretary Te-Moak...
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.
The wood anatomy of the genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens, viz. Broussonetia, Madura s.l. (including Cardiogyne, Chlorophora, and Cudrania), Malaisia, Milicia, Morus, Olmedia, Pachytrophe, Plecospermum, Sloetiopsis, Streblus s.l. (including Paratrophis, Phyllochlamys,
Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)
The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.
Anggerainy, Shinta Widiastuty; Wanda, Dessie; Hayati, Happy
Instead of seeking conventional health care, the Dayak tribe in Borneo, Indonesia, treats sick children at home with traditional medicine. The objective of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore the Dayak tribe's use of traditional medicine to care for sick children. Comprehensive interviews were conducted with 10 caregivers, with collected data analyzed using content analysis. Key recurring themes identified were: 1) traditional medicine as first aid; 2) ease of access and cost-effectiveness; 3) traditional medicine was not always effective; 4) a combination of natural ingredients and beliefs; 5) the importance of "communicating" with plants; and 6) engagement with metaphysical forces. Health professionals should respect familial cultures' beliefs regarding the provision of health care at home. Furthermore, they need to develop competency in performing cultural assessments and providing information to these parents on the risks of not seeking professional emergency care for children with conditions that can't be handled at home with traditional medicine.
Kusuma, Y S; Babu, B V; Naidu, J M
The present paper reports the distribution of finger ridge count correlations among four tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India viz., Dulia, Kotia, Manne Dora and Manzai Mali, and examines the intra and inter population variation. Higher correlations are recorded in left hands compared to right hands, but they are not significant. The homologous fingers exhibit a stronger correlation. In all the tribes, the correlations between right hand fingers are relatively higher among women when compared to men. Regarding inter population variation Dulia men differ significantly from the men of Manne Dora and the Manzai Mali tribes, and Kotia women also differ from the women of the Manne Dora significantly. The average correlation coefficient of the present populations is similar to other Indian populations reported earlier but lower than African and European populations.
Jaroli DP; Mahawar Madan
Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medi...
Simoes, AO; do Rio, MCS; Castro, MD; Kinoshita, LS
In order to investigate morphological patterns in Mesechiteae and test the new circumscription of the tribe, the gynostegium structure of nine species belonging to Forsteronia, Mandevilla, and Mesechites, with two species from Secondatia as outgroup, were comparatively studied. Our results support the most recent circumscription of Mesechiteae, including Forsteronia, Mandevilla, and Mesechites and excluding Secondatia. The gynostegia of Forsteronia, Mandevilla, and Mesechites have the same ba...
Simmons, Mark P; McKenna, Miles J; Bacon, Christine D; Yakobson, Kendra; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J
The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae (≈ 230 species in eight genera in both the Old and New Worlds) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Tribe Euonymeae has been defined as those genera of Celastraceae with generally opposite leaves, isomerous carpels, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, and arillate seeds (except Microtropis). Euonymus is the most diverse (129 species) and widely cultivated genus in the tribe. We infer that tribe Euonymeae consists of at least six separate lineages within Celastraceae and that a revised natural classification of the family is needed. Microtropis and Quetzalia are inferred to be distinct sister groups that together are sister to Zinowiewia. The endangered Monimopetalum chinense is an isolated and early derived lineage of Celastraceae that represents an important component of phylogenetic diversity within the family. Hedraianthera is sister to Brassiantha, and we describe a second species (Brassiantha hedraiantheroides A.J. Ford) that represents the first reported occurrence of this genus in Australia. Euonymus globularis, from eastern Australia, is sister to Menepetalum, which is endemic to New Caledonia, and we erect a new genus (Dinghoua R.H. Archer) for it. The Madagascan species of Euonymus are sister to Pleurostylia and recognized as a distinct genus (Astrocassine ined.). Glyptopetalum, Torralbasia, and Xylonymus are all closely related to Euonymus sensu stricto and are questionably distinct from it. Current intrageneric classifications of Euonymus are not completely natural and require revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Supplementary data: The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae. Peng-Fei Qi, Cheng-Xing Le, Zhao Wang, Yu-Bin Liu, Qing Chen, Zhen-Zhen Wei, Bin-Jie Xu, Zheng-Yuan Wei,. Shou-Fen Dai, Yu-Ming Wei and You-Liang Zheng. J. Genet. 93, 35–41. Table 1. The γ-prolamin genes of diploid Triticeae species.
personas. Only then can cyber strategists exercise the required amount of cultural relativism needed to influence complex, and sometimes disturbing...that runs counter to their professional ethic ? When cyber tribes employ atrocity to create cultural barriers, how will planners remain focused on...as a cyber actor’s motivation? Meeting these challenges requires new levels of cultural relativism —the understanding of a “culture or a cultural
Full Text Available The research aimed to determine parameters affecting household income diversity of farmer’s tribes in South Sumatra tidal wetland, especially studied from the aspect of land acreage, education level, age of farmers and tribes of farmers. The research was using survey method and carried out from June-August 2016 in the Delta Telang I Banyuasin, South Sumatra. The data were recorded by questionnaire for 145 respondents of farmers. Data was processed, described and correlated to see the relevance of the parameters with other parameters. The research concluded that the character of household economy of farmers explaining the relation between production decisions to increase rice production is land acreage, education, age, experience of farmers, number of household members, and labor allocation. Multi commodities farming (rice and plantation was very favorable compared to monoculture rice fields? But this is a little bit contradictive with government policy that the research area is pointed out as the center of rice production. Therefore, government policy needs to motivate farmers that they can manage their farming from upstream to downstream and they work full in their own farming. The government policy should be site-specific and appropriated with the tribes of farmers
Calvente, Alice; Zappi, Daniela C; Forest, Félix; Lohmann, Lúcia G
Tribe Rhipsalideae is composed of unusual epiphytic or lithophytic cacti that inhabit humid tropical and subtropical forests. Members of this tribe present a reduced vegetative body, a specialized adventitious root system, usually spineless areoles and flowers and fruits reduced in size. Despite the debate surrounding the classification of Rhipsalideae, no studies have ever attempted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among its members or to test the monophyly of its genera using DNA sequence data; all classifications formerly proposed for this tribe have only employed morphological data. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Rhipsalideae using plastid (trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS) markers to evaluate the classifications previously proposed for the group. We also examine morphological features traditionally used to delimit genera within Rhipsalideae in light of the resulting phylogenetic trees. In total new sequences for 35 species of Rhipsalideae were produced (out of 55; 63%). The molecular phylogeny obtained comprises four main clades supporting the recognition of genera Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora and Schlumbergera. The evidence gathered indicate that a broader genus Schlumbergera, including Hatiora subg. Rhipsalidopsis, should be recognized. Consistent morphological characters rather than homoplastic features are used in order to establish a more coherent and practical classification for the group. Nomenclatural changes and a key for the identification of the genera currently included in Rhipsalideae are provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K
The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.
Bernhardt, Nadine; Brassac, Jonathan; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R
Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing. The read data was used to assemble the plastid locus ndhF for 194 individuals and the whole chloroplast genome for 183 individuals, representing 53 Triticeae species and 15 genera. We conducted Bayesian and multispecies coalescent analyses to infer relationships and estimate divergence times of the taxa. We present the most comprehensive dated Triticeae chloroplast phylogeny and review previous hypotheses in the framework of our results. Monophyly of Triticeae chloroplasts could not be confirmed, as either Bromus or Psathyrostachys captured a chloroplast from a lineage closely related to a Bromus-Triticeae ancestor. The most recent common ancestor of Triticeae occurred approximately between ten and 19 million years ago. The comparison of the chloroplast phylogeny with available nuclear data in several cases revealed incongruences indicating past hybridizations. Recent events of chloroplast capture were detected as individuals grouped apart from con-specific accessions in otherwise monopyhletic groups.
Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.
Das, Protiva Rani; Islam, Md Tabibul; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.
Protiva Rani Das
Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.
EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources
Abdulkarim G. Mairiga
Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually. Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov
Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.
de Arruda, M E; Aragaki, C; Gagliardi, F; Haile, R W
Data on the seroprevalences of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae in four isolated Indian tribes of the Amazon basin in Brazil, as determined by IFAT, were re-analysed. Age-, sex- and tribe-specific geometric mean antibody titres and externally standardized prevalence ratios were calculated for each parasite species. Correlation coefficients and prevalence odds ratios were also calculated for multiple infections with different combinations of the three Plasmodium species. Titres of all but one of the antibodies studied were similar in males and females; titres of antibodies to the blood stages of P. malariae were slightly higher in females than in males. Titres of antibodies to all three Plasmodium species increased with subject age, and this age effect was not confounded by sex or tribal differences. There were striking differences between tribes, with the Parakana tribe having relatively low titres of antibodies against P. falciparum and P. malariae; these tribal effects were not confounded by sex or age differences between tribes. The results indicate that conditions conductive to the transmission of P. malariae exist in this region of the Amazon. The potential for zoonotic transmission of P. brasilianum, a parasite of monkeys which is morphologically similar to P. malarie, and the generally high rates of seropositivity to all three species of Plasmodium indicate that control measures which are adequate and applicable to the region studied need to be developed.
Bhatti, Shahzad; Aslamkhan, M; Abbas, Sana; Attimonelli, Marcella; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; de Souza, Erica Martinha Silva
Due to its geo strategic position at the crossroad of Asia, Pakistan has gained crucial importance of playing its pivotal role in subsequent human migratory events, both prehistoric and historic. This human movement became possible through an ancient overland network of trails called "The Silk Route" linking Asia Minor, Middle East China, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to analyze complete mitochondrial control region samples of 100 individuals of four major Pashtun tribes namely, Bangash, Khattak, Mahsuds and Orakzai in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. All Pashtun tribes revealed high genetic diversity which is comparable to the other Central Asian, Southeast Asian and European populations. The configuration of genetic variation and heterogeneity further unveiled through Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Pashtun are the composite mosaic of West Eurasian ancestry of numerous geographic origin. They received substantial gene flow during different invasive movements and have a high element of the Western provenance. The most common haplogroups reported in this study are: South Asian haplogroups M (28%) and R (8%); whereas, West Asians haplogroups are present, albeit in high frequencies (67%) and widespread over all; HV (15%), U (17%), H (9%), J (8%), K (8%), W (4%), N (3%) and T (3%). Moreover, we linked the unexplored genetic connection between Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtun. The presence of specific haplotypes J1b (4%) and K1a1b1a (5%) pointed to a genetic connection of Jewish conglomeration in Khattak tribe. This was a result of an ancient genetic influx in the early Neolithic period that led to the formation of a diverse genetic substratum in present day Pashtun.
Full Text Available It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further
Xi, Lei; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoshun; Qiu, Xuanyu
Highlights: • A novel distributed autonomous virtual tribes control system is proposed. • WPH-VTC strategy is designed to solve the distributed virtual tribes control. • Stochastic consensus game on mixed homogeneous and heterogeneous multi-agent are resolved. • The optimal total power reference and its dispatch are resolved simultaneously in a dynamic way. • The utilization rate of renewable energy is increased with a reduced carbon emissions. - Abstract: This paper proposes a novel electric power autonomy to satisfy the requirement of power generation optimization of smart grid and decentralized energy management system. A decentralized virtual tribes control (VTC) is developed which can effectively coordinate the regional dispatch centre and the distributed energy. Then a wolf pack hunting (WPH) strategy based VTC (WPH-VTC) is designed through combining the multi-agent system stochastic game and multi-agent system collaborative consensus, which is called the multi-agent system stochastic consensus game, to achieve the coordination and optimization of the decentralized VTC, such that different types of renewable energy can be effectively integrated into the electric power autonomy. The proposed scheme is implemented on a flexible and dynamic multi-agent stochastic game-based VTC simulation platform, which control performance is evaluated on a typical two-area load–frequency control power system and a practical Guangdong power grid model in southern China. Simulation results verify that it can improve the closed-loop system performances, increase the utilization rate of the renewable energy, reduce the carbon emissions, and achieve a fast convergence rate with significant robustness compared with those of existing schemes.
Zhadanov, Sergey I; Dulik, Matthew C; Markley, Michael; Jennings, George W; Gaieski, Jill B; Elias, George; Schurr, Theodore G
The name "Wampanoag" means "Eastern People" or "People of the First Light" in the local dialect of the Algonquian language. Once extensively populating the coastal lands and neighboring islands of the eastern United States, the Wampanoag people now consist of two federally recognized tribes, the Aquinnah and Mashpee, the state-recognized Seaconke Wampanoag tribe, and a number of bands and clans in present-day southern Massachusetts. Because of repeated epidemics and conflicts with English colonists, including King Philip's War of 1675-76, and subsequent colonial laws forbidding tribal identification, the Wampanoag population was largely decimated, decreasing in size from as many as 12,000 individuals in the 16th century to less than 400, as recorded in 1677. To investigate the influence of the historical past on its biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in the Seaconke Wampanoag tribe. Our results indicate that the majority of their mtDNA haplotypes belongs to West Eurasian and African lineages, thus reflecting the extent of their contacts and interactions with people of European and African descent. On the paternal side, Y-chromosome analysis identified a range of Native American, West Eurasian, and African haplogroups in the population, and also surprisingly revealed the presence of a paternal lineage that appears at its highest frequencies in New Guinea and Melanesia. Comparison of the genetic data with genealogical and historical information allows us to reconstruct the tribal history of the Seaconke Wampanoag back to at least the early 18th century. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi
Zoya M. Tsymbalyuk
Full Text Available Pollen grains of 22 species from 6 genera of the tribe Antirrhineae (Veronicaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, small and middle-sized. It is established that pollen grains are characterized by the common sculpture type, which is reticulate. Diagnostic features at the genus level are the structure of apertures and sculpture, shape and size of pollen grains. Pollen morphology supports the suggestion of a close relationship between Linaria, Antirrhinum, Misopates andCymbalaria. The genera Chaenorhinumand Kickxiahave the distinctive palynomorphological characters.
Enactment of the NWPA requires that a candidate site is selected for the first high-level waste (HLW) repository based on a formal comparative evaluation of the three sites under characterization as approved by the U.S. President. However, the nominated sites can only be compared with one another if there is such a common basis for scientific judgment. The development of such a scientific basis prior to the start-up of site characterization activities entails several important issues which potentially affect the rights of the Indian Tribes. This paper describes the issues
Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F
The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.
Krak, Karol; Alvarez, Inés; Caklová, Petra; Costa, Andrea; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fehrer, Judith
The development of three low-copy nuclear markers for low taxonomic level phylogenies in Asteraceae with emphasis on the subtribe Hieraciinae is reported. Marker candidates were selected by comparing a Lactuca complementary DNA (cDNA) library with public DNA sequence databases. Interspecific variation and phylogenetic signal of the selected genes were investigated for diploid taxa from the subtribe Hieraciinae and compared to a reference phylogeny. Their ability to cross-amplify was assessed for other Asteraceae tribes. All three markers had higher variation (2.1-4.5 times) than the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in Hieraciinae. Cross-amplification was successful in at least seven other tribes of the Asteraceae. Only three cases indicating the presence of paralogs or pseudogenes were detected. The results demonstrate the potential of these markers for phylogeny reconstruction in the Hieraciinae as well as in other Asteraceae tribes, especially for very closely related species.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...
... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible to...
... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.444 If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the Secretary...
..., has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed accepted by operation of law, are there any exceptions to... SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.137 If the 45 day review period or extension thereto, has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed...
... reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of retrocession? 1000.316 Section 1000.316... Reassumption § 1000.316 May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the effective date of retrocession? Yes, the Tribe/Consortium may be reimbursed for actual...
... resources, hardware, software, and technical assistance to the Self-Governance Tribes to facilitate data... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes entering into a compact with the IHS under Title V? 137...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance agreement...
... applied to investments not in isolation but in the context of the investment portfolio and as a part of an.... In addition, the Self-Governance Tribe must: (a) Conform to fundamental fiduciary duties of loyalty... to the investment responsibilities of the Self-Governance Tribe. Carryover of Funds ...
... Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation Grants for Non-BIA Programs Eligibility and Application... Tribe/Consortium in drafting its planning grant application? 1000.68 Section 1000.68 Indians OFFICE OF... planning grant application? Yes, upon request from the Tribe/Consortium, a non-BIA bureau may provide...
... Construction § 900.130 What role does the Indian tribe or tribal organization play during the performance of a... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role does the Indian tribe or tribal organization play during the performance of a self-determination construction contract? 900.130 Section 900.130...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Tribe be reimbursed for actual and reasonable... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Reassumption § 137.265 May a Tribe be reimbursed for... be reimbursed for actual and reasonable close out costs incurred after the effective date of...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.325 What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...
... at the same time it is negotiating a compact? 137.33 Section 137.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.33 May an Indian Tribe negotiate a funding agreement at the same time it is negotiating a compact? Yes, at an Indian Tribe's option, a funding...
... grant to assist it to: (a) Plan to participate in self-governance; and (b) Negotiate the terms of the... Tribe to meet the requirements to participate in self-governance? 137.24 Section 137.24 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self...
Compan, Boonlert; Iamsupasit, Sompoch; Samuels, Jay
A study tested a method for developing reading fluency with third-grade Hill Tribe children in a welfare school in Chiang Mai, a city located in northern Thailand. Most of the students were bilingual, speaking their native tongues and Thai, their second language. Only 18.7% of the Hill Tribe population can read Thai, and many students fail to…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe create and adopt a single heir rule without adopting a tribal probate code? 18.301 Section 18.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Single Heir Rule § 18.301 May a tribe create and adopt a...
Machado, Luiz F A; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Souza, Maria I M; Azevedo, Vania N; Ishak, Marluisa O G; Ishak, Ricardo
The seroprevalence and the occurrence of an HIV-1 subtype was assessed in blood samples of the Tiriyo tribe. Antibody was found in 0.6% and the molecular analysis of the pro region detected the emergence of a subtype B for the first time in a native Indian tribe of the Amazon region of Brazil.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Indians OFFICE OF THE...) Planning and Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.50 What must a Tribe/Consortium...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a tribe that holds a certificate of self-regulation... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.8 Does a tribe that holds a certificate of self-regulation have a continuing duty to...
... § 115.802 May a tribe make a request to OTFM to receive information about its trust account more frequently? Yes, a tribe may contact OTFM at any time to: (a) Request information about account transactions and balances; (b) Make arrangements to access account information electronically; or (c) Receive a...
García-Navas, Vicente; Westerman, Michael
The progressive expansion of the Australian arid zone during the last 20 Ma appears to have spurred the diversification of several families of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, yet such taxonomic groups appear to show limited niche radiation. Here, we test whether speciation is associated with niche conservatism (constraints on ecological divergence) or niche divergence in a tribe of marsupial mice (Sminthopsini; 23 taxa) that includes the most speciose genus of living dasyurids, the sminthopsins. To that end, we integrated phylogenetic data with ecological niche modelling, to enable us to reconstruct the evolution of climatic suitability within Sminthopsini. Niche overlap among species was low-moderate (but generally higher than expected given environmental background similarity), and the degree of phylogenetic clustering increased with aridity. Climatic niche reconstruction illustrates that there has been little apparent evolution of climatic tolerance within clades. Accordingly, climatic disparity tends to be accumulated among clades, suggesting considerable niche conservatism. Our results also indicate that evolution of climatic tolerances has been heterogeneous across different dimensions of climate (temperature vs. precipitation) and across phylogenetic clusters (Sminthopsis murina group vs. other groups). Although some results point to the existence of shifts in climatic niches during the speciation of sminthopsins, our study provides evidence for substantial phylogenetic niche conservatism in the group. We conclude that niche diversification had a low impact on the speciation of this tribe of small, but highly mobile marsupials. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available Oral literature has an important function in life because it can reflect people's lives and instil a sense of love for their own culture. Oral literature is a cultural heritage of the region passed down from generation to generation which is narrated from mouth to mouth and has a noble value. The noble value contained in oral literature reflects the local culture of the tribe. Certain noble values must be continuously preserved and implemented in the life of society and state. The noble value as a form of character education, such as social values. Therefore, positive social values must be maintained. The social values as many ancestral riches are also found in Dayak Keninjal oral literature titled Batu Dara Muning. The social value that can be found in oral literature entitled Batu Dara Muning is the value of a mother's love for a child, obedient to parents, forbidden marriage, obedience to customs. To analyze oral literature Batu Dara Muning used an approach of a sociology of literature. The reason literature is a mirror of the lives of the people who own the story. Stories or events expressed in oral literature are sourced from events in society with the narrator's imagination. The character used in oral literature is not the name of the character in his tribe, but the name made by the narrator.
Bahri, S.; Abbas, A.; Bakar, N. N.
In this paper, some mathematical models that state the tribe of the family members in Nagari Luhak Limopuluh Koto West Sumatera, Indonesia were built. The models were constructed by using the marriage rule and the ethnic data of Minangkabau community which embrace the matrilineal system. The marriage rule prohibits the same inter-tribal marriage while the matrilineal system causes the mother, child, and sibling tribes to be equal. Therefore, the matrices formed by marriage rule, mother-son tribal relation, someone-his/her sibling tribal relation, and the transpose of the matrices, are used in matrix multiplication to obtain the tribal models. The models are consecutively A, AC’, (AC’)B, ((AC’)B)W’, ((AC’)B)C, ((AC’)B)W, ((AC’)W’ for Denai, Denai’s mother, the sister of Denai’s mother, the brother of Denai’s mother, the husband of Denai’s mother’s sister, the son of Denai’s mother’s sister, the wife of Denai’s mother’s brother, and the Denai’s father models.
Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.
Allgood, Tiffany [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States). Environmental Programs Office, Natural Resources Dept.; Alexie, James [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Nomee, Alfred [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation has been the home of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe since time immemorial and it is fitting that the Tribe’s name in the Coeur d’Alene language is schitsu’umsh, “the ones who were found here.” The Reservation is located in northern Idaho, is approximately 345,000 acres and is comprised of forest land, agricultural land, several streams, Coeur d’Alene Lake and the St. Joe River and a small amount of developed land. The project area was conducted within the boundaries of the Coeur d’Alene Reservation. The population of the Reservation is 6,760 (2010 Census). Currently, there are approximately 2,463 enrolled Coeur d’Alene Tribal members (Coeur d’Alene Tribe Enrollment 2016). The Benewah Market is a Tribally-owned and operated facility located at 1111 B St. Plummer, ID 83851. The Benewah Market is an approximately 23,500 square foot single-story structure. The majority of the building is occupied by a grocery store with a full meat department, deli, and bakery. Approximately 20% of the floor area at the northeast corner is occupied by an Ace Hardware retailer. The largest part of the building is approximately 17,000 square feet, is separately metered and houses the grocery store which was constructed in 1984. The market is the largest full service market serving the Coeur d’Alene Reservation and is the only full service market in a 35-mile radius. The Tribe has benefited greatly from the Benewah Market Energy Efficiency Project and will continue to do so for many years: The health and safety of the food has been improved greatly now that the refrigeration and freezer cases are at a constant and safe temperature on a monitoring and alarm system. There is no longer a thaw and freeze cycle that allows fluctuations in temperature. If the power goes out, there is an immediate alarm and contact so that time may be tracked and food kept safe during an outage. The overall annual energy use in the Benewah Market has dropped by 22
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although former studies on systematics and biogeography represent a progress on the knowledge of the tribe Glandulocaudini, none was grounded on molecular evidence. Thus, the first hypothesis of relationships for the tribe based on a multilocus analysis is presented, including all genera and most of the valid species. DNA sequences of Glandulocauda caerulea and Mimagoniates sylvicola were analyzed for the first time. A molecular clock analysis was used to estimate the origin of the Glandulocaudini and the approximate timing of cladogenetic events within the group. Glandulocaudini was recovered as monophyletic. No hypothesis recovered Glandulocauda as monophyletic, since G. melanopleura is sister to Lophiobrycon weitzmani while G. caerulea is closely related to Mimagoniates. The relationships within the latter genus were resolved. The molecular clock results indicate the origin of the Glandulocaudini during the Miocene with diversification in the group occurring from Neogene to Pleistocene. These results corroborated the hypothesis that its origin took place on the Brazilian crystalline shield with the subsequent occupation of the Atlantic Coastal drainages. Apparently, Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations might have shaped the distribution pattern of some species in Glandulocaudini.
Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa
1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and
Full Text Available The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in four genera of the tribe Pholidopterini: Eupholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Parapholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Pholidoptera Wesmaël, 1838, Uvarovistia Mařan, 1953. Chromosomes were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn telomeric probes, and classical techniques, such as C-banding, silver impregnation and fluorochrome DAPI/CMA3 staining. Most species retained the ancestral diploid chromosome number 2n = 31 (male or 32 (female, while some of the taxa, especially a group of species within genus Pholidoptera, evolved a reduced chromosome number 2n = 29. All species show the same sex determination system X0/XX. In some taxa, a pericentric inversion has changed the morphology of the ancestral acrocentric X chromosome to the biarmed X. The rDNA loci coincided with active NORs and C-band/CG-rich segments. A comparison of the location of the single rDNA/NOR in the genus Pholidoptera suggests that reduced chromosome number results from Robertsonian translocation between two pairs of autosomes, one carrying the rDNA/NOR. The results constitute a step towards better understanding of the chromosomal reorganization and evolution within the tribe Phaneropterini and the whole subfamily Tettigoniinae.
Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.
Abstract. The Oestrosis is an obligatory and cavitary myiasis of sheep and goat, wild and domestic, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Linnaeus fly. This study records the presence of O. ovis in the West Central region of Brazil as parasites of goats and sheep. We obtained six larvae from sheep and goats with suspects of oestrosis in Brasília (Brazil originate two females adult of O. ovis, after 20 and 23 days respectively of pupation. This finding is probably associated with expansion and diversification of farming in the Cerrado of the Brazilian central plateau.
9 All literacy rates are from “The world factbook”, CIA. 10 "Dictionnaire critique de la sociologie ", Boudon...Economie et Société, I, Plon, Paris, p. 298. 17 Ibid, p. 291. Sociologie des religions, Gallimard, Paris, p.374-375. 18 Georges Balandier... Sociologie actuelle de l’Afrique noire, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1963, p. 390. 19 Kilcullen, The accidental guerrilla,op. cit., p. 50
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe apply for a Secretarial Determination for lands not yet held in trust? 292.15 Section 292.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Secretarial Determination and Governor's Concurrence § 292.15 May...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested if...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe/Consortium do to receive a negotiation grant? 1000.47 Section 1000.47 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Section...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase? 1000.173 Section 1000.173 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATIO...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? 1000.53 Section 1000.53 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? 1000.46 Section 1000.46 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT...
Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn
The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...
... Centers regarding disclosure and release of the patient records stored pursuant to § 137.178? Yes, a Self... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe make agreements with the Federal Records Centers regarding disclosure and release of the patient records stored pursuant to...
..., AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF... Indian tribe or tribal organization must retain financial, procurement and property records for the..., purchase orders, contracts, payment histories and records applicable of significant decisions. These...
... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances may planning and negotiation... may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? At the discretion of the Director...
... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...
... individual that represents Tribal leadership, such as the Chief, President, or Tribal Council leadership of... regulatory analysis (Section X). IV. Discussion of Proposed Rule by Section Section 71.4 Definitions Definition for Indian Tribe is proposed based on the term as defined in Executive Order 13175. The definition...
... regulation? 1000.223 Section 1000.223 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.223 When can a Tribe/Consortium...
... entered into under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. § 450f et seq.). ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can these regulations be administered by tribes, on the... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS General Provisions § 162.110 Can these regulations be...
... of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.404 What happens when a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when a tribe uses its IRR Program construction funds for transportation planning? 170.404 Section 170.404 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...
... of self-regulation? 518.4 Section 518.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.4 What criteria must a tribe meet to receive a certificate of self-regulation? (a) The Commission shall issue a certificate of self-regulation...
We present phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Amaryllidaceae, tribe Haemantheae and Amaryllis belladonna L. as an outgroup, in order to provide a phylogenetic framework for the selection of candidate plants for lead discoveries in relation to Alzheimer´s disease and depression. DNA sequences from t...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for
Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye
We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.
Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.
From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.
Prasad, V; Strömberg, C A E; Leaché, A D; Samant, B; Patnaik, R; Tang, L; Mohabey, D M; Ge, S; Sahni, A
Rice and its relatives are a focal point in agricultural and evolutionary science, but a paucity of fossils has obscured their deep-time history. Previously described cuticles with silica bodies (phytoliths) from the Late Cretaceous period (67-65 Ma) of India indicate that, by the latest Cretaceous, the grass family (Poaceae) consisted of members of the modern subclades PACMAD (Panicoideae-Aristidoideae-Chloridoideae-Micrairoideae-Arundinoideae-Danthonioideae) and BEP (Bambusoideae-Ehrhartoideae-Pooideae), including a taxon with proposed affinities to Ehrhartoideae. Here we describe additional fossils and show that, based on phylogenetic analyses that combine molecular genetic data and epidermal and phytolith features across Poaceae, these can be assigned to the rice tribe, Oryzeae, of grass subfamily Ehrhartoideae. The new Oryzeae fossils suggest substantial diversification within Ehrhartoideae by the Late Cretaceous, pushing back the time of origin of Poaceae as a whole. These results, therefore, necessitate a re-evaluation of current models for grass evolution and palaeobiogeography.
"Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.
Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E
This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.
A new genus and species of the large Neotropical pselaphine tribe Jubini is described from Manaus, Brazil, based on material preserved in the Natural History Museum, London. Morphogenia struhli gen. et sp. n. represents the possible sister taxon of the abundant and speciose genus Barrojuba Park, sharing with it the putatively derived condition of anterolaterally shifted vertexal foveae, producing a smoothly convex vertex devoid of fovea or sulci. However, unlike Barrojuba, Morphogenia retains a plesiomorphic antebasal sulcus on the pronotum in both sexes, and additionally lacks elaborate abdominal fovea-like pockets and teeth on the lateral margins of the pronotum that are typical of Barrojuba. The genus is also unusual among jubine genera in lacking the characteristic V- or Y-shaped gular carina. In contrast to the commonly-collected Barrojuba, specimens of Morphogenia are absent in extensive jubine collections housed in museums in the United States, indicating that the new taxon may be relatively scarce or localised.
Kattelmann, Kendra K; Conti, Kibbe; Ren, Cuirong
The Northern Plains Indians of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe have experienced significant lifestyle and dietary changes over the past seven generations that have resulted in increased rates of diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine if Northern Plains Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are randomized to receive culturally adapted educational lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition in addition to their usual dietary education will have better control of their type 2 diabetes than a nonintervention, usual care group who received only the usual dietary education from their personal providers. A 6-month, randomized, controlled trial was conducted January 2005 through December 2005, with participants randomized to the education intervention or usual care control group. The education group received six nutrition lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition. The usual care group received the usual dietary education from their personal providers. One hundred fourteen Northern Plains Indians from Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe aged 18 to 65 years, with type 2 diabetes. Weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, fasting serum glucose and lipid parameters, circulating insulin, and blood pressure were measured at the beginning and completion. Diet histories, physical activity, and dietary satiety surveys were measured at baseline and monthly through completion. Differences were determined using Student t tests, chi(2) tests, and analysis of variance. The education group had a significant weight loss (1.4+/-0.4 kg, Pnutrition intervention promoted small but positive changes in weight. Greater frequency and longer duration of educational support may be needed to influence blood glucose and lipid parameters.
Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A; Evenson, Kelly R
There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase's essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitive Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes-a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae
The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production
Jabbour, Florian; Ronse De Craene, Louis P; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine
Ranunculaceae presents both ancestral and derived floral traits for eudicots, and as such is of potential interest to understand key steps involved in the evolution of zygomorphy in eudicots. Zygomorphy evolved once in Ranunculaceae, in the speciose and derived tribe Delphinieae. This tribe consists of two genera (Aconitum and Delphinium s.l.) comprising more than one-quarter of the species of the family. In this paper, the establishment of zygomorphy during development was investigated to cast light on the origin and evolution of this morphological novelty. METHODS; The floral developmental sequence of six species of Ranunculaceae, three actinomorphic (Nigella damascena, Aquilegia alpina and Clematis recta) and three zygomorphic (Aconitum napellus, Delphinium staphisagria and D. grandiflorum), was compared. A developmental model was elaborated to break down the successive acquisitions of floral organ identities on the ontogenic spiral (all the species studied except Aquilegia have a spiral phyllotaxis), giving clues to understanding this complex morphogenesis from an evo-devo point of view. In addition, the evolution of symmetry in Ranunculaceae was examined in conjunction with other traits of flowers and with ecological factors. In the species studied, zygomorphy is established after organogenesis is completed, and is late, compared with other zygomorphic eudicot species. Zygomorphy occurs in flowers characterized by a fixed merism and a partially reduced and transformed corolla. It is suggested that shifts in expression of genes controlling the merism, as well as floral symmetry and organ identity, have played a critical role in the evolution of zygomorphy in Delphinieae, while the presence of pollinators able to exploit the peculiar morphology of the flower has been a key factor for the maintenance and diversification of this trait.
Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ayman, Umma; Akter, Fatema; Sarker, Mridul; Sifa, Rolee; Sarker, Bijoy; Chyti, Humayra Naj; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Chowdhury, Soheli A
The Kanda tribe is one of the lesser known small tribes of Bangladesh with an estimated population of about 1700 people (according to them), and on the verge of extinction as a separate entity. To some extent, they have assimilated with the surrounding mainstream Bengali-speaking population, but they still maintain their cultural practices including traditional medicinal practices, for which they have their own tribal healers. Nothing at all has been documented thus far about their traditional medicinal practices and formulations, which are on the verge of disappearance. The Kanda tribe can be found only in scattered tea gardens of Sreemangal in Sylhet district of Bangladesh; dispersion of the tribe into small separated communities is also contributing to the fast losing of traditional medicinal practices. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the traditional healers of the Kanda tribe (in fact, only one such healer was found after extensive searches). Information was collected from the healer with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. A total of 24 formulations were obtained from the healer containing 34 plants including two plants, which could not be identified. Besides medicinal plants, the Kanda healer also used the body hairs of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and bats (Pteropus giganteus giganteus) in one of his formulation for treatment of fever with shivering. The ailments treated by the Kanda healer were fairly common ailments like cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, fever, respiratory problems (coughs, asthma), gastrointestinal disorders (stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea), burning sensations during urination, various types of pain (headache, body ache, toothache, ear ache), conjunctivitis, poisonous snake, insect or reptile bites, jaundice, and bone fractures. A number of important drugs in allopathic medicine like quinine, artemisinin, and morphine
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L. 104-109, a Tribe/Consortium has the right to include any provision of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an...
Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite
Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it... REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.7 If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it required to... certificate of self-regulation shall be required to submit a self-regulation report annually to the Commission...
Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.
This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation
Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava
This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea . From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke's Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe do if it does not wish to receive a negotiation grant? 1000.48 Section 1000.48 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION AC...
Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmueller, Stephan
Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...
Ramil E. Agaev
Full Text Available Studying the problems related to the process of the Azerbaijanian people formation requires a comprehensive analysis of mutual relations of the Turkic tribes – the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars – with the local population of Azerbaijan in the early Middle Ages. The article is devoted to the process of penetration of the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars to Azerbaijan, their role in the formation of the Azerbaijanian people and the reflection of this process in the country’s toponymy. In the early Middle Ages the process of penetration of Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north, through the Derbent passage, intensified. Primary sources indicate that over the centuries the Huns (3rd – 4th centuries, the Sabirs (5th – 6th centuries and the Khazars (7th – 8th centuries made continuous attacks on Azerbaijan and neighboring countries from the north. Upon the arrival of the Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north in the 3rd – 4th centuries, the Turkic language in the country was extensively spread. Just since then the ethnotoponyms “Hun”, “Suvar” and “Khazar” became consolidated in the toponymy of Azerbaijan. Revealing the meaning of toponyms, ethnonyms, town names, hydronyms, introduced in language use in the 3rd – 8th centuries and associated with the aforementioned tribes, has exceptional value for recreating the ethnic view of Azerbaijan of the studied epoch. They let us come to the conclusion that the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars were important ethnic elements in the process of ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijanian people.
Soares, M C; Menezes, R C; Martins, S J; Bensabath, G
This study sought to establish the prevalence of infection with the hepatitis B, C, and D viruses (HBV, HCV, and HDV) and to describe their transmission among the Parakanã, an indigenous tribe in Pará State, Brazil. This tribe's first contacts with broader Brazilian society occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. As of October 1992, the tribe consisted of 350 individuals, of whom 222 lived in the village of Paranatinga and 128 in the village of Maroxewara. Serum samples from 96.9% of this population were tested for markers of infection with the above-named viruses by means of enzyme immunoassays. Another 106 serum samples collected from Parakanã in the 1970s were also tested. The results obtained with the modern samples showed an overall prevalence of HBV infection of 84.7% among the residents of Paranatinga, 14.4% of whom were carriers. In Maroxewara, the overall prevalence of infection was only 17.7% and no carriers were detected in the study population. HBV carriers were negative for markers of HDV infection. The prevalence of HCV infection, confirmed by immunoblot, was 1.4% and 1.6% in Paranatinga and Maroxewara, respectively. Among the notable findings of this study were that horizontal transmission of HBV takes place at an early age in Paranatinga; that HBV infection prevalences differ greatly between two nearby villages belonging to the same tribe; that HCV infection was detected in both villages; and, from the historic sera, that the prevalence of HBV infection was low and HCV infection was absent during the first years in which the Parakanã people had outside contact.
T. Z. Moskalets
Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe
Saha, Kalyan B; Singh, Neeru; Chatterjee Saha, Uma; Roy, Jyotirmoy
Indian tribal men's lack of participation in reproductive health not only damages their own health, but also contributes to the reproductive ill health of their female partners and children. In India the involvement of men in such matters is a new concept. There is a paucity of data particularly on Scheduled tribesmen's knowledge and the extent of their participation in reproductive health. This inhibits planning. The present study aims to understand the involvement of Scheduled tribesmen in reproductive health and the barriers to their involvement by generating a database from the Khairwar tribe of Central India. A door-to-door survey on knowledge, attitude and practice relating to aspects of reproductive health was conducted by canvassing a pre-designed interview schedule among 15-40 year old, currently married Khairwar males in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh, India. As far as reproductive morbidity is concerned, only 17% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and most had no proper knowledge of its transmission. Although 74% of the respondents had heard about reproductive tract infections, the majority of them were unaware of the mechanism of transmission and seriousness of the problem. The duel role of condoms, both as a method of family planning and a protective measure against sexually transmitted infections, was also unknown to them. Approximately 59% of the males were aware of family planning but only 13% were using any method (mostly female sterilization) at the time of survey. Their view on the ideal number of children (3.56) exceeded the actual number of children born and living. High infant and child mortality influenced their preference for higher fertility. Very few among them (29%) had knowledge of antenatal care. They expressed faulty knowledge, myths and unhelpful attitudes towards sexual health matters. The study revealed the male Scheduled tribe population's lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding male sexual health issues, the
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of
Full Text Available Abstract The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59% than the underground plant parts (23.41%. Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species, followed by fruit (4. Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.
Panda Sujogya Kumar
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.
Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter
The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842
Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S
The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge on the treatment of various gynaecological disorders by Baluch Tribes of Iran. The ethical guidelines adopted by the International Society of Ethnobiology were strictly followed during the field survey. Data were collected during 2013-2014 based on interviews, group conversations and close consultation with local informants. Participants were selected using the snowball sampling technique. Secondary methods of data collection were also used for triangulation. A quantitative analysis including the informant consensus factor and use value was performed to evaluate the medicinal plants. A total of 33.3% Baluch women reported high affiliation with herbal remedies for gynaecological problems, while others attribute was also positive for medicinal plants. A total of eighty plant species belonging to 43 botanical families were documented. Levels of Relative frequency of citation decreased as follows: Nigella sativa (0.92, Pistacia atlantica (0.91, Anethum graveolens (0.88, Carum carvi (0.87 and Trigonella foenum-graecum (0.85. Results of the informant consensus factor showed that menstrual problems (0.87 and vaginal infection (0.74 were the most common problems of women in the studied area. The use value and informant consensus factor validated that the relative importance of plant species and shared knowledge of herbal therapies between Baluch womenfolk of this area is still rich.
Albino M Sakakibara
Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.
Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, D P
The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,), hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria), sambhar (Cervus unicolor) were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.
Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.
Marília de França Rocha
Full Text Available The grasshopper species Orthoscapheus rufipes and Eujivarus fusiformis were analyzed using several cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of O. rufipes, described here for the first time, had a diploid number of 2n = 23, whereas E. fusiformis had a karyotype with 2n = 21. The two species showed the same mechanism of sex determination (XO type but differed in chromosome morphology. Pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH were detected in the chromosome complement of both species. CMA3/DA/DAPI staining revealed CMA3-positive blocks in CH regions in four autosomal bivalents of O. rufipes and in two of E. fusiformis. The location of active NORs differed between the two species, occurring in bivalents M6 and S9 of O. rufipes and M6 and M7 of E. fusiformsi. The rDNA sites revealed by FISH coincided with the number and position of the active NORs detected by AgNO3 staining. The variability in chromosomal markers accounted for the karyotype differentiation observed in the tribe Abracrini.
Yan, Hai-Fei; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Anderberg, Arne A; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun; Wiens, John J
What causes the disparity in biodiversity among regions is a fundamental question in biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Evolutionary and biogeographic processes (speciation, extinction, dispersal) directly determine species richness patterns, and can be studied using integrative phylogenetic approaches. However, the strikingly high richness of East Asia relative to other Northern Hemisphere regions remains poorly understood from this perspective. Here, for the first time, we test two general hypotheses (older colonization time, faster diversification rate) to explain this pattern, using the plant tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae) as a model system. We generated a new time-calibrated phylogeny for Lysimachieae (13 genes, 126 species), to estimate colonization times and diversification rates for each region and to test the relative importance of these two factors for explaining regional richness patterns. We find that neither time nor diversification rates alone explain richness patterns among regions in Lysimachieae. Instead, a new index that combines both factors explains global richness patterns in the group and their high East Asian biodiversity. Based on our results from Lysimachieae, we suggest that the high richness of plants in East Asia may be explained by a combination of older colonization times and faster diversification rates in this region. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Gradellini, Martina; Fiaccadori, Cianzia
A collaboration experience with the Fondation Médical d'Ampasimanjeva nurses, in an international cooperation project,permits to analyse the basic nursing concepts, starting from the local cultural approach. Research main outcome is to describe health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in the Malgasi Antemoro tribe. Closing to the ethnographic research, work has been developed in three different moments: a first job organization starting from a spread literature analysis, the follow work on field about collecting data, and the last data elaboration and discussion Collecting data tool was the focus group which has done with the complete hospital nursing staff, divided by ward places. A fourth one was addressed to a twenty medical patients group. Focus group questions came from the Rising Sun Model guide, by Madeleine Leininger, adapted to the research own needs. Outcomes show an important traditional medicine influence, explained by the way people conceive health, illness, and even life, all elements directly affected the nursing care. It stands out a strong belief that health depends by the ability of person to work. The death concept is saw as a passage's phase to the Razana's spiritual condition. This is the reason supporting fatalism as approach to the death, that appear as an inevitable event managed by God. Disease's concept is related to traditional healers; as a matter of facts, it exists a strong belief that diseases find origin from magician.
Hadisi, La; Alpin, Muhammad
This study aims to know and understand the values of Islamic religious education in Tinasuka custom of Wawonii community in Konawe Islands District. This research uses qualitative descriptive research. Data was obtained in the form of opinions, views or another expression of thoughts through interviews, then analyzed by compiling data. To determine the validity of data obtained, this study used triangulation of sources and data. The results show that: “Tinasuka in Wawonii Tribe of Konawe Islands Regency has a close relationship with the values of Islamic education”. Tinasuka comes from wawonii language. It means dowry which way of fulfilment and its kind is different from another area, the dowry type is coconut tree, and the fulfilment depends on social strata of the woman. Historically, according to the Wawonii community, the philosophy of Tinasuka customary originated from the meaning of wawonii island and the facts about the source of the wawonii tribe’s life dominated by coconut trees compared to other types of agriculture. So the value of Islamic education in Tinasuka custom is to prioritize tolerance and humanism in the fulfilment of dowries, are required to work hard especially in planting coconut trees, and cooperation. After the end of the dominant system, the Tinasuka custom continues to grow and undergo some adjustments coupled with the reduced land to grow coconut trees, so that the Tinasuka in the form of coconut trees can be converted in money.
Rao, V G; Sugunan, A P; Murhekar, M V; Sehgal, S C
A study was conducted among the Onge tribe of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with the objectives of identifying demographic factors responsible for the decline in their population and assessing their nutritional status, which is an important determinant of child survival. The study included estimation of indices of fertility and child mortality, and assessment of nutritional status. All individuals of the Onge community settled on Little Andaman Island were included. The mean total marital fertility rate was estimated to be 5.15 live births per woman and the general fertility rate was 200 live births per 1000 married-woman-years. Although the gross reproduction rate was estimated to be 2.2 female children per married woman, the net reproduction rate was only 0.9 surviving female child per married woman. The mean infant mortality rate during the past 30 years was 192.7 per 1000 live births, and the child survival rate was found to be only 53.2%. A mild to moderate degree of malnutrition was found in 85% of children of pre-school age and severe malnutrition in 10%. The Onges had low intakes of iron, vitamin A and vitamin C. All the screened Onges were found to be infested with one or more intestinal parasites. High childhood mortality appears to be the predominant demographic factor responsible for the decline in the Onge population. The high prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency disorders could be important factors contributing to the high childhood mortality.
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the traditional knowledge of Irula tribal people who are practicing herbal medicine in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats, India. A total number of 146 species of plants distributed in 122 genera belonging to 58 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by them. Interestingly, 26 new claims were also made in the present study. Through the data obtained from Irula tribal healers, the herbs were mostly used for medicine (40.4% followed by trees (26.7% and climbers (18.5%. In addition leaves were highly used for medicinal purposes, collected from 55 species (38% followed by multiple parts from 18 species (12%. Acorus calamus is the species of higher use value (1.80 assessed to be prescribed most commonly for the treatment of cough. High informant consensus factor (1.0 obtained for insecticidal uses and cooling agent indicates that the usage of Canarium strictum and Melia dubia, and Mimosa pudica and Sesamum indicum respectively for that purposes had obtained high degree of agreement among the healers in using these species for the respective purposes. The most commonly used method of preparation was decoction (63% followed by raw form (23%, paste (12% and powder (2%. Therefore, it is suggested to take-up pharmacological and phytochemical studies to evaluate the species to confirm the traditional knowledge of Irulas on medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotanical surveys, Irula tribes, India
Jones, John D.
A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the
Schaefer, Hanno; Hechenleitner, Paulina; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Pennington, R Toby; Kenicer, Gregory; Carine, Mark A
Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23-16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread from there across Eurasia, into
Full Text Available At the end of the Qajar era, during the Reza Khan’s Ministry of War, the plan of calming down and settling the Lorestani tribes was put into the attention of the government. Following this, the West Army commanded by Amir Ahmadi, attacked Lorestan by the order of Reza Khan in 1302/1923. Amir Ahmadi conquered Borujerd and Khorramabad and other areas under the influence of the leaders of the rebellious tribes. After that, in order to protect Republicanism, Reza Khan went to Tehran, and handed over the command of the West Army to Colonel Shahbakhti. At the time of Shahbakhti’s command, the leaders of the tribal tribes of Lorestan rebelled and surrounded him in Khorramabad; with the reappearance of Amir Ahmadi, the leaders of the rebellion fled. After Shahbakhti, the commander of the West Army was handed over to Brigadier Khazaee. The question in this research is regarding the influence of Brigadier Khazaee’s type of rule on the uprising of the tribes of Lorestan in 1927. The hypothesis of the research in answering this question is that Brigadier Khazaee applied a more rigorous policy to deal with the tribes than his predecessors, which caused a sharp reaction from the tribes. The research findings showed that he executed about thirteen tribal leaders from Lorestan to play a significant role in overcoming their traditional influence. Khazaee’s performance, like Amir Ahmadi, led to the escape of many Khans to Tarhan and their seeking support from the ruling there, Ali Mohammad Khan Ghazanfari, led to the recent mass rebellion of the tribes of Lorestan under the leadership of Tarhan’s governor. The study of Khazaee's rule in Lorestan and how his actions led to the massive rebellion are important in this article.
Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed
The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yahaya Fatan Hamamah
Full Text Available In Malaysia, the Orang Asli communities are natives that comprise the Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay peoples. Traditionally, the Orang Asli live in isolated forests or in forest peripheries. Although Globalisation occurs in Malaysia, its occurrence does not affect the traditional values of the said Orang Asli, who still depend on the natural environment to live. Nature provides the Orang Asli with a community resource for acquiring animals that are not just consumed as food, but also used in medicine, hunting and myth creation. This study intends to identify the animal species and the methods the Senoi and Negrito use these animals, within the aspects of their diet, medicine, hunting methods and their myth creation. Empirical data collection is focused only on the Lanoh and Temiar tribes who live in Lenggong. The method of data collection involves in-depth interviews with key informants that comprise Tok Batins (tribal chiefs and focus groups from the chosen Orang Asli village communities in Kampung Air Bah and Kampung Lubuk Chupak, Lenggong. The findings of this study reveal a wide variety of animals are still being hunted by the Orang Asli community for food and medicine. Apart from that, there are specific beliefs regarding the animals hunted narrated through myths and legends. Therefore, this study is significant in order to determine that the animal usage in the lives of the Orang Asli community continue for the sake of the demands of their heritage and families in order to preserve its pristine continuity. This is because while findings show that wildlife is still used by the Orang Asli, their usage among the younger generation is increasingly eroded due to such factors as wildlife extinction, dwindling availability, new religious taboos and modern progress which continues to find its place within the Orang Asli community.
Morales, Chelsea T; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A; Putnam, Elizabeth A; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L
Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana (UM) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership, as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research.
Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R
Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev., is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev., is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017, comb. n.; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938, comb. n.; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983, comb. n.; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939, comb. n.; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi
Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel
The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus ; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus ; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera ; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017), comb. n. ; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938), comb. n. ; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983), comb. n. ; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939), comb. n. ; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi, 1916
Musilová, Zuzana; Rícan, Oldrich; Janko, Karel; Novák, Jindrich
We have conducted the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Cichlasomatini including all valid genera as well as important species of questionable generic status. To recover the relationships among cichlasomatine genera and to test their monophyly we analyzed sequences from two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, cytochrome b) and one nuclear marker (first intron of S7 ribosomal gene) totalling 2236 bp. Our data suggest that all genera except Aequidens are monophyletic, but we found important disagreements between the traditional morphological relationships and the phylogeny based on our molecular data. Our analyses support the following conclusions: (a) Aequidens sensu stricto is paraphyletic, including also Cichlasoma (CA clade); (b) Krobia is not closely related to Bujurquina and includes also the Guyanan Aequidens species A. potaroensis and probably A. paloemeuensis (KA clade). (c) Bujurquina and Tahuantinsuyoa are sister groups, closely related to an undescribed genus formed by the 'Aequidens'pulcher-'Aequidens'rivulatus groups (BTA clade). (d) Nannacara (plus Ivanacara) and Cleithracara are found as sister groups (NIC clade). Acaronia is most probably the sister group of the BTA clade, and Laetacara may be the sister group of this clade. Estimation of divergence times suggests that the divergence of Cichlasomatini started around 44Mya with the vicariance between coastal rivers of the Guyanas (KA and NIC clades) and remaining cis-andean South America, followed by evolution of the Acaronia-Laetacara-BTA clade in Western Amazon, and the CA clade in the Eastern Amazon. Vicariant divergence has played importantly in evolution of cichlasomatine genera, with dispersal limited to later range extension of species within genera.
Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sergio Miana; dos Santos, José Miguel Ferreira; Tisseyre, Pierre; Silva, Michele; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K.; Prin, Yves; Moulin, Lionel
Burkholderia legume symbionts (also called α-rhizobia) are ancient in origin and are the main nitrogen-fixing symbionts of species belonging to the large genus Mimosa in Brazil. We investigated the extent of the affinity between Burkholderia and species in the tribe Mimoseae by studying symbionts of the genera Piptadenia (P.), Parapiptadenia (Pp.), Pseudopiptadenia (Ps.), Pityrocarpa (Py.), Anadenanthera (A.) and Microlobius (Mi.), all of which are native to Brazil and are phylogenetically close to Mimosa, and which together with Mimosa comprise the “Piptadenia group”. We characterized 196 strains sampled from 18 species from 17 locations in Brazil using two neutral markers and two symbiotic genes in order to assess their species affiliations and the evolution of their symbiosis genes. We found that Burkholderia are common and highly diversified symbionts of species in the Piptadenia group, comprising nine Burkholderia species, of which three are new ones and one was never reported as symbiotic (B. phenoliruptrix). However, α-rhizobia were also detected and were occasionally dominant on a few species. A strong sampling site effect on the rhizobial nature of symbionts was detected, with the symbiont pattern of the same legume species changing drastically from location to location, even switching from β to α-rhizobia. Coinoculation assays showed a strong affinity of all the Piptadenia group species towards Burkholderia genotypes, with the exception of Mi. foetidus. Phylogenetic analyses of neutral and symbiotic markers showed that symbiosis genes in Burkholderia from the Piptadenia group have evolved mainly through vertical transfer, but also by horizontal transfer in two species. PMID:23691052
Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping
The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568
Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Proença, Carol E B; Ahmad, Berhaman; Aguilar, Daniel S; Aguilar, Reinaldo; Amorim, Bruno S; Campbell, Keron; Costa, Itayguara R; De-Carvalho, Plauto S; Faria, Jair E Q; Giaretta, Augusto; Kooij, Pepijn W; Lima, Duane F; Mazine, Fiorella F; Peguero, Brigido; Prenner, Gerhard; Santos, Matheus F; Soewarto, Julia; Wingler, Astrid; Lucas, Eve J
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns. One nuclear (ITS) and seven chloroplast (psbA-trnH, matK, ndhF, trnl-trnF, trnQ-rps16, rpl16 and rpl32-trnL) DNA regions for 115 taxa representing 46 out of the 51 genera in the tribe were accessed and analysed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference tools for phylogenetic reconstruction. Dates of diversification events were estimated and contrasted using two distinct fossil sets (macro and pollen) in BEAST. The subsequent dated phylogenies were compared and analysed for biogeographical patterns using BioGeoBEARS and diversification rates using BAMM. Myrteae phylogeny presents strong statistical support for three major clades within the tribe: Australasian group, Myrtus group and Main Neotropical Lineage. Dating results from calibration using macrofossil are an average of 20 million years older and show an early Paleocene origin of Myrteae, against a mid-Eocene one from the pollen fossil calibration. Biogeographic analysis shows the origin of Myrteae in Zealandia in both calibration approaches, followed by a widespread distribution throughout the still-linked Gondwana continents and diversification of Neotropical endemic lineages by later vicariance. Best configuration shift indicates three points of acceleration in diversification rates, all of them occurring in the Main Neotropical Lineage. Based on the reconstructed topology, several new taxonomic placements were recovered, including: the
Chen, A N; Chen, K F; Chang, P C; Shih, F Jong; Chen, C R; Shih, F-Jin; Huang, C-Y
Ali-San Tsou (AST) is one of leading aboriginal tribes in Taiwan with traditional godly beliefs related to life and death. Lacking related knowledge, health professionals (HPs) often failed to help them reach good dying or organ donation (OD). This study aimed to explore hindering factors and suggestions related to OD for good dying from Taiwan AST's own perspective. An explorative qualitative design was employed using a purposive sample of the AST tribes from Taiwan. Data were collected with AST residents by face-to-face interviews and analyzed by content analysis. Thirty AST residents (16 females and 14 males) with ages ranging from 28 to 78 (mean, 54.5) years completed interviews. Of them, 85% reported various diseases. In this study 73% were Catholics and Christians, 17% held traditional godly believes, and 10% had no religious affiliation. Eight hindering factors were reported: (1) limited information about organs and OD; (2) no qualified organs for donation; (3) worry about lack of forgiveness by ancestors; (4) tribe elders who might not accept concept of OD; (5) intact bodies were required at home during spirit-companion rituals; (6) earth burial with intact bodies was preferred; (7) bodies due to accidental and bad death were impermissible for OD; and (8) worry about possession by the donor's spirit. Seven suggestions were also reported for HPs to enhance AST's OD decisions: (1) starting with friendship and a caring relationship; (2) providing spiritual support from reverent religions; (3) stressing good deeds and honoring tribe folks by OD; (4) avoiding accidental/bad death; (5) providing relevant modern medical knowledge of human organs and OD; (6) introducing OD as part of a good-dying care plan; and (7) demonstrating a respectful discussion mindset about OD. Eight hindering factors and 7 types of suggestions for enhancing AST aboriginal people's OD decisions were first explored in this project. In the future, HPs are encouraged to invite AST to share
Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of the community households who still prefer traditional treatment to other forms of treatment, particularly allopathic treatment. Methods Interviews of the tribal healer and the tribal community regarding their ethnomedicinal practices were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All together 67 clan members were interviewed including the Headman, tribal healer, 19 Heads of households and 46 other adult members of the clan. Information on number of members of household, their age, gender, educational status, occupation of working household members and preferred mode of treatment was obtained through the semi-structured questionnaire. In the guided field-walk method, the healer took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Results The clan had a total of 135 people distributed into 20 households and had only one traditional healer. Use of medicinal plants, wearing of amulets, and worship of the evil god ‘Bura debta’ constituted the traditional medicinal practices of the clan for treatment of diseases. The healer used a total of 44 medicinal plants distributed into 34 families for treatment of various ailments like pain, coughs, cold, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, diabetes, malaria, heart disorders, and paralysis. Conclusions Available scientific reports validate the use of a number of plants by the traditional
Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Hasan, Nur; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Rahman, Md Ashikur; Khan, Jakia Alam; Hoque, Nazia Tasnim; Bhuiyan, Md Ruhul Quddus; Mou, Sadia Moin; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of the community households who still prefer traditional treatment to other forms of treatment, particularly allopathic treatment. Interviews of the tribal healer and the tribal community regarding their ethnomedicinal practices were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All together 67 clan members were interviewed including the Headman, tribal healer, 19 Heads of households and 46 other adult members of the clan. Information on number of members of household, their age, gender, educational status, occupation of working household members and preferred mode of treatment was obtained through the semi-structured questionnaire. In the guided field-walk method, the healer took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. The clan had a total of 135 people distributed into 20 households and had only one traditional healer. Use of medicinal plants, wearing of amulets, and worship of the evil god 'Bura debta' constituted the traditional medicinal practices of the clan for treatment of diseases. The healer used a total of 44 medicinal plants distributed into 34 families for treatment of various ailments like pain, coughs, cold, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, diabetes, malaria, heart disorders, and paralysis. Available scientific reports validate the use of a number of plants by the traditional healer. A number of the plants used by the
Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross checked in Dr. Dukes database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Results: Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Dukes phytochemical and ethnobotanical database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens K. pneumonia among bacteria and R. arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Dukes database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 158-169
Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu
The temperate woody bamboos constitute a distinct tribe Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) with high species diversity. Estimating phylogenetic relationships among the 11 major lineages of Arundinarieae has been particularly difficult, owing to a possible rapid radiation and the extremely low rate of sequence divergence. Here, we explore the use of chloroplast genome sequencing for phylogenetic inference. We sampled 25 species (22 temperate bamboos and 3 outgroups) for the complete genome representing eight major lineages of Arundinarieae in an attempt to resolve backbone relationships. Phylogenetic analyses of coding versus noncoding sequences, and of different regions of the genome (large single copy and small single copy, and inverted repeat regions) yielded no well-supported contradicting topologies but potential incongruence was found between the coding and noncoding sequences. The use of various data partitioning schemes in analysis of the complete sequences resulted in nearly identical topologies and node support values, although the partitioning schemes were decisively different from each other as to the fit to the data. Our full genomic data set substantially increased resolution along the backbone and provided strong support for most relationships despite the very short internodes and long branches in the tree. The inferred relationships were also robust to potential confounding factors (e.g., long-branch attraction) and received support from independent indels in the genome. We then added taxa from the three Arundinarieae lineages that were not included in the full-genome data set; each of these were sampled for more than 50% genome sequences. The resulting trees not only corroborated the reconstructed deep-level relationships but also largely resolved the phylogenetic placements of these three additional lineages. Furthermore, adding 129 additional taxa sampled for only eight chloroplast loci to the combined data set yielded almost identical
Full Text Available The Rukai tribe is concentrated in the Wutai Township of Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. From 2000 to 2003 people of the Rukai in Wutai were interviewed on the traditional uses of plants and samples of such plant species were collected in an effort to remedy the situation of insufficient quantitative data on Taiwan’s ethnobotany. The number of citations per species and total number of citations were recorded in order to calculate diversity indices such as Shannon-Wiener index, evenness index, and rarefaction curves. Thirty-seven interviewed informants cited 245 plant species, which were then classified into thirteen types of usages, such as food, medicine, tools, and decoration. Among the 245 plant species, 93 species are used as food, 73 as tools, 52 for decoration and 45 for medicinal purposes. Informants described six types of usages for Hibiscus taiwanensis Hu and Vitex negundo L. Sambucus chinensis Nakai and Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. had the highest number of citations for medicinal usages. The Shannon-Wiener index was 2.27. The evenness values was 0.95, showing that the Wutai Rukai people had a low dominance concerning the uses of a few species and an equitability of plant uses. The diversity indices and the Coleman rarefaction curves of the Taiwan Rukai tribe could be available to compare ethnobotanical data with different areas.
Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas
Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.
Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella
Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halim, Nafisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig
Despite India's substantial investments in primary schooling, gaps in schooling persist across gender and caste-with scheduled caste and scheduled tribe (SC/ST) girls being particularly disadvantaged. The representation of SC/ST women in state legislatures may help to mitigate this disadvantage. Specifically, because of her intersecting gender and caste/tribe identities, a SC/ST woman legislator might maintain a strong sense of solidarity especially with SC/ST girls and women, and support legislative policies benefitting SC/ST girls. Consequently, for this reason, we expect that living in a district where SC/ST women represent in state legislatures in a higher proportion may increase SC/ST girls' primary school completion, progression and performance. We tested this hypothesis using district-level data between 2000 and 2004 from the Indian Election Commission, the 2004/5 India Human Development Survey, and the Indian Census of 2001. As expected, the representation of SC/ST women in state legislatures was positively associated with SC/ST girls' grade completion and age-appropriate grade progression but was apparent not SC/ST girls' primary-school performance. SC/ST women's representation in state legislatures may reduce gender-caste gaps in primary-school attainment in India. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: There are very few studies done among tribes that explore the contribution of changing social norms which influences the acceptance of family planning methods. Objective: To discover various changing traditional social norms that influence tribal people to accept contraceptive methods. Methodology: Ten in-depth interviews were conducted among Toda and Irula tribes of Nilagiri district, Tamil Nadu. Family planning acceptors were interviewed and sampling was purposive to get data richness. The interviewed were summarized and themes identified. The themes were used to construct a conceptual framework of social factors influencing family planning acceptance. Results: The important themes that emerged were: (1 Perceived need for development in terms of education and sufficient savings for future. (2 Improved perception on attaining gender equality by women. (3 Lack of bonding between parents and children due to poor attention and poor understanding in large families. (4 Learning from the bad experiences of others with large families was a major reason for adopting small families. Conclusion: The social norms which influenced acceptance of family planning methods seem to be related to perceived financial and economic development of families directly or indirectly. Therefore family planning education programs should emphasize on the financial and economic benefits of family planning.
Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti
To evaluate the association between blood sugar level and obesity, and the interplay of socioeconomic change, and to investigate the efficacy of different obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 603 adult Tangkhul Nagas of NE India. Anthropometric measurements, random blood sugar level, general and regional obesity indices were evaluated along with their information on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Socioeconomic change observed among the Tangkhuls influence the rise of overweight/obesity and blood sugar level. Obesity and elevated blood sugar level were highly prevalent and interrelated. Diabetes and obesity were also found to be associated with age. Central obesity indices were highly associated with blood sugar level. Odds ratio showed the likelihood of developing prediabetes/diabetes among centrally obese participants. Correlation between blood sugar level, age and obesity indices showed that waist hip ratio had the highest correlation with blood sugar. It implies the higher reliability of central obesity than general obesity or age in determining blood sugar level. The transition of the Tangkhul Naga tribe in terms of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors contributes to the escalating prevalence of overweight/obesity and diabetes. The rising epidemic is not restricted to highly urbanized societies but now has penetrated even to traditional and transitional tribes owing to their changing lifestyle. Different facets of the complex associations between obesity, age, diabetes and socioeconomic change were observed. Central obesity indicator, waist hip ratio emerge as the paramount predictors of prediabetes/diabetes.
Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167 What...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium use its own resources to meet its self-governance planning and negotiation expenses? 1000.43 Section 1000.43 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN...
... be exempted from the applicability of Â§ 1000.26? 1000.28 Section 1000.28 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES General § 1000.28 May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000... and systems meet or exceed the comparable requirements of § 1000.26. For purposes of this section, a...
... government, or any other business enterprise owned by the tribe, unless the Administrator determines that one... similar tribally-owned concerns in the future. (ii) Members of the management team, business committee... involved in the management or daily business operations of a tribally-owned concern to have used his or her...
... CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Property Donation Procedures... or tribal organization upon acceptance by the Indian tribe or tribal organization of a proper deed of... Secretary shall take the necessary action under Federal law and regulations to transfer fee title to the...
... potential for harm to a physical trust asset? If, because of the tribe's noncompliance with Federal law or... resulted in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset? 224.137 Section 224.137 Indians... physical trust asset that does not rise to the level of imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset, the...
... noncompliance with the TERA or a Federal law has caused imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset. ... caused imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset? 224.138 Section 224.138 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... the Director do if a tribe's noncompliance has caused imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset? If...
... or use of trust assets, will we accept those trust funds for deposit into a tribal trust account? 115... under a contract for the sale or use of trust assets, will we accept those trust funds for deposit into... are to be made directly to a tribe, we will not accept these trust funds into a tribal trust account...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How quickly will trust funds received by the Secretary on behalf of tribes or individual Indians be deposited into a trust account? 115.708 Section 115.708 Indians... INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Trust Fund Accounts: General Information § 115.708 How quickly will trust funds received...
Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...
... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? (a) A state, tribe, or local government that receives or plans to begin receiving electronic documents in lieu of paper...
Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.
The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…
... regulation it wishes to be waived? 1000.229 Section 1000.229 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.229 May a Tribe...
... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model Compact of Self-Governance Between the Tribe and..., INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Pt. 1000, App. A Appendix A to Part 1000—Model...
... conditions not contained in the model compact? 1000.163 Section 1000.163 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF... Funding Agreements Negotiating A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.163 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate other...
... Selection of Additional Tribes for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool... compact and annual funding agreement at any time unless: (1) It notifies the Director in writing that it no longer wishes to be eligible to participate in the Tribal Self-Governance Program; (2) Fails to...
An EPA Western Ecology Division (WED) watershed modeling team has been working with the Snoqualmie Tribe Environmental and Natural Resources Department to develop VELMA watershed model simulations of the effects of historical and future restoration and land use practices on strea...
... title to property furnished by the Federal government for use in the performance of a contract or grant... Government-Furnished Property § 900.87 How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization obtain title to property furnished by the Federal government for use in the performance of a contract or grant agreement...
Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, R.L.; Becker, M.F.; Trombley, T.J.
This report is an overview of water resources in and near the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma. The tribal treaty lands are about 1,140 square miles and are bordered by the Canadian River on the north, the Washita River on the south, 98? west longitude on the east, and 98? 40' west longitude on the west. Seventy percent of the study area lies within the Washita River drainage basin and 30 percent of the area lies within the Canadian River drainage basin. March through June are months of greatest average streamflow, with 49 to 57 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these four months. November through February, July, and August have the least average streamflow with only 26 to 36 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these six months. Two streamflow-gaging stations, Canadian River at Bridgeport and Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb, indicated peak streamflows generally decrease with regulation. Two other streamflow-gaging stations, Washita River at Carnegie and Washita River at Anadarko, indicated a decrease in peak streamflows after regulation at less than the 100-year recurrence and an increase in peak streamflows greater than the 100-year recurrence. Canadian River at Bridgeport and Washita River at Carnegie had estimated annual low flows that generally increased with regulation. Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb had a decrease of estimated annual low flows after regulation. There are greater than 900 ground-water wells in the tribal treaty lands. Eighty percent of the wells are in Caddo County.The major aquifers in the study area are the Rush Springs Aquifer and portions of the Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers. The Rush Springs Aquifer is used extensively for irrigation as well as industrial and municipal purposes, especially near population centers.The Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers are not used extensively in the study area. Well yields from the Rush Springs Aquifer ranged from
Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H
Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B
A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H
Birch, Joanne L; Walsh, Neville G; Cantrill, David J; Holmes, Gareth D; Murphy, Daniel J
In Australia, Poaceae tribe Poeae are represented by 19 genera and 99 species, including economically and environmentally important native and introduced pasture grasses [e.g. Poa (Tussock-grasses) and Lolium (Ryegrasses)]. We used this tribe, which are well characterised in regards to morphological diversity and evolutionary relationships, to test the efficacy of DNA barcoding methods. A reference library was generated that included 93.9% of species in Australia (408 individuals, [Formula: see text] = 3.7 individuals per species). Molecular data were generated for official plant barcoding markers (rbcL, matK) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We investigated accuracy of specimen identifications using distance- (nearest neighbour, best-close match, and threshold identification) and tree-based (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) methods and applied species discovery methods (automatic barcode gap discovery, Poisson tree processes) based on molecular data to assess congruence with recognised species. Across all methods, success rate for specimen identification of genera was high (87.5-99.5%) and of species was low (25.6-44.6%). Distance- and tree-based methods were equally ineffective in providing accurate identifications for specimens to species rank (26.1-44.6% and 25.6-31.3%, respectively). The ITS marker achieved the highest success rate for specimen identification at both generic and species ranks across the majority of methods. For distance-based analyses the best-close match method provided the greatest accuracy for identification of individuals with a high percentage of "correct" (97.6%) and a low percentage of "incorrect" (0.3%) generic identifications, based on the ITS marker. For tribe Poeae, and likely for other grass lineages, sequence data in the standard DNA barcode markers are not variable enough for accurate identification of specimens to species rank. For recently diverged grass species similar challenges are
Full Text Available A new genus and species of the large Neotropical pselaphine tribe Jubini is described from Manaus, Brazil, based on material preserved in the Natural History Museum, London. Morphogenia struhli gen. et sp. n. represents the possible sister taxon of the abundant and speciose genus Barrojuba Park, sharing with it the putatively derived condition of anterolaterally shifted vertexal foveae, producing a smoothly convex vertex devoid of fovea or sulci. However, unlike Barrojuba, Morphogenia retains a plesiomorphic antebasal sulcus on the pronotum in both sexes, and additionally lacks elaborate abdominal fovea-like pockets and teeth on the lateral margins of the pronotum that are typical of Barrojuba. The genus is also unusual among jubine genera in lacking the characteristic V- or Y-shaped gular carina. In contrast to the commonly-collected Barrojuba, specimens of Morphogenia are absent in extensive jubine collections housed in museums in the United States, indicating that the new taxon may be relatively scarce or localised.
Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.
Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-
Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.
Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R
Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae
Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP. PMID:21281460
Chander, M Punnam; Kartick, C; Gangadhar, J; Vijayachari, P
This study is an attempt to document the use of medicinal plants by Nicobarese tribe from the Car Nicobar Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Inspite of the availability of modern healthcare facilities tribal people often take herbal medicines and Traditional Knowledge Practitioners (TKPs) serve as the local medical experts in Car Nicobar Island. The present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the TKPs of Nicobarese tribe of the inhabitants of Car Nicobar Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Field research was conducted in 15 villages of Car Nicobar Island during March 2011-February 2012. TKPs were interviewed with a questionnaire-guided ethnomedical survey protocol. The data obtained were quantitatively analysed using the informant consensus factor (ICF) and use value (UV). Voucher specimens of all cited plants were collected and deposited at Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Port Blair. Use of 150 medicinal plant species, belonging to 122 genera encompassing 59 families were recorded during the survey. These 150 species are employed to treat 47 different medicinal uses, divided into nine categories of use. The highest ICF (0.68) was obtained for the gastrointestinal system. The Euphorbiaceae family exhibited the highest number of citations, and the species with the highest UVs were Morinda citrifolia L., Tabernaemontana crispa Roxb. and Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was shrubs (28%). Among several parts of individual plant species which are used, leaves constitute the major portion in preparation of medicines. Remedies were generally prepared using water as the excipient. This study is an attempt to document the use of medicinal plants from the Car Nicobar Island of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Future phytochemical and pharmacological studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of the identified plants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland
By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the history of the Dōnghú, Wūhuán and Xiānbēi Proto-Mongolian tribes in the period from the 4th century B.C. to the end of the 3rd century A.D. The history of the ancient nomadic peoples who lived north of China is written in Chinese dynasty chronicles. Proto-Mongolian tribes from the 1st century B.C. are called Dōnghú in Chinese sources. The earliest news on them originates from the Warring States Period (4th – 3rd century B.C., and tells of a conflict with the northern Chinese states. Other types of sources on the history of the Proto-Mongolian tribes are archaeological findings, which associate Mongolian ethnogenesis with slab grave cultures and the Lower Xiàjiādiàn. Linguists find the materials for the research on Mongolian ethnogenesis in the Altaic linguistic family, which the Mongolian language belongs to as well. Based on the mentioned sources, the change in the political situation in the steppes at the end of the 3rd century B.C., when the people of Xiōngnú created a powerful state and conquered the Dōnghúes, is described in the paper. The remains of the shattered Dōnghúes, who had mostly migrated to the north, have been recorded in Chinese chronicles under new topoethnonyms: Xiānbēi and Wūhuán. The weakening and fall of the Xiōngnúes’ state enabled the Proto-Mongolian tribes to re-enter the historical scene. At the end of the 1st century B.C. the Chinese Hàn Empire firstly established relations with the Wūhuán tribes and in the middle of the 1st century A.D. with the Xiānbēi tribes, too. In the beginning both tribal alliances acknowledged the supreme authority of China and carried out frontier service. Under the guidance of tribal chiefs the tribes started to run an independent policy and attack China’s border areas during the 2nd century A.D. In the conclusion, the author describes the period when the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi tribes were at the peak of their power
Bradbury, J.A.; Leyson, J.; Lester, M.K.
This report revises and updates the 1995 report Financial Assistance to States and Tribes to Support Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Shipments, PNL-10260 (UC-620). The presentation of data and some of the data reported have been changed; these data supersede those presented in the earlier publication. All data have been updated to fiscal year 1995, with the exception of FEMA data that are updated to fiscal year 1994 only. The report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. It is intended for use as an information resource for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76).
Gagné, Raymond J
Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.
Bradbury, J.A.; Leyson, J.; Lester, M.K.
This report revises and updates the 1995 report Financial Assistance to States and Tribes to Support Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Shipments, PNL-10260 (UC-620). The presentation of data and some of the data reported have been changed; these data supersede those presented in the earlier publication. All data have been updated to fiscal year 1995, with the exception of FEMA data that are updated to fiscal year 1994 only. The report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. It is intended for use as an information resource for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76)
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in Â§ 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How does...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Tribe/Consortium know when and how to apply to OSG for a planning and negotiation grant? 1000.64 Section 1000.64 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe carryover from one year to the next any funds that remain at the end of the funding agreement? 137.105 Section 137.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL...
Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura
This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...
Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn
Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN
Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then
Full Text Available Numerical models were developed in order to provide a suitable computational framework for exploring research questions related to long-term landscape evolution. We used the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD model to prove three hypotheses concerning the processes contributing to the neotectonic landscape evolution of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians: (1 simultaneous planation and uplift; (2 temporally and spatially varying uplift; (3 exhumation of a part of the area from below Neogene sediments. Given the size of the area, its lithological variability and the insufficient knowledge of the palaeogeographical settings, using a detachment-limited model to express river incision into bedrock as well as water (rill erosion on hillslopes proved the best solution. Results of the simulations were compared with real topography through hypsographic curves and the distribution of remnants of planation surfaces. The real surface corresponds best to a combination of the hypotheses (2 and (3, with more intensive Quaternary tectonic uplift of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. and the adjacent Rázdiel part of the Tribeč Mts., and exhumation of a mature palaeosurface from below Miocene sediments in the east of the Tribeč Mts.
Full Text Available Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003 with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H and species richness index (S were high and species evenness index (J was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19, but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.
Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Singh; Alpana; Gautam, Satendra; Shukla, Shashita; Deshmukh, Reena
An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)
Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian
Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.
Adkins, Brian [Bishop Paiute Tribe; Castilone, Lisa
The objective of the project was to provide affordable renewable energy to 22 low income reservation homeowners; provide job training to tribal members and reduce air pollution by equivalent carbon offsets. The project exceeded grant objectives installing 66kW of rooftop solar on 22 low income single family homes and providing hands-on PV rooftop solar installation training to 24 tribal individuals (four more than planned). The project was a phased installment of an on-going partnership between the Tribe and GRID that was initiated in 2013 whereby 62 rooftop solar units were installed prior to this funded effort. The reported work in this report describes the funded effort where US Department of Energy provided partial funding through grant award IE0006949 and marks the first phase of an effort matching California Solar SASH Initiative funding with DOE Office of Indian Energy Funding and brings the total for the program to 84 installed systems (running total of 271 Kw installed) and the end of the project. Tribal workforce development was a key aspect of the project and trained 24tribal members for a total 1168 cumulative on-job training hours. The solar installations and training efforts were fully completed by September of 2016 with 66.6 kW installed - 8 kW more than the original estimate stated in the grant application.
M. P. Tsai
Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991 rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.
The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.
Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.
Sharma, Uma Kanta; Pegu, Shyamanta
Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.
Kaur, H; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C
The present paper deals with cytological studies on the population basis of 21 species belonging to 9 genera of tribe Paniceae of family Poaceae from cytologically unexplored area of Western Himalayas i.e. district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh for the assessment of genetic diversity of grass flora. On world-wide basis, the chromosome counts have been made for the first time for three species such as Brachiaria remota (n = 16), Digitaria granularis (n = 36) and Isachne albens (n = 5). Similarly, on India basis, altogether new records are made for two species such as Echinochloa cruspavonis (n = 27) and Paspalum distichum (2n = 50). A comparison of the different euploid cytotypes studied at present for Digitaria adscendens, D. setigera and Oplismenus compositus revealed significant variations in their morphology, depicting increase in some of the characters of polyploid cytotypes. The course of meiosis has been observed to be normal in all the studied populations with high pollen fertility except for two species such as Paspalum dilatatum and P. distichum marked with abnormal meiosis and reduced pollen fertility.
Azman H. Farah
Full Text Available The tribe Aquilarieae of the family Thymelaeaceae consists of two genera, Aquilaria and Gyrinops, with a total of 30 species, distributed from northeast India, through southeast Asia and the south of China, to Papua New Guinea. They are an important botanical resource for fragrant agarwood, a prized product derived from injured or infected stems of these species. The aim of this study was to estimate the genome size of selected Aquilaria species and comprehend the evolutionary history of Aquilarieae speciation through molecular phylogeny. Five non-coding chloroplast DNA regions and a nuclear region were sequenced from 12 Aquilaria and three Gyrinops species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using combined chloroplast DNA sequences revealed relationships of the studied 15 members in Aquilarieae, while nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences showed a paraphyletic relationship between Aquilaria species from Indochina and Malesian. We exposed, for the first time, the estimated divergence time for Aquilarieae speciation, which was speculated to happen during the Miocene Epoch. The ancestral split and biogeographic pattern of studied species were discussed. Results showed no large variation in the 2C-values for the five Aquilaria species (1.35–2.23 pg. Further investigation into the genome size may provide additional information regarding ancestral traits and its evolution history.
This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov.
Neto, Guilherme Herzog; Jaegger, Karen; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Calvão-Brito, Regina Helena Santos; Vieira, João Batista; Banic, Dalma Maria; Maia-Herzog, Marilza
The prevalence of ocular lesions due to onchocerciasis was evaluated among residents of the Yanomami Tribe, in the northern Amazon, Brazil, an endemic area for onchocerciasis. 83 natives were submitted to an ocular examination including an external examination, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus examination. Clinical, parasitological and serological tests were carried out simultaneously. The population demonstrated a high prevalence of eosinophilia, skin microfilaria (55%) and onchocercal subcutaneous nodules (35%). A high prevalence of probable onchocerciasis related eye lesions was detected. Punctate keratitis (41%) and microfilaria in the anterior chamber (39%) were found as well as other probable onchocercotic lesions-chorioretinitis (7.2%) and anterior uveitis (6.0%). Other anterior eye lesions (corneal leucomas, conjunctival injection, lid nodules) occurred in 51% of the individuals. The anterior eye lesions were more prevalent than the posterior lesions. We did not find an association of glaucoma with onchocerciasis. The prevalence of these suggestive ocular lesions strongly correlates with the cutaneous nodules and eosinophilia, suggesting that skin nodules may be an indication for an eye examination. The present study provides evidence that significant infection and eye disease due to onchocerciasis persists in certain regions of Northern South America.
Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Sánchez, Dora; García-Obregón, Susana; Espinosa, Ibone; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; De Pancorbo, Marian M; Peña, José A
The Amazon basin is inhabited by some of the most isolated human groups worldwide. Among them, the Waorani tribe is one of the most interesting Native American populations from the anthropological perspective. This study reports a genetic characterization of the Waorani based on autosomal genetic loci. We analyzed 12 polymorphic Alu insertions in 36 Waorani individuals from different communal longhouses settled in the Yasuní National Park. The most notable finding was the strikingly reduced genetic diversity detected in the Waorani, corroborated by the existence of four monomorphic loci (ACE, APO, FXIIIB, and HS4.65), and of other four Alu markers that were very close to the fixation for the presence (PV92 and D1) or the absence (A25 and HS4.32) of the insertion. Furthermore, results of the centroid analysis supported the notion of the Waorani being one of the Amerindian groups less impacted by gene flow processes. The prolonged isolation of the Waorani community, in conjunction with a historically low effective population size and high inbreeding levels, have resulted in the drastic reduction of their genetic diversity, because of the effects of severe genetic drift. Recurrent population bottlenecks most likely determined by certain deep-rooted sociocultural practices of the Waorani (characterized by violence, internal quarrels, and revenge killings until recent times) are likely responsible for this pattern of diversity. The findings of this study illustrate how sociocultural factors can shape the gene pool of human populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea (SDC and its association with other eye diseases in the tribes of South-West Rajasthan. Methods: A total of 5012 patients were examined on slit lamp for the diagnosis of SDC. Diagnosis of SDC was made based on presence of amber granules in the superficial stroma of peripheral interpalpebral cornea with increasing opacification, coalescence and central spread or nodular and hazy surrounding stroma and divided in three stages. Results: The prevalence of SDC was 10.7%. Around 55% of the total of 535 cases examined were found to have Stage I followed by Stage II (32% and Stage III (13%. The prevalence is greatest in both men and women over 70 years of age. The severity of SDC is greater in men. SDC was significantly associated with pterygium and pseudocapsular exfoliation. Conclusion: Extreme temperature, low humidity, dust, high wind, and microtrauma caused by sand particles are the probable etiologies for higher prevalence of this kind of degeneration in this region.
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.
Jabbour, Florian; Gaudeul, Myriam; Lambourdière, Josie; Ramstein, Guillaume; Hassanin, Alexandre; Labat, Jean-Noël; Sarthou, Corinne
The nearly cosmopolitan tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) includes many important genera for medicine and forage. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the infratribal groups circumscribed using morphological traits are still poorly known. In this study, we used chloroplast (rbcL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS-1) DNA sequences to investigate the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of Desmodieae, and infer ancestral states for several vegetative and reproductive traits. Three groups, corresponding to the Desmodium, Lespedeza, and Phyllodium groups sensu Ohashi were retrieved in the phylogenetic analyses. Conflicts in the topologies inferred from the chloroplast and nuclear datasets were detected. For instance, the Lespedeza clade was sister to the groups Phyllodium+Desmodium based on chloroplast DNA, but nested within the Desmodium group based on ITS-1. Moreover, the New Caledonian endemic genera Arthroclianthus and Nephrodesmus were not monophyletic but together formed a clade, which also included Hanslia and Ohwia based on chloroplast DNA. The hypothetical common ancestor of Desmodieae was dated to the Middle Oligocene (ca. 28.3Ma) and was likely an Asian shrub or tree producing indehiscent loments. Several colonization events towards Oceania, America, and Africa occurred (all less than ca. 17.5Ma), most probably through long distance dispersal. The fruits of Desmodieae repeatedly evolved from indehiscence to dehiscence. We also showed that indehiscent loments allow for more variability in the number of seeds per fruit than indehiscent legumes. Modularity seems here to allow variability in the number of ovules produced in a single ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat
Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.
Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.
Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.
Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.
dos Santos, Gilton Mendes; Antonini, Yasmine
This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.
Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan
Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.
Tulika Goswami Mahanta
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%. History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner
Tulika Goswami Mahanta
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%. History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was
Full Text Available Background: Since Pars Abad district had been known as a focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Ardabil Province but the prevalence of the disease in nomadic tribes has not been determined, thus, this study was conducted. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on children up to 12yr old of nomadic tribes from Pars Abad County, Ardabil Province, Iran in 2015. For each individual, a questionnaire including age, sex, clinical manifestations, history of disease, and contact with reservoir hosts of VL were completed, separately. To determine VL seroprevalence, blood samples were collected from the children and after centrifugation, the plasma samples were tested using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS16.Results: From 776 children up to 12yr old, 2 (0.25% showed anti-L. infantum antibodies at titers 1:1600 and only one case (0.13% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers 1:3200. The child with anti-L. infantum antibodies titers of 1:3200 showed mild fever for more than 2 months period, paleness, weakness and mild splenomegaly. After physical examination and confirmation of VL (kala-azar, the patient was treated with antileishmanial drugs.Conclusion: The findings indicated that L. infantum infection is being circulated with low prevalence in nomadic tribes of Pars Abad but it is necessary that the surveillance system is regularly monitored among physicians and public health managers in the studied areas.
The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini
Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.
Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program
Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic
Foldi, I; Gullan, P J
This study reviews the status of all Neotropical genera and species of Coelostomidiidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and transfers them to the family Monophlebidae in the Cryptokermesini Foldi & Gullan tribe n. (the tribe Cryptokermini Tao & Hao is recognised here as a nomen nudum). This change of family placement for Neotropical taxa is based on the morphology of adult males, as supported by the phylogenetic study of Hodgson & Hardy (2013), and by unpublished DNA data. New diagnoses are provided for each of the four recognised genera of Cryptokermesini: Cryptokermes Hempel, Mimosicerya Cockerell, Neocoelostoma Hempel and Paracoelostoma Morrison. The genus Nautococcus Vayssière is considered here to be a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Mimosicerya and the type species of Nautococcus, N. schraderae Vayssière, thus becomes M. schraderae (Vayssière) comb. n. Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison is transferred to Mimosicerya as M. mexicana (Morrison) comb. n. Also Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi does not fit the morphological concept of Cryptokermes and is excluded from this genus and revision, and from the new tribe; its taxonomic position is uncertain and requires further study. All type species of the Cryptokermesini, including N. schraderae (as M. schraderae), are redescribed and illustrated based on most female instars and available adult males, examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Adult males are described and illustrated only for M. schraderae and N. xerophila. Keys are provided to distinguish the Neotropical monophlebid tribes Cryptokermesini and Llaveiini and to recognise each cryptokermesine genus based on female instars and first-instar nymphs. The included species of Cryptokermesini and their known distributions are: Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel from Brazil and C. oaxaensis Foldi from Mexico; Mimosicerya hempeli (Cockerell) from Brazil, M. mexicana from Mexico, M. schraderae from Panama and M. williamsi Foldi from Venezuela; Neocoelostoma xerophila
Inda, Luis A; Pimentel, Manuel; Chase, Mark W
Tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) comprises around 62 mostly terrestrial genera, which are well represented in the Northern Temperate Zone and less frequently in tropical areas of both the Old and New Worlds. Phylogenetic relationships within this tribe have been studied previously using only nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, nrITS). However, different parts of the phylogenetic tree in these analyses were weakly supported, and integrating information from different plant genomes is clearly necessary in orchids, where reticulate evolution events are putatively common. The aims of this study were to: (1) obtain a well-supported and dated phylogenetic hypothesis for tribe Orchideae, (ii) assess appropriateness of recent nomenclatural changes in this tribe in the last decade, (3) detect possible examples of reticulate evolution and (4) analyse in a temporal context evolutionary trends for subtribe Orchidinae with special emphasis on pollination systems. The analyses included 118 samples, belonging to 103 species and 25 genera, for three DNA regions (nrITS, mitochondrial cox1 intron and plastid rpl16 intron). Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods were used to construct a well-supported and dated tree. Evolutionary trends in the subtribe were analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods of character evolution. The dated phylogenetic tree strongly supported the recently recircumscribed generic concepts of Bateman and collaborators. Moreover, it was found that Orchidinae have diversified in the Mediterranean basin during the last 15 million years, and one potential example of reticulate evolution in the subtribe was identified. In Orchidinae, pollination systems have shifted on numerous occasions during the last 23 million years. The results indicate that ancestral Orchidinae were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants and that these traits have been dominant throughout the evolutionary history of the
The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11
Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent rapid accumulation of sequence resources of various crop species ensures an improvement in the genetics approach, including quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis as well as the holistic population analysis and association mapping of natural variations. Because the tribe Triticeae includes important cereals such as wheat and barley, integration of information on the genetic markers in these crops should effectively accelerate map-based genetic studies on Triticeae species and lead to the discovery of key loci involved in plant productivity, which can contribute to sustainable food production. Therefore, informatics applications and a semantic knowledgebase of genome-wide markers are required for the integration of information on and further development of genetic markers in wheat and barley in order to advance conventional marker-assisted genetic analyses and population genomics of Triticeae species. Description The Triticeae mapped expressed sequence tag (EST database (TriMEDB provides information, along with various annotations, regarding mapped cDNA markers that are related to barley and their homologues in wheat. The current version of TriMEDB provides map-location data for barley and wheat ESTs that were retrieved from 3 published barley linkage maps (the barley single nucleotide polymorphism database of the Scottish Crop Research Institute, the barley transcript map of Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, and HarvEST barley ver. 1.63 and 1 diploid wheat map. These data were imported to CMap to allow the visualization of the map positions of the ESTs and interrelationships of these ESTs with public gene models and representative cDNA sequences. The retrieved cDNA sequences corresponding to each EST marker were assigned to the rice genome to predict an exon-intron structure. Furthermore, to generate a unique set of EST markers in Triticeae plants among the public domain, 3472 markers were
Kerketta, A S; Bulliyya, G; Babu, B V; Mohapatra, S S S; Nayak, R N
Primitive tribal groups (PTGs) are the most marginalised and vulnerable communities in India. Clinico-epidemiological studies on morbidity patterns among the elderly primitive tribe members are essential to recommend special intervention programmes to improve the health of the elderly in these communities. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among the elderly populations of four different PTGs, namely Langia Saora (LS), Paudi Bhuiyan (PB), Kutia Kondh (KK) and Dongria Kondh (DK) living in the forests of Orissa, India. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected using standard methods and haemoglobin was estimated by the cyanomethaemoglobin method. The average number of illnesses per person was 3.0. Common disabilities like vision and hearing impairment and mobility-related problems were found in considerable numbers. Gastrointestinal problems like acid peptic disease were found among 2.6% to 20% of cases. Non-specific fever was marked in 10.2% to 24.2% of individuals. The iodine deficiency disorder, namely goitre, was found among 4.2% to 6.0% of individuals. Diseases of the respiratory tract, like upper and lower respiratory tract infection, asthma, tuberculosis and leprosy, were found in small numbers. The prevalence of hypertension among males and females was 31.8% and 42.2%, respectively. The LS had the highest prevalence of hypertension (63% among men and 68% among women). With regard to anaemia status, severe anaemia was marked in 70% of males and 76.7% of females in the LS, while in other groups the prevalence of severe anaemia ranged from 15% to 33%. Although the prevalence of severe anaemia in other tribal communities is lower than in the LS, mild to moderate anaemia was found to range from 60% to 80%. The present study revealed a high prevalence of physical disabilities with both non-communicable as well as communicable diseases among the elderly primitive tribal members. This warrants the implementation of a special health care
Full Text Available The Bhutan Takin Budorcas whitei Lydekker, 1907 is endemic to Bhutan and it is categorized as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. While the other Takin species have been studied in China (Golden Takin B. bedfordi; Sichuan Takin B. tibetana and India (Mishmi Takin B. taxicolor, only one study has focused on the Bhutan Takin. In this paper, we report the current distribution and conservation status of the Bhutan Takin using the information gathered through field surveys, interviews and unpublished reports. Bhutan Takin are seasonal migrants, occurring between 1500–5550 m, preferring areas in close proximity to river valleys and geothermal outlets (hot springs. Takin avoid areas that are disturbed by road construction and power transmission lines, and where they have to compete for forage with domestic livestock. Takin conservation in Bhutan requires: (1 a commitment to reduce disturbances from domestic livestock through better herding and animal husbandry practices, (2 environmentally friendly road construction, inclusive of wildlife corridors, (3 establishment of satellite offices and regularizing anti-poaching patrol systems, (4 development of education programs to enlist support for Takin conservation, and (5 encouragement of more research on the ecology and management needs of the species.
Bonita de Klerk
Full Text Available The genus Connochaetes, Lichtenstein, 1814, contains two extant species, the blue wildebeest (C. taurinus, Burchell, 1823 and the black wildebeest (C. gnou, Zimmermann, 1780. In recent years, forced sympatry in confined areas within South Africa has led to interbreeding between these taxa and to fertile hybrid offspring. Here we report on a series of cranial characteristics of a hybrid wildebeest population culled at Spioenkop Dam Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Dental, sutural and horn morphological anomalies occur at high frequency within these animals. Similar cranial morphological anomalies have been shown in other mammalian hybrids and this study provides further evidence that such anomalies may characterise hybridisation more broadly across phylogenetically divergent mammalian groups, although the anomalies appear to differ in their expression across taxa. An increased ability to identify hybrids may also have important applications in the conservation of the endemic black wildebeest.
Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan
Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.
Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell
Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...
Full Text Available Two genera of Antilopinae are identified in the Lower Pliocene localities of the Teruel Basin: Hispanodorcas and Gazella. Hispanodorcas is represented at La Calera by a new species, Hispanodorcas heintzi nov. sp., which is characterised by the development of a strong anterior keel in the horn cores. Gazella is represented in La Calera and Villalba Alta localities by a new species, Gazella soriae nov. sp., which is defined by its small size and weak transversal compression of the horn cores. A species smaller than Gazella soriae, Gazella baturra nov. sp. is identified at La Gloria 4.En los yacimientos del Plioceno inferior de la Fosa de Teruel se han identificado dos géneros de Antilopinae: Hispanodorcas y Gazella. Hispanodorcas está representado en La Calera por una nueva especie: Hispanodorcas heintzi nov. sp., que está caracterizada por el desarrollo de una fuerte quilla anterior en sus núcleos óseos de cuerno. Gazella está representada en La Calera y Villalba Alta por una nueva especie, Gazella soriae nov. sp., que está definida por su pequeña talla y escasa compresión transversal de los núcleos óseos de cuerno. Una especie de menor talla todavía que Gazella soriae se clasifica como Gazella baturra nov. sp. en La Gloria 4.
Duangtep, Yuwadee; Narksawat, Kulaya; Chongsuwat, Rawadee; Rojanavipart, Peungchon
An unhealthy lifestyle may lead to hypertension which can cause strokes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the specific unhealthy lifestyle practices which could cause hypertension among hill tribe populations in Mae Fah Luang District of Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. In 2006, 196 patients with hypertension were selected from 2 district hospitals and 13 health centers as cases, and 196 normotensive subjects from a local neighborhood were chosen as controls. Trained health personnel collected data by interviewing subjects from both groups regarding unhealthy lifestyles and other factors. All participants had a physical examination at the time of interview. The results from multiple logistic regression analysis show the factors associated with hypertension among the hill tribe people studied were smoking (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.43-4.30, p = 0.001), no or irregular exercise (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.16-2.99, p = 0.005), being overweight (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.69-5.18, p lifestyle changes in regards to smoking, eating habits and leisure time exercise programs. The adoption of such lifestyle changes would result in a reduced chance of being hypertensive, which could later reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason
Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating
Singh, Mendi P S S; Gupta, Rasik B; Yadav, Rajiv; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam
This study was carried out to ascertain the allelic frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) in Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe populations of the Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Random blood samples of Scheduled tribe (267) and Scheduled caste (168), considering the family as a sampling unit, were analyzed for the presence of the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletions. α(+)-Thal was significantly higher in the Scheduled tribals (77.9%) as compared to the scheduled caste population (9.0%). About 58.0% scheduled tribals carried at least one chromosome with the -α(3.7) deletion and 20.0% scheduled tribals carried the -α(4.2) deletion. Frequency for the -α(3.7) allele was 0.487 in the scheduled tribal populations in comparison to 0.021 in scheduled castes. Allelic frequency for -α(4.2) was 0.103 and 0.024, respectively, in the above communities. No Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for α-thal gene (p population, indicating the presence of selection pressures in favor of α-thal mutation and adaptation.
Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)
The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.
Bruinessen, M.M. van
At most times, Kurdish society has existed at the periphery of, and functioned as a buffer between, two or more neighbouring states. From c. 1500 until the First World War, the relevant states were the Ottoman Empire in the west and Safavid, later Qajar Iran in the east (with Russia and the
Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed
The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous US and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1998, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional ten (10) watershed
Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. John Day Basin Office.
The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day, who contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2002, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies
FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON
Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff
Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.
Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn
The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.
Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J
The tribe of the giant katydids Steirodontini is reviewed, its relationship with other groups of Phaneropterinae from the Old and New World is discussed, and an updated key to genera is presented. Nicklephyllum n. gen. is established to accommodate one species described as Stilpnochlora acanthonotum Nickle, 1985 from Colombia. Cnemidophyllum tani n. sp. from the Colombian Amazon is described. Another new combination and two synonymies are proposed: Steirodon (Frontinus) emsleyi (Piza, 1979) n. comb., Steirodon (Posidippus) parastahli Piza, 1979 n. syn. (of Steirodon (Steirodon) ponderosum Stål, 1873), and Steirodon (Posidippus) tricenarius (Piza, 1974) n. syn. (of Steirodon (Frontinus) rufolineatum Emsley, 1970). Finally, Steirodon (Posidippus) rarospinulosum (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1891), only known from Peru, is reported from the Colombian Amazon.
Anuar Tengku Shahrul
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. Methods To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Results Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102 were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150 of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139 of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211 of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Conclusion Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.
Full Text Available The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos. No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum. Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this
Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Peter G.
The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla ‘Rosea’, Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava ‘Hawaiian’ and ‘Indian’, Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide
Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati
Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi) in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102) were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150) of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139) of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211) of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tropical forests provide many products such as fruits, seeds, resin, medicines, meat and by-products such as non-timber forest products. In June 2005, February 2008 and June 2009, ethno botanical and ethno zoological surveys were conducted among Meyah hunter-gatherers and on the flora and fauna. This paper aims to reveal the interaction between the Meyah Tribe in the Northern Part of Manokwari and utilization of forest products. Our study reports that the tribe used about 67 species of plants and 11 wild animals to support their livelihood. Due to the expansion of the Manokwari regency as part of the development process in West Papua Province, we would therefore like to suggest that the local government should pay attention to developing and preserving the biodiversity in this area. ABSTRAK Hutan tropis pada prinsipnya menyediakan berbagai kebutuhan manusia baik buah, biji, resin, tumbuhan obat, daging dan dikenal sebagai hasil hutan bukan kayu. Survei etnobiologi ini dilakukan pada bulan June 2005, Februari 2008 dan Juni 2009 pada masyarakat yang melakukan kegiatan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan berburu satwa liar. Tulisan ini bermaksud untuk mengungkapkan interaksi Suku Meyah di Wilayah Pantai Utara Manokwari dalam pemanfaatan produk hasil hutan bukan kayu. Studi ini mencatat sekitar 67 spesies tumbuhan dan 11 jenis satwa lair yang di manfaatkan untuk menopang kehidupan suku Meyah. Data jumlah jenis tumbuhan dan satwa liar yang di manfaatkan ini, di harapkan dapat berguna bagi pemerintah daerah dan lembaga lainnya dalam mengatur pola pemanfaatan sumberdaya hutan non kayu. Dalam hubungan dengan pemekaran wilayah, maka tantangan terhadap kelestarian sumberdaya hutan ini sangat besar, karena diprediksi akan mengalami tekanan dan kerusakan. Dengan demikian siklus kehidupan masyarakat akan terganggu. Sehingga di butuhkan kebijakan guna mengakomodir kepentingan masyarakat asli dan juga kebutuhan pembangunan.
Lessard, B D; Cameron, S L; Bayless, K M; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K
Phylogenetic relationships within the Tabanidae are largely unknown, despite their considerable medical and ecological importance. The first robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the horse fly tribe Scionini is provided, completing the systematic placement of all tribes in the subfamily Pangoniinae. The Scionini consists of seven mostly southern hemisphere genera distributed in Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand and South America. A 5757 bp alignment of 6 genes, including mitochondrial (COI and COII), ribosomal (28S) and nuclear (AATS and CAD regions 1, 3 and 4) genes, was analysed for 176 taxa using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Results indicate the Scionini are strongly monophyletic, with the exclusion of the only northern hemisphere genus Goniops. The South American genera Fidena, Pityocera and Scione were strongly monophyletic, corresponding to current morphology-based classification schemes. The most widespread genus Scaptia was paraphyletic and formed nine strongly supported monophyletic clades, each corresponding to either the current subgenera or several previously synonymised genera that should be formally resurrected. Molecular results also reveal a newly recognised genus endemic to New Zealand, formerly placed within Scaptia. Divergence time estimation was employed to assess the global biogeographical patterns in the Pangoniinae. These analyses demonstrated that the Scionini are a typical Gondwanan group whose diversification was influenced by the fragmentation of that ancient land mass. Furthermore, results indicate that the Scionini most likely originated in Australia and subsequently radiated to New Zealand and South American by both long distance dispersal and vicariance. The phylogenetic framework of the Scionini provided herein will be valuable for taxonomic revisions of the Tabanidae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Massimo G. Bovini
Full Text Available Duas novas espécies e uma nova combinação são apresentadas para o gênero Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula delicata Bovini, W. krapovickasiana Bovini e Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectivamente, além de novos sinônimos. Para as espécies apresentadas, são fornecidas descrições, ilustrações e chaves de reconhecimento para distingui-las das espécies relacionadas.Two new species and a new combination are presented for genus Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula krapovickasiana Bovini, W. delicata Bovini and Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectively, plus new synonyms. Descriptions, illustrations and keys to distinguish these species from similar species are supplied.
Type specimens of the traditional Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ant tribes deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil: Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidatt ini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini
Mônica Antunes Ulysséa
Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant types of 12 traditional Myrmicinae ant tribes (Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidattini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini housed in the Formicidae Collection of the Hymenoptera Laboratory, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP, Brazil, completing the publication of Myrmicinae types deposited in this institution. We adopted the traditional classification for Myrmicinae tribes to follow the already published catalogues regarding the Attini, Cephalotini, Dacetini and Solenopsidini and published catalogues in this series. In total, the present catalogue includes types of 213 nominal species, of which 169 are still valid. Twelve species listed here are represented by holotypes only, 28 by holotypes and paratypes, 102 species by paratypes only, 65 species by syntypes, and five species by lectotypes and paralectotypes. We record the label information, morphological condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes, and type status, following the recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN.
Erwin, Terry L.; Zamorano, Laura S.
Abstract This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: (geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; (hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; (pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay
Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S
This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: ( geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; ( hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; ( pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay
Laura E. Williams
Full Text Available Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes, consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of
Tienboon, Prasong; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the most common cause of childhood blindness in the developing world. It is estimated that by giving adequate vitamin A, in vitamin A deficient populations, child mortality from measles can be reduced by 50%, and mortality from diarrheal disease by 40%. Overall mortality in children 6-59 months of age can be reduced by 23%. This paper reported results from a study of vitamin A status and malnutrition of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in the north of Thailand. All children aged 1-6 years (N = 158; 83 boys, 75 girls) from the three Karen villages (Mae Hae Tai, Mae Yot, Mae Raek) of Mae Chaem district in the north of Thailand were studied. The Karen is the largest mountain ethnic minority ("hill tribe") group in Thailand. All children were examined by a qualified medical doctor and were assessed for their vitamin A intakes using 24 hours dietary recall. Thai food composition table from Ministry of Health, Thailand were used as references. The results were compared with the Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances. Children aged 1-3 years and 4-6 years were separately analysed due to the differences in Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances between the two age groups. A whole blood of 300 microL was obtained by "fingerstick" for determination of serum vitamin A. Community or village's vitamin A status was assessed by using Simplified Dietary Assessment (SDA) method and Helen Keller International (HKI) food frequency method. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. All families of the study boys and girls had income lower than the Thailand poverty line (US $ 1,000/year). On average, 63% of children from Mae Hae Tai village, 1.5% of children from Mae Yot village and none of children from Mae Raek village had serum vitamin AKaren children in Mae Chaem district, recommendations were made as follow: (1) increased use of fat and oil, particularly in areas with high risk of VAD; (2) more general work
Full Text Available If we consider the written sources about the Burtas, it can be concluded that the Muslim writers provide the most detailed and precise descriptions. The origin of the Burtas is widely disputed; some researchers suggest that they are Turkish, while others support the theory of their Iranian origin. However, the majority of international scientists consider the Burtas as the ancestors of a Finno-Ugric people, the Mordvins, drawing this conclusion from the Burtas’ name. According to the popular explanation, Burtas and Merdas ethnic names occurring in different written sources denote the same people, since the localization and lifestyles are identical in the descriptions. Written accounts also report thatthe Burtas used a complex farming system involving both agriculture and large-scale livestock breeding. They dwelled west from the Volga and their territory may have stretched to the river Don. Thus, it is a fact that they lived on the wooded steppe. If we compare Latin, Hebrew and Russian sources with the Muslims, it becomes obvious that the Burtas tribe is not identical with the Mordvins, meaning that the Burtas/Merdas identification is false as well. The endonym of the Mordvins supports this hypothesis. The Mordvins do not use the name Mordvin for themselves; it is a Russian loanword. They call themselves Moksa and Erä. Consequently, the term Burtas cannot be connected to the endonym of the Mordvins. Moreover, I have newly discovered a Russian source, a list of the taxpayers of Vladimir prince of the Rus where the Burtas and Mordvins are handled as separate ethnic groups. This means that the Burtas were an independent tribe living in the region between the Middle Volga and the Don; their neighbourswere the Khazars in the South and the Volga Bulgars in the North. The Burtas were subjected firstly by the Khazars until the end of the 10th century, then by the Volga Bulgars and later by the Rus. After the Mongolian attack in 1230s, they became
Quaempts, Eric J; Jones, Krista; O'Daniel, Scott J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Poole, Geoffrey C.
The concept of “reciprocity” between humans and other biota arises from the creation belief of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The concept acknowledges a moral and practical obligation for humans and biota to care for and sustain one another, and arises from human gratitude and reverence for the contributions and sacrifices made by other biota to sustain human kind. Reciprocity has become a powerful organizing principle for the CTUIR Department of Natural Resources, fostering continuity across the actions and policies of environmental management programs at the CTUIR. Moreover, reciprocity is the foundation of the CTUIR “First Foods” management approach. We describe the cultural significance of First Foods, the First Foods management approach, a resulting management vision for resilient and functional river ecosystems, and subsequent shifts in management goals and planning among tribal environmental staff during the first decade of managing for First Foods. In presenting this management approach, we highlight how reciprocity has helped align human values and management goals with ecosystem resilience, yielding management decisions that benefit individuals and communities, indigenous and nonindigenous, as well as human and nonhuman. We further describe the broader applicability of reciprocity-based approaches to natural resource management.
Valdira de Jesus Santos
Full Text Available O estudo foi baseado na análise morfológica de espécimes de herbários nacionais e provenientes de coletas. A tribo está representada no Estado por oito gêneros: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2 spp., Sapium P.Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1sp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. e Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Os gêneros com maior distribuição no Estado são Maprounea, Sapium e Sebastiania, ocorrendo em todas as zonas fitogeográficas. Actinostemon, Mabea e Senefeldera sao restritos a floresta atlantica. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.The study was based on morphological analysis of specimens from various national herbaria as well as collected material. The tribe is represented in the study area by eight genera: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2, Sapium P. Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1 spp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. and Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Widely distributed genera are Sapium and Sebastiania occurring in all phytogeographical zones. Actinostemon, Senefeldera and Mabea are restricted to the Atlantic rainforest. Identification keys to genera and species, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments are presented.
Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M
American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.
Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Barth, Afonso Luís; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José
The traditional use of medicinal plants for treatment of infectious diseases by an indigenous Mbyá-Guarani tribe from South Brazil was assessed by evaluating the antibiotic and antibiofilm activities against relevant bacterial pathogens. Aqueous extracts from 10 medicinal plants were prepared according to indigenous Mbyá-Guarani traditional uses. To evaluate antibiotic (OD600) and antibiofilm (crystal violet method) activities, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 and seven multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacterial clinical isolates were challenged with the extracts. Furthermore, the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing bacteria and the ability of these isolates to form biofilm were evaluated. The plants Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Maytenus ilicifolia, Bidens pilosa and Verbena sp. showed the best activity against bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The majority of KPC-producing isolates, which showed strong ability to form biofilm and a multidrug resistance profile, was inhibited by more than 50% by some extracts. The Enterobacter cloacae (KPC 05) clinical isolate was the only one resistant to all extracts. This study confirms the importance of indigenous traditional medicinal knowledge and describes for the first time the ability of these plants to inhibit biofilm formation and/or bacterial growth of multi-drug resistant KPC-producing isolates.
Must, Anne; Merivee, Enno; Luik, Anne; Mänd, Marika; Heidemaa, Mikk
Responses of temperature sensitive (cold) cells from the antenna of ground beetles (tribe Platynini) were compared in species with different ecological preferences and daily activity rhythms. Action potential rates were characterized at various temperatures (ranges 23-39 degrees C) and during rapid changes in it (Deltat=0.5-15 degrees C). The stationary firing frequencies were nearly twice as high in eurythermic open field ground beetles Agonum muelleri and Anchomenus dorsalis (firing rates ranging from 22 to 47imp/s) than in a stenothermic forest species Platynus assimilis. In the eurythermic species, the firing rate did not significantly depend on temperature (Anchomenus dorsalis range of 23-27 degrees C and Agonum muelleri range of 23-33 degrees C) but plots of firing rate versus temperature showed rapid declines when lethally high temperatures were approached. In contrast, a nearly linear decline of the firing rate/temperature curve was observed in Platynus assimilis. Responses to rapid temperature decreases were also considerably higher in eurythermic species. Both the peak frequency of the initial burst (maximum 420-650Hz) as well as the sustained discharge in the first 4s of the response were higher than in Platynus assimilis. Long silent periods, lasting up to several seconds, that occurred at the beginning of the response to rapid warming were significantly shorter in Agonum muelleri and Anchomenus dorsalis compared to Platynus assimilis. These findings suggest that the responses of thermoreceptors to temperature changes may be correlated with specific ecological preferences.
Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes
The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.
Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies da família Rubiaceae, relacionadas à tribo Coussareae são descritas e ilustradas. São elas: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis e F. picinguabae. Os táxons aqui apresentados tiveram como base material coletado na Serra do Parati, situada na divisa entre os Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, nas proximidades do litoral. Essa serra integra o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina e possui cobertura vegetal predominante da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, sendo essa a área de distribuição e o hábitat dos novos táxons.Four new species of the Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae are described and illustrated: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis and F. picinguabae. They are based on the material collected in the Parati Mountains, located on the border between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, near the coast. This mountainous area is part of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, which is covered mainly by Atlantic Rain Forest. These new taxa are found in this forest within the Park.
Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie I C; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Matthes, Annemarie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Koch, Marcus A; Agerbirk, Niels
As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous data for the tribe, and collected HPLC-MS/MS data for nearly all glucosinolates known from the tribe as well as some related structures (70 in total). This is a considerable proportion of the approximately 142 currently documented natural glucosinolates. Calibration with authentic references allowed distinction (or elucidation) of isomers in many cases, such as distinction of β-hydroxyls, methylthios, methylsulfinyls and methylsulfonyls. A mechanism for fragmentation of secondary β-hydroxyls in MS was elucidated, and two novel glucosinolates were discovered: 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentylglucosinolate in roots of Cardamine pratensis and 2-hydroxy-8-(methylsulfinyl)octylglucosinolate in seeds of Rorippa amphibia. A large number of glucosinolates (ca. 54 with high structural certainty and a further 28 or more suggested from tandem MS), representing a wide structural variation, is documented from the tribe. This included glucosinolates apparently derived from Met, Phe, Trp, Val/Leu, Ile and higher homologues. Normal side chain elongation and side chain decoration by oxidation or methylation was observed, as well as rare abnormal side chain decoration (hydroxylation of aliphatics at the δ rather than β-position). Some species had diverse profiles, e.g. R. amphibia and C. pratensis (19 and 16 individual glucosinolates, respectively), comparable to total diversity in literature reports of Armoracia rusticana (17?), Barbarea vulgaris (20-24), and Rorippa indica (>20?). The ancestor or the tribe would appear to have used Trp, Met, and homoPhe as glucosinolate precursor amino acids, and to exhibit oxidation of thio to sulfinyl, formation of alkenyls, β-hydroxylation of aliphatic
Full Text Available This article introduced into academic circulation information of such a historical source as “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” (Excerpts of Time on the Marvels of the Land and Sea on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. The material of the study is drawn from this source. Main scientific result of this work was the source’s translation into Russian accompanied by scientific comments. Sheikh Shams al-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad Abu Talib al-Ansari al-Sufi al-Dimashqi was the author of this work. Some scholars have mistakenly confuse him with another chronicler named Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn Fadlallah al-Omari al-Dimashqi. There is a widespread misconception that while writing on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes al-Dimashqi used the data of such an author as Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Ansari al-Qutub al-Warraq al-Vatvat, also known as Ahmad al-Tini. After had studying the manuscripts of al-Tini and al-Dimashqi, we did not notice the connection between these two authors regarding their information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. After had studying the information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak, we put forward the theory that 16 ethnonyms previously identified as Kipchak clans, are actually the etnonyms of eight Kipchak clans and eight Turkic tribes. The article also contains the extraction from “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” regarding the geography of Dasht-i Kipchak and the countries inhabited by the Turks. The following data are unique in this source: 1. The text describes such rivers as Ceyhun (Amu Darya, Seyhun (Syr Darya, Itil (Volga, as well as Khorezm and Khazar Seas (Aral and Caspian Seas. 2. Additionally, this text lists the following Turkic peoples: al-Kharlukhiya (Karluks, al-Khirgaziya (Kyrgyz, al-Kaymakiya (Kimaks, al-Guzziya (Oguz, al-Bazhanakiya (Pechenegs, al-Tuguzguziya (Uighurs, al-Khulkhiya (?, al
Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Pellicer, Jaume; Čížková, Jana; Koblížková, Andrea; Neumann, Pavel; Fuková, Iva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J
The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55-83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57%) of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%). Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes.
Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tuda, Josef; Suzuki, Rumiko; Kido, Yasutoshi; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tantular, Indah S; Pusarawati, Suhintam; Nasronudin; Harijanto, Paul N; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Sulawesi in Indonesia has a unique geographical profile with assumed separation from Sundaland. Studies of Helicobacter pylori in this region are rare due to the region's rural location and lack of endoscopy equipment. Indirect methods are, therefore, the most appropriate for measuring H. pylori infection in these areas; with the disposable gastric brush test, we can obtain gastric juice as well as small gastric tissue samples for H. pylori culture. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and evaluated human migration patterns in the remote areas of North Sulawesi. We recruited a total of 251 consecutive adult volunteers and 131 elementary school children. H. pylori infection was determined by urine antibody test. A gastric brush test was used to culture H. pylori. We used next-generation and polymerase chain reaction based sequencing to determine virulence factors and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The overall H. pylori prevalence was only 14.3% for adults and 3.8% for children, and 13.6% and 16.7% in Minahasanese and Mongondownese participants, respectively. We isolated a single H. pylori strain, termed -Manado-1. Manado-1 was East Asian type cagA (ABD type), vacA s1c-m1b, iceA1 positive/iceA2 negative, jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3) galT-negative, oipA "on", and dupA-negative. Phylogenetic analyses showed the strain to be hspMaori type, a major type observed in native Taiwanese and Maori tribes. Our data support that very low H. pylori infection prevalence in Indonesia. Identification of hspMaori type H. pylori in North Sulawesi may support the hypothesis that North Sulawesi people migrated from north.
Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation
This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.
Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno
We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.
Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species, Orthoptera (17 species, Hemiptera (16 species, Hymenoptera (15 species and Odonata (9 species, are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.
We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790
Full Text Available The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55-83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57% of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%. Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas
Full Text Available The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI, Phyllostomus discolor (PDI and Tonatia saurophila (TSA, representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps, confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by
Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline
The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial
Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip
The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL
Albornoz, Ezequiel; Lucero, Celeste; Romero, Genara; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Andres, Patricia; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro
To analyse the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in the tribe Proteeae, 81 isolates (65 Proteus spp., 12 Morganella morganii and 4 Providencia stuartii) consecutively collected in 66 hospitals belonging to the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network were studied. Of the 81 isolates, 50 (62%) were susceptible to quinolones [43/65 (66%) Proteus spp. and 7/12 (58%) M. morganii). The remaining 31 isolates (22 Proteus spp., 5 M. morganii and all P. stuartii) showed high-level resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL) and decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All NAL-resistant isolates harboured mutations associated with quinolone resistance (MAQRs) in both gyrA (S83I/R) and parC (S80I/R), and some also had MAQRs in gyrB (S464Y/F). The unique PMQR gene detected was qnrD, which was found in 2/81 isolates (Proteus mirabilis Q1084 and Proteus vulgaris Q5169), giving a prevalence of 2.5% in Proteeae. These two isolates were from different geographical regions and both harboured MAQRs in gyrA and parC. The qnrD genes were located on the related plasmids pEAD1-1 (2683bp) and pEAD1-2 (2669bp). Plasmid pEAD1-1 was 100% identical to pCGH15 and differed in only three nucleotides from pDIJ09-518a, which were previously found in clinical isolates of P. mirabilis (China) and Providencia rettgeri (France), respectively, whilst pEAD1-2 was not previously described. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-2 was found in 27% (22/81) of the isolates and was significantly associated with quinolone resistance but not with qnrD (only P. mirabilis Q1084 expressed CTX-M-2). This is the first report of qnrD in the Americas. Copyright Â© 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cassinello, Jorge; Acevedo, Pelayo; Hortal, Joaquín
We studied the geographical distribution and habitat suitability of an introduced ungulate, the aoudad (Ammotragus lervia), that is currently expanding its range in south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We assessed the niche of the species using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) on (1......) environmental variables (climate and habitat type), and (2) potential aoudad landscape avoidance and human disturbance variables. We compared both niche descriptions to study the impact of human interference on niche selection of the species. ENFA models were calibrated using data on the population expanded...
Victor M. Siamudaala
Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time
Victor M. Siamudaala
Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of timeEl lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000 de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA, sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67 y 81% (n=37 para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo.
Burger, B V; Pretorius, P J; Spies, H S; Bigalke, R C; Grierson, G R
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 33 constituents of the preorbital gland of the grey duiker,Sylvicapra grimmia, were identified as unbranched alkanes, 2-alkanones, alkanals, alkanoic acids, alkan-4-olides, as well as 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid, benzyl cyanide, diethyl sulfoxide, 2-isobutyl-1,3-thiazole, 2-isobutyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole, and 3,4-epoxy-2-dodecanone. Determination of the relative concentrations of these components in a limited number of secretion samples taken from males and females revealed that in these samples the two thiazole derivatives and the epoxy ketone were present in consistently and significantly higher concentrations in male than in female secretions. This suggests that they could act as sex recognition cues.
Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald
Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory
Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald
Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are currently of special concern regionally and are important to the culture and subsistence needs of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. The mission of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is to restore and maintain these native trout and the habitats that sustain them in order to provide subsistence harvest and recreational fishing opportunities for the Reservation community. The adfluvial life history strategy exhibited by westslope cutthroat and bull trout in the Lake Coeur d'Alene subbasin makes these fish susceptible to habitat degradation and competition in both lake and stream environments. Degraded habitat in Lake Coeur d'Alene and its associated streams and the introduction of exotic species has lead to the decline of westslope cutthroat and listing of bull trout under the endangered species act (Peters et al. 1998). Despite the effects of habitat degradation, several streams on the Reservation still maintain populations of westslope cutthroat trout, albeit in a suppressed condition (Table 1). The results of several early studies looking at fish population status and habitat condition on the Reservation (Graves et al. 1990; Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996) lead the Tribe to aggressively pursue funding for habitat restoration under the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) resident fish substitution program. Through these efforts, habitat restoration needs were identified and projects were initiated. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is currently involved in implementing stream habitat restoration projects, reducing the transport of sediment from upland sources, and monitoring fish populations in four watersheds on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation (Figure 1). Restoration projects have included riparian plantings, addition of large woody debris to streams, and complete channel reconstruction to restore historical natural
Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.
Watson, Ian Robert
This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…
Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)
White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates
Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub
This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge
Orivaldo Florêncio de Souza
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate body adiposity and nutritional status among indigenous children from Kaxinawá Tribe by using anthropometry. The sample was composed by 93 children aged 6 to 10 years and of both sexes, living at the villages Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, in the state of Acre, Brazil. Body adiposity was estimated by skinfold thickness at triceps and subscapular sites and by the sum of these two skinfolds. Nutritional status was identified by the indicators weight-for age (w/a, stature-for-age (s/a and weight-for-stature (w/s using z-score cut-off points suggested by the World Health Organization. For comparison between sexes, the Student’s t-test was used. Low body fat prevalence was observed in 83.7% of boys and 62% of girls. There were significant differences between sexes at 8 and 10 years of age for the triceps skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds. For the subscapular skinfold, the difference was observed only at 8 years of age. Chronic malnutrition was detected in both sexes and the prevalence depended upon the applied criteria. The prevalence was 76.3% for s/a and 47.3% for w/a. Acute malnutrition was present among 12.9% of children when using w/s. Boys tended to have higher prevalence for chronic malnutrition (s/a and w/a, while the girls for acute malnutrition (w/s. It was concluded that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition and low body adiposity among indigenous Kaxinawá children in the state of Acre, Brazil. RESUMO O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a adiposidade corporal e o estado nutricional de crianças indígenas da Tribo Kaxinawá, através do método antropométrico. A amostra constitui-se de 93 crianças, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 06 a 10 anos de idade das aldeias indígenas Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, no estado do Acre. Na adiposidade corporal, verificou-se as dobras cutâneas tricipital, subescapular e somatório de dobras cutâneas (tríceps mais
Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.
Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo
A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.
In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace
Molecular phylogenetics, diversification, and systematics of Tibicen Latreille 1825 and allied cicadas of the tribe Cryptotympanini, with three new genera and emphasis on species from the USA and Canada(Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).
Hill, Kathy B R; Marshall, David C; Moulds, Maxwell S; Simon, Chris
North America has a diverse cicada fauna with multiple genera from all three Cicadidae subfamilies, yet molecular phylogenetic analyses have been completed only for the well-studied periodical cicadas (Magicicada Davis). The genus Tibicen Latreille, a large group of charismatic species, is in need of such work because morphological patterns suggest multiple groups with complicated relationships to other genera in the tribe Cryptotympanini. In this paper we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, of 35 of the 38 extant USA species and subspecies of the genus Tibicen together with their North American tribal allies (Cornuplura Davis, Cacama Davis), selected Tibicen species from Eurasia, and representatives of other Eurasian and Pacific cryptotympanine genera. This tree shows that Tibicen contains several well-supported clades, one predominating in eastern and central North America and related to Cryptotympana Stål and Raiateana Boulard, another in western North America related to Cacama and Cornuplura, and at least two clades in Eurasia. We also present a morphological cladistic analysis of Tibicen and its close allies based on 27 characters. Character states identified in the cladistic analysis define three new genera, two for North American taxa (Hadoa gen. n. and Neotibicen gen. n.) including several Mexican species, and one for Asian species (Subsolanus gen. n.). Using relaxed molecular clocks and literature-derived mtDNA rate estimates, we estimate the timeframe of diversification of Tibicen clades and find that intergeneric divergence has occurred since the late Eocene, with most extant species within the former Tibicen originating after the mid-Miocene. We review patterns of ecology, behavior, and geography among Tibicen clades in light of the phylogenetic results and note that the study of these insects is still in its early stages. Some Mexican species formerly placed in Tibicen are here transferred to Diceroprocta
Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.
Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y
A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga Clave para los adultos de las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga
María L. Libonatti
Full Text Available Dytiscids constitute the world's most speciose family of water beetles, whose identifi cation in Argentina is problematic with current keys. In this work, a key (both in English and Spanish to the eight subfamilies, 16 tribes and 31 genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina is presented. The key was constructed using stable qualitative characters of the external morphology and chaetotaxy, easily visualizable and interpretable. Characters such as size and shape of the body, color pattern and geographic distribution were also used. Illustrations of a great number of morphological structures as well as SEM micrographs were included to aid in the interpretation of the text. One subfamily (Hydrodytinae and fi ve genera (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp and an unpublished genus of the subfamily Laccophilinae are cited for the fi rst time for Argentina.Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identifi cación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfi ca. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.
Krishna Prasad Pokharel
Full Text Available Behavioural studies provide the reasons behind habitat preferences of animals and their fitness to survive and propagate. The Four-horned Antelope, an endangered endemic species to the Indian subcontinent was monitored at Ratamate area of Babai Valley in Bardia National Park, Nepal. We used ad libitum sampling and focal animal sampling within the rule for continuous recording of ‘all-occurrences’ of ‘vigilance’ behaviour. We found that the Four-horned Antelope remains ‘alert and vigilant’ during 40% of its behavioural time budget when it scans the surroundings with raised head, with or without chewing. In the event of sudden threat it ‘freezes’, lying down still and hiding in the ground cover. Therefore, maintenance of ground cover should form a regular practice in conservation management of the Four-horned Antelope.
Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research. The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull. The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest. A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects. The average group size was five. The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females. The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.