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Sample records for bovine virus diarrhoea

  1. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  2. Estimating transfer of bovine virus-diarrhoea virus in Danish cattle by use of register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stryhn, H.; Kjeldsen, A.M.;

    2001-01-01

    To study how routinely recorded data (also called "register data") might be used in disease monitoring on a regional or national level, a database for bovine virus-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was made from existing databases, covering the period January 1995-November 1999. This paper includes a general...... description of the database, including basic statistics for selected variables. Information was largely complete for cattle herds in the milk-recording scheme (MRS), but only partly available for other herds. A methodology was developed to identify when and how a herd initially was infected. For most herds...

  3. Dynamic stochastic simulation as a tool for studying bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections at the herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Infectious diseases, such as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus infections in cattle, are often studied by Markov chain models. However, it is difficult to simulate dynamic interactions between production of a reproductive herd and the disease by this type of model. As an alternative, a dynamic...

  4. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) in Denmark during a 10-year eradication period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Stadejek, T.; Nylin, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 243 base-pair fragment of the 5'- untranslated region (5'-UTR) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was RT-PCR amplified from tissue samples (after one passage) or from plasma collected from Danish cattle in 1962 (1), 1993 (7), or in 2002-03 (28) when BVD was almost extinct as a result of a 6...... subtype, the samples collected in 2002-2003 belonged to Id (22 samples), 1b (5 samples) and le (I sample) subtypes. In five herds, materials from two animals were obtained for PCR analysis. In four of five herds the sequences of the two viruses were identical, but in one herd the obtained sequences...

  5. Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Høyer, M.J.; Grøndahl, C.;

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) 1f from a persistently infected (PI) lesser Malayan mousedeer to two bovine calves. Different contact routes to two calves were analysed: 1) aerosol contact between two adjacent pens without physical contact; 2...

  6. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  7. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.

  8. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  9. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  10. Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Hungary - situation before launching an eradication campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kővágó, Csaba; Forgách, Petra; Szabára, Ágnes; Mándoki, Míra; Hornyák, Ákos; Duignan, Conor; Pásztiné Gere, Erzsébet; Rusvai, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.

  11. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... and heifers. All discrete events at the cow level were triggered stochastically. Each cow and heifer was characterized by state variables such as stage of lactation, parity, oestrous status, decision for culling, milk production potential, and immune status for BVDV. The model was controlled by 170 decision...

  12. Effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on the fertility of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Gulay, Mehmet Sukru; Yapici, Orhan; Bulut, Oya; Ata, Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the possible relationship between bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection and the appearance of cervical mucous discharge (CMD) and the reproductive performance of cows in oestrus. For this purpose, CMD from 97 Holstein cows in oestrus was evaluated visually before artificial insemination (AI). Cows in oestrus were inseminated with frozen semen free from BVD virus (BVDV). Blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) of BVDV. The presence of the BVDV genome in cervical mucus samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of BVDV Ab, Ag or genome was not associated with abnormal cervical mucous discharge (A-CMD). However, the presence of BVDV Ag (but not of the BVDV Ab) in blood samples was associated with a lower first service conception rate (FSCR; 27.8 vs. 70.9%; P < 0.01), indicating that BVDV viraemia at the time of AI has a negative effect on the fertility of cows. PMID:23661395

  13. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Njiro; C.M. Nkosi

    2009-01-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) proce...

  14. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  15. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  16. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  17. Interactions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus glycoprotein E(rns) with cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Flick-Smith, H; McCauley, J W

    2000-02-01

    Recombinant E(rns) glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has been tagged with a marker epitope or linked to an immunoglobulin Fc tail and expressed in insect and mammalian cell lines. The product was shown to be functional, both having ribonuclease activity and binding to a variety of cells that were permissive and non-permissive for replication of BVDV. Addition of soluble E(rns) to the medium blocked replication of BVDV in permissive cells. Binding of epitope-tagged E(rns) to permissive calf testes (CTe) cells was abolished and virus infection was reduced when cells were treated with heparinases I or III. E(rns) failed to bind to mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that lacked glycosaminoglycans (pgsA-745 cells) or heparan sulphate (pgsD-677 cells) but bound to normal CHO cells. E(rns) also bound to heparin immobilized on agarose and could be eluted by heparin and by a high concentration of salt. Flow cytometric analysis of E(rns) binding to CTe cell cultures showed that glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, fucoidan and dermatan sulphate all inhibit binding but dextran sulphate, keratan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and mannan fail to inhibit binding. The low molecular mass polysulphonated inhibitor suramin also inhibited binding to CTe cells but poly-L-lysine did not. Furthermore, suramin, the suramin analogue CPD14, fucoidan and pentosan polysulphate inhibited the infectivity of virus. It is proposed that binding of E(rns) to cells is through an interaction with glycosaminoglycans and that BVDV may bind to cells initially through this interaction. PMID:10644844

  18. Serological Study on Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in Pig Population in Poland Between 2008 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipowski Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In total, 14 608 pig sera, collected between 2008 and 2011, were tested with ELISA using antibodies specific for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV. All doubtful and positive samples were retested by virus neutralisation test (neutralising peroxidase-linked assay. The BVDV seroreagents were detected in 11 (68.75% out of 16 provinces, the seroprevalence varied from 0.1% to 1.04% (average 0.31%. The obtained results indicate that the prevalence of BVDV infection in pig population in Poland is low.

  19. Epidemiology of bovine virus diarrhoea in cattle on communal alpine pastures in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schönmann, M; Ehrensperger, F; Hilbe, M; Brunner, D; Stärk, K D; Giger, T

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the influence of communal pasturing on the spread of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD). The investigation involved 990 Swiss Braunvieh cattle from 149 different owners on seven communal pastures in the Swiss Alps. Prior to pasturing, blood samples were collected from all animals for examination for BVD antigen and antibodies. Serological examinations were also performed during and after pasturing to determine possible increases in seroprevalence and to determine whether seroprevalence was different on pastures with and without persistently infected cattle. At the start of pasturing, nine (0.9%) animals were persistently viraemic. On three alpine pastures, no persistently viraemic animals were detected. The prevalence of persistently infected cattle on the remaining four pastures varied from 0.3 to 3.9%. Of the 990 animals tested at the start of pasturing, 632 (63.3%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence differed among pastures and varied from 21.8 to 85.9%. During the summer, seroprevalence increased on all pastures surveyed, and at the end of the pasture season, 778 (80.1%) of the 971 cattle that were examined twice were seropositive. The incidence of seroconversion was significantly higher on pastures with persistently infected cattle compared with those without; it ranged from 32.7 to 100.0% in the former and from 6.0 to 22.2 in the latter. The results of this study suggest that communal alpine pasturing does play a role in the spread of BVD. The extent of this role depends on the presence of persistently infected animals.

  20. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  1. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Njiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP. Diaminobenzidine (DAB was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium.

  2. Expression, purification and crystallization of the ectodomain of the envelope glycoprotein E2 from Bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the ectodomain of BVDV E2 are described. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen which is closely related to Hepatitis C virus. Of the structural proteins, the envelope glycoprotein E2 of BVDV is the major antigen which induces neutralizing antibodies; thus, BVDV E2 is considered as an ideal target for use in subunit vaccines. Here, the expression, purification of wild-type and mutant forms of the ectodomain of BVDV E2 and subsequent crystallization and data collection of two crystal forms grown at low and neutral pH are reported. Native and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data sets have been collected and structure determination is in progress

  3. Challenges for bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibody detection in bulk milk by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays due to changes in milk production levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is considered eradicated from Denmark. Currently, very few (if any) Danish cattle herds could be infected with BVD virus (BVDV). The Danish antibody blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been successfully used during the Danish BVD...

  4. Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Orro, Toomas; Aleksejev, Annely; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-11-23

    Cows infected with the tissue parasite Neospora caninum (Nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. The known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. It has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent Nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The study was set to give the first prevalence data on Nc from Estonian dairy herds in both animal as well as herd level. In addition, association between herd size and Nc, and association of Nc with abortion incidence (Ab), stillbirth incidence (Sb), insemination index (II), and calving interval (CaI) in the presence of BHV1 and BVDV was studied. Blood samples from 1973 animals from 100 herds were collected in 2006-2008, and 320 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were collected in 2007. Antibodies against Nc was found in 2.5 ± 0.4% (95% CI) of the animals and at least one positive animal was found in 37.0 ± 4.7% (95% CI) of the herds. In addition, Nc antibodies were detected in 16.3 ± 2.0% (95% CI) of the tested BTM. Large herds (≥ 200 animals) were less likely to have seropositive animals for Nc. Logistic regression models showed that herds with more than one animal seropositive for Nc had significantly higher odds ratio of abortion incidence (OR: 11.92, 1.18-120.18 95% CI, p=0.036) and tendency of having more stillbirths (OR: 5.52, 0.87-35.02 95% CI, p=0.07). On the other hand one Nc seropostive cow in the herd was associated with lower odds ratio (OR: 0.22, 0.05-0.91 95% CI, p=0.04) of higher calving intervals. Estonian prevalence results reflect observations in the region. No evidence was found of the pathogens were affecting fertility variables through interactions but independently BHV1 and Nc had an impact on the abortion.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, F.; J.H. Vorster; M. Van Vuuren; P. Mapham

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or persistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important ch...

  6. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication.

  7. Principles for eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, A L; Alenius, S

    1999-01-01

    Systematic eradication of BVDV without vaccination started in Scandinavia in 1993. In principle, the schemes include; (1) identification of non-infected and infected herds using different combinations of serological herd tests such as bulk milk tests and spot tests (sample of animals in a certain age), (2) monitoring/certification of non-infected herds by repeated sampling, applying one of the above-mentioned methods and (3) virus clearance in infected herds aimed at removing persistently infected (PI) animals in a cost- and time-efficient manner. In the virus clearance protocol described, an initial test is performed on all animals with subsequent follow-up of calves born as well as of dams seronegative in the initial test. It is generally recommended to perform an initial antibody test on all samples. This should be done not only to screen for seronegative animals on which virus isolation should be attempted (i.e. possible PI animals), but more in order to identify non-immune animals in reproductive age, that is, the key animals in herd-level persistence of infection. In Sweden, a common finding has been self-clearance, where the infection ceases without any other intervention than controlled introduction of new animals. Other epidemiological observations concern the course of events following virus introduction. Important risk factors for spreading BVDV are discussed, where livestock trade is perceived as the most central to control. Live vaccines, imported semen and embryos constitute special hazards, since they may act as vehicles for the introduction of new BVDV strains. The importance of making farmers aware of herd biosecurity and their own responsibility for it is stressed, and in order to maintain a favourable situation after a scheme has been concluded, effort must be put into establishing such a persisting attitude in the farming community.

  8. Puesta en evidencia del virus diarrea viral bovina en bovinos clínicamente afectados Isolation of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus from tissue of clinically affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O CELEDON

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la presencia del virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB en animales sospechosos de estar cursando un cuadro clínico provocado por este virus, se trabajó con un total de 33 animales, correspondiendo a 23 fetos abortados, 2 mortinatos, un nonato, 3 vacas: una madre de mortinato, una madre de aborto y una muerta, 2 novillos muertos y 2 terneros muertos. Muestras de órganos se inocularon en cultivos primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (PFB y en la línea MDBK. Después del primer pasaje en células de PFB, se detectó la presencia de antígenos del VDVB por la prueba de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI. Todas las muestras con reacción positiva a IPI se inocularon por segunda y tercera vez en células de PFB, aplicándose la prueba de IPI en el tercer pasaje. Sobre un cuarto pasaje se aplicó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia direccta (IFD. Todas las muestras, positivas y negativas a IPI, se inocularon en 3 pasajes seriados en las células MDBK. En 23 de los 33 animales se aisló VDVB cepas no citopatogénicas (NCP, correspondiendo a 14 fetos abortados, un nonato, un mortinato, 3 vacas, 2 novillos y 2 terneros. En 6 fetos abortados, independiente de los infectados con el VDVB, se aisló el virus de la rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina (RIB. Se concluye que la presencia del VDVB es de alta frecuencia en muestras clínicas de ganado bovino con patologías asociables al VDVB, desconociéndose el rol patógeno del virus en estos aislados.Cattle infected with the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD virus can present a variety of clinical signs. This research studied the presence of BVD virus in cattle by virus isolation in primary cell cultures of bovine embryo lungs. Virus identification was done using the immunoperoxidase staining assay and the direct fluorescent antibody staining. As a result, 23 out of 33 animals were identified as positive to BVD virus: 14 foetal abortions, 2 stillbirths, 3 dams, 2 steers and 2 calves. No cytopathogenic isolates were

  9. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiro, S M; Nkosi, C M

    2009-12-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. PMID:20458863

  10. The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on fertility in dairy cows: two case-control studies in the province of Styria, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators.

  11. Evidence of a humoral immune response against the prokaryotic expressed N-terminal autoprotease (Npro) protein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niranjan Mishra; Katherukamem Rajukumar; Shruti Shrikant Pitale; Anil Prakash; Ram Kumar Nema; Sthita Pragnya Behera; Shiv Chandra Dubey

    2010-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep belonging to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (Npro) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV Npro–His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it in rabbits. The antigenicity of the Npro protein was confirmed by western blot using anti-BVDV hyperimmune cattle, sheep and goat serum, and anti-Npro rabbit serum. When rabbits were immunized with the Npro protein, a humoral immune response was evident by 4 weeks and persisted till 10 weeks post immunization as detected by ELISA and western blot. Despite Npro-specific antibodies remaining undetectable in 80 serum samples from BVDV-infected sheep and goats, BVDV hyperimmune sera along with some of the field cattle, sheep and goat sera with high BVDV neutralizing antibody titres were found positive for Npro antibodies. Our results provide evidence that despite the low immunogenicity of the BVDV Npro protein, a humoral immune response is induced in cattle, sheep and goats only with repeated BVDV exposure.

  12. Validation of a test for dams carrying foetuses persistently infected with bovine viral-diarrhoea virus based on determination of antibody levels in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, A; Groenendaal, H; Alenius, S; Emanuelson, U

    2001-10-11

    Our objective was to estimate, using a generalised linear mixed-model approach, the sensitivity and specificity of an indirect ELISA when used to identify dams pregnant with persistently bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-infected foetuses. Cows that had been tested for antibodies to BVDV with a positive result during their pregnancy and where the offspring had been tested for both antibody and virus were identified by accessing the Swedish BVD database and the official pedigree records. The resulting data set consisted of 2162 cow-calf pairs in 126 herds, of which 281 included virus-positive calves. The sensitivities and specificities at 12 different decision thresholds (corresponding to optical densities (ODs) between 0.5 and 1.6) were estimated using generalised linear mixed models (binomial error, logit link), in which the gold standard (the BVDV status of the calf) was included as a covariate. In each model, the dependent variable was the dichotomous test result at the decision threshold in question. There was a significant positive interaction between the calf's status and gestational stage in all 12 models--indicating that the sensitivity and specificity at any given decision threshold was improved when the the test was performed later in pregnancy. The test should be applied only when samples have been taken in late gestation--not before the seventh month in pregnancy. If applied during the last months of pregnancy, the point estimate of the sensitivity ranges between 0.94 and 1.0 as the decision threshold is moved from 1.0 and downwards to 0.7. Similarly, the specificity ranges between 0.39 and 0.67 as the decision threshold is moved from 0.8 and upwards to 1.1.

  13. Impact of three inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus vaccines on bulk milk p80 (NS3) ELISA test results in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P; Graham, David A; Arkins, Sean

    2015-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in many countries and vaccines are used as a component of control and eradication strategies. Surveillance programmes to detect exposure to BVDV often incorporate the use of bulk milk (BM) testing for antibodies against BVDV p80 (NS3), but vaccination can interfere with these results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BVDV vaccines would confound BM testing for specific antibodies in a nationally representative group of commercial dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 256 commercial dairy herds were included in the statistical analysis. Quarterly BM or serum samples from selected weanling heifers (unvaccinated homeborn youngstock) were assessed by ELISA for antibodies against the BVDV p80 subunit and whole virus. Wilcoxon rank-sum and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to examine differences among groups vaccinated with one of three commercially available inactivated BVDV vaccines. Two of the three vaccines showed evidence of interference with ELISA testing of BM samples. ROC analysis highlighted that one vaccine did not reduce the discriminatory power of the BVDV p80 ELISA for identification of herds with evidence of recent BVDV circulation, when compared with unvaccinated herds; thus, administration of this vaccine would allow uncomplicated interpretation of BM ELISA test results in vaccinated seropositive herds. Seasonal differences in BM antibody results were identified, suggesting that the latter half of lactation is the most suitable time for sampling dairy herds containing predominantly spring calving cows. The results of the present study are likely to prove useful in countries allowing vaccination during or following BVDV eradication, where BM testing is required as part of the surveillance strategy. PMID:25986132

  14. Establishment of a Bovine Herpesvirus 4 based vector expressing a secreted form of the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus structural glycoprotein E2 for immunization purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donofrio Gaetano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological characteristics of BoHV-4 make it a good candidate as a gene delivery vector for vaccination purposes. These characteristics include little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, the capability to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material, the ability to infect several cell types from different animal species, and the ability to maintain transgene expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Results A recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK expressing an enhanced secreted form of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV structural glycoprotein E2 (gE2-14, obtained by the removal of the putative transmembrane domain and addition of a 14 amino acids peptide at its carboxyl terminal and an immunoglobulin K signal peptide to the amino terminal, was successfully constructed using a Recombineering (recombination -mediated genetic engineering approach on BoHV-4 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome. The galactokinase – based recombineering system was modified by the introduction of a kanamycin expression cassette and a kanamycin selection step that allowed a significant reduction of the untargeted background clones. BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK infected cell lines highly expressed gE2-14, which maintained native antigenic properties in a serum neutralization inhibition test. When rabbits and sheep were immunized with BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK, high levels of serum neutralized antibodies against BVDV were generated. Conclusion This work highlights the engineerization of BoHV-4 genome as a vector for vaccine purposes and may provide the basis for BVDV vaccination exploiting the BoHV-4- based vector that delivers an improved secreted version of the BVDV structural glycoprotein E2.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or persistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important challenges to overall animal/herd health and can cause major losses to the cattle industry. Long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples from calves persistently infected with BVDV may adversely affect the ability of diagnostic assays to detect the virus efficiently. In order to test this hypothesis, ear notch samples from 7 animals were divided into 2 groups. One set was subjected to prompt formalin fixation and the other set stored either as fresh samples without preservatives at –2 °C, or soaked overnight in phosphate buffered saline followed by freezing of the supernatant fluid at –2 °C. Frozen ear notches and ear notch supernatant yielded positive results with an antigen- capture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA for the duration of the study (6 months and optical density (OD values remained significantly within range. There was no significant difference between storing fresh ear notch samples or PBS at –2 °C. However, positive immunohistochemistry (IHC staining on formalin fixed ear notches started to fade between Day 17 and Day 29 when stored at room temperature. It was concluded that fresh ear notches could safely be stored at –2 °C for a period of 6 months prior to testing for BVD viral antigens.

  16. Kinetics of single and dual infection of calves with an Asian atypical bovine pestivirus and a highly virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larskaa, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Riitho, Victor;

    2012-01-01

    . Co-infection with both viruses led to prolonged fever in comparison to singlestrain inoculated groups and simultaneous replication of concurrent viruses in blood and in the upper respiratory tract. Following the infections all the calves seroconverted against homologous strains. Atypical pestiviruses......) and an Asianatypicalbovinepestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen) in naïve calves, in comparison to singleinfections. Milder clinical signs were observed in the animals infected with single Th/04_KhonKaen strain. Leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia were observed in all infected groups at a similar level which correlated with the onset of viraemia...

  17. Safety and efficacy of an E2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine produced in mammalian cells to prevent experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea; Aguirreburualde, María Sol Pérez; Aguirreburualde, Alejandra; Leunda, Maria Rosa; Odeon, Anselmo; Chiavenna, Sebastián; Bochoeyer, Diego; Spitteler, Marcelo; Filippi, Jorge L; Dus Santos, Maria J; Levy, Susana M; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2012-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) infection caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and economical losses in cattle worldwide. E2 protein is the major glycoprotein of BVDV envelope and the main target for neutralising antibodies (NAbs). Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused on E2, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. A truncated version of type 1a BVDV E2 (tE2) expressed in mammalian cells was used to formulate an experimental oleous monovalent vaccine. Immunogenicity was studied through immunisation of guinea pigs and followed by trials in cattle. Calves of 8-12 months were vaccinated, twice with a 4 week interval, with either a tE2 subunit vaccine (n = 8), a whole virus inactivated vaccine (n = 8) or left untreated as negative control group (n = 8). Four weeks after the last immunisation the animals were experimentally challenged intranasally with a non-cythopathic BVDV strain. Following challenge, BVDV was isolated from all unvaccinated animals, while 6 out of 8 animals vaccinated with tE2 showed complete virological protection indicating that the tE2 vaccine presented a similar performance to a satisfactory whole virus inactivated vaccine.

  18. Comparative Suitability of Ear Notch Biopsy and Serum Pairs for Detecting Nature of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Ahmad, Masood Rabbani, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Khushi Muhammad1, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2, Rana Khurram Khalid, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir3 and Shumaila Yousaf Alvi4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of ear notch biopsy (EN and serum pairs (n= 307 collected from 10 Holstein dairy herds located in Charlottetown, Canada was evaluated for simultaneous detection, nature of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection and genotype of the prevailing BVDV through Real time RT-PCR. Depending upon vaccination status and age, the sampled animals were categorized into two groups, A (n=123, ≤ 6 month of age and B (n=184, ≥ 6 months of age originating from 4 vaccinated (n=108 and 3 non-vaccinated (n=76 animal herds. On first round of testing a discrepancy between ear notch biopsies and sera pairs (3.25 and 6.50%; P<0.05 of groups A was observed, however, a complete harmony (50% for EN and sera each, P<0.01 was found on second round of testing that confirmed the presence of 4 persistent infection (PI animals harboring genotype 1 of BVDV. Complete concordance between EN and sera pairs (P<0.01 on first and follow up testing in group B was observed (2.77%, each, depicting 3 PI animals with the same genotype as in group A. In the study, ear notch biopsies did not detect any transient infection (TI but sera samples detected 3.25% transiently infected animals in group A that was 1.30 % among all the test samples (n=307 while no TI animal was found in group B. It may be concluded that both the serum and ear notch biopsy can be used to detect PI animals and that, serum samples are more sensitive than ear notch (P < 0.05 for detection of TI using real time RT-PCR.

  19. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  20. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  1. Remission of diarrhoea due to cryptosporidiosis in an immunodeficient child treated with hyperimmune bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzipori, S; Roberton, D; Chapman, C

    1986-01-01

    A boy aged 6 months who presented with poor weight gain, diarrhoea, and infection with Pneumocystis carinii was found to have congenital hypogammaglobulinaemia, which did not improve despite monthly treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin. At the age of 3 years and 2 months he developed severe vomiting and diarrhoea due to cryptosporidiosis, which failed to respond to conventional treatment. Infusion of hyperimmune bovine colostrum produced against parasite antigen, given by nasogastric tube, was started after symptoms had persisted for three weeks. His vomiting and diarrhoea resolved within five days of treatment, and oocysts were no longer seen in the stools after eight days. Later, however, he developed a rare complication, and oocysts were found in the common bile duct. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum may be useful in the treatment of many patients with immunodeficiency disorders. PMID:3096462

  2. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  3. Detección de bovinos portadores e inmunotolerantes al virus de la diarrea viral bovina en predios lecheros de la Región Metropolitana de Chile Identification of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in persistently infected immunotolerant cows in herds of the Region Metropolitana, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CELEDON

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se implementó una técnica para detectar la presencia de bovinos portadores e inmunotolerantes (PIT al virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB, a través de la pesquisa de viremia persistente y bajos títulos de anticuerpos, para el VDVB, en dos muestras de sangre tomadas, desde un mismo animal, con tres meses de separación. La presencia de virus en la sangre se evidenció a través del aislamiento viral (AV -desde muestras de plasma y linfocitos- en cultivos primarios de testículo bovino y la identificación del supuesto aislado se efectuó por prueba de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI en el segundo pasaje del inóculo sobre las células. La detección de anticuerpos séricos se realizó por prueba de seroneutralización (SN, empleando la cepa citopatogénica Singer del VDVB. Se consideró animal PIT al que evidenció presencia de virus en las 2 muestras de sangre y mantuvo títulos de anticuerpos menores o iguales a 8. De 238 bovinos muestreados en 42 se detectó viremia persistente en ausencia o bajos títulos de anticuerpos, considerándose una prevalencia de 18% de bovinos PIT, y de los 34 predios muestreados en 22 se detectó la presencia de animales PIT, considerándose una prevalencia predial de 65%. Hubo diferencias significativas (p The presence of immunotolerant, persistently infected (IPI animals with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV was detected in several milking herds with abortions, repeat breeders, still births and poor growth rates, by the virus isolation test and measurement of serum neutralising antibodies, in 2 blood samples from each animal. Samples were taken 3 month apart. Virus isolation was done by inoculation of the plasma and lymphocytes from peripheral blood in primary bovine testicle cell culture. The isolates were identified, on the second serial passage, by the indirect immunoperoxidase test. Cows were considered IPI when BVDV was isolated in the two blood samples and serum title neutralising antibodies were

  4. An Otofuke-like virus associated with diarrhoea. Case report and electronmicroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, H J; Connolly, J H; Redmond, A O; Dermott, E

    1985-04-01

    Virus particles similar to Otofuke virus have been found, together with rotaviruses and astroviruses, by electronmicroscopy in faeces from an infant with diarrhoea in Northern Ireland. Previously Otofuke virus has been found only in Japan whence it may have been carried to this country by a businessman. PMID:4082360

  5. The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea antibodies in selected South African dairy herds, and control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ferreira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD serologically positive animals in 18 dairy herds with clinical and pathological lesions suggestive of BVD infection, the post-vaccinal seroconversion rates in negative animals vaccinated twice with an inactivated BVD vaccine, and the control measures taken, are described. The pathological and histopathological findings in 6 necropsies performed on animals that died in 5 separate herds closely resembled published descriptions. Positive immunohistochemistry results in 3 cases confirmed the diagnosis in those animals. In 1 herd the prevalence of prevaccinal BVDantibodies was only 36.8 %, while the prevalence varied from 79.85 to 100 % in the remainder. Control measures taken included immunoprophylaxis with an inactivated vaccine, culling animals that were serologically negative after vaccination that were regarded as probably persistently infected (PI and the implementation of additional biosecurity measures. The prevalence of serologically negative PI animals in 10 herds varied from 0.38 to 4.04 %, with 8 herds less than 1 %and 2 herds at 2.79 %and 4.04 %, respectively. Methods based on vaccinating the herd, followed by serological testing and culling cattle that did not develop an antibody titre, are not reliable. The identification of PI animals should be confirmed by isolation of the virus or identification of the antigen.

  6. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  7. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  8. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  10. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to diarrhoea induced hypokalemia in a human immunodeficiency virus - seropositive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroopa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypokalemia with rhabdomyolysis caused by diarrhoea is uncommon in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. We report the case of a patient with HIV1 infection who presented with chronic diarrhoea that led to hypokalemia induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI. A 32-year-old man, known to be HIV-1 seropositive who was on treatment with tenofovir, lamivudine, lopinavirand ritonavir, presented to the emergency department with 6 months history of diarrhoea and sudden onset of weakness of all 4 limbs of two days duration. On examination limb power was grade 3/5 with hypotonia and diminished reflexes. Laboratory investigations showed severe hypokalemia, low urinary potassium, normal anion-gap metabolic acidosis, markedly increased creatine kinase and mildly increased serum creatinine. He was diagnosed as having diarrhoea induced hypokalemic myopathy leading to rhabdomyolysis and AKI. With potassium supplements, antiprotozoal treatment adequate hydration he improved significantly and is on regular follow-up. Patients presenting with hypokalemia should be closely monitored for rhabdomyolysis, because outcome is good with early treatment.

  11. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  12. Comparative pathology of infection by novel diarrhoea viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G A

    1987-01-01

    Examination of diarrhoeic faeces in the electron microscope often reveals viruses that are presumed to be enteropathogenic. Lesions caused by novel rotaviruses were similar to those of group A rotaviruses, but enterocyte syncytia were seen which are probably pathognomonic for novel rotaviruses. In adenovirus infection in piglets, mature enterocytes were infected and destroyed; intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in infected enterocytes. Calici-like viruses infected mature enterocytes in calves and the lesions were similar to those described in humans infected with calici-like viruses; in both host species it was impossible to demonstrate virus particles in enterocytes examined in the electron microscope. The Breda virus infected villi and crypts in the lower small intestine and the surface and crypts in the large intestine; it was the only enteropathogenic virus to show this distribution of infection and lesions. Astrovirus infection in lambs was comparable to a mild rotavirus infection, but in calves the epithelium of the dome villi of Peyer's patches was infected. Parvovirus in cats and dogs infected and destroyed small intestinal crypt cells, causing dilated crypts and stunted villi; intranuclear inclusion bodies were prominent. PMID:3036441

  13. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  14. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  15. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  17. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. PMID:20691486

  18. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  20. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  1. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  2. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  3. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  4. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  5. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  8. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  9. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I

    1985-01-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  10. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  11. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  12. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  14. Experimental Infection of Young Pigs with an Early European Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus and a Recent US Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Krog, Jesper Schak; Strandbygaard, Bertel;

    2016-01-01

    the intestine in euthanized animals at 4 days post-inoculation. In addition, within these animals, low levels of viral RNA were detected in lungs and livers with higher levels in spleens. Seroconversion against PEDV occurred in all surviving infected animals within 10 days. PEDV RNA excretion occurred......Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) were reported across Europe during the 1980s and 1990s, but only sporadic outbreaks occurred in recent years. PED virus (PEDV) spread for the first time into the USA in 2013 and has caused severe economic losses. Retrospectively, it was found that two...... different strains of PEDV have been introduced into the United States, both are closely related to strains circulating in China where a new wave of the disease occurred from 2010 onwards. Since autumn 2014, new outbreaks of PED have occurred in Europe. In this study, weaned piglets were inoculated...

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  17. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  18. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi-Xin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xin-Lei; Qiao, Wen-Tao; Chen, Qi-Min; Zeng, Yi; Geng, Yun-Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions, and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.

  19. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  20. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  1. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  2. Specific fluorescein-labeled antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus prepared from sera of rabbits immunized with purified virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, R. A.; Rhodes, M B

    1980-01-01

    Specific fluorescein-labeled antibody conjugates to three strains of bovine virus diarrhea virus were prepared from hyperimmune rabbit sera. Viruses used to hyperimmunize the rabbits were purified by four different procedures. Conjugates were comparable in quality and specificity to conjugates prepared from serum of a calf hyperimmunized to bovine virus diarrhea virus in our laboratory. The latter conjugate was tested by Biologics Laboratories, National Veterinary Services, U.S.D.A., Ames, Iowa.

  3. Adjuvant enhancement of humoral immune response to chemically inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K S; Johnson, D. W.; Muscoplat, C C

    1985-01-01

    Potentiation of the antibody response to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus by immunological adjuvants was studied in guinea pigs and cattle. The inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus alone was demonstrated to be a weak immunogen. Addition of either 2 mg per mL diethylaminoethyl-dextran or 5% alhydrogel to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus did not or only slightly stimulated the antibody response; the combined adjuvants induced a significantly higher titer. A higher concentration...

  4. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  5. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1) isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  6. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  7. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  8. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vi

  9. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  10. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  11. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  12. Inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus by photodynamic therapy with HMME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li; Zhaohui Zou; Wentao Qiao; Xue Yao; Yang Su; Hongyan Guo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) can provide the basis theory for photoinactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the protection of HMME-PDT on the cell line Cf2Th infected with BIVR29 by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-yl-3,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT) with power density of 5 and 25 mW/cm2 and energy density from 0.6 to 3 J/cm. To observe the inhibition of membrane fusion using a new reporter cell line BIVE by fluorescence microscope. HMME-PDT has significant protectant effects on Cf2Th-BIVR29 with both power densities, especially in the group of high power density. Fluorescent microscope shows that there is no significant difference between the group of PDT and control, which means PDT could not inhibit the BIV-mediated membrane fusion.

  13. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  14. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S.; W. Xue; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C

    1998-01-01

    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demo...

  15. Faecal candida and diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D; Ee, L; Camer-Pesci, P; Ward, P; MURPHY, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Candida species are frequently isolated from stools of children with diarrhoea but are not proven enteropathogens. It is hypothesised that faecal candida causes diarrhoea.
AIMS—To determine the prevalence of faecal candida in childhood diarrhoea and the relation between faecal yeasts and diarrhoea.
METHODS—Comparison of clinical and laboratory data, including quantitative stool culture for yeasts from 107 children hospitalised with diarrhoea and 67 age matched controls without diarrhoea.
RESULTS—Yeast species, predominantly candida, were identified in the stools of 43 children (39%) with diarrhoea and 26 (36%) without diarrhoea. The concentration of candida was positively associated with recent antibiotic use (p = 0.03) and with the presence of another enteric pathogen (p < 0.005), but not with patient age, nutritional status, or duration of diarrhoea.
CONCLUSION—Candida species do not cause childhood diarrhoea in well nourished children.

 PMID:11259233

  16. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  17. Complete genome sequences of both biotypes of a virus pair of bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotype 1k

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Antunes de Oliveira, Adriano; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst; Sauter, Kay Sara; Schweizer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequences of both biotypes of a virus pair of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subgenotype 1k. The viruses were isolated from a persistently infected calf suffering from mucosal disease. Compared to the noncytopathic biotype, the cytopathic biotype contains an insertion of 84 nucleotides and 22 nucleotide changes.

  18. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B; Jensen, M. H.; Sørensen, K J; Dalsgaard, K

    1982-01-01

    The serological and virological results of an experimental infection of bovine fetuses with bovine viral diarrhea virus are presented. Four fetuses, 120-165 days gestational age, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Two fetuses received a sham-inoculum. A humoral immune response in the virus-inoculated fetuses, was demonstrated three weeks later. In three fetuses only IgM and IgG1 were detectable. The serum from the fourth fetus also contained IgG2 and IgA. Bovine vira...

  19. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  20. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  1. Spatial modelling of the between-herd infection dynamics of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Houe, H.;

    2010-01-01

    According to the current literature BVDV-infected neighbours probably impose a high risk of infection of susceptible cattle herds. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the risk of a dairy herd changing infection status (from not having persistently infected (PI) animals to having P...

  2. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms...

  3. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  4. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  5. Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Kasonta; Mark Holsteg; Karin Duchow; Dekker, James W.; Klaus Cussler; Justin G Bendall; Max Bastian

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining int...

  6. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  7. Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, M F; McClurkin, A W

    1978-01-01

    Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied in 14 calves. Five calves born with actively induced antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus retained high titers during the year of observation. Colostrum-derived antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in nine calves declined at an expected rate for the first four to six months of age. However, titers of six of these calves increased at five to eight months of age and either remained constant or increased through one year of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody titers of the other three calves declined at a constant rate to less than 1:4 by nine to 12 months of age. PMID:208738

  8. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Devendra K.; Paul Lawrence; Steve J. Pauszek; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Elizabeth Rieder

    2016-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhini...

  9. Isolation and Identification of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Shandong Strain%牛病毒性腹泻病毒山东株的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佩莉; 杨宏军; 宋玲玲; 王洪梅; 刘来兴; 何洪彬

    2013-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻病毒是牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病的重要病原体,该病毒病是极为复杂、呈多临床类型表现的传染病,给世界养牛业造成了巨大的经济损失.本研究从疑似牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病的粪便中分离得到一株病毒能使MDBK细胞产生细胞病变,经RT-PCR检测及扩增产物测序进一步证实,该病毒为牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病病毒,TCID50测定该病毒的滴度为107.15TCID50/ml.该病毒株的分离鉴定为牛病毒性腹泻病毒疫苗的研制奠定了基础.%Bovine viral diarrhea virus ( BVDV) is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhoea, and is u-biquitous in cattle. It is very complex and presents a wide range of clinical manifestations, which causes large economic loss to cattle industry around the world. In this study, a virus strain causing cytopathic effect of ma-din -darby bovinekidney (MDBK) was isolated from the bovine excrement and identified as BVDV by RT -PCR and sequencing analysis. The virus titer was 10 7.15 TCID50/ml. The isolation and identification of this virus strain laid foundation for exploring its vaccine.

  10. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  11. Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China.

  12. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  13. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Muharam Saepulloh; Indrawati Sendow

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RT...

  14. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT)...

  15. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  16. Subcellular Localization Analysis of Bovine Foamy Virus Borf1 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan TAN; Kai WU; Rui CHANG; Qi-min CHEN; Yun-qi GENG; Wen-tao QIAO

    2008-01-01

    The Borf1 protein is encoded by an immediate-early gene of the bovine foamy virus (BFV) and plays a key role in the viral life cycle. Borf1 is a DNA binding protein which can transactivate both the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the internal promoter (IP) of BFV by specifically binding to the transactivation responsive element (TRE). To analyze the subcellular localization of Borf1 during the BFV life cycle, this gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed in a soluble form. After the purification and immunization, we raised the mouse anti-Borf1 serum with a high titer based on ELISA results. Western blot analysis showed that the antiserum could specifically recognize the Borf1 protein that was expressed in 293T cells. With this specific serum, we revealed the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Borf1 in HeLa cells that was transfected with Borf1. Moreover, the immuno-fluorescence assay also showed that the localization of Borf1 during the infection and transfection of BFV was identical.

  17. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm;

    1999-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle in most countries. The main reservoir of virus in herds are BVDV persistently infected animals, which arise as a result of infection of the bovine fetus early in gestation. The spread of virus to the unborn fetus may be prevented......, concentration, and insertion of antigens into immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). Vaccines based on two different Danish strains of BVDV were injected into calves and the antisera produced were tested for neutralising activity against a panel of Danish BVDV strains. The two vaccines induced different...

  18. Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, G; Tautz, N.; Becher, P; Thiel, H J; Kümmerer, B M

    1997-01-01

    After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus was constructed. In comparison with parental BVDV, the recombinant virus was slightly retarded in growth. The NS2 coding region of the CP7...

  19. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shigemura, Hiroaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  20. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yamada; Hiroaki Shigemura; Naotaka Ishiguro; Yasuo Inoshima

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  1. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. It is controlled with vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected animals. The objective was to determine whether genomic regions harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated ...

  2. Persistence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Is Determined by a Cellular Cofactor of a Viral Autoprotease

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, T.; Müller, A.; König, M; Thiel, H.-J.; Tautz, N.

    2005-01-01

    Polyprotein processing control is a crucial step in the life cycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. Recently, a vital autoprotease generating an essential viral replication factor was identified in such a virus, namely, the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus. Surprisingly, the activity of this protease, which resides in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), diminishes early after infection, resulting in the limitation of viral RNA replication. Here, we describe that a cellular chaperone termed Ji...

  3. Peroxidase-linked assay for detection of antibodies against bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Clarissa C; Nunes, Cristina F; Finger, Paula F; Siedler, Bianca S; Dummer, Luana; de Lima, Marcelo; Leite, Fábio P L; Fischer, Geferson; Vargas, Gilberto D'A; Hübner, Silvia de O

    2013-01-01

    A peroxidase linked assay (PLA) was designed to screen bovine sera for the presence of specific antibodies against bovine leukosis virus (BLV). Out of 201 samples of bovine sera analyzed, 52.2% were considered positive by PLA, 26.4% by AGID, and 38.9% by ELISA. Western blotting analyses excluded 27 samples found to be positive by PLA. PLA showed 100% of sensitivity when compared with AGID and ELISA. Specificity was 64.8% and 78%, respectively (kappa coefficients were 0.70 and 0.83). These findings indicate that PLA can be used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  4. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  5. In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.

    2014-05-01

    Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 μg Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 μg dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 μg HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 μg) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 μg). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral

  6. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573

  7. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  9. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    established due to the lack of sufficient materials, or the isolation of the bacterium was considered to be a result of contamination. In four cases concomitant infections with B, licheniformis and bovine virus diarrhoea virus were present. Abortions caused by B. licheniformis were predominantly seen during...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....

  10. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in fresh colostrum: a modification of the virus neutralization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum. PMID:23417081

  11. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, P H; Baker, J. C.; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A ...

  12. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  13. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  14. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  15. Synergistic In Vitro Interactions between Alpha Interferon and Ribavirin against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Yellow Fever Virus as Surrogate Models of Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Buckwold, Victor E.; Wei, Jiayi; Wenzel-Mathers, Michelle; Russell, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Monotherapy of hepatitis C virus infection with either alpha interferon or ribavirin alone is rather ineffective, while the use of the two antivirals together is much more efficacious. In vitro drug-drug combination analysis utilizing related members of the family Flaviviridae, bovine viral diarrhea virus and yellow fever virus, revealed significant direct synergistic interactions between these drugs' antiviral activities that might explain this clinical observation.

  16. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Polypeptide From the Erns Coding Region of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masood Reza; Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Masood; Mahmoodi Koohi, Pezhman; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a worldwide distribution. Detection and elimination of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is essential for the control of BVD and eradication of BVDV. There are usually no pathognomonic clinical signs of BVDV infection. Diagnostic investigations therefore rely on laboratory-based detection of the virus, or virus-induced antigens or antibodies. Objectives: Erns as an...

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persi...

  18. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  19. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  20. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  1. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  2. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and culling of persistently infected animals and efficacious vaccination are key factors to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of detection of persistently infected cattle and examine the diversity of bo...

  3. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi; Khan, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle.

  5. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  6. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 la

  7. Schmallenberg virus detection in bovine semen after experimental infection of bulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Parlevliet, J.M.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kooi, E.A.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

    2014-01-01

    To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested fo

  8. Studies on genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2014-01-01

    Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...

  9. Quantitative assessment of the risk of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources...

  10. Detection, characterization, and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a large commercial dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Schefers, Jeremy M.; Collins, James E.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Ames, Trevor R.

    2009-01-01

    Detection, genetic characterization, and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease in a large commercial dairy herd is reported. Precolostral BVDV serum antibody was detected in 5.3% (12/226) of newborn calves before the test and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals and in 0.4% (2/450) of newborn calves after the removal of PI heifers.

  11. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle populations worldwide causing significant economic losses though its impact in animal health. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of BVDV species and subgenotypes in cattle from the United States and Canada. In this study, we investigated t...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain Isolated in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e.

  13. Periparturient infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic proctocolitis in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet

    2011-01-01

    After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV.

  14. Detection and Characterization of Genetic Recombination in Cytopathic Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ridpath, Julia F.; Neill, John D.

    2000-01-01

    In cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV1) isolates, insertions are reported at position A (amino acid [aa] 1535) and position B (aa 1589). Insertions at position B predominate. In this survey it was found that in BVDV2, insertions at position A predominate. Possible reasons for this difference in relative frequency are discussed.

  15. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  16. Fatal Trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, Greg N.

    2004-01-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs.

  17. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  19. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  20. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharam Saepulloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.

  1. Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Namita; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Torres, Siddartha; Li, Feng; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease affecting the cattle industry. The pathogenesis of BRD is complex and includes contributions from microbial pathogens as well as host, environmental and animal management factors. In this study, we utilized viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the virome of nasal swab samples obtained from feedlot cattle with acute BRD and asymptomatic pen-mates at six and four feedlots in Mexico and the USA, respectively, in April-October 2015. Twenty-one viruses were detected, with bovine rhinitis A (52.7 %) and B (23.7 %) virus, and bovine coronavirus (24.7 %) being the most commonly identified. The emerging influenza D virus (IDV) tended to be significantly associated (P=0.134; odds ratio=2.94) with disease, whereas viruses commonly associated with BRD such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus were detected less frequently. The detection of IDV was further confirmed using a real-time PCR assay. Nasal swabs from symptomatic animals had significantly more IDV RNA than those collected from healthy animals (P=0.04). In addition to known viruses, new genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus and enterovirus E were identified and a newly proposed species of bocaparvovirus, Ungulate bocaparvovirus 6, was characterized. Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 was also detected for the first time in North America to our knowledge. These results illustrate the complexity of the virome associated with BRD and highlight the need for further research into the contribution of other viruses to BRD pathogenesis.

  2. Establishment of RT-PCR Method to Detect Bovine Parainfluenza Virus 3%牛副流感病毒3型RT—PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓乐; 张敏敏; 陈颖钰; 胡长敏; 陈焕春; 郭爱珍

    2011-01-01

    With the primers based on the complete genome sequence of bovine parainfluenza virus 3(BPIV-3) in GenBank, a PCR method for bovine parainfluenza virus 3 detection was developed. The optimum condition for annealing temperature was 58.1℃, primer concentration was 1.0μmol/L. By using this method, the specific fragment of 425 bp was amplified from BPIV-3 template, but not from other common virus and bacteria, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and swine fever virus, mycoplasma bovis strain HB0801, Escherichia coll., Pasteurella muhocida type A and Salmonella typhimurium. The sensitivity of this PCR method was 10-3 TCID50/0.1mL.%参照GenBank中公布的牛副流感病毒3型(Bovineparainfluenzavirus3,BPIV-3)全基因序列,针对BPIV-3特异性NP蛋白保守基因设计一对引物,建立了BPIV-3的RT—PCR诊断方法。其最佳扩增退火温度为58.1℃,引物浓度为1.0μmol/L。采用该方法扩增BPIV-3参考病毒.能扩增出425bp预期大小的特异性片段,而扩增牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病病毒、牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒、牛合胞体病毒、猪瘟病毒以及牛支原体、大肠埃希氏菌、牛巴氏杆菌和沙门氏菌等常见病毒和细菌均呈阴性结果。对参考病毒进行梯度稀释检测,结果证明该法检测BPIV-3的灵敏度可达10^-3FCID50/0.1mL。

  3. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  4. The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One μM MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 μM MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

  5. HoBi-like virus challenge of pregnant cows that had previously given birth to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...

  6. Comparison of flow cytometry and virus isolation in cell culture for identification of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Qvist, P.; Houe, H.; Aasted, B.; Meyling, A

    1991-01-01

    Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in 143 blood samples by virus isolation in cell culture and flow cytometry was performed. The material included 37 samples later shown to originate from persistently infected cattle. Thirty-three samples were positive by virus isolation, and all 37 samples were positive by the flow cytometric assay.

  7. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  8. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 impairs virus control in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Seung-Uk; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen that causes development of mild to severe clinical signs in wild and domesticated ruminants. We previously showed that mice could be infected by BVDV. In the present study, we infected mice intraperitoneally with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2, harvested the blood and organs of the infected mice at days 4, 7, 10 and 14 postinfection (pi), and performed immunohistochemical analyses to confirm BVDV infection. Viral antigens were detected in the spleens of all infected mice from days 4 through 14 and were also found in the mesenteric lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), heart, kidney, intestine, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of some infected mice. In ncp BVDV2-infected mice, flow cytometric analysis revealed markedly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and lower expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-A/I-E) than those in ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 was higher in the plasma of ncp BVDV2-infected mice than that in that of ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 interact differently with the host innate immune response in vivo. These findings highlight an important distinction between ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 and suggest that ncp BVDV2 impairs the host's ability to control the infection and enhances virus dissemination.

  9. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 impairs virus control in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Seung-Uk; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen that causes development of mild to severe clinical signs in wild and domesticated ruminants. We previously showed that mice could be infected by BVDV. In the present study, we infected mice intraperitoneally with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2, harvested the blood and organs of the infected mice at days 4, 7, 10 and 14 postinfection (pi), and performed immunohistochemical analyses to confirm BVDV infection. Viral antigens were detected in the spleens of all infected mice from days 4 through 14 and were also found in the mesenteric lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), heart, kidney, intestine, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of some infected mice. In ncp BVDV2-infected mice, flow cytometric analysis revealed markedly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and lower expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-A/I-E) than those in ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 was higher in the plasma of ncp BVDV2-infected mice than that in that of ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 interact differently with the host innate immune response in vivo. These findings highlight an important distinction between ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 and suggest that ncp BVDV2 impairs the host's ability to control the infection and enhances virus dissemination. PMID:26586332

  10. Epidemiology, infection dynamics and effective control of Bovine Leukemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina: a quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes lymphomas (leucosis) and other disorders in cattle and it has a large economical impact on the livestock sector of many countries around the world. BovineDiverse outcomes of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in a herd naturally infected during pregnancy - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A beef producer purchased Angus crossbred cattle that were pregnant with nursing calves. The purchased cattle, their nursing calves, and subsequent born calves were not initially tested for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a (BVDV2a) was isolated from an aborted bovine fetus, 6.5 months,...

  11. Seroprevalencia de las infecciones por el virus Diarrea Vírica Bovina en ganado bovino en Andalucía (Seroprevalence of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle in Andalucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pacheco, Juan M:

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe ha realizado un estudio seroepidemiológico frente al virus de la Diarrea Vírica Bovina (vDVB en la cabaña bovina andaluza, tilizando para ello un ELISA indirecto para la detección de anticuerpos frente a una proteína altamente conservada (p80. Después de eliminar los animales vacunados, la encuesta se realizó sobre 4.768 individuos pertenecientes a 227 colectivos no vacunados frente al vDVB, mediante muestreo estadístico para un nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento. La seropositividad obtenida ha sido del 42,3 por ciento de los individuos analizados, mientras que la prevalencia estimada de rebaños seropositivos alcanzó el 70,9 por ciento. La proporción de bovinos persistentemente infectados (IPencontrada en la muestra (0,063 % de los individuos y 1,32 de los colectivos, ha sido más baja de la esperada en función de la alta seroprevalencia detectada, hecho que demuestra que la supervivencia de estos animales lógicamente está condicionada.SummaryAn epidemiological survey of the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD on bovine farms from Andalusia Region was carried out. An indirect enzyme-linked inmunosorbent assay was used for the detection of p80 specific antibodies. After elimination of vaccinated animals, the study was performed with 4768 serum samples obtained from non vaccinated animals belonged to 227 farm selected by statistical sampling, on the population base of the official registry of bovine herds in this region. The prevalence obtained for the BVD infections in farms were 70.9 percent. This prevalence for individuals resulted in 42.3 percent. A number of Persistent Infected (PI was detected in this study (0.063% animals and 1.325% in farms frequency lower than expected according toseroprevalence obtained.

  12. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears tha...

  13. Iminosugars in Combination with Interferon and Ribavirin Permanently Eradicate Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Persistently Infected Cells▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Stephen D; SMITH, Caroline; Michelet, Maud; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Hussey, Mark; Dwek, Raymond A.; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) as dual therapy and as part of triple-combination therapies with the iminosugars N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin, and N-7-oxanonyl-6-deoxymethyl-galactonojirimycin. The ability of these compounds to clear bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus (HCV), from a persistently infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells cell line was determined by monitoring the secretion of viral RNA and ...

  14. Single-Tube Single-Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Pooled Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Daniel; Bhudevi, Bodreddigari; Castro, Anthony E.

    2001-01-01

    A reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was developed for use as a diagnostic screening test for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in pooled bovine serum samples. Individual serum samples from 60 dairy cattle herds located in Pennsylvania were evaluated by the microplate virus isolation method, and pooled sera were analyzed by RT-PCR. RT-PCR was sensitive and specific and detected a single viremic serum sample in up to 100 pooled serum samples. RT-PCR analysis of pooled sera pr...

  15. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  16. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  18. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.

  2. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shogo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan

  3. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gp51 gene from Korean bovine leukemia virus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-hye; SONG, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been reported in Korea for more than three decades. However, to date, there have been few studies regarding Korean BLV since 1980s. Thus, the purpose of this study is to perform a diagnosis and molecular characterization of BLV strains circulating in Korea and to estimate genetic diversity of different genotypes of BLV. Method To investigate the distribution of BLV variants in the world and assess the evolutionary history of Korea...

  4. Transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds by simulation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, T.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways...

  5. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspe...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves

    OpenAIRE

    Helal, Mahmoud Atef Youssef; Okamatsu, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Motoshi

    2012-01-01

    A dairy herd including approximately 50 milking cows and 40 heifers and calves was investigated. This herd was detected with high prevalence of calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Nine PI animals including a milking cow and 8 newborn calves were detected in the herd within 4 months. Prevalence of PI animals in this herd was estimated 7.0% which was very high compared to that estimated in previous reports. All newborn PI calves were strongly suspected to ...

  7. Chromatin disruption in the promoter of Bovine Leukemia Virus during transcriptional activation

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Laurence; Dekoninck, Ann; Reichert, Michal; Calao, Miriam; Merimi, Makram; Van den Broeke, Anne; Vierendeel, Valérie; Cleuter, Yvette; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus expression relies on its chromatin organization after integration into the host cell genome. Proviral latency, which results from transcriptional repression in vivo, represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and likely allows for tumor progression. Here, we discriminated two types of latency: an easily reactivable latent state of the YR2 provirus and a ‘locked’ latent state of the L267 provirus. The defective YR2 provirus was characterized by the prese...

  8. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    H. Leon Thacker; Maria Negron; Duane A. Murphy; Raizman, Eran A.; Schnur, Megan E.; Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory dis...

  9. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early in...

  10. Complete Genome Sequencing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1, Subgenotypes 1n and 1o.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Asuka; Tateishi, Kentaro; Shinohara, Minami; Naoi, Yuki; Shiokawa, Mai; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    To gain further insight into the genomic features of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subgenotypes, we sequenced the complete genome of BVDV-1n Shitara/02/06 and BVDV-1o IS26NCP/01. The complete genome of Shitara/02/06 and IS26NCP/01 shared 77.7 to 79.3% and 78.0 to 85.7% sequence identities with other BVDV-1 subgenotype strains, respectively. PMID:26893426

  11. Coinfection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot cattle with chronic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Entry Is Dependent on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lecot, Steve; Belouzard, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) entry in MDBK cells were investigated. Chloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or ammonium chloride inhibited BVDV infection, indicating that an acidic endosomal pH is required for BVDV entry. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially inhibited BVDV infection at a postentry step, whereas BVDV entry was strongly inhibited by chlorpromazine or by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of EPS15, a protein essential for the formation ...

  13. Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Directly from Blood of Persistently Infected Cattle by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D

    1999-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.

  14. Detection of bovine leukemia virus and identification of its genotype in Mongolian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Nishimori, Asami; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is globally distributed. However, no information regarding the disease and genetic diversity of the virus in the cattle of Mongolia is currently available. In this study, the prevalence of BLV was assessed using PCR, and the genetic diversity was analyzed through DNA sequencing. Of the 517 samples tested, 20 positives were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six, one, and four isolates were classified into genotype 4, 7, and 1, respectively. Most isolates were clustered with isolates from Eastern Europe and Russia. This study is the first to investigate the BLV genotype in Mongolia.

  15. Genetic and antigenic analysis of the G attachment protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvander, M.; Vilcek, S.; Baule, C.;

    1998-01-01

    Antigenic and genetic studies of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were made on isolates obtained from three continents over 27 years. Antigenic variation between eight isolates was initially determined using protein G-specific monoclonal antibodies. Four distinct reaction patterns were...... of a 731 nucleotide fragment in the G protein gene. Nine of the BRSV strains were analysed by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons whereas sequences of 18 BRSV and three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains were obtained from GenBank. The analysis revealed similarities of 88-100% among BRSV...

  16. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  17. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  18. Radiation induced diarrhoea - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced diarrhoea is an acute side effect of radiotherapy treatment to the pelvic area, experienced by nearly all patients. This paper will explore the patho-physiological rationale of diarrhoea, the causes of radiation-induced diarrhoea, the factors that influence the severity and occurrence, and the treatment of diarrhoea in relation to the radiotherapy setting, by analysing the current literature and will conclude by outlining future directions in this field. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  19. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The propagation of viruses, for use in research and the production of vaccines, is dependent on growth of the virus in cell culture. The media used to grow cells is commonly supplemented with serum collected from the fetuses of pregnant cattle that have gone to slaughter. This fetal bovine serum (...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b

    OpenAIRE

    Soltan, Mohamed A.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Elsheery, Mohamed N.; Elhaig, Mahmoud M.; Riley, Matthew C.; Melissa A. Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed N; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt. PMID:26701085

  3. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jochen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test.

  4. Parasite-related diarrhoeas*

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews available knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy of parasite-related diarrhoeas of public health importance, primarily amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, balantidiasis, coccidioses, schistosomiasis, and capillariasis. Research priorities are recommended in each of these fields with the aim of developing better means of prevention and treatment.

  5. Effects of interferon-tau on cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Junko; Nishikura, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Tajima, Motoshi; Onuma, Misao

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the antiviral effects of bovine interferon-tau (boIFN-tau) on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments, the replication of cytopathic and non-cytopathic BVDV was inhibited in the bovine cells treated with boIFN-tau. The replication of BVDV was completely suppressed by boIFN-tau at a concentration higher than 10(2) U/ml. In order to examine the effect of boIFN-tau on virus propagation in cattle persistently infected (PI) with non-cytopathic BVDV, boIFN-tau was subcutaneously administered to PI cattle at 10(5) U/kg or 10(6) U/kg body weight 5 times per week for 2 weeks. No physical abnormality such as depression was observed in the cattle during the experiment. The mean BVDV titers in the serum of the PI cattle decreased slightly during the boIFN-tau administration period with the dose of 10(6) U/kg. However, the BVDV titers in the serum returned to the pre-administration level after the final boIFN-tau administration. These results suggest that boIFN-tau demonstrates an anti-BVDV effect, reducing the BVDV level in serum transiently when injected into PI cattle.

  6. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species,...

  7. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  8. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  9. The effect of dietary bovine colostrum on respiratory syncytial virus infection and immune responses following the infection in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infection among young children because of immature T cell immunity of them against hRSV. CD8 T cells play a pivotal role in clearing hRSV and preventing subsequent infection. We examined the effects of dietary bovine colostrum on virus infection and CD8 T cell responses following hRSV infection in the mouse model. Mice received bovine colostrum for 14 days prior to hRSV challenge, and lung indexes (severity of symptom) and lung virus titers were analyzed. In addition, the activation of CD8 T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) of mice receiving bovine colostrum were compared with those in the BALFs of mice receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ribavirin, post virus challenge. The severity of infection and lung virus titers were reduced in the mice receiving bovine colostrum, compared to those receiving PBS. Moreover CD8 T cell responses were selectively enhanced in the former. Our results suggest that dietary bovine colostrum exerts the effects to inhibit hRSV and ameliorate the symptom by hRSV infection, and enhances the CD8 T cell response during the hRSV infection. PMID:26310306

  10. Comparison of the copy numbers of bovine leukemia virus in the lymph nodes of cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis and cattle with latent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Sugiyama, Emi; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To establish a diagnostic index for predicting enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), proviral bovine leukemia virus (BLV) copies in whole blood, lymph nodes and spleen were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cattle were divided into two groups, EBL and BLV-infected, based on meat inspection data. The number of BLV copies in all specimens of EBL cattle was significantly higher than those of BLV-infected cattle (p cattle had more than 1,000 copies/10 ng DNA, whereas lymph nodes from BLV-infected cattle did not. These findings suggest that the cattle harboring more than 1,000 BLV copies may be diagnosed with EBL.

  11. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-(/sup 35/S)-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus.

  12. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-[35S]-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus

  13. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin Zhu; Chang Liu; Xin-Lei Liu; Wen-Tao Qiao; Qi-Min Chen; Yi Zeng; Yun-Qi Geng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions,and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.METHODS: A series of chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs differing in the replacement regions in gag gene were constructed, and then were transfected into 293T cells. The expression of chimeric viral genes was detected at the RNA and protein level. The supematant of 293T cell was ultra centrifuged to detect the probable chimeric virion. Once the chimeric virion was detected, its biological activities were also assayed by infecting HIV-sensitive MT4 cells.RESULTS: Four chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs were constructed. Genes in chimeric viruses expressed correctly in transfected 293T cells. All four constructs assembled chimeric virions with different degrees of efficiency. These virions had complete structures common to retroviruses and packaged genomic RNAs, but the cleavages of the precursor Gag proteins were abnormal to some extent. Three of these virions tested could attach and enter into MT4 cells, and one of them could complete the course of reverse transcription. Yet none of them could replicate in MT4 cells.CONCLUSION: The replacement of partial gag gene of HIV with BIV gaggene is feasible. Genes in chimeric BHIVs are accurately expressed, and virions are assembled. These chimeric BHIVs (proviral DNA together with virus particles) have the potential to become a new kind of HIV/AIDS vaccine.

  14. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...

  15. Antigenic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies and cross-neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV were characterized antigenically with a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs (Corapi WV, Donis RO and Dubovi EJ (1990 American Journal of Veterinary Research, 55: 1388-1394. Eight isolates were further characterized by cross-neutralization using sheep monospecific antisera. Analysis of mAb binding to viral antigens by indirect immunofluorescence revealed distinct patterns of reactivity among the native viruses. Local isolates differed from the prototype Singer strain in recognition by up to 14 mAbs. Only two mAbs - one to the non-structural protein NS23/p125 and another to the envelope glycoprotein E0/gp48 - recognized 100% of the isolates. No isolate was recognized by more than 14 mAbs and twelve viruses reacted with 10 or less mAbs. mAbs to the major envelope glycoprotein E2/gp53 revealed a particularly high degree of antigenic variability in this glycoprotein. Nine isolates (47.3% reacted with three or less of 10 E2/gp53 mAbs, and one isolate was not recognized by any of these mAbs. Virus-specific antisera to eight isolates plus three standard BVDV strains raised in lambs had virus-neutralizing titers ranging from 400 to 3200 against the homologous virus. Nonetheless, many antisera showed significantly reduced neutralizing activity when tested against heterologous viruses. Up to 128-fold differences in cross-neutralization titers were observed for some pairs of viruses. When the coefficient of antigenic similarity (R was calculated, 49 of 66 comparisons (74.24% between viruses resulted in R values that antigenically distinguish strains. Moreover, one isolate had R values suggesting that it belongs to a distinct serologic group. The marked antigenic diversity observed among Brazilian BVDV isolates should be considered when planning diagnostic and immunization strategies.

  16. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald J. Erskine; Paul C. Bartlett; Byrem, Todd M.; Render, Chelsea L.; Catherine Febvay; Jessica T. Houseman

    2012-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows i...

  17. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA from a pneumopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus and its diagnostic application.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, K V; Brian, D A; Rouse, B T; Potgieter, L N

    1988-01-01

    A pneumopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus was grown in cell culture and purified. Genomic ribonucleic acid was extracted, polyadenylated at the 3' end, and copied into complementary DNA after oligo-dT priming. Complementary DNA was male double stranded and cloned into the pUC9 plasmid. Approximately 200 complementary DNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.5 kilobases were obtained. Hybridization assays indicated that the sequences isolated were specific for bovine viral diarrhe...

  18. A Multiepitope Fusion Antigen Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Homologous Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Emad A. Hashish; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E.; Chase, Christopher C.; Richard E Isaacson; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves agains...

  19. Detection and analysis of bovine foamy virus infection by an indicator cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe MA; Wen-tao QIAO; Cheng-hao XUAN; Jin-hui XIE; Qi-min CHEN; Yun-qi GENG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the infectivity and replication strategy of bovine foamy virus (BFV) in different cultured cells using the BFV indicator cell line (BICL) system. Methods: BFV infection was induced by the co-culture method or the transient transfection of the infectious BFV plasmid [Pcmv (cytomegalovirus) - BFV] clone. The infectivity of BFV was monitored by the percentage of green fluorescent protein-positive cells in the BICL. The effect of reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (AZT) on BFV replication was also evaluated in the BICL. Results-The titer of BFV in fetal bovine lung cells was 4-5-folds more than that in either 293T or HeLa (Cells from Henrietta lacks) cells using the co-culture method, and in the meantime was significantly higher than that produced by the infectious clone Pcmv-BFV in the same cells. AZT had only a minor effect on viral titers when added to cells prior to the virus infection. In contrast, viral titers reduced sharply to the level of the negative control when the virus was produced from cells in the presence of AZT. Conclusions: BICL can be used for the titration of the BFV viral infection in non-cytopathic condition. In addition, we provide important evi-dence to show that reverse transcription is essential for BFV replication at a late step of viral infection.

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  2. Comparison of nucleic acid hybridization and nucleic acid amplification using conserved sequences from the 5' noncoding region for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridpath, J F; Bolin, S R; Katz, J

    1993-01-01

    Primers and probes derived from conserved sequences located in the 5' noncoding region of pestiviruses were evaluated for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus. With these reagents, hybridization and polymerase chain reaction tests detected 62 of 90 and 90 of 90 bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates, respectively. A quick lysis method for preparing RNA for use in polymerase chain reaction amplification also was evaluated.

  3. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  4. Cytokine regulation by virus infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus, a flavivirus, downregulates production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in macrophages in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, H; Jungi, T. W.; Pfister, H; Strasser, M; Sileghem, M; Peterhans, E

    1996-01-01

    Bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected in vitro with noncytopathic or cytopathic strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Infection with both biotypes resulted in a decreased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha upon stimulation with heat-inactivated Salmonella dublin or lipopolysaccharide. Other macrophage functions were not downregulated, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a loss in macrophage viability. The downregulated production of tumor necrosis factor...

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody in cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, H J; Masri, S A; Deregt, D; Yeo, S G; Thomas, E J

    1991-01-01

    A reliable bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viral antigen was prepared from BVD virus grown on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells by solubilizing the virus with detergent MEGA-10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide) followed by removal of hydrophobic proteins with Triton X-100 treatment. By these treatments, problems of high background associated with BVD viral antigen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were eliminated. With this new antigen, an ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum a...

  6. Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, S; Collins, M E; Brownlie, J

    2002-03-01

    The ability of BIV strain R29 to infect bovine cell lines in the presence or absence of a functional lentiviral Tat protein is described. Jembrana disease virus (JDV) Tat protein was stably expressed in MDBK cells. No viral replication could be detected in this cell line after infection with BIV R29. Transfection of MDBK cells and MDBK Tat expressing cells with BIV R29 proviral DNA established that BIV R29 could not replicate in MDBK cells. Whether viral entry into MDBK cells is also a block to BIV R29 infection of MDBK cells has yet to be established.

  7. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izedin Goga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.

  8. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  9. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Glotov, Alexander G.; Tatyana I. Glotova; Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Alexander A. Sergeev; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.; Sergeev, Artemiy A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtyp...

  10. Comparison of the prevalence and incidence of infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Denmark and Michigan and association with possible risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H.; Baker, J.C.; Maes, R.K.;

    1995-01-01

    summarized and it was investigated if any of these risk factors had significant effect on the presence of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVDV in the dairy herds. Information on the cattle population density in the 2 areas was obtained from statistical yearbooks. Further information...... for the individual farms on age distribution, housing of animals, herd size, pasturing and purchasing policy was gathered. The prevalence of PI animals was more than 10 times higher in Denmark as compared to Michigan. In herds without PI animals, the annual incidence of seroconversion as calculated from the age...... specific prevalence of antibody carriers varied in most age groups between 20-25% in Denmark and between 5-10% in Michigan. All investigated risk factors except for herd size were in favour of a lower prevalence of infection in Michigan. The use of having animals on pasture and at the same time having...

  11. Comparison of humoral immune responses in dairy heifers vaccinated with 3 different commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesCôteaux, Luc; Cécyre, Dominique; Elsener, Johanne; Beauchamp, Guy

    2003-10-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the humoral immune response to 3 different commercial vaccines in dairy heifers housed in 3 different dairy farms in Quebec. All heifers were seronegative to type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (Singer strain), type 2 BVDV (NVSL 125c strain), and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) at the beginning of the trial. In addition, control heifers in group 1 remained seronegative to the 2 viruses till the end of the trial. Significant differences in humoral immune responses occurred among the 3 commercial vaccines at 4 weeks and 6 months following vaccination. The vaccine in group 2 elicited higher mean antibody titers and seroconversion rates to both type 1 and type 2 BVDV than that in groups 3 or 4. Vaccines in groups 2 and 3 induced higher mean antibody titers to BHV-1 than did the vaccine in group 4.

  12. Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

  13. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, N.; Curtis, H.; Hyde, J.; Borriello, S P; Mahida, Y R

    1998-01-01

    At our hospital, the number of cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea increased from 29 in 1993 to 210 in 1995. The case notes of 110 patients with C difficile-associated diarrhoea during the first 6 months of 1995 were analysed retrospectively. The majority of the patients (106) had received antibiotics before the onset of diarrhoea; 46 had received three or more different antibiotics and 28 had received metronidazole. In 19 patients, the first stool sample after the onset of di...

  14. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  15. Recovery of Virulent and RNase-Negative Attenuated Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses from Infectious cDNA Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christiane; von Freyburg, Martina; Elbers, Knut; Meyers, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Cloned cDNA derived from the genome of the virulent type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NY'93/C was sequenced and served for establishment of the infectious cDNA clone pKANE40A. Virus recovered from pKANE40A exhibited growth characteristics similar to those of wild-type BVDV NY'93/C and proved to be clinically indistinguishable from the wild-type virus in animal experiments. A virus mutant in which the RNase residing in the viral glycoprotein Erns was inactivated, revealed an att...

  16. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  17. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4) and ani......The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4......) and animals immunized with CV (n = 5) developed moderate to severe respiratory disease, whereas calves immunized with ISCOMS (17 = 5) remained clinically healthy. BRSV was re-isolated from the nasopharynx of all controls and from all calves immunized with CV, but from none of the calves immunized with ISCOMs....... BRSV-RNA was detected by real-time PCR from a single animal in this group. Significantly higher BRSV-specific nasal IgG, serum IgG(1) and IgG(2) titers were detected before and after challenge in animals immunized with ISCOMs versus CV. In conclusion, the ISCOMs overcame the suppressive effect...

  19. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare health...

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus structural protein E2 as a complement regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachuk, Agustín

    2016-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self. PMID:27038454

  1. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Yugang Gao; Xueliang Zhao; Pu Zang; Qun Liu; Gongqing Wei; Lianxue Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in tr...

  2. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Clarice Weis Arns; Cláudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes; Bárbara Pereira da Silva; Eduardo Furtado Flores; Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini; Marina Aiello Padilla; Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos; Luciana Konecny Kohn

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced fro...

  3. Activation of cell signaling pathways is dependant on the biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an economically important cattle pathogen with a world wide distribution. Besides the segregation into two distinct species (BVDV1 / BVDV2) two different biotypes, a cytopathic (cp) and a noncytopathic (ncp) biotype, are...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...

  5. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100% of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by five years of age. Similarly, in cattle PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine re...

  6. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  7. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.;

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  8. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  9. Survival analysis on aggregate data to assess time to sero-conversion after experimental infection with Bovine Leukemia virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus that affects mainly cattle. Knowledge of the precise moment of infection is fundamental for identification and evaluation of factors related to BLV transmission. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses provide good evidence on the effects of medica

  10. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses.Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea vi...

  11. Comparison of the Immune Response Between a Pair of NCP and CP Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Type 1 Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when ...

  12. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (PTax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity.

  13. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  14. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years.

  15. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  16. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  17. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  18. Genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus outside the 3A region is also responsible for virus replication in bovine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Lu, Zengjun; Bao, Huifang; Bai, Xingwen; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-07-15

    The deletion of residues 93-102 in non-structure protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and attenuated virulence in cattle.Whereas, a previously reported FMDV strain O/HKN/21/70 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew equally well in bovine and swine cells. This suggests that changes inFMDV genome sequence, in addition to 93-102 deletion in 3A, may also affectthe viral growth phenotype in bovine cellsduring infection and replication.However, it is nuclear that changes in which region (inside or outside of 3A region) influences FMDV growth phenotype in bovine cells.In this study, to determine the region in FMDV genomeaffecting viral growth phenotype in bovine cells, we constructed chimeric FMDVs, rvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A, by introducing the 3A coding region of O/HKN/21/70 into the context of O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 and O Cathay topotype strain O/HN/CHA/93, respectively, since O/GZSB/2011 containing full-length 3A protein replicated well in bovine and swine cells, and O/HN/CHA/93 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew poorly in bovine cells.The chimeric virusesrvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus rvGZSB and rv-HN in BHK-21 and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. However, rvHN-HKN3A and rv-HN replicated poorly in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells with no visible plaques, and rvGZSB-HKN3A exhibited lower growth rate and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in FBK cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the difference present in FMDV genome sequence outside the 3A coding region also have influence on FMDV replication ability in bovine cells. PMID:27094491

  19. Preliminary mapping of non-conserved epitopes on envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, H.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) to the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has been subdivided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 based on phylogenetic analysis. Subsequent characterizat

  20. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  1. Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 utilizes sialic acid as a cellular receptor for virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S; Sharma, Anurag; Mittal, Suresh K

    2009-09-30

    Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAd3) and porcine adenovirus serotype 3 (PAd3) entry into the host cells is independent of Coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor and integrins. The role of sialic acid in BAd3 and PAd3 entry was investigated. Removal of sialic acid by neuraminidase, or blocking sialic acid by wheat germ agglutinin lectin significantly inhibited BAd3, but not PAd3, transduction of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Maackia amurensis agglutinin or Sambucus nigra (elder) agglutinin treatment efficiently blocked BAd3 transduction suggesting that BAd3 utilized alpha(2,3)-linked and alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid as a cell receptor. BAd3 transduction of MDBK cells was sensitive to sodium periodate, bromelain, or trypsin treatment indicating that the receptor sialoconjugate was a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside. To determine sialic acid-containing cell membrane proteins that bind to BAd3, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was performed and showed that sialylated cell membrane proteins in size of approximately 97 and 34 kDa bind to BAd3. The results suggest that sialic acid serves as a primary receptor for BAd3.

  2. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  3. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV.

  4. Immune Responses in Mice Injected with gD Plasmid DNA of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-chang; TONG Guang-zhi; QIU Hua-ji

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding gD of isolate Luojing of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV)was amplified,sequenced, and cloned into plasmid pcDNA 3.1, resulting in a recombinant pcDNA-gD. Groups of BALB/c mice were injected with 100 μ g of plasmid only or together with liposome. After immunization, serum samples were collected from mice every 2 weeks for a 10-week period and tested for protein-specific antibody with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). It was showed that the plasmid encoding IBRV glycopretein D developed gene-specific antibody. This report indicates the potential of DNA injection as a method of vaccination.

  5. The role of neighboring infected cattle in bovine leukemia virus transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sota; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmission to uninfected cattle by adjacent infected cattle in 6 dairy farms. Animals were initially tested in 2010-2011 using a commercial ELISA kit. Uninfected cattle were repeatedly tested every 4 to 6 months until fall of 2012. The Cox proportional hazard model with frailty showed that uninfected cattle neighboring to infected cattle (n=53) had a significant higher risk of seroconversion than those without any infected neighbors (n=81) (hazard ratio: 12.4, P=0.001), implying that neighboring infected cattle were a significant risk factor for BLV transmission. This finding provides scientific support for animal health authorities and farmers to segregate infected cattle on farms to prevent spread of BLV.

  6. Detection of Bovine Leukaemia Virus Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Colostrum Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B; Finnegan, C; Phillips, A; Horigan, M; Pollard, T; Steinbach, F

    2015-10-01

    Great Britain has been bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) disease free since 1999. We recently reported three separate incidents of BLV seropositivity on farms with home-reared cattle due to the use of colostrum replacer rather than infection with BLV (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19, 2013, 1027). These cases were all linked via the use of the same brand of colostrum replacer. Here, we investigate further by examining multiple brands of colostrum replacer for proviral DNA and BLV antibodies. BLV antibodies were detected in 7 of the colostrum replacers tested, with PCR concurring in two cases. Thus, the use of these BLV antibody-positive colostrum replacers may also lead to false-positive serological diagnostics. PMID:24268042

  7. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV- positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI, and mucosal disease (MD. Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp, 10 were cytopathic (cp, and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44% followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%. Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36% followed by PI (25% and MD (16%.

  8. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H

    2012-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested.

  10. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aiello Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  12. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Kreutz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, antigenically distinct from the standard North American isolates, were selected to immunize BALB/c mice in order to obtain hybridoma cells secreting anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Two hybridoma clones secreting mAbs, reacting specifically with BVDV-infected cells (mAbs 3.1C4 and 6.F11, were selected after five fusions and screening of 1001 hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-resistant clones. These mAbs reacted in an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA assay with all 39 South and North American BVDV field isolates and reference strains available in our laboratory, yet failed to recognize other pestiviruses, namely the hog cholera virus. The mAbs reacted at dilutions up to 1:25,600 (ascitic fluid and 1:100 (hybridoma culture supernatant in IFA and immunoperoxidase (IPX staining of BVDV-infected cells but only mAb 3.1C4 neutralized virus infectivity. Furthermore, both mAbs failed to recognize BVDV proteins by IPX in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and following SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis of virus-infected cells, suggesting they are probably directed to conformational-type epitopes. The protein specificity of these mAbs was then determined by IFA staining of CV-1 cells transiently expressing each of the BVDV proteins: mAb 3.1C4 reacted with the structural protein E2/gp53 and mAb 6.F11 reacted with the structural protein E1/gp25. Both mAbs were shown to be of the IgG2a isotype. To our knowledge, these are the first mAbs produced against South American BVDV isolates and will certainly be useful for research and diagnostic purposes.

  14. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisch, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five {sup 35}S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of {sup 3}H-myristate and {sup 3}H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50.

  15. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five 35S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of 3H-myristate and 3H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50

  16. Quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Leach

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501 which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected.Heifers from the same population (n = 195 were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA, and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the

  17. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  18. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  19. Le virus de la leucémie bovine et l’homéostasie du compartiment lymphocytaire périphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus and peripheral blood lymphocytes homeostasis. Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. This retrovirus can also be transmitted experimentally to the ovine species, in which pathology is more rapid and more frequent. In this model, infection leads to an increased cell turnover. This accelerated lymphocyte dynamics might be related to viral expression which induces cellular proliferation and host cell destruction by the immune system.

  20. Effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, J. L.; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary chromium (Cr) on antibody responses of feedlot calves. Fifty-five newly weaned calves were divided into two groups, 28 that received supplemental Cr and 27 that did not, and were immunized with a commercial vaccine against bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3(PI-3). Sera harvested from blood sampled preimmunization, and at days 14 and 28 postimmunization (PI), were as...

  1. First report of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen from pneumonic cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.

  2. Polymorphic genetic characterization of E2 gene of bovine viral diarrhea virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yifei; Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Cong, Guozheng; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun

    2014-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the wide distributed pathogenic viruses of livestock and wild animals worldwide. E2 glycoprotein is a major structural component of the BVDV virion and plays a key role in viral attachment to host cells and inducing immune responses against viral infection. In order to gain detailed information of the E2 coding region of BVDV circulating in China, 46 positive samples were tested by RT-PCR for the E2 coding region. The 1122 nt nucleotide sequences of full-length E2 were harvested and analyzed. The results suggested that full-length E2 was an ideal target for BVDV genotyping and divided the domestic BVDV isolates into 9 subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1a, -1b1, -1c, -1d, -1o, -1m, -1p, -1q and BVDV-2a, showing great diversity. The difference of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN-dS) inferred both positive and purifying selection of the E2. However, combination of positive and purifying selection at different points indicated purifying selection within the complete E2. Protein properties analysis based on glycosylation sites and epitope prediction demonstrated that the biological character of E2 among individual BVDV subgenotype was similar, but may alter due to amino acid changes. For the first time, the comprehensive collection of E2 sequences of Chinese BVDV isolates was elucidated, which would provide information for future vaccine design and BVD control in China.

  3. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  4. The problem of bacterial diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J T

    1976-01-01

    The reported incidence of "pathogenic" bacteria, as judged by serotype, in the stools of children with acute diarrhoea has varied from 4 to 33% over the last twenty years. Techniques such as tissue culture provide a means for detecting enterotoxin-producing strains of bacteria, strains which often do not possess "pathogenic" serotypes. "Pathogenicity" requires redefinition, and the aetiological importance of bacteria in diarrhoea is probably considerably greater than previous reports have indicated. Colonization of the bowel by a pathogen will result in structural and/or mucosal abnormalities, and will depend on a series of complex interactions between the external environment, the pathogen, and the host and its resident bacterial flora. Enteropathogenic bacteria may be broadly classified as (i) invasive (e.g. Shigella, Salmonella and some Escherichia coli) which predominantly affect the distal bowel, or (ii) non-invasive (e.g. Vibrio cholerae and E. coli) which affect the proximal bowel. V. cholerae and E. coli elaborate heat-labile enterotoxins which activate adenylate cyclase and induce small intestinal secretion; the secretory effects of heat-stable E. coli and heat-labile Shigella dysenteriae enterotoxins are not accompanied by cyclase activation. The two major complications of acute diarrhoea are (i) hypernatraemic dehydration with its attendant neurological, renal and vascular lesions, and (ii) protracted diarrhoea which may lead to severe malnutrition. Deconjugation of bile salts and colonization of the small bowel with toxigenic strains of E. coli may be important in the pathophysiology of the protracted diarrhoea syndrome. The control of bacterial diarrhoea requires a corrdinated political, educational, social, public health and scientific attack. Bacterial diarrhoea is a major health problem throughout the world, and carries an appreciable morbidity and mortality. This is particularly the case during infancy, and in those developing parts of the world

  5. In vitro neutralization against HoBi-like viruses by antiobodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...

  6. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualley, Dominic F., E-mail: dqualley@berry.edu; Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  7. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC

  8. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  9. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  10. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population.

  11. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Ridpath, Julia; Turan, Nuri

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) infecting cattle in Turkey. A total of 1124 bovine blood samples from 19 farms in 4 different Turkish regions were tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE). BVDV antigen was found in 26 samples from 13 farms. Only 20 of the 26 initial test positive cattle were available for retesting. Of these, 6 of 20 tested positive for BVDV, by ACE and real-time RT-PCR, one month after initial testing. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison of the E2 or the 5'UTR coding regions, from 19 of the 26 initial positive samples, indicated that 17 belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of 5'UTR sequences segregated 8 BVDV-1 strains (strains 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19) to the BVDV1f, 1 strain (strain 8) to the BVDV1i and 1 strain (strain 14) to the BVDV1d subgenotypes. One strain (strain 4) did not group with other subgenotypes but was closer to the BVDV1f. The remaining 6 BVDV-1 strains (strains 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 18) segregated to a novel subgenotype. The E2 sequence comparison results were similar, with the exception that strain 5 grouped with the novel subgenotype rather than BVDV1f subgenotype. It appears that among the diverse BVDV strains in circulation there may be a subgenotype that is unique to Turkey. This should be considered in the design of diagnostics and vaccines to be used in Turkey.

  12. Antiviral Efficacy of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Inhibitor in a Bovine Model of RSV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert; Shao, Matt; Mackman, Richard L.; Perron, Michel; Cihlar, Tomas; Lewis, Sandy A.; Eisenberg, Eugene J.; Carey, Anne; Strickley, Robert G.; Chien, Jason W.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Behrens, Nicole E.; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Effective treatment for RSV infection is a significant unmet medical need. While new RSV therapeutics are now in development, there are very few animal models that mimic the pathogenesis of human RSV, making it difficult to evaluate new disease interventions. Experimental infection of Holstein calves with bovine RSV (bRSV) causes a severe respiratory infection that is similar to human RSV infecti...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Nagai, Makoto; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; SHIRAI, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region.

  14. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus genome in leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by RNA-cDNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, J.; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent sta...

  15. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  16. Alpha/Beta and Gamma Interferons Are Induced by Infection with Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, B; Brackenbury, L.S; Carr, B. V.; Fray, M D; Hope, Jayne; Howard, CJ; Morrison, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels ...

  17. Iron and Ferritin Levels in the Serum and Milk of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, Star A.; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kakinuma, Seiichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected dairy cows (2.6–7.8 years old). BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51). The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-i...

  18. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  19. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine.

  20. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  1. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  2. A Chimeric Human-Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Expressing Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Is Attenuated for Replication but Is Still Immunogenic in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Surman, Sonja R.; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2001-01-01

    The chimeric recombinant virus rHPIV3-NB, a version of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) that is attenuated due to the presence of the bovine PIV3 nucleocapsid (N) protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the HPIV3 ORF, was modified to encode the measles virus hemagglutinin (HA) inserted as an additional, supernumerary gene between the HPIV3 P and M genes. This recombinant, designated rHPIV3-NBHA, replicated like its attenuated rHPIV3-NB parent virus in vitro and in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of rhesus monkeys, indicating that the insertion of the measles virus HA did not further attenuate rHPIV3-NB in vitro or in vivo. Monkeys immunized with rHPIV3-NBHA developed a vigorous immune response to both measles virus and HPIV3, with serum antibody titers to both measles virus (neutralizing antibody) and HPIV3 (hemagglutination inhibiting antibody) of over 1:500. An attenuated HPIV3 expressing a major protective antigen of measles virus provides a method for immunization against measles by the intranasal route, a route that has been shown with HPIV3 and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines to be relatively refractory to the neutralizing and immunosuppressive effects of maternally derived virus-specific serum antibodies. It should now be possible to induce a protective immune response against measles virus in 6-month-old infants, an age group that in developing areas of the world is not responsive to the current measles virus vaccine. PMID:11581420

  3. Serological relationships among subgroups in bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Gizem; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-01-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has various economic impacts associated with diarrhea, poor performance, an increase in the frequency of other infections and lethal outcomes. Both genotypes, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, as well as different subgroups within these genotypes have been reported worldwide. Understanding the serological differences among the BVDV subgroups is important for disease epidemiology and prevention as well as vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the serological relatedness among the subgroups in BVDV-1. For that purpose, sheep hyperimmune sera were collected against representative strains from 6 of the subgroups of BVDV-1 (BVDV-1a, -1b, -1d, -1f, -1h and -1l). The serum samples that gave the peak antibody titer to the homologous strains were used to perform cross neutralization assays. The highest homologous antibody titer (1:5160) was obtained against BVDV-1h. Regarding the cross neutralizing (heterologous) antibodies, the lowest titer (1:20) was produced by the BVDV-1f antiserum against the BVDV-1a and BVDV1-b viruses. The highest cross neutralizing titer (1:2580) achieved by the BVDV-1h antiserum was against the BVDV-1b strain. The cross neutralization results indicated particular serological differences between the recently described subgroup (BVDV-1l) and BVDV-1a/-1b, which are widely used in commercial vaccines. Considering the cross neutralization titers, it is concluded that selected BVDV-1l and BVDV-1h strains can be used for the development of diagnostic and control tools.

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

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    Jack J Kottwitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4 to 6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species.

  5. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  6. Homology modelling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis B virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Rhinitis B Viruses (BRBV) are picornaviruses responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle and probably the least characterized member of the Aphthoviruses. BRBV is the closest relative known to Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) with around a 43 percent identical polyprotein sequenc...

  7. Identification and structural analysis of the thymidine kinase gene of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to understand the gene expression of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), the viral thymidine kinase ge (tk), a well regulated viral gene, has been cloned in Escherichia coli HB101 by integrating partially Sau 3A-digested DNA fragments into a cosmid vector, pJB8. Recombinant cosmids were further analyzed by restriction digestions and by Southern blot hybridization. Results showed that this plasmid library comprised all of the IBRV genome with the exception of both termini. The individual recombinant cosmid clones were then transformed to E. coli tdk- mutant strains, Ky895 or C600 tdk- for the selection of the IBRV tk gene. The physical location of the viral DNA inserts of one of the clones, pIBR5, was determined and sequences complementing the tk activity were isolated by subcloning. The E. coli mutant strain mutant strain C600 tdk- harboring pIBRTK partially restores the tk activity by exhibiting a three and half fold increase in the level of the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into bacterial DNA over that of the C600 tdk- mutant. The plasmid, pIBRTK was also used as a probe to examine the expression of IBRV-tk gene in infected MDBK cells. A species of mRNA from infected cells with molecular weight of 2.2 kb was obtained when the total RNA or polyA-enriched RNA were electrophoresized in agarose gels and hybridized with 32P-pIBRTK DNA

  8. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  9. A New Indicator Cell Line Established to Monitor Bovine Foamy Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Guo; Zhi-bin Liang; Yue Li; Juan Tan; Qi-min Chen; Wen-tao Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy for quantitating the bovine foamy virus(BFV)in vitro,we developed a baby hamster kidney cell(BHK)-21-derived indicator cell line containing a plasmid that encodes the firefly luciferase driven by the BFV long terminal repeat promoter(LTR,from -7 to 1012). The BFV titer could be determined by detecting the luciferase expression since the viral trans-activator BTas protein activates the promoter activity of the LTR. One clone,designated BFVL,was selected from ten neomycin-resistant clones.BFVL showed a specific and inducible dose-and time-dependent luciferase activity in response to BFV infection.Although the changes in luciferase activity of BFVL peaked at 84 h post infection,it was possible to differentiate infected and uninfected cells at 48 h post infection. A linear relationship was established between the multiplicity of infection(MOI)of BFV and the activated ratio of luciferase expression in BFVL. Moreover,the sensitivity of the BFVL-based assay for detecting infectious BFV was 10,000 times higher than the conventional CPE-based assay at 48 h post infection. These findings suggest that the BFVL-based assay is rapid,easy,sensitive,quantitative and specific for detection of BFV infection.

  10. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Glotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i., refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3, and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16. Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines.

  11. Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Viana Pinto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. It is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (CAV, 1 and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DA, 2, 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB1, 3 and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB3, 4. The screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to MDBK cells. The antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (PA and EC50 values were calculated for CAV (EC=2,0± 5.8, DA (EC 2,8± 7.7, DB1 (EC 2,0±9.7, and DB3 (EC 2,3±7.4. Acyclovir (EC50 322± 5.9 was used in all experiments as the control standard. Although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against BVDV, the Selectivity Index suggests that DB1 is the safest of the compounds tested.

  12. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, Alexander G; Glotova, Tatyana I; Koteneva, Svetlana V; Semenova, Olga V; Sergeev, Alexander A; Titova, Ksenya A; Morozova, Anastasia A; Sergeev, Artemiy A

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3-5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm(3)), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4-1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  13. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus antibodies and antigen among the aborted cows in industrial dairy cattle herds in Mashhad area of Iran

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    Naseri, Z.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16. From these positive samples, 12(13.48%, 54 (60.68% and 23 (25.84% samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48% samples were related to stillbirth and 8 (8.99% samples were belongs to the mummified fetus. From 89 positive samples, 71 (79.78% were related to cattle between 2-5 years old and 18 (20.22% were associated to cattle more than 5 years old. In control group, 20 samples (66.66% were antibody positive. Also the presence of BVDV antigen in serum samples was investigated by Ag-capture ELISA. From 120 serum samples, 2 samples were positive (1.67%, which belongs to the second period of pregnancy. In control group, none of the samples were antigen positive. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of BVDV infection is high among the aborted cows of Mashhad area. Although this prevalence is higher than the control group, the observed difference is not significant.

  14. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bialowas

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4 significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10 infants, but no (0/8 adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days. Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11 had significantly (p < 0.05 less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9. Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05. A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05 also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron.

  15. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowas, Sonja; Hagbom, Marie; Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  16. Virus-Mediated Metalloproteinase 1 Induction Revealed by Transcriptome Profiling of Bovine Herpesvirus 4-Infected Bovine Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Giulia; Jacca, Sarah; Montanini, Barbara; Capra, Emanuele; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Sala, Arianna; Stella, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ottonello, Simone; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Viral infections can cause genital tract disorders (including abortion) in cows, and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is often present in endometritis-affected animals. A major problem with cattle uterine viral infections in general, and BoHV-4 in particular, is our limited understanding of the pathogenic role(s) that these infections play in the endometrium. A similar lack of knowledge holds for the molecular mechanisms utilized, and the host cell pathways affected, by BoHV-4. To begin to fill these gaps, we set up optimized conditions for BoHV-4 infection of a pure population of bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) to be used as source material for RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling. Many genes were found to be upregulated (417) or downregulated (181) after BoHV-4 infection. As revealed by enrichment functional analysis on differentially expressed genes, BoHV-4 infection affects various pathways related to cell proliferation and cell surface integrity, at least three of which were centered on upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8). This was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, Western-immunoblot analysis, and a luciferase assay with a bovine MMP1-specific promoter reporter construct. Further, it was found that MMP1 transcription was upregulated by the BoHV-4 transactivator IE2/RTA, leading to abnormally high metalloproteinase tissue levels, potentially leading to defective endometrium healing and unresolved inflammation. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for BoHV-4 action centered on IE2-mediated MMP1 upregulation and novel therapeutic interventions based on IFN gamma-mediated MMP1 downregulation. PMID:27281703

  17. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  19. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  20. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  1. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  2. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  3. In vitro replication activity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in an epithelial cell line and in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, Lauretta; Lucchini, Barbara; Bronzo, Valerio; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-11-01

    The present study focused on the in vitro infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from naÏve animals with non-cytopathic (ncp, BVDV-1b NY-1) and cytopathic (cp, BVDV-1a NADL) strains. Infections with 0.1 and 1 multiplicity of infections (MOI) and incubation times of 18 and 36 hr were compared. Twelve BVDV naÏve heifers were enrolled to collect PBMCs. The viral loads in MDBK cells and in PBMCs after in vitro infections were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The highest viral loads were measured at 1 MOI and 36 hr post infection in both cell systems and the lowest at 0.1 MOI and 18 hr with the exception of the cp strain NADL in PBMCs, for which the highest viral load was observed at 0.1 MOI and 36 hr. Viral load mean values were higher for the cp strain than the ncp strain irrespective of the extent of the infection period and MOI. The models of infection studied uncovered different replication activities respectively according to the biotype of virus, the cell substrate and the duration of infection. Replication tends to be higher in PBMCs, particularly at low MOIs and for the ncp strain.

  4. Characterization of novel Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) antisense transcripts by deep sequencing reveals constitutive expression in tumors and transcriptional interaction with viral microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Durkin, Keith; Rosewick, Nicolas; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Griebel, Philip; Arsic, Natasa; Burny, Arsène; Georges, Michel; Van den Broeke, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infection. Most infected animals remain asymptomatic but following a protracted latency period about 5 % develop an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, mirroring the disease trajectory of HTLV-1. The mechanisms by which these viruses provoke cellular transformation remain opaque. In both v...

  5. Isolation of a mutant MDBK cell line resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection due to a block in viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E F; Donis, R O

    1995-04-20

    A cell line, termed CRIB, resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been derived from the MDBK bovine kidney cell line. CRIB cells were obtained by selection and cloning of cells surviving infection with a highly cytolytic BVDV strain. CRIB cells contain no detectable infectious or defective BVDV as ascertained by cocultivation, animal inoculation, indirect immunofluorescence, Western immunoblot, Northern hybridization, and RNA PCR. Inoculation of CRIB cells with 24 cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV strains does not result in expression of viral genes or amplification of input virus. Karyotype and isoenzyme analyses demonstrated that CRIB are genuine bovine cells. CRIB cells are as susceptible as the parental MDBK cells to 10 other bovine viruses, indicating that these cells do not have a broad defect blocking viral replication. Transfection of CRIB cells with BVDV RNA or virus inoculation in the presence of polyethylene-glycol results in productive infection, indicating that the defect of CRIB cells is at the level of virus entry. CRIB cells are the first bovine cells reported to be resistant to BVDV infection in vitro and may be a useful tool for studying the early interactions of pestiviruses with host cells.

  6. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine lymphoid cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2008-08-01

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent in part on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. BVDV are lymphotrophic and exist as two biotypes. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish persistent infections. The molecular mechanisms behind these different affects are unknown. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a powerful method for global gene expression analysis, was employed to examine gene expression changes in BVDV-infected BL3 cells, a bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma cell line. SAGE libraries were constructed from mRNA derived from BL3 cells that were noninfected or infected with the cytopathic BVDV2 strain 296c. Annotation of the SAGE data showed the expression of many genes that are characteristic of B cells and integral to their function. Comparison of the SAGE databases also revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed. Of particular interest was the increased numbers of transcripts encoding proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, junB, junD) in 296c-infected cells, all of which are constituents of the AP-1 transcriptional activation complex. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed these results and indicated that the actual increases were larger than that predicted by SAGE. In contrast, there was no corresponding increase in protein levels, but instead a significant decrease of c-jun and junB protein levels in the infected BL3 cells was observed. Rather than an increase in transcription of these genes, it appeared that these proto-oncogenes transcripts accumulated in the BVDV2-infected cells.

  7. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  8. Macrophages infected with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus release a factor(s) capable of priming uninfected macrophages for activation-induced apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, B; Adler, H; Pfister, H; Jungi, T. W.; Peterhans, E

    1997-01-01

    Bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with the cytopathic biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus released an antiviral activity into the supernatant which was tentatively characterized as type I interferon because of its physicochemical properties. Such supernatants primed both infected and uninfected macrophages for decreased nitric oxide production and apoptosis in response to lipopolysaccharide. This finding strongly suggests a role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of mucosal ...

  9. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay...

  10. Diagnostic gap in Bovine viral diarrhea virus serology during the periparturient period in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Bollinger, Barbara; Peterhans, Ernst; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Detection of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in serum and milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a crucial part of all ongoing national schemes to eradicate this important cattle pathogen. Serum and milk are regarded as equally suited for antibody measurement. However, when retesting a seropositive cow 1 day after calving, the serum was negative in 6 out of 9 different ELISAs. To further investigate this diagnostic gap around parturition, pre- and postcalving serum and milk samples of 5 cows were analyzed by BVDV antibody ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). By ELISA, 3 out of the 5 animals showed a diagnostic gap in the serum for up to 12 days around calving but all animals remained positive in SNT. In milk, the ELISA was strongly positive after birth but antibody levels decreased considerably within the next few days. Because of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)1-specific transport of serum antibodies into the mammary gland for colostrum production, the IgG subclass specificity of the total and the BVDV-specific antibodies were determined. Although all 5 animals showed a clear decrease in the total and BVDV-specific IgG1 antibody levels at parturition, the precalving IgG1-to-IgG2 ratios of the BVDV-specific antibodies were considerably lower in animals that showed the diagnostic gap. Results showed that BVDV seropositive cows may become "false" negative in several ELISAs in the periparturient period and suggest that the occurrence of this diagnostic gap is influenced by the BVDV-specific IgG subclass response of the individual animal.

  11. Development of a sandwich Dot-ELISA for detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen with E2 recombinant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelan ZHAO; Yuzhu ZUO; Lei ZHANG; Jinghui FAN; Hanchun YANG; Jianhua QIN

    2009-01-01

    The IgG antibodies of rabbit anti-E2 protein of the bovine viral diarrhea virus were prepared by a general method from high efficiency serum immunized by E2 recombinant protein antigen expressed in E. coli prokaryotic expression system and were labeled to make enzymelabeled antibody with the method of NaIO4. A sandwich Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) for the detection of BVDV was developed. The optimal reaction conditions of Dot-ELISAwere determined. The results show that optimal coating antibody was 300 μg·mL-1, the working concentration of HRP-labeled antibody was 1:50. The optimal blocking reagent and time were 5% bovine serum and 45 rain. The minimum detection of the content of antigen reached 1.35μg·mL-1. Compared with the routine IDEXX ELISA test kit with the whole virus, its specificity, sensitivity and coincidence rate were 90.48%, 96.55% and 95.24%, respectively. Compared with the sandwich Dot-ELISA with the negative staining electron microscope and RT-PCR, the coincidence rates were 90.9% and 93.1%, respectively. In addition, Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen of 178 samples collected from cow farms in the Hebei Province, China, were detected by the developed Dot-ELISA and the IDEXX BVDV antigen Test Kit simultaneously, BVDV antigen positive rate was 39.89%-41.01%. The result of detecting clinical samples demonstrated that the established method showed its specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, whereas the results were easily interpreted without an ELISA reader.

  12. BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS INFECTION IN TAIWAN : EVALUATION OF THE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY AND AGAR GEL IMMUNODIFFUSION TEST

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Chun-Tshen

    1991-01-01

    I evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test simultaneously for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antibodies. Total 1,293 serum samples were tested for ELISA and AGID test and the results were compared. The results of ELISA and AGID agreed by 1,156 out of 1,293 (89.4%). All of AGID-positive 356 sera were positive by ELISA. However, of 451 ELISA-positive sera, 95 sera were either negative or equivocal by AGID test. Eleven animals ...

  13. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Isolated from Brain Tissues of Nonambulatory (Downer) Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Joo, Soo-Kyung; An, Dong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) (strains 11F011 and 12F004) isolated from brain tissues from nonambulatory (downer) cattle. The complete genomes of strains 11F011 and 12F004 contain 12,287 nucleotides (nt) with a single large open reading frame and 12,301 nt with a single large open reading frame, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains belong to the BVDV-2a and -1b genotypes, respectively.

  15. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel;

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...

  16. AIDS - associated parasitic diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with its profound and progressive effect on the cellular immune system, a group of human opportunistic pathogens has come into prominence. Opportunistic parasitic infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Because many of these infections are treatable, an early and accurate diagnosis is important. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods such as direct demonstration of parasites and by serological tests to detect antigen and/or specific antibodies. However, antibody response may be poor in these patients and therefore immunodiagnostic tests have to be interpreted with caution. Cryptosporidium parvum , Isospora belli , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica and Strongyloides stercoralis are the commonly detected parasites. Detection of these parasites will help in proper management of these patients because drugs are available for most of these parasitic infections.

  17. Sequences derived from the highly antigenic VP1 region 140 to 160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not prime for a bovine T-cell response against intact virus.

    OpenAIRE

    van Lierop, M J; Wagenaar, J P; Van Noort, J M; Hensen, E J

    1995-01-01

    Although VP1 region 140 to 160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is able to elicit neutralizing antibody in cattle, the protection against virus challenge that is conferred by peptide immunization is often poor. Here, we show that bovine T cells primed with peptides derived from this region generally show no reactivity to intact FMDV. In contrast, T-cell epitope VP4[20-34] is able to prime for a virus-specific response.

  18. Evaluating enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection by means of molecular probe compared with the results of serological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were aimed at determining the relation between the finding obtained by means of serological tests and the specific molecular probe. Serological tests were performed according to the methods recommended by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture; ELISA was run with ''Bioveta'' and ''Rhone Merieux'' kits and the AGID test was performed with EBL antigen made in our laboratory. The molecular probe was prepared from the previously cloned provirus DNA of EBL virus. The EBL provirus was detected in 28 samples taken from 44 randomly selected cows in three herds on which a leukemia eradication programme was in process. Three sera out of 28 positive reacting animals were negative in AGID test and only one serum in ELISA. The results indicate that the use of a specific molecular probe has some advantages in the diagnosis of latent virus infections. Besides, it can be applied in the studies on the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukemia. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Weis Arns

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18 and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27 showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C.

  20. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  1. Identification of short hairpin RNA targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.

  2. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  3. Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G H

    2007-07-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP

  4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from field cattle immune to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are permissive in vitro to BVDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case.

  5. Extended Genetic Diversity of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Frequency of Genotypes and Subtypes in Cattle in Italy between 1995 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Luzzago; Stefania Lauzi; Erika Ebranati; Monica Giammarioli; Ana Moreno; Vincenza Cannella; Loretta Masoero; Elena Canelli; Annalisa Guercio; Claudio Caruso; Massimo Ciccozzi; Gian Mario De Mia; Pier Luigi Acutis; Gianguglielmo Zehender; Simone Peletto

    2014-01-01

    Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5′ UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level....

  6. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.;

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response......The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine...

  7. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  8. Prevalence and Antigenic Differences Observed between Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Isolated from Cattle in Australia and Feedlots in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are divided into two different species within the pestivirus genus, BVDV type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV2). Further phylogenetic analysis has revealed subgenotype groupings within the BVDV1 and BVDV2 species. Thus far twelve BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a throu...

  9. Evaluation of a new antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus infection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Tarabla, H.D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (designated M108 for milk and S108 for serum samples) for detecting bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle. Milk, serum, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-blood samples were collecte

  10. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.

  11. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: Life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...

  12. Efficacy of a modified live intranasal bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in 3-week-old calves experimentally challenged with BRSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangeel, I.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Fluess, M.; Peters, A.R.; Harmeyer, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) challenge studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of a bivalent modified live vaccine containing BRSV in 3-week-old calves. In the first study, vaccine efficacy was evaluated in colostrum deprived (matern

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  15. Full-Length Coding Sequences for 12 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Isolates from Persistently Infected Cattle in a Feedyard in Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Aspen M.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Heaton, Michael P; Grotelueschen, Dale M.; Sjeklocha, David; Smith, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the full-length coding sequences of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle in a feedyard in southwest KS. These 12 genomes represent the three major subtypes of BVDV (BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a) currently circulating in the United States.

  16. Utilization of multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with bovine viral diarrhea virus infections and persistence of positive tests in persistently infected cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections have a significant impact on the cattle population and production. Persistently infected (PI) cattle represent the principal reservoir of infection. Identification and removal of PI animals are critical to the control of BVDV. There are numerous assays f...

  17. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...

  18. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  19. Comparison of stability of viral nucleic acid in different tissues and under different conditions in samples collected from fetuses infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...

  20. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  1. The Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus type 1 (BHV-1) and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) in Selected Dairy Cattle Herds in Aydın Province, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, M.Tolga; YILDIRIM, Yakup; Erol, Nural; GÜNGÖR, A. Burak

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of BHV-1 and BLV antibodies was studied in 313 serum samples collected from 5 dairy cattle herds. Serum samples were collected from both apparently healthy animals and animals with respiratory symptoms. The samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 and BLV using virus neutralization and agar gel immunodiffusion test, respectively. The results indicated that the prevalence of BHV-1 and BLV infections was 19.5% and 0.3%, respectively.

  2. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.

  3. Resolving Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected U.S. beef calves with complete genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Aspen M; Heaton, Michael P; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Sjeklocha, David; Brodersen, Bruce; Petersen, Jessica L; Chitko-McKown, Carol G

    2016-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic variation. To effectively control BVDV by vaccination, it is important to know which subtypes of the virus are circulating and how their prevalence is changing over time. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to estimate the current prevalence and diversity of BVDV subtypes from persistently infected (PI) beef calves in the central United States. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR (5' untranslated region) for 119 virus strains revealed that a majority (82%) belonged to genotype 1b, and the remaining strains were distributed between genotypes 1a (9%) and 2 (8%); however, BVDV-2 subtypes could not be confidently resolved. Therefore, to better define the variability of U.S. BVDV isolates and further investigate the division of BVDV-2 isolates into subtypes, complete genome sequences were obtained for these isolates as well as representatives of BVDV-1a and -1b. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete coding sequence provided more conclusive genetic classification and revealed that U.S. BVDV-2 isolates belong to at least 3 distinct genetic groups that are statistically supported by both complete and individual coding gene analyses. These results show that a more complex set of BVDV-2 subtypes has been circulating in this region than was previously thought. PMID:27400958

  4. Antigenic differences between bovine viral diarrhea viruses and HoBi virus: Possible impacts on diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare antigenic differences between HoBi virus and BVDV strains that might impact on diagnostics and control. Eighteen non-cytopathic isolates of pestiviruses including the 5 genotypic groups (BVDV1a-c, BVDV2, BDV) and HoBi virus, were tested using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  5. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  6. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. PMID:24648561

  7. Expression and Antigenic Characterization of the Epitope-G1 of the Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The epitope-G1 gene of Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein was synthesised by PCR and cloned into expression vector pPIC9K to construct recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-G1. Then the pPIC9K-G1 was linearized and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS 115. The recombinant P. pastoris strains were selected by a G418 transformation screen and confirmed by PCR. After being induced with methanol, an expressed protein with 26 kDa molecular weight was obtained, which was much bigger than the predicted size (15.54 kDa). Deglycosylation analysis indicated the recombinant G1 was glycosylated. Western blot and ELISA tests, as well as rabbit immunization and specificity experiments indicated that the target protein had both higher reaction activity and higher immunocompetence and specificity. The recombinant G1 protein could be used as a coating antigen to develop an ELISA kit for bovine ephemeral fever diagnosis.

  8. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C; Neill, John D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; McGill, Jodi L; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-01

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.

  9. [Morphological observation of bovine kidney (MDBK) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus L(pro)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fengqiang; Cong, Guozheng; Gao, Shandian; Lin, Tong; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Chang, Huiyun

    2009-11-01

    In order to explore the morphological changes of Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L protease, we induced the expression of FMDV L protease in bovine kidney cells (MDBK) artificially. All work is carried out on the basis of a stable MDBK cell line inducibly expresses the Lab gene under the control of tetracycline. We use cell morphology, Hoechst 33258 staining, AO-EB staining, and DNA Ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of MDBK cells. 24 hours after FMDV L protease were induced and expressed in MDBK cells, cells shown the diminish of cell size, nuclear enrichment and the appearance of transparency circle under the light microscope. Apoptosis characteristics of nuclear condensation, fragmentation, accompanied by apoptotic bodies formation (Hoechst 33258 staining). 36 hours after the expression, nuclear staining of early lesions showed bright green plaque or debris-like dense, and advanced lesions showed Orange and dense plaques (AO-EB staining). 48 hours after the expression, DNA gel electrophoresis showed visible DNA ladder. Results indicate that FMDV L protease can induce apoptosis of MDBK and apoptosis plays an important role in the cytopathogenicity effect of FMDV.

  10. Pathogens associated with persistent diarrhoea in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart C Anthony

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low and middle income countries. To help target appropriate treatment for specific pathogens in the absence of diagnostic tests, we systematically reviewed pathogens most commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children. Methods We sought all descriptive studies of pathogens in the stool of children with diarrhoea of over 14 days duration in low and middle income countries with a comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases. We described the study designs and populations, assessed the quality of the laboratory tests, and extracted and summarised data on pathogens. For Escherichia coli, we calculated high and low prevalence estimates of all enteropathic types combined. Results across studies were compared for geographical patterns. Results Nineteen studies were included. Some used episodes of diarrhoea as the unit of analysis, others used children. The quality of reporting of laboratory procedures varied, and pathogens (particularly E. coli types were classified in different ways. As there were no apparent regional differences in pathogen prevalence, we aggregated data between studies to give a guide to overall prevalence. Enteropathic E. coli types were commonly found in children with persistent diarrhoea (up to 63%. Various other organisms, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, were detected but across all studies their prevalence was under 10%. However, these pathogens were also found in similar frequencies in children without diarrhoea. Conclusion A number of pathogens are commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children, but in children without diarrhoea the pathogens are found with similar frequencies. New research with carefully selected controls and standardised laboratory investigations across countries will help map causes and help explore effective options for presumptive treatment.

  11. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  12. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Doblies, D.; Arquint, A.; Schaller, P.;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, six immunocompetent calves were experimentally infected with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and the effects of the viral infection on parameters of the innate immune response of the host were analyzed. Clinical and virological data were compared...... with the temporal activation of the alpha/beta interferon-regulated Mx gene in white blood cells (WBC) and skin as well as the upregulation of the acute-phase serum proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). The viral strain used did provoke transient health impairment, namely, fever and leukopenia...... that were associated with viremia, viral shedding with nasal secretions, and antiviral seroconversion. Complete recovery was observed within 3 weeks. Elevated levels of SAA and Hp were apparent from days 4 to 13 and 8 to 11, respectively. In WBC, the levels of Mx mRNA and Mx protein were elevated from days...

  13. HERBAL APPROACHES FOR DIARRHOEA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is the one of the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries effecting mainly the infants and children’s. There are many synthetic drug treatments for diarrhoea like loperamide, bismuth subsalicylate and racecadotril. But these drugs have more side effects like nausea, abdominal discomfort, headache etc. Many herbal plants available which have anti-diarrhoeal activity with lesser side-effects than the conventional drugs. The review focuses on the various plants which have been proved for their anti-diarrhoeal activity in experimental animal models. This review also focused the in-vivo animal models such as castor oil induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal motility test, magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea and serotonin induced diarrhoea.

  14. Therapeutic methods for diarrhoea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Bhattacharya

    2000-01-01

    Acute diarrhoea may manifest as acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery. The key to the management of acutewatery diarrhoea is correction of dehydration, proper feeding and appropriate use of antibiotic in selectedcases. Correction of dehydration may be done by oral route by using oral rehydration salts solution (ORS)recornmended by WHO/UNICEF or by intravenous administration of fluid and electrolytes, the preferredsolution being Ringer's lactate. Antibiotic is required for severe cholera and shigellosis. Antiparasitic drugsare required for amoebiasis or giardiasis. Use of various antidiarrhoeals is strongly discouraged. Feedingduring diarrhoea is very important. It does not worsen diarrhoea rather hastens recovery and preventsmalnutrition. Supplementation of zinc as an adjunct to rehydration therapy has also been suggested.

  15. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis

  16. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals 3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries. PMID:26676243

  17. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  18. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased.

  19. Rotavirus diarrhoea in Buffaloes: epidemiology, pathogenesys and prophilaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, rotavirus infection is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and animals. In this report, we review the results of pathogenesys studies, strain surveillance and characterization studies published and discuss new insights gained from these studies on the potential mechanisms of the evolution and spread of new rotavirus strains. Early epidemiological studies in Italian buffalo herds revealed the predominance of strains with G8 specificity and detected strains with the rare, RRV-like, VP4 P[3] genotype. In an our previous study 125 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves affected with diarrhoea, in seven dairy farms in Southern Italy. Rotaviruses were detected in 21 samples (16.8% by an immunochromatographic assay and by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR. Analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that 57% (12 of 21 of the isolates were G6, 23.8% were G8 (5 of 21 and 19% (4 of 21 were G10. Analysis of the VP4 revealed that 71.4% (15 of 21 of the isolates were P[5] and that 28.6% (6 of 21 were P[1]. The most common combination of G and P types was P[5],G6 (57%, followed by P[1],G10 (19%, P[5],G8 (14% and P[1],G8 (9.5%. While P[5],G6 rotaviruses are very common in Italian bovine herds, the antigenic combination P[1],G10 is unusual and presumably derives from reassortment between P[1] and G10 strains, that appear to be more frequent in buffaloes and bovines, respectively. The presence of bovine-like G and P serotypes suggests that in Italy the epidemiology of buffalo rotaviruses overlaps the epidemiology of bovine rotaviruses, presumably because of the strict species affinity and/or of the intermingled distribution over the same geographical areas of the buffalo and bovine herds.

  20. Two doses of bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation induce long-term protective immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Lawman, Zoe; Snider, Marlene; Wilson, Don; van den Hurk, Jan V; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew

    2013-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of major importance in cattle, so there is a need for new effective vaccines. DNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses and are relatively inexpensive and thus promising for both human and veterinary applications. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated intramuscularly (i.m.) with a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine with the TriGrid Delivery System for i.m. delivery (TDS-IM). Two doses of this vaccine spaced 6 or 12 weeks apart were sufficient to induce significant virus-neutralizing antibody titers, numbers of activated T cells, and reduction in viral shedding and clinical presentations after BVDV-2 challenge. In contrast to the placebo-treated animals, the vaccinated calves did not lose any weight, which is an excellent indicator of the well-being of an animal and has a significant economic impact. Furthermore, the interval between the two vaccinations did not influence the magnitude of the immune responses or degree of clinical protection, and a third immunization was not necessary or beneficial. Since electroporation may enhance not only the magnitude but also the duration of immunity after DNA immunization, the interval between vaccination and challenge was extended in a second trial, which showed that two doses of this E2 DNA vaccine again significantly reduced clinical disease against BVDV for several months. These results are promising and support this technology for use against infectious diseases in cattle and large species, including humans, in general.

  1. Replication of a chimeric origin containing elements from Epstein-Barr virus ori P and bovine papillomavirus minimal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäe, S; Allikas, A; Kurg, R; Ustav, M

    2001-05-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E2 protein is a multifunctional protein that activates viral transcription, co-operates in initiation of viral DNA replication, and is required for long-term episomal maintenance of viral genomes. The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus is required for synthesis and maintenance of Epstein-Barr virus genomes. Both viral proteins act through direct interactions with their respective DNA sequences in their origins of replication. The chimeric protein E2:EBNA1, which consists of an transactivation domain of E2 and DNA binding domain of EBNA1 supported the replication of the chimeric origin that contained EBNA1 binding sites in place of the E2 binding sites principally as full-length E2 did in the case of papillomavirus minimal origin. This indicates that the chimeric protein E2:EBNA1 is competent to assemble a replication complex similar to the E2 protein. These data confirm the earlier observations that the only part of E2 specifically required for its activity in replication is the N-terminal activation domain and the function of the DNA binding domain of E2 in the initiation of replication is to tether the transactivation domain of E2 to the origin of replication. PMID:11311423

  2. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT- PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine.

  3. Iron and ferritin levels in the serum and milk of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOICHI eORINO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV -infected dairy cows (2.6-7.8 years old. BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51. The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-infected dairy cows had past or present anamneses (such as inflammatory diseases, including intramammary infection, the milk ferritin concentrations of the infected cows were significantly lower than those of normal cows; serum ferritin concentrations did not differ significantly between these two groups. The anti-BLV antibody titers in milk samples showed significant correlation with serum iron concentrations. These results suggest that BLV infection affects iron homeostasis through iron metabolism in the dairy cow mammary gland.

  4. Inhibition of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus RNA Synthesis by Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  5. Development of an APC-targeted multivalent E2-based vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, A; Malacari, D A; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Bellido, D; Nuñez, M C; Dus Santos, M J; Escribano, J M; Wigdorovitz, A

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a multivalent subunit vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) based on the E2 virus glycoprotein belonging to genotypes 1a, 1b and 2a, immunopotentiated by targeting these antigens to antigen-presenting cells. The E2 antigens were expressed in insect cells by a baculovirus vector as fusion proteins with a single chain antibody, named APCH I, which recognizes the β-chain of the MHC Class II antigen. The three chimeric proteins were evaluated for their immunogenicity in a guinea pig model as well as in colostrum-deprived calves. Once the immune response in experimentally vaccinated calves was evaluated, immunized animals were challenged with type 1b or type 2b BVDV in order to study the protection conferred by the experimental vaccine. The recombinant APCH I-tE21a-1b-2a vaccine was immunogenic both in guinea pigs and calves, inducing neutralizing antibodies. After BVDV type 1b and type 2 challenge of vaccinated calves in a proof of concept, the type 1b virus could not be isolated in any animal; meanwhile it was detected in all challenged non-vaccinated control animals. However, the type 2 BVDV was isolated to a lesser extent compared to unvaccinated animals challenged with type 2 BVDV. Clinical signs associated to BVDV, hyperthermia and leukopenia were reduced with respect to controls in all vaccinated calves. Given these results, this multivalent vaccine holds promise for a safe and effective tool to control BVDV in herds. PMID:26279338

  6. cis-acting element located in the bovine foamy virus internal promoter possesses the properties of a transcrip-tional enhancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus encodes a transcriptional transactivitor, Tas or Borf-1, which governs the level of viral transcripts initiated by both the promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the internal promoter (IP) located in the env gene through their cis-acting targets. We have identified and characterized a 72 bp Tas (Borf-1) responsive element located in BFV3026 internal promoter (TREIP) by deletion mutant and transient expression assay. This cis-acting target element in the internal promoter has the properties of a transcriptional enhancer which functions independently of its orientation, position and also in heterologous promoters (BFV LTR and bovine immunodeficiency virus, BIV LTR). Alignments reveal that there are positional similarity and sequence homology among BFV TREIP, SFV-1 TREIP proximal element and SFV-3 TREIPII, which suggests that this kind of cis-acting elements possesses some common functional character.

  7. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle.

  8. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Loy John Dustin; Gander Jill; Mogler Mark; Vander Veen Ryan; Ridpath Julia; Harris Delbert Hank; Kamrud Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be ut...

  9. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Mayuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in BLV-infected animals. Indeed, the assay was highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. This assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with serotests. Results BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was found to be highly sensitive when compared with the real-time PCR-based TaqMan MGB assay developed by Lew et al. and the commercial TaKaRa cycleave PCR system. The BLV copy number determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was only partially correlated with the positive rate for anti-BLV antibody as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination reaction, or agar gel immunodiffusion. This result indicates that, although serotests are widely used for the diagnosis of BLV infection, it is difficult to detect BLV infection with confidence by using serological tests alone. Two cattle were experimentally infected with BLV. The kinetics of the provirus did not precisely correlate with the change in anti-BLV antibody production. Moreover, both reactions were different in cattle that carried different bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3 genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that the quantitative measurement of proviral load by BLV

  10. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Robert W.; Hessman, Bill E.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Johnson, Bill J.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked im...

  11. HERBAL APPROACHES FOR DIARRHOEA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Komal; Kumar Sunil; Rana A C

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is the one of the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries effecting mainly the infants and children’s. There are many synthetic drug treatments for diarrhoea like loperamide, bismuth subsalicylate and racecadotril. But these drugs have more side effects like nausea, abdominal discomfort, headache etc. Many herbal plants available which have anti-diarrhoeal activity with lesser side-effects than the conventional drugs. The review focuses on the vario...

  12. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E.; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBA...

  13. 牛病毒性腹泻病毒RT-PCR诊断方法的建立%The Foundation of PCR Diagnosis Method For Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏澍; 刘金玲

    2012-01-01

    A pair of primers were designed according to the sequences of bovine viral diarrhea virus strain in public. Using these primers approximately 190 bp-long DNA products were amplified by RT-PCR from genetype I and genetype II products of bovine viral diarrhea virus, but not from other control samples. This method can detect as little as 0.10 ng bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.%根据已发表的牛病毒性腹泻病毒株的基因序列,分析合成了一对扩增跨幅为190bp左右的引物,对牛病毒性腹泻病基因I型或基因II型的毒株进行RT—PCR扩增,结果是取得了与预期大小一致的RT-PCR产物,而对照样品的扩增全为阴性;该方法最低可检测到0.10遗的牛病毒性腹泻病毒RNA。

  14. Antibiotic prescribing policy and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly intravenous cephalosporins, are associated with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Diarrhoea due to C. difficile is a growing problem in hospitals, especially among elderly patients. AIM: To establish whether changing an antibiotic policy with the aim of reducing the use of injectable cephalosporins leads to a reduction in the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: A group of patients who were subject to the new antibiotic policy from the period following July 2000, were compared with patients who were admitted prior to July 2000 and were not subject to the new policy. Infections, antibiotic prescriptions and mortality rates were determined from case notes, and C. difficle diarrhoea rates from microbiological data. RESULTS: Intravenous cephalosporin use fell from 210 to 28 defined daily doses (p < 0.001) following the change in antibiotic policy, with a corresponding increase in piperacillin-tazobactam (p < 0.001) and moxifloxacin (p < 0.001) use. The new policy led to a significant reduction in C. difficile diarrhoea cases. The relative risk of developing C. difficile infection with the old policy compared to the new policy was 3.24 (95%CI 1.07-9.84, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION: The antibiotic policy was successfully introduced into an elderly care service. It reduced both intravenous cephalosporin use and C. difficile diarrhoea.

  15. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  16. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  17. EXPRESSION OF GLYCOPROTEIN gD AND EVALUATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BOVINE HERPES VIRUS TYPE-1 IN BUFFALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpes Virus type-1 (BoHV-1 causes a multitude of clinical symptoms in cattle, buffaloes and small ruminants. No effective live attenuated or killed vaccine is currently available and extensive research work in progress towards the development of the subunit and genetically engineered vaccine. Since DNA vaccine is currently regarded as most important breakthrough in vaccinology, the present work was aimed at construction of DNA vaccine using most immunogenic glycoprotein gD and studying its immune response and protection in buffalo. gD specific DIG labelled probe was used to screen gD specific clones from cDNA library. The gD specific cloned plasmid was purified for eukaryotic expression. The SDS-PAGE & Western blot analysis showed the transient expression of the expected 71 kDa gD following transfection in COS-7 cells. Four seronegative buffalo calves were immunized at 0, 30 and 60 days with recombinant purified plasmid and two calves were kept as control. The result of SNT, ELISA and MTT indicate gene specific seroconversion and CMI response following immunization with plasmid. At 86 days of post first vaccination, animals were challenged with virulent BoHV-1 (216/IBR. Hematological picture of the control animals showed leucopenia and that was due to destruction of lymphocytes shown by TLC and apoptosis study. Vaccinated animals showed reduced virus shedding in terms of days post challenge as well as titers compared to the controls. Based on the above findings, we concluded that DNA based vaccine induces specific and protective immune responses to the buffalo.

  18. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496

  19. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  20. Inhibition of EHMT2 Induces a Robust Antiviral Response Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infections in Bovine Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Ramĩrez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; de Los Santos, Teresa; Golding, Michael C; Long, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    The genetic regulatory network controlling the innate immune system is well understood in many species. However, the role of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the expression of immunoregulatory genes is less clear, especially in livestock species. Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing within the euchromatin regions. Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2; also known as G9a) is a crucial enzyme responsible for regulating the dynamics of this epigenetic modification. It has been shown that histone modifications play a role in regulating type I interferon (IFN) response. In the present study, we investigated the role of EHMT2 in the epigenetic regulation of bovine antiviral innate immunity and explored its therapeutic potential against viral infections. We evaluated the effects of pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of EHMT2 on the transcription of IFN-β and other IFN-inducible antiviral genes, as well as its effect on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication in bovine cells. We show that treatment of primary bovine cells with the synthetic EHMT2 inhibitor (UNC0638) either before or shortly after virus infection resulted in a significant increase in transcript levels of bovine IFN-β (boIFN-β; 300-fold) and other IFN-inducible genes, including IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG-15), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx-1), Mx-2, RIG-I, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), and protein kinase R (PKR). Expression of these factors correlated with a significant decrease in VSV and FMDV viral titers. Our data confirm the involvement of EHMT2 in the epigenetic regulation of boIFN-β and demonstrate the activation of a general antiviral state after EHMT2 inhibition. PMID:26418342

  1. Effects of subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection on some production parameters in a dairy farm in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, M; Bulut, O; Yapkic, O; Gulay, M S; Pehlivanoglu, F; Ata, A; Yavru, S

    2007-09-01

    Some production parameters of seropositive cows (age, first calving age, 305 day mature equivalent last milk yield production, lifetime mature equivalent milk yield production, lifetime total milk production, lifetime total milking period, lifetime monthly milk production, lifetime daily milk production, lifetime total days of milking, number of inseminations per pregnancy (for last pregnancy), number of calves and calving interval (for last pregnancy)) were analysed in the current study. The study population was clinically healthy Holstein cows from a commercial dairy herd in southern Turkey. Of 109 animals, 65 cows were seropositive by ELISA and the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was 59.6%. The prevalence of seropositive cows in 2nd (62.8%), 3rd (64.7%), 4th (61.5%), and 5th (66.6 %) lactations was slightly higher than that of cows in 1st (52.6%) lactations. No statistical differences were observed between BLV seronegative and seropositive cows for production and reproduction parameters analysed in this study (P > 0.05). PMID:18237034

  2. Effects of subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection on some production parameters in a dairy farm in southern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kale

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some production parameters of seropositive cows (age, first calving age, 305 day mature equivalent last milk yield production, lifetime mature equivalent milk yield production, lifetime total milk production, lifetime total milking period, lifetime monthly milk production, lifetime daily milk production, lifetime total days of milking, number of inseminations per pregnancy (for last pregnancy, number of calves and calving interval (for last pregnancy were analysed in the current study. The study population was clinically healthy Holstein cows from a commercial dairy herd in southern Turkey. Of 109 animals, 65 cows were seropositive by ELISA and the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection was 59.6 %. The prevalence of seropositive cows in 2nd (62.8 %, 3rd (64.7 %, 4th (61.5 %, and 5th (66.6 % lactations was slightly higher than that of cows in 1st (52.6 % lactations. No statistical differences were observed between BLV seronegative and seropositive cows for production and reproduction parameters analysed in this study (P > 0.05.

  3. Experimental infection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice induces megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we infected mice with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (cp BVDV1) by oral inoculation and investigated the effects of infection by histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), hematological methods. Twelve mice were infected, and samples were obtained at day 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). Most of the infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness such as reduced movement, crouching, loose feces, loss of appetite, and reduced water intake. Blood samples from six mice were positive for BVDV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blood analysis also revealed thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. Viral antigens were detected in the spleen (12/12), bone marrow (12/12), and/or mesenteric lymph nodes (4/12) of all infected mice by IHC analysis. The spleens showed significant histopathological changes including (i) substantially increased numbers of megakaryocytes, (ii) lymphocyte depletion, and (iii) hemorrhages. The bone marrow also had an increased number of megakaryocytes, although this increase was not as strong as it was in the spleen. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Viral infections were present in the lymphocytes but not detected in megakaryocytes of the spleen, bone marrow, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that the increased numbers of megakaryocytes may be a direct result of BVDV infection. BVDV infection in mice following oral inoculation of cp BVDV1 leads to megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow to replenish the platelets.

  4. Computational Study Exploring the Interaction Mechanism of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent Cattle Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors. PMID:27355875

  5. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  6. Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Dairy Cattle: Effect on Serological Response to Immunization against J5 Escherichia coli Bacterin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen bovine leukemia virus- (BLV- negative and 22 BLV-positive Holstein cows were immunized with J5 Escherichia coli bacterin at dry off, three weeks before calving, during the second week after calving, and three weeks after the third immunization. Serum was collected before the initial immunization, immediately before the third and fourth immunizations, and 21 days after the fourth immunization. Anti-J5 E. coli IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 titers were determined by ELISA. Anti-J5 E. coli IgM titers did not differ significantly (P=.98 between groups. Increases in anti-J5 E. coli IgG1 titers were higher in the BLV-negative cows (P=.057. Geometric mean anti-J5 E. coli IgG2 titers increased fourfold in the BLV-negative cows, which was significantly higher (P=.007 than the twofold increase in the BLV-positive cows. Cattle infected with BLV may have impaired serologic responses following immunization with J5 bacterin, and response may differ according to antibody isotype.

  7. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.;

    2000-01-01

    -alpha in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels......Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease among calves in the Danish cattle industry. An experimental BRSV infection model was used to study the pathogenesis of the disease in calves. Broncho alveolar lung lavage (BAL) was performed on 28 Jersey calves......, of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF...

  8. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  9. Experimental infection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice induces megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we infected mice with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (cp BVDV1) by oral inoculation and investigated the effects of infection by histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), hematological methods. Twelve mice were infected, and samples were obtained at day 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). Most of the infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness such as reduced movement, crouching, loose feces, loss of appetite, and reduced water intake. Blood samples from six mice were positive for BVDV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blood analysis also revealed thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. Viral antigens were detected in the spleen (12/12), bone marrow (12/12), and/or mesenteric lymph nodes (4/12) of all infected mice by IHC analysis. The spleens showed significant histopathological changes including (i) substantially increased numbers of megakaryocytes, (ii) lymphocyte depletion, and (iii) hemorrhages. The bone marrow also had an increased number of megakaryocytes, although this increase was not as strong as it was in the spleen. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Viral infections were present in the lymphocytes but not detected in megakaryocytes of the spleen, bone marrow, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that the increased numbers of megakaryocytes may be a direct result of BVDV infection. BVDV infection in mice following oral inoculation of cp BVDV1 leads to megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow to replenish the platelets. PMID:26526150

  10. The use of ELISA and nucleic acid hybridization tests in research and diagnosis of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease that affects adult cattle although animals can carry the virus without showing any clinical symptoms. An initial survey in Cuba using the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) revealed that only 15% of the animals on the island were infected and it was therefore decided to undertake a control and eradication campaign. However, prior to the onset of this campaign it was felt necessary to examine a variety of more modern diagnostic procedures to determine which might be most applicable. For the detection of antibodies an ELISA system based on the use of SUMA (a micro-analytical system developed in Cuba) was compared with the AGID and syncytia inhibition test and found to be more sensitive than AGID and far more suitable for large-scale use than either of the other two. For detection of viral proteins the ELISA was compared with a reverse transcriptase assay and the use of immunoperoxidase staining. The latter two methods detected viral proteins in over 50% more samples than the ELISA and although the ELISA is more simple than either of the other to assays when used routinely, its low sensitivity would preclude its use in an eradication programme. (author). 10 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations-Exemplified by bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    The K-function is often used to detect spatial clustering in spatial point processes, e.g. clustering of infected herds. Clustering is identified by testing the observed K-function for complete spatial randomness modelled, e.g. by a homogeneous Poisson process. The approach provides information...... about spatial clustering as well as the scale of distances of clustering. However, there are several problems related to applying the K-function, e.g. estimation of the size of the study area and the assumption about modelling spatial random distribution of the events by, e.g. a homogeneous Poisson...... process. The objective of the present study was to develop a null hypothesis version of the K-function that overcomes the assumption about a specific underlying spatial distribution characterising complete spatial randomness. Furthermore, the objective was to develop an approach that does not include...

  12. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analy...

  13. Development of single dilution immunoassay to detect E2 protein specific classical swine fever virus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Barman, Nagendra N; Khatoon, Elina; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in swine. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect pigs from CSFV infection. The virus surface protein E2 is the major immunogenic protein eliciting protective immunity against CSFV infection in swine. The whole virus antigen cannot differentiate CSFV from other pestiviruses as it cross reacts with border disease and bovine viral diarrhoea viruses. Commercial available ELISA is based on the whole CSFV particle and can lead to false positive results. Moreover, the available commercial ELISA is not cost effective. In the present study, a recombinant E2 protein based single serum dilution ELISA was developed which showed enhanced sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to commercial CSFV detection ELISA. The recombinant E2 protein based ELISA could be an alternate to existing diagnostics against CSFV infection in pigs. PMID:27032503

  14. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方法。牛呼吸道合胞体病在全球范围内流行,对各国养牛业造成极大危害。论文综述了牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法的研究进展,为牛呼吸道合胞体病的诊断和预防提供参考。%Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article

  15. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article summarized the re-search progress on the laboratory test methods of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.The overview of thesis will provide some references for the diagnosis and prevention of the bovine respiratory syncytial disease.%牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方

  16. Homology Modeling and Analysis of Structure Predictions of the Bovine Rhinitis B Virus RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K. Rai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Rhinitis B Virus (BRBV is a picornavirus responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle. It is probably the least characterized among the aphthoviruses. BRBV is the closest relative known to Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV with a ~43% identical polyprotein sequence and as much as 67% identical sequence for the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, which is also known as 3D polymerase (3Dpol. In the present study we carried out phylogenetic analysis, structure based sequence alignment and prediction of three-dimensional structure of BRBV 3Dpol using a combination of different computational tools. Model structures of BRBV 3Dpol were verified for their stereochemical quality and accuracy. The BRBV 3Dpol structure predicted by SWISS-MODEL exhibited highest scores in terms of stereochemical quality and accuracy, which were in the range of 2Å resolution crystal structures. The active site, nucleic acid binding site and overall structure were observed to be in agreement with the crystal structure of unliganded as well as template/primer (T/P, nucleotide tri-phosphate (NTP and pyrophosphate (PPi bound FMDV 3Dpol (PDB, 1U09 and 2E9Z. The closest proximity of BRBV and FMDV 3Dpol as compared to human rhinovirus type 16 (HRV-16 and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV 3Dpols is also substantiated by phylogeny analysis and root-mean square deviation (RMSD between C-α traces of the polymerase structures. The absence of positively charged α-helix at C terminal, significant differences in non-covalent interactions especially salt bridges and CH-pi interactions around T/P channel of BRBV 3Dpol compared to FMDV 3Dpol, indicate that despite a very high homology to FMDV 3Dpol, BRBV 3Dpol may adopt a different mechanism for handling its substrates and adapting to physiological requirements. Our findings will be valuable in the

  17. Isolation and identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus from swine%猪源牛病毒性腹泻病毒的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小燕; 魏春华; 刘建奎; 戴爱玲; 李晓华

    2011-01-01

    从福建省某猪场疑似猪瘟的发病仔猪采集病料,处理后接种于牛肾细胞(MDBK),分离到1株病毒,并对其进行了系统鉴定.结果显示,病料接种MDBK细胞72 h后产生了明显的细胞病变;该分离毒株可以被牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)阳性血清中和,中和效价为1:106;该分离毒株对氯仿、乙醚、胰酶、酸敏感,不耐热,56℃30 min可被灭活,PCR检测该分离毒株的细胞培养液,结果可扩增出325 bp的片段,该片段的核苷酸序列与BVDV NADL株标准种毒的同源性为89.2%.结果表明,该分离毒株为猪源牛病毒性腹泻病毒.%One strain of virus was isolated from the infected swine in Fujian Province by cultivating it in Madin-Darby bovine kidney(MDBK) cells, then it was systematically identified by a series of methods. In result,the isolated virus caused typical cytopathogenic effect in the MDBK cells at 72 hours after infection.The isolated virus could be neutralized by the positive sera with bovine viral diarrhea virus at titer 1: 106.The isolate was sensitive to chloroform, ether, trypsin, acid and temperature, and could be inactivated at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes. A DNA fragment of 325 bp was amplified by PCR from the MDBK cells infected with the isolated virus. The identity of this gene sequence to the isolated virus and NADL strain from GenBank was 89.2 %. It was concluded from the results that the isolated virus from the infected swine is a bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  18. Serological study of bovine herpes virus type 1 in dairy herds of Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Bahari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling design was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 in non-vaccinated dairy herds in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Simple random sampling was used for selection of cattle in each herd. Informative data about each herd and selected animals were recorded by the farm manager in a provided questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 492 animals in 41 industrial herds. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. The individual and herd seroprevalence for BHV-1 were 58.74% and 82.93%, respectively. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.70% to 100%. Geographical characteristics of Hamedan province may explain the high sero- prevalence rates found in this study compared to those of others obtained from different parts of the country. The proportion of seropositive cows were increased with age (p <0.05. Animals from large and moderate sized herds had higher odds of seropositivity than those of small size herds. These findings could be related to the presence of a considerable number of BHV-1 carriers in this region. The high herd and animal prevalence found in the present study suggested necessity of implementing an intensive control program for reducing BHV-1 infection rates.

  19. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy John Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. Vaccine made from particles was generated in Vero cells and administered to BVDV free calves in a prime/boost regimen at two dosage levels. Vaccination resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that cross-neutralized both type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes following booster vaccination. Additionally, high dose vaccine administration demonstrated some protection from clinical disease and significantly reduced the degree of leukopenia caused by viral infection. Conclusions Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. This strategy holds promise for a safe and effective vaccine to BVDV.

  20. Évaluation expérimentale de l'efficacité d'un candidat vaccin sous-unitaire contre le virus respiratoire syncytial bovin

    OpenAIRE

    Soulestin , Marion

    2009-01-01

    Une étude récente a démontré qu’un candidat vaccin sous unitaire composé d’anneaux formés par la nucléoprotéine recombinante du virus respiratoire syncytial humain (nanoparticules N-SRS) pouvait protéger des souris contre une inoculation d’épreuve (Roux et al., 2008). L’objectif de ce projet était d’évaluer l’efficacité de ce vaccin chez le veau, espèce cible naturelle du virus respiratoire syncytial bovin. Pour cela, 24 veaux séronégatifs vis-à-vis du virus et indemnes d’infectio...

  1. The effect of dietary intake of the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Chang, Don Yong; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Acidic protein levels in the milk decrease markedly as lactation progresses, suggesting that it is an important part of the colostrum. However, little attention has been paid to their biological function. In this study, we isolated the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum (AFC, isoelectric point <5) by anion-exchange chromatography, and investigated the effect of its dietary intake on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. 100% of mice infected with 1 LD50 of the virus survived when administered AFC for 14 days prior to infection, compared with 33% survival when administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, consumption of AFC reduced the weight loss associated with infection. We propose that dietary intake of AFC has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection. PMID:23620352

  2. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs.

  3. Diarrhoea due to breast milk: case of fucose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    An unusual form of diarrhoea is reported that was relieved when breast feeding was stopped. Chromatography to estimate sugars in the faeces should be performed for all infants with unexplained diarrhoea before changes are made in the diet.

  4. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  5. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  6. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  7. Experimental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in mice induces inflammatory cell infiltration in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Young-Je; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Previously, our study showed that oral inoculation of mice with cytopathic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) led to lymphocyte depletion and increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the spleen as well as thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. In the present study, to investigate the possible differences in the detection of viral antigen, histopathological lesions, and hematologic changes between non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 and cp BVDV1, mice were orally administered low and high doses of ncp BVDV1 and were necropsied at days 0, 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). None of the ncp BVDV1-infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness, unlike those infected with cp BVDV1. Statistically significant thrombocytopenia was observed during ncp BVDV1 infection, and lymphopenia was found only in mice infected with a high dose at day 9 pi. Interestingly, ncp BVDV1 infection increased the numbers of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes in some infected mice. Viral antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice infected with a high dose and also found in the Peyer's patches of some infected mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and monocytes, and an increased number of megakaryocytes were seen in the spleen. These results suggest that the distribution of viral antigens is not associated with the presence of histopathological lesions. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the spleens as a result of viral replication and may be attributable to the host reaction to ncp BVDV1 infection. Together, these findings support the possibility that mice can be used as an animal model for BVDV infection.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1) infection in MDBK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Melina; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Otth, Carola; Olavarría, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and cattle industry; however, little is known about the protective and pathological responses of hosts to infection. The present study determined the principal molecular markers implicated in viral infection through meta-transcriptomic analysis using MDBK cells infected for two hours with a field isolate of BVDV-1. While several immune regulator genes were induced, genes involved in cell signaling, metabolic processes, development, and integrity were down-regulated, suggesting an isolation of infected cells from cell-to-cell interactions and responses to external signals. Analysis through RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of more than one hundred markers. Interestingly, there was a significant up-regulation of two negative NF-κB regulators, IER3 and TNFAIP3, indicating a possible blocking of this signaling pathway mediated by BVDV-1 infection. Additionally, several genes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species were down-regulated, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Notably, a number of genes involved in cellular growth and development were also regulated during infection, including MTHFD1L, TGIF1, and Brachyury. Moreover, there was an increased expression of the genes β-catenin, caprin-2, GSK3β, and MMP-7, all of which are crucial to the Wnt signaling pathway that is implicated in the embryonic development of a variety of organisms. This meta-transcriptomic analysis provides the first data towards understanding the infection mechanisms of cytopathic BVDV-1 and the putative molecular relationship between viral and host components. PMID:26919728

  9. The Progress of the Detection Methods of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童钦; 霍志云; 胡桂学; 王炜; 武华

    2012-01-01

    In order to quickly and exactly detect bovine viral diarrhea virus, reduce the economic loss of cattle industry. This paper reviewed the method of detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus, and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. The results showed that according to the farmers on the virus rapid accurate diagnosis needs, prospects for a new detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus method and immune colloidal gold test strip method. Immune colloidal gold test strip method improvement of bovine viral diarrhea virus detection methods, contribute to the rapid diagnosis of the virus.%为了快速准确地诊断出牛病毒性腹泻病毒,减少养牛业的经济损失.综述了近年来检测牛病毒性腹泻病毒的方法,总结出这些方法的优缺点.结果表明:根据养殖户对该病毒快速准确诊断的实际需要,展望了一种新的检测牛病毒性腹泻病毒的方法——免疫胶体金试纸条法.表明免疫胶体金试纸条法完善了牛病毒性腹泻病毒的检测方法,有助于在现场快速诊断该病毒.

  10. Possibility for use of RT-PCR technique in establishing presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus in sperm of breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus is a significant health-economic pathogen in cattle which can be excreted and spread also through sperm of persistently or acutely infected bulls. Native sperm of 6 bulls, found to be negative to the BVD virus by isolating the virus and using the RT-PCR method, was experimentally infected with a tenfold dilution of the non-cytopathogen 22146 strain of the BVD virus with a titer of 105,5. This way, dilutions of the BVD virus from 10-1 to 10-6 (5 x 104 TCID/50 do 0,5 TCID/50 in 0.1 ml native sperm were obtained. From sperm infected in this way, the virus was reisolated on FTB cell culture in a microtiter plate with 96 pools in which each sample of the infected sperm was set up in three samples, and each of them was titrated to a dilution of 1:2 to 1:256. The presence of the BVD virus was proven using the technique of fluorescent antibodies in a second blind passage on FTB culture cells. For cell culture an extremely toxic effect of native sperm to a dilution of 1:64 was established. The BVD virus was reisolated from sperm in all three sperm samples with 5 x 104, 5 x 103 i 5 x 102 TCID/50, and it was not reisolated from sperm with 50, with 5, and with 0.5 TCID/50 BVD virus in 0.1 ml native sperm. At the same time, the presence of the BVD viral genome was proved using the RT-PCR method in the same samples of artificially infected native sperm of bulls. A positive re suit was established in native sperm with 5 x 104, 5 x 103, 5 x 102 and 50 TCID/50 BVD virus n 0.1 ml native sperm. The experiment proved that the RT-PCR method has advantages over the isolation of the BVD virus from samples of native sperm of bulls. These are: shortterm investigations (1 to 2 days and greater sensitivity (10 times bigger than the isolation of the virus. The isolation of the virus takes at least 10 days, and its greater sensitivity is primarily a result of the cyrotoxic effect of native sperm of bulls on cell culture.

  11. Membrane-spanning domain of bovine foamy virus transmembrane protein having cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yonggang; YU Hong; WANG Jinzhong; CHEN Qimin; GENG Yunqi

    2006-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) have broad cellular tropism infecting vertebrates from fish to human being,which indicates that Env protein has a high capability for membrane fusion.Conservative features in all FV transmembrane (TM) proteins include a region of hydrophobic domain called membrane-spanning domain (MSD),which contains several stretches of hydrophobic amino acids.To investigate whether these features were associated with the cytotoxicity effect of TM on Escherichia coli,a series of mutants were constructed and expressed in the E.coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-32a (+) as expressing vector.The results showed that only TM3 without MSD was expressed in E.coli,whereas the other two containing full or part of the MSD (TM1 and TM2) could not be expressed.Furthermore,the bacterial amount and living bacteria analysis revealed that the cytotoxicity of TM was dependent on its MSD,especially on the stretches of hydrophobic amino acids.Western blotting analysis showed that TM3 protein was purified with affinity purification.

  12. Pretreatment with Restriction Enzyme or Bovine Serum Albumin for Effective PCR Amplification of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in DNA Extracted from Paraffin-Embedded Gastric Carcinoma Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Yukio; Takasaka, Noriko; Hoshikawa, Yoshiko; OSAKI, MITSUHIKO; Ohfuji, Satoshi; Ito, Hisao; Kaibara,Nobuaki; Kurata, Takeshi; Sairenji, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    An association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric carcinoma has been studied through the EBV genome present in the carcinoma cells. Recently, we found that EBV DNA in paraffin-embedded gastric carcinoma tissue was detected effectively by PCR after pretreatment of the extracted DNA with a restriction enzyme, BamHI or EcoRI. Here, we show that the PCR amplification was also enhanced by pretreatment of the DNA with other restriction enzymes or with bovine serum albumin and several othe...

  13. Influence of blood storage time on viral RNA extraction for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingxia; Jie CAO; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Kai; QI, Changming

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the maximum permissible storage times of blood and serum infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Viral RNA was successfully extracted from blood and serum that were stored at room temperature (RT) for 7 days and was detected by 1-step RT-PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that BVDV-infected blood can be stored at RT for 7 days and that serum can be stored for 10 days without influencing the viral RNA extraction for the detection of BVDV.

  14. A Continuous Bovine Kidney Cell Line Constitutively Expressing Bovine αVβ6 Integrin Has Increased Susceptibility to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    LaRocco, Michael; Krug, Peter W; Kramer, Ed; Ahmed, Zaheer; Pacheco, Juan M.; Duque, Hernando; Baxt, Barry; Luis L Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a worldwide problem limiting the trade of animals and their products from affected countries. The rapid isolation, serotyping, and vaccine matching of FMD virus from disease outbreaks is critical for enabling the implementation of effective vaccination programs and to stop the spread of infection during outbreaks. Some primary cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to most strains of FMD virus (FMDV) but are difficult and expensive to prepare and mainta...

  15. Kinetics of selected plasma cytokines during innate-adaptive immune response transition in adult cattle infected with the bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R

    2016-04-15

    While virus neutralizing antibodies are known to be variably protective against bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) infections, the cytokine events that mediate the nascent adaptive immune response have not been defined in cattle. This study determined the plasma kinetics of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 during the period of innate-immune response transition and evaluated the relationship between the virus neutralizing antibody response and viraemia in BEFV-infected cattle. Plasma from four virus-infected and uninfected negative control animals was tested by cytokine-specific immunoenzymatic assays, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 were increased in all the virus-infected animals starting several days prior to initiation of viraemia. In one animal, plasma IL-2 and IFN-γ were consistently higher than in the other three virus-infected animals and the negative control mean. The animal with the strongest IL-2 and IFN-γ responses had the shortest viraemia while the heifer with the lowest IL-2/IFN-γ indices demonstrated the longest viraemia. Evidently, increase in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 precedes seroconversion during BEFV infections in cattle suggesting the two cytokines may influence immunological events that pave way to B-cell activation and seroconversion. While there is remarkable variability in IL-2 and IFN-γ expression amongst BEFV-infected animals, increased plasma levels of the two cytokines appear to be associated with a shorter viraemia. Ongoing studies will help define the precise role of T cells in anti-BEFV adaptive immune responses. PMID:27016765

  16. Progress on Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Its Evolution%牛病毒性腹泻病毒及其进化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 王新华; 钟发刚

    2007-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻病毒(Boyine viral diarrhoea virus,BVDV)在我国发现有20多年,而在世界范围来讲已有近100年的历史.由于牛病毒性腹泻病毒造成奶牛生产性能下降、繁殖障碍、持续感染等,是导致集约化奶牛场严重亏损的重要原因.且牛病毒性腹泻导致的黏膜病致死率几乎100%,已经严重阻碍养牛业的发展,但目前我国对牛病毒性腹泻还没有好的防控措施.文章对牛病毒性腹泻的发生历史总结,便于在牛病毒性腹泻病毒的诊断和预防中参考.

  17. Effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J L; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary chromium (Cr) on antibody responses of feedlot calves. Fifty-five newly weaned calves were divided into two groups, 28 that received supplemental Cr and 27 that did not, and were immunized with a commercial vaccine against bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3(PI-3). Sera harvested from blood sampled preimmunization, and at days 14 and 28 postimmunization (PI), were assayed for anti-IBR and anti-PI-3 antibody titers. Individual calves were also scored as seroconverters if day 14 or 28 PI titers were > or = 3 times the value of the preimmunization titer. Thirty-five calves did not seroconvert to either antigen. Of 20 IBR seroconverters, 15 calves were from the Cr-supplemented group while only five calves were controls (p = 0.007). There was no treatment difference in the number of PI-3 seroconverters. Least squares analysis of actual antibody titers revealed that Cr supplementation increased the magnitude of the peak antibody response to the IBR (p = 0.003), but had no effect on anti-PI-3 antibody titers. These data confirmed and extended our previous observations that supplemental Cr can be immunomodulatory in cattle. PMID:8004541

  18. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples. PMID:26709100

  19. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  20. Contribution of Leptospira, Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; West, D

    2013-10-01

    The profitability of beef breeding farms in New Zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (Hardjo), and Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. Farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cases) was collected. Controls were normally calving cows from the same farm. At least four controls were selected from each farm contributing cases. Samples were tested using ELISA for detection of antibodies against BVDV and N. caninum, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detection of antibody against Hardjo and Pomona. A selection of titer cut-offs was conducted to evaluate the relationship between fetal loss and seropositivity to each pathogen using conditional logistic regression. The cut-off titer with the strongest association with fetal loss was included in the multivariate model. A significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals seropositive to N. caninum (odds ratio (OR)=3.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.27-8.89), Hardjo (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.01-3.33), and Pomona in non-vaccinated cows (OR=14.91, 95% CI=1.73-128.84) at the ELISA titer ≥ 30, and MAT titers of ≥ 1:384 and ≥ 1:768 for a positive sample, respectively. A marginally non-significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals exposed to BVDV (OR=2.01; 95% CI=0.99-4.11) at the ELISA titer of ≤ 1. Vaccination did not affect ORs for Hardjo or BVDV and no herd vaccinated against N. caninum. Approximately 14.0% of all fetal loss in the beef breeding cattle population in New Zealand may be attributable to BVDV (3.5%), N. caninum (3.0%), Hardjo (4.7%), and Pomona (3.6%).

  1. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2002-01-01

    and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...... by neutrophils whereas apoptosis was an important way of clearance of BRSV-infected epithelial cells. Neighboring cells, which probably were epithelial cells, phagocytized the BRSV-infected apoptotic cells. The number of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased during the course of infection, but the T cells were...

  2. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  3. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  4. Recombinant Bovine/Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (B/HPIV3) Expressing the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G and F Proteins Can Be Used To Achieve Simultaneous Mucosal Immunization against RSV and HPIV3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander C.; McAuliffe, Josephine M.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (rB/HPIV3), a recombinant bovine PIV3 (rBPIV3) in which the F and HN genes were replaced with their HPIV3 counterparts, was used to express the major protective antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in order to create a bivalent mucosal vaccine against RSV and HPIV3. The attenuation of rB/HPIV3 is provided by the host range restriction of the BPIV3 backbone in primates. RSV G and F open reading frames (ORFs) were placed under the control of PIV3 transcription signals and inserted individually into the rB/HPIV3 genome in the promoter-proximal position preceding the nucleocapsid protein gene. The recombinant PIV3 expressing the RSV G ORF (rB/HPIV3-G1) was not restricted in its replication in vitro, whereas the virus expressing the RSV F ORF (rB/HPIV3-F1) was eightfold restricted compared to its rB/HPIV3 parent. Both viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of hamsters, and each induced RSV serum antibody titers similar to those induced by RSV infection and anti-HPIV3 titers similar to those induced by HPIV3 infection. Immunization of hamsters with rB/HPIV3-G1, rB/HPIV3-F1, or a combination of both viruses resulted in a high level of resistance to challenge with RSV or HPIV3 28 days later. These results describe a vaccine strategy that obviates the technical challenges associated with a live attenuated RSV vaccine, providing, against the two leading viral agents of pediatric respiratory tract disease, a bivalent vaccine whose attenuation phenotype is based on the extensive host range sequence differences of BPIV3. PMID:11312329

  5. A bovine G8P[1] group A rotavirus isolated from an asymptomatically infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Michael; Rückner, Antje; Köhler, Christian; Burgener, Iwan; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are enteric pathogens with well-documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs has so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P[3]. RVA G3P[3] have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study, we described an unusual RVA of genotype G8P[1] which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full-length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1-NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P[1]-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate was likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus. PMID:25304653

  6. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  7. Lactose tolerance in lambs with rotavirus diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, A.; Paul, G.; Snodgrass, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that lactose malabsorption is an important factor in producing the diarrhoea of acute rotavirus infection. Accordingly, the lactose tolerance of gnotobiotic newborn lambs, infected with lamb rotavirus, has been investigated by clinical studies and tissue enzyme assays. Although lactase activity is low in affected areas of the small intestine, rotavirus infected lambs are not lactose intolerant as assessed by the measurement of reducing substances in the faeces, or by the...

  8. Nifuroxazide in acute diarrhoea: OTC preparation. Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    (1) Nifuroxazide, an intestinal antibacterial agent, is now available in France, without a prescription, for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in adults. (2) According to the only available comparative randomised trial, there is no effect on dehydration. Relative to a placebo, the mean number of stools is reduced by about one per day during the first two days of treatment, with no significant difference thereafter. PMID:11503813

  9. Evaluation of the health, performance and economic effects on the general population from exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus from persistently infected animals in the starter phase of the feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects on health and performance in beef cattle resulting from exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) animals in a commercial feedlot. The study focused on economic effects associated with PI exposure during the ...

  10. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than by multiple acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...

  11. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature and serum proinflammatory cytokine and haptog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare immun...

  12. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature, peripheral blood leukocytes and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for preconditioned (PC) vs. auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM ca...

  13. A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Hug, Corinne; Zanoni, Reto; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2016-06-15

    Pestiviruses infect a wide variety of animals of the order Artiodactyla, with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) being an economically important pathogen of livestock globally. BVDV is maintained in the cattle population by infecting fetuses early in gestation and, thus, by generating persistently infected (PI) animals that efficiently transmit the virus throughout their lifetime. In 2008, Switzerland started a national control campaign with the aim to eradicate BVDV from all bovines in the country by searching for and eliminating every PI cattle. Different from previous eradication programs, all animals of the entire population were tested for virus within one year, followed by testing each newborn calf in the subsequent four years. Overall, 3,855,814 animals were tested from 2008 through 2011, 20,553 of which returned an initial BVDV-positive result. We were able to obtain samples from at least 36% of all initially positive tested animals. We sequenced the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of more than 7400 pestiviral strains and compiled the sequence data in a database together with an array of information on the PI animals, among others, the location of the farm in which they were born, their dams, and the locations where the animals had lived. To our knowledge, this is the largest database combining viral sequences with animal data of an endemic viral disease. Using unique identification tags, the different datasets within the database were connected to run diverse molecular epidemiological analyses. The large sets of animal and sequence data made it possible to run analyses in both directions, i.e., starting from a likely epidemiological link, or starting from related sequences. We present the results of three epidemiological investigations in detail and a compilation of 122 individual investigations that show the usefulness of such a database in a country-wide BVD eradication program.

  14. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general.

  15. A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Hug, Corinne; Zanoni, Reto; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2016-06-15

    Pestiviruses infect a wide variety of animals of the order Artiodactyla, with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) being an economically important pathogen of livestock globally. BVDV is maintained in the cattle population by infecting fetuses early in gestation and, thus, by generating persistently infected (PI) animals that efficiently transmit the virus throughout their lifetime. In 2008, Switzerland started a national control campaign with the aim to eradicate BVDV from all bovines in the country by searching for and eliminating every PI cattle. Different from previous eradication programs, all animals of the entire population were tested for virus within one year, followed by testing each newborn calf in the subsequent four years. Overall, 3,855,814 animals were tested from 2008 through 2011, 20,553 of which returned an initial BVDV-positive result. We were able to obtain samples from at least 36% of all initially positive tested animals. We sequenced the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of more than 7400 pestiviral strains and compiled the sequence data in a database together with an array of information on the PI animals, among others, the location of the farm in which they were born, their dams, and the locations where the animals had lived. To our knowledge, this is the largest database combining viral sequences with animal data of an endemic viral disease. Using unique identification tags, the different datasets within the database were connected to run diverse molecular epidemiological analyses. The large sets of animal and sequence data made it possible to run analyses in both directions, i.e., starting from a likely epidemiological link, or starting from related sequences. We present the results of three epidemiological investigations in detail and a compilation of 122 individual investigations that show the usefulness of such a database in a country-wide BVD eradication program. PMID:26403669

  16. From HeLa cell division to infectious diarrhoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, J.; Osborne, M.P.; Spencer, A.J.; Warley, A. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1990-09-01

    Hela S3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the G1/S interface. Cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. As cells moved into S and through M phases (Na) and (Cl) increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering G1 phase. The Na/K ratio was 1:1 in G1 phase. Infection of HeLa S3 cells in G1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular (Na). Infection of neonatal mice with murine rotavirus was localized to villus tip enterocytes and gave rise to diarrhoea which was maximal at 72h post-infection (p.i.). Diarrhoea was preceded by ischemia of villi (18-42h p.i.) and villus shortening (maximal at 42h p.i.), and was also coincident with a dramatic regrowth of villi. At 48h p.i. a proliferative zone of electron lucent cells was observed in villus base regions. Cryosections of infected gut, taken before, during, and after infection, together with corresponding age-matched controls, were freeze-dried and analysed by X-ray microanalysis. At 48h p.i. electron lucent villus base cells were shown to be more hydrated, and, to contain higher levels of both Na and Cl and lower levels of P, S, K and Mg than corresponding control cells. These studies increase confidence in the use of X-ray microanalysis in studying biological systems, provide some insight into the process of cell division, and constitute the basis of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.27 references.

  17. 内蒙古牛病毒性腹泻病毒血清学调查%Seroepidemiological Survey on Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童钦; 吕晓妍; 王炜; 项键

    2013-01-01

    To survey the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus on dairy in Inner Mongolia. Cytopathic biotype bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as neutralizing test antigen. 509 sera collected from 6 dairy farms in Ulanhot, Banyan Nur, Hohhot Areas were detected by neutralization test. The results showed that: 297 sera were positive, 6 dairy farms sera positive rate was 55.10%, 38.80%, 45.50%, 50.00%, 77.80%, 33.33% respectively. The average positive rate of Ulanhot, Banyan Nur, Hohhot was 77.80%, 48.70%, 33.33%, total positive rate was 58.35%. The results suggested that bovine viral diarrhea virus exist in dairy farms in Inner Mongolia.%为了解内蒙古自治区集约化养牛场病毒性腹泻的感染情况.用致细胞病变型牛病毒性腹泻病毒毒株制备中和抗原,通过中和实验对采自乌兰浩特、巴彦淖尔和呼和浩特地区6个集约化奶牛场的509份血清进行了牛病毒性腹泻病毒抗体检测.结果表明:共检出阳性血清297份,6个牛场的牛病毒性腹泻病毒血清阳性率分别为55.10%、38.80%、45.50%、50.00%、77.80%、33.33%;乌兰浩特、巴彦淖尔、呼和浩特这3个地区的平均阳性率分别为77.80%、48.70%、33.33%,总血清阳性率为58.35%.说明内蒙古地区存在牛病毒性腹泻病毒的感染,应采取相应的措施净化牛场.

  18. Prevalence and treatment of giardiasis in chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, P B; Marsh, M N; Phillips, M B; Dewit, O; Neale, G; Cevallos, A M; Yamson, P; Farthing, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of giardiasis in Gambian children with chronic diarrhoea and to assess their response to treatment, 31 children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition were investigated for giardiasis using a combination of serology (specific antigiardia IgM antibody) and microscopy of faeces and jejunal biopsy specimens. Fourteen of 31 children with chronic diarrhoea had giardiasis compared with only four of 33 healthy age and sex matched control children. Four of 15 malnourished...

  19. Development and evaluation of two truncated recombinant NP antigen-based indirect ELISAs for detection of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 antibodies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Feng-Xue; Sun, Na; Cao, Li; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Guo, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens in both young and adult cattle. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the most abundant viral protein and the main regulator of virus replication and transcription. In this study, amino acid sequence data of BPIV3 NP was used to identify potential linear epitopic regions, which were subsequently used to design truncated recombinant NP antigens. The amino-terminal region (aa 9-157, NP-N) and the carboxy-terminal region (aa 391-500, NP-C) were selected, and these two truncated recombinant BPIV3 NP proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli based on the results of prediction studies. Furthermore, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were established using the truncated recombinant BPIV3-N proteins as antigens, and 154 clinical samples were used to evaluate the newly established ELISA systems in comparison with a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as a reference. The results showed that a high coincidence rate was observed for the data that were obtained by the two methods. The sensitivity of NP-N ELISA and NP-C ELISA were 98.4% and 94.6%, respectively, and the specificity of both ELISAs was 100% with reference to the VNTs. Our data indicated that both ends of NP have high immunogenicity during BPIV3 infection and that they were good targets for serodiagnosis. The ELISAs based on the two truncated proteins were especially suitable for use in large-scale epidemiological investigations.

  20. Genetic Variability of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Evidence for a Possible Genetic Bottleneck during Vertical Transmission in Persistently Infected Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Natalie; Chernick, Adam; Orsel, Karin; van Marle, Guido; van der Meer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI) cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution.

  1. Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results. PMID:21461198

  2. [Construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying Lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Guozheng; Zhou, Jianhua; Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Xie, Qingge

    2008-05-01

    In this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain OA/58 RNAs were used as templates for RT-PCR. By the molecular cloning, the Lab gene encoding leader protease called Lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pBPSTR1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pBPSTR1-Lab. At different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (MDBK) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 microg/mL and tetracycline regulatory concentration was 1 microg/mL. Pseudotyped retroviral virus particles were produced by transiently co-tansfecting GP2-293 cells with a retroviral vector DNA and VSV-G plasmid. Then MDBK cells were infected by pseudotyped retroviral virus and were continually seeded in the medium at the optimal tetracycline regulatory concentration and puromycin selection concentration for 12 days to obtain puromycin resistant colonies whose genomes contained the Lab gene. After tetracycline removal, synthesis of Lpro induced severe morphological changes in the puromycin resistant MDBK cells. PCR and Western blotting proved that a stable MDBK cell line inducibly expressing the Lab gene under the control of tetracycline was obtained. The experiment might provide a basis for studying that Lpro of FMDV plays an important role in MDBK cell pathogenesis.

  3. Genetic Variability of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Evidence for a Possible Genetic Bottleneck during Vertical Transmission in Persistently Infected Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Dow

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution.

  4. Extended Genetic Diversity of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Frequency of Genotypes and Subtypes in Cattle in Italy between 1995 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Luzzago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus, recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5′ UTR sequences (n = 371 was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e, low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k or a restricted geographic distribution (1f, and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l. BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction.

  5. Extended genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus and frequency of genotypes and subtypes in cattle in Italy between 1995 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Giammarioli, Monica; Moreno, Ana; Cannella, Vincenza; Masoero, Loretta; Canelli, Elena; Guercio, Annalisa; Caruso, Claudio; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Mia, Gian Mario; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5' UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e), low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k) or a restricted geographic distribution (1f), and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l). BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction.

  6. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.; de Haas, B.; Berends, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. Derived from cattle experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(4) TCID(50)/mL, strain A Iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (N

  7. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  8. Cloning of 2.4 kb bovine herpes virus-1 DNA fragment containing glycoprotein III gene into pUC18 plasmid vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recombinant pBR322 plasmid containing bovine herpes virus-1 HindIII I fragment was analysed using EcoRI and BamHI restriction endonucleases. This recombinant plasmid was labelled with [alpha 32P]dATP and hybridized with southern blot of HindIII digested BHV-1 DNA fragments. A 2.4 kb double digested EcoRI-BamHI fragment of HindIII I was subcloned into pUC18 plasmid to get complete gIII gene. The recombinant pUC18 plasmid was analysed for 2.4 kb BHV-1 DNA insert by restriction digestion with EcoRI and BamHI. Southern blot of restriction digested plasmid was hybridized with [alpha 32P]dATP labelled BHV-1 DNA probe. (author). 17 refs., 4 figs

  9. Diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia in Danish cattle: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.;

    1999-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in lung tissue of naturally and experimentally infected cattle. Primers were selected from the gene coding the F fusion protein, which is relatively conserved...... among BRSV isolates. The RT-PCR assay was highly specific, it yielded positive reactions only when performed on BRSV-infected cell cultures or tissues. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was assessed as 5 TCID50. BRSV was detected in tissues of the respiratory tract and in the tracheobroncheal....... (7%), and Pasteurella haemolytica (7%) were the most common bacterial agents found in the lungs. BRSV was identified using a conventional antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 23 (17%) animals. The established BRSV-specific RT-PCR assay yielded positive results for the same 23 animals...

  10. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  12. Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikebuchi Ryoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection.

  13. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado Bovine leukemia virus detection in Creole Colombian breeds using nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC y Velásquez (VEL y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B y Holstein (H. Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR anidada. La presencia del VLB fue mayor en la raza HV seguido por ChS (83.3% y 60% respectivamente, VEL y LUC tuvieron el mismo porcentaje (50%, en CAS, CCC y CQT la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestra. El promedio de presencia en las razas criollas fue menor que en las foráneas, menor en los machos que en las hembras y en la región norte que en el suroccidente y el centro del país.Using 360 DNA samples from eight Creole bovine breeds Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS and San Martinero (SM, two synthetic Colombian breeds: Lucerna (LUC and Velásquez (VEL and two introduced breeds Brahmán (B and Holstein (H; the presence of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV was evaluated through the amplification of a viral gene region env (provirus detection - nested-PCR. The percentage of presence and independence test were calculated (X². Presence of BLV was higher in HV breed, followed by ChS (83.3% and 60% respectively; VEL and LUC breeds showed the same percentage (50%. In CAS, CCC and CQT the presence of virus was 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectively. On the other hand, no virus presence was

  14. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  15. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  16. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  17. Bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, S; Nørby Rasmussen, S; Lysgård Madsen, Jan;

    2003-01-01

    Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a cause of chronic diarrhoea, can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SeHCAT testing by assessing the extent of BAM and describing the clinical characteristics in a group of patients with chronic diarrhoea...

  18. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis: a case of chronic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonnesu, C; Giovinale, M; Verrecchia, E; De Socio, G; Cerquaglia, C; Curigliano, V; Soriano, A; Obici, L; Grieco, A; Lauriola, L; Gasbarrini, G; Manna, R

    2009-03-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. We describe a case of AL amyloidosis with a gastrointestinal involvement and restrictive cardiomiopathy. A 64 year old woman came to our attention with a history of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss, associated with dysphagia, dry mouth, xerophtalmia, chronic gastritis and depression. Clinical diagnosis has been difficult because of aspecificity of symptoms that mimed other more common diseases, like gastro-paresis, epigastric discomfort, gastric or duodenal ulcers, perforation, malabsorption, intestinal pseudo-obstruction. There is an important risk of misunderstanding and diagnostic delay. Indeed in this patient a diagnosis of irritable colon syndrome was erroneously established two years before admission in our hospital. Therefore gastrointestinal amyloidosis should be considered among differential diagnoses of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss when other more common diseases have been excluded. PMID:19530511

  19. Development and Application of One Step RT-PCR Method for Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒一步法RT-PCR检测方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春庆

    2013-01-01

    To establish a rapid bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) pathogen detection methods, based on BVDV gene sequence in GenBank, we synthesized one pair of primers, established one step RT-PCR for BVDV detection. The method was used for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), bovine para influenza virus 3 (BPIV3) , all of the PCR results were negative, the sensitivity was 1 ng RNA. The established one step PCR method had good specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, it could detect very low levels of BVDV quickly and accurately, it provided a kind of rapid, sensitive, specific and precise molecular biology detection method for pathogen detection and molecular epidemiology of material such as BVDV.%为建立一种快速检测牛病毒性腹泻病毒病原的方法,本研究根据GenBank上登录的牛病毒性腹泻病毒(bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)基因组序列,设计1对引物,建立了检测BVDV的一步法RT-PCR方法.该方法对牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒、猪瘟病毒、牛副流感病毒3型的扩增结果均为阴性,检测的敏感性达1 ng RNA.该一步法RT-PCR方法具有良好的特异性、敏感性、重复性,可以准确快速检测出极低含量的BVDV,将为BVDV的病原检测及分子流行病学调查等提供一种快速、灵敏、特异、准确的分子生物学检测方法.

  20. Entamoeba species associated with chronic diarrhoea in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, J; Abbas, Z; Beg, M A; Naz, S; Khan, R; Jafri, W

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence of Entamoeba (E.) histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii in patients with chronic diarrhoea associated with abdominal pain or discomfort mimicking irritable bowel syndrome. Stool samples were collected from 161 patients with chronic diarrhoea and from 157 healthy controls. Stool microscopy with modified trichrome stain, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Entamoeba spp. differentiation was performed. Microscopy demonstrated Entamoeba cysts in 44% (57/129) of patients with diarrhoea compared to 29% (44/151) of controls (P=0·009). In patients with diarrhoea, PCR for E. histolytica was positive in 9% (11/129) (P=0·008), E. dispar in 19% (24/129) (P=0·117) and E. moshkovskii in 19% (24/129) (P<0·001). E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii were significantly associated with diarrhoea while E. dispar was found equally in both groups.

  1. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon

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    Moes Lorin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. Results To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical

  2. Association of TNF-α gene promoter region polymorphisms in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle with different proviral loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendez, Pamela Anahi; Passucci, Juan Antonio; Poli, Mario Andres; Gutierrez, Silvina Elena; Dolcini, Guillermina Laura; Ceriani, Maria Carolina

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the immune response against viral and other infections. Its expression levels are affected by a polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene. Bovine leukemia virus is a retrovirus that infects cattle and develops two different infection profiles in the host. One profile is characterized by a high number of proviral copies integrated into the host genome and a strong immune response against the virus, while the most relevant property of the other profile is that the number of copies integrated into the host genome is almost undetectable and the immune response is very weak. We selected a population of cattle sufficiently large for statistical analysis and classified them according to whether they had a high or low proviral load (HPL or LPL). Polymorphisms in the promoter region were identified by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated that, in the HPL group, the three possible genotypes were normally distributed and that, in the LPL group, there was a significant association between the proviral load and a low frequency of the G/G genotype at position -824.

  3. Expression of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 in Yeast Pichia pastoris and its Application to an ELISA for Detection of BVDV Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.

  4. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

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    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  5. Hot topic: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows with low proviral load are not a source of infection for BLV-free cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Barrios, Clarisa N; Ceriani, M Carolina; Esteban, Eduardo N

    2016-06-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes leukemia or lymphoma in cattle. Although most BLV-infected animals do not develop the disease, they maintain the transmission chain of BLV at the herd level. As a feasible approach to control the virus, selection of cattle carrying the BoLA-DRB3*0902 allele has been proposed, as this allele is strongly associated with a BLV infection profile or the low proviral load (LPL) phenotype. To test whether these cattle affect the BLV transmission chain under natural conditions, selected BLV-infected LPL-BoLA-DRB3*0902 heterozygous cows were incorporated into a BLV-negative dairy herd. An average ratio of 5.4 (range 4.17-6.37) BLV-negative cows per BLV-infected cow was maintained during the 20mo of the experiment, and no BLV-negative cattle became infected. The BLV incidence rate in this herd was thus zero, whereas BLV incidence rates in different local herds varied from 0.06 to 0.17 cases per 100 cattle-days. This finding strongly suggests that LPL-BoLA-DRB3*0902 cattle disrupted the BLV-transmission chain in the study period.

  6. Evidence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infection in Three Species of Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Nevada: Life History Strategies May Maintain Endemic Infections in Wild Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peregrine L; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species. PMID:27014215

  7. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak. PMID:25644051

  8. EVALUATION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES CAUSING DIARRHOEA IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

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    Uday Shankar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opportunistic parasitic infections are among the most serious infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients and claim a number of lives every year. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to elucidate the association between intestinal opportunistic parasitic infection and CD4 (CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV positive patients. METHODS The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, on 50 HIV positive patients admitted to or attending the OPD of a tertiary healthcare centre in Kolhapur during the period from June 2013 to June 2015. Air dried smears from stool samples were stained by modified Acid fast stain, directly and after formol ether concentration technique for demonstrating oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, I. belli and C. cayetanensis. RESULTS Intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 54% patients and the major pathogens included Cryptosporidium parvum (18%, the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica (14%, Giardia lamblia (10%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6% and 4% each of Isospora belli, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSION Intestinal parasitic infections caused diarrhoea in fifty four percent of patients, which was much more than the control group (16%. Proportion of opportunistic pathogens in patients with CD4 count 200-499 and > 500 cells/mm3 .

  9. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

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    V.L. Quadros

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves born persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV frequently develop a fatal gastroenteric illness called mucosal disease. Both the original virus (ncpBVDV and an antigenically identical but cytopathic virus (cpBVDV can be isolated from animals affected by mucosal disease. Cytopathic BVDVs originate from their ncp counterparts by diverse genetic mechanisms, all leading to the expression of the non-structural polypeptide NS3 as a discrete protein. In contrast, ncpBVDVs express only the large precursor polypeptide, NS2-3, which contains the NS3 sequence within its carboxy-terminal half. We report here the investigation of the mechanism leading to NS3 expression in 41 cpBVDV isolates. An RT-PCR strategy was employed to detect RNA insertions within the NS2-3 gene and/or duplication of the NS3 gene, two common mechanisms of NS3 expression. RT-PCR amplification revealed insertions in the NS2-3 gene of three cp isolates, with the inserts being similar in size to that present in the cpBVDV NADL strain. Sequencing of one such insert revealed a 296-nucleotide sequence with a central core of 270 nucleotides coding for an amino acid sequence highly homologous (98% to the NADL insert, a sequence corresponding to part of the cellular J-Domain gene. One cpBVDV isolate contained a duplication of the NS3 gene downstream from the original locus. In contrast, no detectable NS2-3 insertions or NS3 gene duplications were observed in the genome of 37 cp isolates. These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology.

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of genetic variation on NS2-3 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (HB-DCZ) strain in Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuelan; QIN Jianhua; GUO Hongbin; ZUO Yuzhu; ZHANG Baoning; ZHANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the genetic characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain (HB-DCZ strain) isolated from China and describe its relationship with other BVDV strains.Special primers (forward:5'- gagatctcgggaggtac -3',reverse:5'-cctctcggcatgatcccgaaa -3) are used to amplify partial NS2-3 sequence of HB-DCZ strain by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The product of PCR is cloned into pMD18-T vector,and then transfected into JM109.The recombinant plasmids are extracted and identified by EcoR Ⅰand Hind Ⅲ enzyme digestion.The NS 2-3 nucleotide fragment of the isolated virus is sequenced,and then amino acid sequence is deduced.Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the strain are analyzed and compared with other BVDV strains from Genebank with the aid of DNAstar software.The results show that the obtained fragment of HB-DCZ strain contains 665 bp nucleotides,which indicate that there is no insertion in the isolated virus genome.The homologies of nucleotide sequences show that HB-DCZ strain has 99.1%,97.4%,92.3%,77%,76.9%,76.4% and 76.2%,sequence similarity with 184,ZM195,Osloss,Oregon C24V,Singer,NADL,and S D-I,respectively.According to the nucleotide sequences of the obtained fragments,the 208 corresponding amino acids are deduced.The homologies of amino acid sequences show that HB-DCZ strain had 100%,93.3%,91.3% and 83.2% sequence similarity with VEDEVAC,Osloss,ILLC and Oregon C24V,respectively.In conclusion,HB-DCZ strain has no exogenous sequence insertion,no gene recombination,no gene rearrangement and no gene deficiency.HB-DCZ strain is closely related to BVDV Osloss strain,and belongs to subtype Ib.

  11. Aislamiento y caracterización del virus de la diarrea viral bovina en un ternero con síndrome purpúrico Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolated from cattle with hemorrhagic syndrome

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    A Gollán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB produce en el ganado bovino numerosas patologías que van desde pérdidas reproductivas hasta afecciones de poca significación clínica en el aparato digestivo. Se ha reportado variabilidad entre las cepas de VDVB, que se manifiesta por la existencia de los biotipos citopatogénicos (CP y no citopatogénicos (NCP, y los tipos virales I y II. El presente trabajo describe los hallazgos patológicos y virológicos en un ternero que clínicamente exhibió trombocitopenia y diarrea. La cepa viral aislada (334/3 fue caracterizada molecularmente por secuenciación de la región 5' no-codificante (5' RNC. Los análisis realizados revelaron un 90-98% de homología con las cepas de referencia tipo I, no encontrándose cambios asociados a las cepas VDVB tipo II.The Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV virus causes numerous pathologies that range from reproductive losses to infections of little clinical significance in the bovine digestive tract. Variation have been reported among the strains of the BVDV, which are classified into two biotypes; cytopathogenic (CP and non-cytopathogenic (NCP, and the viral types I and II. This work describes the pathological findings in a calf with diarrhea and severe thrombocytopenia. The strain isolated (334/3 was molecularly characterized by sequencing of the 5’non-coding region (5’ NCR. These analyses revealed 90-98% homologies with reference strains type I strains and the changes associated with BVDV type II, were not found.

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

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    Robert G Schaut

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp or non-cytopathic (ncp effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs. Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp, noncytopathic (ncp, high (hv or low virulence (lv BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections.

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaut, Robert G; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  14. Cost Of Treatment In Fatal Diarrhoea In Under Fives

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    Kaur Paramjeet

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: How much is the cost borne out by the family for treatment of fatal diarrhoea in rural settings? Objective: To assess the money spent in the treatment of fatal diarrhoea in under fives. Study design: Cross- sectional. Settings: Rural areas. Sample size: 95 under five deaths amongst 2094 under five children. Participants: Parents of deceased children. Study variables: Causes of deaths, type of treatment facility, cost treatment. Analysis: Simple proportions. Results: It was observed that the cost of treatment of fatal diarrhoea went up when the physicians were changed frequently during the course of treatment and also when a practitioner from outside village was consulted.

  15. Monitoring the immune response to vaccination with an inactivated vaccine associated to bovine neonatal pancytopenia by deep sequencing transcriptome analysis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasius, Wiebke; Weikard, Rosemarie; Hadlich, Frieder; Müller, Kerstin Elisabeth; Kühn, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a new fatal, alloimmune/alloantibody mediated disease of new-born calves induced by ingestion of colostrum from cows, which had been vaccinated with a specific vaccine against the Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV). The hypothesis of pathogenic MHC class I molecules in the vaccine had been put up, but no formal proof of specific causal MHC class I alleles has been provided yet. However, the unique features of the vaccine obviously result in extremely high specific antibody titres in the vaccinated animals, but apparently also in further molecules inducing BNP. Thus, a comprehensive picture of the immune response to the vaccine is essential. Applying the novel approach of next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq), our study provides a new holistic, comprehensive analysis of the blood transcriptome regulation after vaccination with the specific BVDV vaccine. Our RNAseq approach identified a novel cytokine-like gene in the bovine genome that is highly upregulated after vaccination. This gene has never been described before in any other species and might be specific to ruminant immune response. Furthermore, our data revealed a very coordinated immune response to double-stranded (ds) RNA or a dsRNA analogue after vaccination with the inactivated single-stranded (ss) RNA vaccine. This would suggest either a substantial contamination of the vaccine with dsRNA from host cells after virus culture or a dsRNA analogue applied to the vaccine. The first option would highlight the potential risks associated with virus culture on homologous cells during vaccine production; the latter option would emphasise the potential risks associated with immune stimulating adjuvants used in vaccine production. PMID:24099437

  16. Differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Molecular studies have demonstrated that Lpro inhibits the translation of host capped mRNAs and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. Here...

  17. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burny Arsène

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. Results In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303 replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303 had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected cells were present at the same time, but at distinct sites. While there was potentially-active provirus in the non-leukemic blood B-cell population, as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture and injection into naïve sheep, virus expression was completely suppressed in the malignant B-cells isolated from the lymphoid tumors despite the absence of genetic alterations in the proviral genome. These observations suggest that silencing of viral genes, including the oncoprotein Tax, is associated with tumor onset. Conclusion Our findings suggest that silencing is critical for tumor progression and identify two distinct mechanisms-genetic and epigenetic-involved in the complete suppression of virus and Tax expression. We demonstrate that, in contrast to systems that require sustained oncogene expression, the major viral transforming protein Tax can be turned-off without reversing the transformed phenotype. We propose that suppression

  18. 牛病毒性腹泻病二价弱毒活疫苗制备工艺研究%Study on Preparation Technique of Divalent Attenuated Virus Live Vaccine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 苗利光; 刘艳环; 朱言柱; 安亚雄; 王坤; 冯卓

    2013-01-01

    研究了BVDV2/JZ05-1和BVDV1/JZ05-3二价弱毒活疫苗的制备工艺.通过对BVDV2/JZ05-1和BVDV1/JZ05-3疫苗毒传代培养测定毒价后,试制出5批毒价分别是10.4TCID50/mL和105.6TCID50/mL的BVDV二价弱毒活疫苗,经检验符合试验设计要求.%The aim of this study was to explore the preparation technique of divalent attenuated virus live vaccine of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2/JZ05-1(BVDV2/JZ05-1) and BVDV1/JZ05-3.BVDV2/JZ05-1 and BVDV1/JZ05-3 were continuously cultivated in cell culture.The poison titor was examined.5 groups of divalent attenuated BVDV live vaccine were produced.The poison prices were 105.4TCID50/mL and 105.6TCID50/mL,respectively.The vaccines were examined and was within the range of the test design requirement.

  19. Cytokine mRNA expression in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistently infected bovine pharynx cultures: effect of IFNgamma on replication of persistent virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphtovirus, causes a highly contagious disease in livestock. Following acute infection in ruminants, up to 50% of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers with low-l...

  20. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Khin-Maung-U; Myo-Khin; Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai; Aye-Kyaw; Tin-U

    1985-01-01

    Four hundred adults presenting with acute watery diarrhoea were entered into a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial of berberine, tetracycline, and tetracycline and berberine to study the antisecretory and vibriostatic effects of berberine. Of 185 patients with cholera, those given tetracycline or tetracycline and berberine had considerably reduced volume and frequency of diarrhoeal stools, duration of diarrhoea, and volumes of required intravenous and oral rehydration ...