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Sample records for bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease (BVD/MD) in Lesser Mousedeer

    OpenAIRE

    Semrau, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Infections of cattle with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from subclinical infections to fatal disease. Infection of susceptible pregnant cattle can result in early embryonic death, abortion, congenital defects or birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf. An initially normal clinical appearance associated with lifelong shedding of large amounts of virus particles is the hallmark of PI animals. When superinfected with a cytopathoge...

  2. 河南省奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病血清学调查%Serological Survey of Bovine Viral Diarrhea-mucosal Disease in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冬梅; 张华; 邓红雨; 刘太宇; 王金合

    2011-01-01

    为了解河南省奶牛病毒性腹泻一黏膜病的发生情况,2009年5月对河南省的豫东、豫西、豫南、豫北和郑州市五区域20个奶牛小区的355头奶牛随机采血,采用ELISA方法,检测奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病血清抗体,结果显示20个奶牛小区有17个奶牛小区感染有病毒性腹泻-黏膜病病毒,场感染率为85%,各小区奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病检测阳性率在0%~88.24%,血清阳性率平均为53.8%,表明该病在河南省奶牛中感染率较高.%The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease in Henan Province. 355 bovine sera from twenty cattle breeding farms in different parts of Henan province was collected and antibodies to Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were detected by ELISA. The result showed that 85 percent of twenty cattle breeding farms were infected by Bovine viral diarrhea virus. The highest positive rate in cattle breeding farms was 88.24 percent, and the average rate also arrived at 53.8 percent. It indicated that the Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease was widespread in the cattle breeding farms of Henan province.

  3. 内蒙古地区奶牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病血清流行病学调查%Serum Epidemiology Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrhea-mucosal Disease in Inner Mongolia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智勇; 石顺利; 王艳杰; 陈德浩; 李平安; 关平原

    2014-01-01

    应用ELLSA试验对来自内蒙古地区17个大﹑中﹑小型奶牛场的2391份牛血清样品进行了牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病抗体检测,并对其中222份抗体阴性牛应用ELISA试验进行牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病的抗原检测。结果表明:17个奶牛场均检出BVDV抗体阳性,共检出阳性血清2125份,阳性率最高达100%,最低为46.8%,平均为88.9%。对14个奶牛场进行了BVDV抗原检测,在5个奶牛场检出BVDV抗原阳性,阳性率为3.6%(8/222)。表明内蒙古地区奶牛场普遍存在牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病感染,感染率较高,并且牛群中存在持续性感染(PI)牛。%2 391 bovine serum samples were collected from 17 dairy farms of Inner Mongolia to detect the antibody level of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease by ELISA. The antigen detection of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease was made on 222 antibody-negative serum samples by ELISA. The results showed that positive BVDV antibody was detected in 17 dairy farms. And there were 2 125 positive serum samples,and the highest positive rate was 100%and the lowest positive rate was 46.8%and the average positive rate was 88.9%. BVDV antigens in 14 dairy farms were detected and that in 5 dairy farms were positive. The positive rate was 3.6%(8/222). It was shown that the bovine viral diarrhea generally existed in dairy farms of Inner Mongolia with higher infection rate. And persistent infection (PI) cattle were existed in cow herd.

  4. The Review of the Detection Technology for Bovine Viral Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease%牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 王建华; 王万骞

    2014-01-01

    This paper gave a review of the diagnostic methods including virus isolation, agar gel immunodiffusion, virus micro-neutralization test, fluorescent antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nucleic acid hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, introduced seven technology to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus, and provided references for the further research of bovine viral diarrhea virus.%对牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的病毒分离、琼脂扩散试验、微量中和试验、免疫荧光技术、酶联免疫吸附试验、核酸杂交技术、聚合酶链反应等检测技术进行了综述,对7种技术运用于牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的检测作了简要介绍,为进一步研究牛病毒性腹泻病毒提供参考。

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  6. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  7. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  8. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  9. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  12. Progress on Yak Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease%牦牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家奎

    2013-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病(BVD)是由牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)引起的一种极为复杂,呈多种临床症状类型表现的疾病.目前,该病毒在世界范围内广泛分布,是造成全球乳/肉牛业经济损失的主要病原.本文针对我国牦牛BVD的发病状况进行分析,并对今后牦牛BVD防控进行了展望.%Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV),this disease is extremely complex with various clinical symptoms. Currently, BVDV is widely distributed in the world, and is a major pathogen causing economic losses of global milk/beef cattle industry. In this paper, the incidence of yak BVD in China is outlined, and how to prevent and control yak BVD is also prospected.

  13. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M.; Herrler, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this pu...

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  15. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  16. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1) isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  17. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  18. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Thea; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serol...

  19. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  20. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  1. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Devendra K.; Paul Lawrence; Steve J. Pauszek; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Elizabeth Rieder

    2016-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhini...

  2. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  3. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  4. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  5. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  6. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  7. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Pauszek, Steve J.; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhinitis A virus (BRAV). Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models for Aphthoviruses, including BRAV RS3X and foot-and-mouth disease virus, we observed no clear evidence for genomic regions undergoing positive selection. However, within each of the BRV species, multiple sites under positive selection were detected. The results also suggest that the probability (determined by Recombination Detection Program) for recombination events between BRVs and other Aphthoviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus was not significant. In contrast, within BRVs, the probability of recombination increases. The data reported here provide genetic information to assist in the identification of diagnostic signatures and research tools for BRAV. PMID:27081310

  8. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  9. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-[35S]-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus

  10. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-(/sup 35/S)-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus.

  11. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  12. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  13. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  14. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  15. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  16. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  17. 牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病的诊断与防治%Diagnosis and Cure of Bovine Viral Diarrhea-mucosal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 奏建华

    2008-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病是由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起的一种复杂、呈多种临床类型的疾病.临床上以发热、黏膜溃疡糜烂、白细胞减少、腹泻、怀孕母牛流产或产畸型胎儿为主要特征.根据发病情况、临床特征、剖检变化、实验室诊断等情况,对牛病毒性腹泻病毒感染的病例进行了诊断,采取了相应的防治措施,取得了较好的效果.

  18. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  19. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Njiro; C.M. Nkosi

    2009-01-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) proce...

  20. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  2. Genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus outside the 3A region is also responsible for virus replication in bovine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Lu, Zengjun; Bao, Huifang; Bai, Xingwen; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-07-15

    The deletion of residues 93-102 in non-structure protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and attenuated virulence in cattle.Whereas, a previously reported FMDV strain O/HKN/21/70 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew equally well in bovine and swine cells. This suggests that changes inFMDV genome sequence, in addition to 93-102 deletion in 3A, may also affectthe viral growth phenotype in bovine cellsduring infection and replication.However, it is nuclear that changes in which region (inside or outside of 3A region) influences FMDV growth phenotype in bovine cells.In this study, to determine the region in FMDV genomeaffecting viral growth phenotype in bovine cells, we constructed chimeric FMDVs, rvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A, by introducing the 3A coding region of O/HKN/21/70 into the context of O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 and O Cathay topotype strain O/HN/CHA/93, respectively, since O/GZSB/2011 containing full-length 3A protein replicated well in bovine and swine cells, and O/HN/CHA/93 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew poorly in bovine cells.The chimeric virusesrvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus rvGZSB and rv-HN in BHK-21 and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. However, rvHN-HKN3A and rv-HN replicated poorly in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells with no visible plaques, and rvGZSB-HKN3A exhibited lower growth rate and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in FBK cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the difference present in FMDV genome sequence outside the 3A coding region also have influence on FMDV replication ability in bovine cells. PMID:27094491

  3. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  4. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Njiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP. Diaminobenzidine (DAB was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium.

  5. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tråvén Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great

  6. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  7. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  8. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  9. Identification of short hairpin RNA targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.

  10. Sequences derived from the highly antigenic VP1 region 140 to 160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not prime for a bovine T-cell response against intact virus.

    OpenAIRE

    van Lierop, M J; Wagenaar, J P; Van Noort, J M; Hensen, E J

    1995-01-01

    Although VP1 region 140 to 160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is able to elicit neutralizing antibody in cattle, the protection against virus challenge that is conferred by peptide immunization is often poor. Here, we show that bovine T cells primed with peptides derived from this region generally show no reactivity to intact FMDV. In contrast, T-cell epitope VP4[20-34] is able to prime for a virus-specific response.

  11. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis

  12. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  13. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  14. Construction and immunogenicity of the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuelan; Jiang, Lufeng; Liu, Teng; Wang, Min; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution, creating a substantial economic impact. It is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This research was conducted to construct the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of BVDV E0 gene and to test its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against BVDV infection in the mice model. The BVDV E0 gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector and then transformed into the L. acidophilus LA-5 strain by electroporation. The recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. The mice were immunized orally with the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The serum IgG antibody and fecal sIgA antibody responses, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were detected respectively. On the 7th day after the last-immunization, the mice were inoculated with BVDV to evaluate the protective efficiency of the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The results showed that the expressed products protein E0 in the L. acidophilus LA-5 resulted in single band of 27kDa by SDS-PAGE and its strong reactivity with BVDV antibody was confirmed by Western blotting. The IgG and sIgA antibodies responses, IL-12 and IFN-γ expression levels in the vaccinated mice with recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 were significantly higher than those in the control mice. The protective rate of the vaccinated mice against BVDV increased significantly, and a 90.00% protection rate in virulent challenge was observed. These results indicated that the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 strain was successfully constructed and it could effectively improve the immune response in mice and might provide protection against BVDV. PMID:26386184

  15. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  16. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gershwin, LJ; Van Eenennaam, AL; Anderson, ML; McEligot, HA; Shao, MX; Toaff-Rosenstein, R; Taylor, JF; Neibergs, HL; Womack, J.; Complex, BRD

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella ...

  17. A Continuous Bovine Kidney Cell Line Constitutively Expressing Bovine αVβ6 Integrin Has Increased Susceptibility to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    LaRocco, Michael; Krug, Peter W; Kramer, Ed; Ahmed, Zaheer; Pacheco, Juan M.; Duque, Hernando; Baxt, Barry; Luis L Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a worldwide problem limiting the trade of animals and their products from affected countries. The rapid isolation, serotyping, and vaccine matching of FMD virus from disease outbreaks is critical for enabling the implementation of effective vaccination programs and to stop the spread of infection during outbreaks. Some primary cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to most strains of FMD virus (FMDV) but are difficult and expensive to prepare and mainta...

  18. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  19. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  20. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall...

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus diarrhea susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and five controls)....

  2. Inhibition of EHMT2 Induces a Robust Antiviral Response Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infections in Bovine Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Ramĩrez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; de Los Santos, Teresa; Golding, Michael C; Long, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    The genetic regulatory network controlling the innate immune system is well understood in many species. However, the role of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the expression of immunoregulatory genes is less clear, especially in livestock species. Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing within the euchromatin regions. Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2; also known as G9a) is a crucial enzyme responsible for regulating the dynamics of this epigenetic modification. It has been shown that histone modifications play a role in regulating type I interferon (IFN) response. In the present study, we investigated the role of EHMT2 in the epigenetic regulation of bovine antiviral innate immunity and explored its therapeutic potential against viral infections. We evaluated the effects of pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of EHMT2 on the transcription of IFN-β and other IFN-inducible antiviral genes, as well as its effect on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication in bovine cells. We show that treatment of primary bovine cells with the synthetic EHMT2 inhibitor (UNC0638) either before or shortly after virus infection resulted in a significant increase in transcript levels of bovine IFN-β (boIFN-β; 300-fold) and other IFN-inducible genes, including IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG-15), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx-1), Mx-2, RIG-I, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), and protein kinase R (PKR). Expression of these factors correlated with a significant decrease in VSV and FMDV viral titers. Our data confirm the involvement of EHMT2 in the epigenetic regulation of boIFN-β and demonstrate the activation of a general antiviral state after EHMT2 inhibition. PMID:26418342

  3. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiro, S M; Nkosi, C M

    2009-12-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. PMID:20458863

  4. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE DOS TÉCNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO PARA DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA (DVB EN 50 PREDIOS DE LA X REGIÓN, CHILE: SERONEUTRALIZACIÓN Y ENZIMOINMUNOENSAYO INDIRECTO (ELISA-I* Comparison of two diagnostic techniques to bovine viral diarrhea disease (BVD in 50 dairy herds from the Xth Region, Chile: Seroneutralization test and indirect immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G REINHARDT

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea/Mucosal disease (BVD/MD is a highly spread virosis worldwide and has a great impact in bovine reproduction and production. In Chile, the disease has been reported with over 60% of prevalence and it demands adecuate diagnostic methods. Curently the official serologic diagnostic test in Chile is the serum neutralization test (SNT, this method detects the presence of antibodies against the BVD virus and it is considered to have good specificity and sensitivity, althought, it presents some disadvantages in its interpretation and in its execution. The aim of this investigation was to compare de SNT as gold standard, with a commercial immunosorbent assay (ELISA, in terms of specificity and sensitivity in the detection of antibodies against BVD antigens. A set of 500 bovine sera drawn from 50 milk herds from the Xth Region of Chile were analized. The results showed that the SNT detected 278 serum samples as positives and the ELISA detected 347 serum samples as positives, these represents for ELISA test a relative sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 57%, respectively. Statistically significant differences of the serodiagnosis obtained in both tests were established through the McNemar test (<0.05, and a median concordance between them through the Kappa test. When the SNT titers were related with the optical densities (OD of ELISA, a positive association was detected between this values. It was concluded that ELISA provides good results in comparison with SNT, having the former a higher number of detections because its dignostic higher sensitivity. Therefore, ELISA is an appropiate diagnostic method for large populations of cattle

  5. Estimating transfer of bovine virus-diarrhoea virus in Danish cattle by use of register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stryhn, H.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Skjøth, F.; Christensen, J.; Bitsch, V.; Chriél, Mariann; Strøger, U.

    2001-01-01

    To study how routinely recorded data (also called "register data") might be used in disease monitoring on a regional or national level, a database for bovine virus-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was made from existing databases, covering the period January 1995-November 1999. This paper includes a general...

  6. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vaughan; Yuko Nakamura-Lopez; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    2012-01-01

    The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enor...

  7. Characterization of an Experimental Vaccine for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Kefei; Blodörn, Krister; Makabi-Panzu, Boby; Gaillard, Anne-Laure; Ellencrona, Karin; Chevret, Didier; Hellman, Lars; Bengtsson, Karin Lövgren; Riffault, Sabine; Taylor, Geraldine; Valarcher, Jean François; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are major causes of respiratory disease in calves and children, respectively, and are priorities for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that an experimental vaccine, BRSV-immunostimulating complex (ISCOM), is effective in calves with maternal antibodies. The present study focuses on the antigenic characterization of this vaccine for the design of new-generation subunit vaccines. The results of ...

  8. Human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Gilles; Deplanche, Martine; Schelcher, François

    2008-01-01

    Human (HRSV) and bovine (BRSV) respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) are two closely related viruses, which are the most important causative agents of respiratory tract infections of young children and calves, respectively. BRSV vaccines have been available for nearly 2 decades. They probably have reduced the prevalence of RSV infection but their efficacy needs improvement. In contrast, despite decades of research, there is no currently licensed vaccine for the prevention of HRSV disease. Devel...

  9. Vaccination against δ-retroviruses: the bovine leukemia virus paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  10. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  11. Differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Molecular studies have demonstrated that Lpro inhibits the translation of host capped mRNAs and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. Here...

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  13. Vaccination against bovine herpes mammillitis virus infections in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, D F; Leonhardt, J A

    1994-01-01

    Bovine herpes mammillitis virus or bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BHV-2) causes ulcerative lesions on the teats and udders of infected cows. Since no commercial vaccine is available for this disease, we investigated certain experimental BHV-2 vaccines against this virus in infected guinea pigs. Vaginally infected guinea pigs get severe, self-limiting vaginal infections characterized by erythema and swelling and the production of measurable vaginal virus titers. Two vaccine approaches were investigated: vaccination with wild-type (WT) virus by the subcutaneous route, and vaccination either subcutaneously or intravaginally with a thymidine kinase (TK) deficient (TK-) virus. The TK- strain was prepared by passage of BHV-2 in the presence of the potent TK-dependent antiviral agent 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAU). The antiviral activity of FMAU against the virus in plaque reduction assays changed from 0.05 to 2 microM at the same time that the TK activity of the mutant virus decrease to 7% of WT virus TK activity. Subcutaneous vaccination of guinea pigs with WT and TK- viruses did not induce vaginal infection. Primary vaginal infection (vaccination) with the TK- virus led to greatly reduced lesion severity compared to vaginal infection with the WT virus. However, the amount of vaginal virus titers recovered during these primary infections was similar for both TK- and WT viruses, indicating that both viruses had equal infecting potential. Thirty days after vaccination the animals were re-infected intravaginally with WT virus. The vaccinated animals showed dramatically reduced lesion severity and low recoverable virus titers compared to age-matched nonvaccinated animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7928285

  14. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)

  16. Cytokine mRNA expression in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistently infected bovine pharynx cultures: effect of IFNgamma on replication of persistent virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphtovirus, causes a highly contagious disease in livestock. Following acute infection in ruminants, up to 50% of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers with low-l...

  17. Identification and analysis of putative promoter motifs in bovine herpes virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh Mallikrjun; Sanakal, Rajeshwari Danappa; Kaliwal, Basappa Basaveneppa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the putative promoter motifs in the bovine herpes virus which causes several diseases in cattle worldwide including bovine mastitis with large economic impact on dairy industry. Bovine mastitis caused due to virus is often neglected as bacterial infections are held mainly responsible for the disease. Therefore, in this in silico investigation with all the existing experimental data a total of 147 promoter were identified along with their sequences from three genome viz bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV), bovine herpes virus 4 and bovine herpes virus 5, out of which 39 promoters were from bovine herpes virus 4 (BHV 4), 95 from BHV1 and 13 from BHV5 and it was observed that BHV1 and BHV5 have a close evolutionary history. However, they belong to the same subfamily and size of the genome and GC% of BHV1 and BHV5 was almost equal and very high compare to that of BHV4. This analysis may help in designing the live attenuated vaccine against BHV causing bovine mastitis that reduces the incidence of bovine mastitis. Identification of promoters may also help in designing of expression vectors which help in better understanding of the regulation of gene expression. In the era of large genomics and proteomics prediction of promoters in the whole genome is crucial for the advancement of drug discovery and gene therapy. PMID:23275714

  18. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  19. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  1. Complete genome sequences of both biotypes of a virus pair of bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotype 1k

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Antunes de Oliveira, Adriano; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst; Sauter, Kay Sara; Schweizer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequences of both biotypes of a virus pair of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subgenotype 1k. The viruses were isolated from a persistently infected calf suffering from mucosal disease. Compared to the noncytopathic biotype, the cytopathic biotype contains an insertion of 84 nucleotides and 22 nucleotide changes.

  2. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. It is controlled with vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected animals. The objective was to determine whether genomic regions harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  4. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Merlini, Ramiro; Rondelli, Flavia; Trono, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calve...

  5. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT)...

  6. Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F.; Valayudhan, Binu T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (BPI3V) are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection against the virus, but there is no current information regarding the BPI3V strains that are circulating in the U.S. Results A project was initiated to sequence archival BPI3V isolates to study vira...

  7. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...

  8. Establishment and Initial Application of RT- PCR for Quick Detectionof Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒反转录PCR快速检测方法的建立与初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倬; 田镔; 李明生; 平玲

    2012-01-01

    根据GenBank中登录的牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)5'非编码区基因序列,设计合成了1对特异性引物,建立了检测BVDV的反转录PCR快速检测方法.通过对该方法的特异性、敏感性和重复性进行试验,结果显示,该方法从BVDV标准毒株Oregon C24V中扩增出267 bp的特异性片段,该方法重复性好,反应批内检测结果相同.与牛轮状病毒、牛冠状病毒、猪瘟病毒和F4新生牛肾传代正常细胞无交叉反应,具有高度的特异性,而且敏感性高,最低检出限为10~1.84 TCID50/mL.利用该方法对42份临床腹泻病牛疑似粪便样品进行了检测,结果检出7份阳性,而同时利用IDEXX公司抗原检测试剂盒检出阳性只有6份.表明,建立的该方法具有快速、敏感、特异等优点,是牛病毒性腹泻病毒病的临床诊断和流行病学调查的有力工具.%A reverse transcription- coupled PCR(RT- PCR) assay for quick detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) was established using a pair of specific primers based on the 5"UTR gene of BVDV published in GenBank. The results showed that this method could specifically amplify a 267 bp fragment from BVDV Oregon C24 V strain, reproducibility of this assay were reliable and the results were fully consistent. The specificity test proved that this assay had a high specificity which had no cross- reaction with bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, classical swine fever virus and normal F4 NBPC cells. The assay also had good sensitivity, and the detection limit was up to 10-- 1.84 TCID50/mL. 7 positive of 42 samples from clinical diarrhea bovine were detected by RT- PCR and only 6 positive were detected by IDEXX diagnostic kit test at the same time. The results revealed that established RT - PCR assay possessed some advantages such as fast, sensitive and specific. It may be used for clinical diagnosis and the epidemiologic survey of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease as a powerful tool.

  9. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  10. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  11. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

  12. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  13. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  14. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

  15. 牛病毒性腹泻病研究进展及防控建议%Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Prevalence and Comprehensive Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝成; 梁剑平; 王学红; 郭文柱; 郭志廷; 杨贤鹏

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected cattle. In recent years, as more and more common the formation and development of large-scale farming. The jeopardized of Bovine viral diarrhea / mucosal disease for farming industry has become increasingly apparent. The BVDV's morphology of pathogens, genotype classification, hazards, diagnostic tests, the prevalence and prevention and control status were summarized in order to improve the prevention and control system and purification of eliminating the disease provide a reference for the country as soon as possible.%牛病毒性腹泻病由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起,主要感染牛并引发疾病,呈世界性分布,可造成严重的经济损失.近年来,随着规模化养殖的发展,牛病毒性腹泻病对养殖业的危害日益显现.本文主要对牛病毒性腹泻病的病原特性、基因型分类、危害、诊断检测方法、国内流行情况和防控现状等进行综述,以期为国家尽快建立完善的防控体系和净化消除该病提供参考.

  16. New Concepts in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control of Diseases Caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The new information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of mucosal disease of cattle is reviewed. It is now known that clinical mucosal disease occurs only in cattle which were infected with a pestivirus in early gestation and were born with persistent viral infection and specific immunotolerance. These animals may be clinically normal at birth but may develop fatal mucosal disease, perhaps following superinfection with another pestivirus, usually between 6 and 24 months of age. They may als...

  17. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Polypeptide From the Erns Coding Region of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masood Reza; Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Masood; Mahmoodi Koohi, Pezhman; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a worldwide distribution. Detection and elimination of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is essential for the control of BVD and eradication of BVDV. There are usually no pathognomonic clinical signs of BVDV infection. Diagnostic investigations therefore rely on laboratory-based detection of the virus, or virus-induced antigens or antibodies. Objectives: Erns as an...

  18. Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrheae Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Muharam Saepulloh; Indrawati Sendow

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RT...

  20. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  1. Diagnosis of bovine foot and mouth disease virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing from outbreak herd samples in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Hamza Olabode

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Molecular diagnosis of bovine foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV from outbreak herd in Bukaru-Rontuwa, Sinawu/Tumbunya ward of Ilesha Baruba, in Kwara state-Nigeria was conducted to establish the associated serotypes and disease control plan. Materials and Methods: Purposive study was conducted in cattle outbreak herds during the dry season of January-March, 2011. Random sampling of blood and observed epithelial tissues was collected, stored in accordance with standard methods and subjected to RNA extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR. Positive samples for FMDV were further subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing using sequence primers of serotypes O, A, SAT 1-3 and gel electrophoresis. Obtained data were interpreted based on NCBI BLASTN program. Results: Foot and mouth disease (FMD-RNA extract was not found in all the blood tested with beta-actin range of Ct = 30-34. rRT-PCR assay showed two positive samples with Ct values of 18.79 and 15.28. Gel electrophoresis identified sequenced PCR amplicons as serotype A and SAT 2 respectively. Direct product sequencing confirmed SAT 2 serotype was closely related to SAT 2 isolate LIB/7/2003. Cloned RT-PCR product in pGEM-T easy vector confirmed serotype A as closely related to sequence of A/NIG/21/2009, though multiple NIG/2009 sequences were also identified as closely related. Both isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >93% genetic identity in the VP1 region which confirmed heterogeneity and antigenic variation nature of FMDV. Conclusion: Quasi species and subtypes of FMD serotypes A and SAT 2 similar to A/NIG/21/2009 and SAT 2/LIB/7/2003 respectively caused the reported FMD outbreaks in Fulani livestock herds investigated. A combined real-time and optimized RT-PCR protocols that would facilitate effective and timely FMD outbreak control plan based on identified serotypes is thus suggested.

  2. Dynamic stochastic simulation as a tool for studying bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections at the herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    Infectious diseases, such as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus infections in cattle, are often studied by Markov chain models. However, it is difficult to simulate dynamic interactions between production of a reproductive herd and the disease by this type of model. As an alternative, a dynamic...... stochastic model simulating the herd production was suggested. A dynamic stochastic model simulating the effect of BVD virus infection in a dairy cattle herd was used to exemplify how this type of model could be applied in research. The simulation example demonstrated that the effect of a BVD virus infection...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  4. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  5. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, P H; Baker, J. C.; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A ...

  6. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persi...

  7. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  8. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25322747

  9. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  10. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  11. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  12. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  13. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  14. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    human exposure and disease transmission. - Highlights: • Hydrologic conditions, precipitation, and season explained variability of viruses. • Human and bovine viruses were more prevalent during runoff periods than during low-flow periods. • An automated sampling system provided hydrologically relevant samples over long durations

  15. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    human exposure and disease transmission. - Highlights: • Hydrologic conditions, precipitation, and season explained variability of viruses. • Human and bovine viruses were more prevalent during runoff periods than during low-flow periods. • An automated sampling system provided hydrologically relevant samples over long durations.

  16. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I

    1985-01-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  17. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species,...

  18. Research outline of bovine virus diarrhea%牛病毒性腹泻的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢西锋; 崔保安

    2001-01-01

    @@ 牛病毒性腹泻/粘膜病(Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease,BVD/MD),简称牛病毒性腹泻(BVD)或牛粘膜病(BMD),是由牛病毒性腹泻/粘膜病病毒(BVD/MDV)感染牛引起的以发热、粘膜糜烂溃疡、白细胞减少、腹泻、咳嗽及怀孕母牛流产或产出畸形胎儿为主要特征的一种传染病.1946年Olafson等首次报道病毒性腹泻病.1953年Ramsey和Chiver发现粘膜病.1961年Gillespie等研究证明,这两种病毒是有共同抗原性的同种病毒[1],1971年由美国兽医协会将其统一命名为“牛病毒性腹泻/粘膜病”.BVD/MD呈世界性分布,在许多养牛发达国家,如美国、新西兰、加拿大等尤其严重[2].1980年李佑民首先证明我国也有本病存在[3].自80年代以来,我国已有15个省、市、自治区查出该病,感染动物包括牛、羊、猪、骆驼、鹿等[4,5,6],而且其致病机理与临床类型较为复杂,现将本病的病原、流行病学、致病机理、病理变化、临床症状、防治等方面作一综述.

  19. Detection, characterization, and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a large commercial dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Schefers, Jeremy M.; Collins, James E.; Sagar M. Goyal; Ames, Trevor R.

    2009-01-01

    Detection, genetic characterization, and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease in a large commercial dairy herd is reported. Precolostral BVDV serum antibody was detected in 5.3% (12/226) of newborn calves before the test and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals and in 0.4% (2/450) of newborn calves after the removal of PI heifers.

  20. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  1. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okagawa Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  2. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarmudji; Supar

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal p...

  3. Vaccination against δ−Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related δ-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of δ-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  4. Early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against FMDV in cattle. However, basic mechanisms ...

  5. Using Mathematical Modelling to Explore Hypotheses about the Role of Bovine Epithelium Structure in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus-Induced Cell Lysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriaki Giorgakoudi; Simon Gubbins; John Ward; Nicholas Juleff; Zhidong Zhang; David Schley

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD virus (FMDV) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and FMD is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). By contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). The reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses ...

  6. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  7. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  8. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  9. Short communication: Relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibody and provirus in blood and milk of cows from a naturally infected herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Juan P; Porta, Natalia G; Gutierrez, Geronimo; Politzki, Romina P; Álvarez, Irene; Galarza, Roxana; Abdala, Alejandro; Calvinho, Luis; Trono, Karina G

    2016-07-01

    We explored the relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibodies and provirus load during natural infection. For that purpose, a set of 50 blood and milk paired samples were analyzed for the presence of bovine leukemia virus provirus and antibodies. Additionally, provirus load and antibody titers were measured and the relationship between these variables was investigated. Bovine leukemia provirus was detected in 59% of milk samples and a negative correlation was observed between the level of milk provirus load and milk antibody titers. By the consumption of raw milk, calves might be exposed to bovine leukemia virus favoring the perinatal transmission of this disease. PMID:27132093

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton, via the non-structural protein 3Cpro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armer, Hannah; Moffat, Katy; Wileman, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. Picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus...... replication. We show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of FMDV-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate filament components during infection. Despite the continued presence of centrosomes in infected cells......, there is a loss of tethering of microtubules to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) region. Loss of labeling for -tubulin, but not pericentrin, from the MTOC suggests a targeting of -tubulin (or associated proteins) rather than a total breakdown in MTOC structure. The identity of the FMDV protein...

  11. Combined treatments of heat, irradiation, and pH effects on infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various traditional methods for processing meat products were examined for their virucidal effects on the A, O, and C serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Aging, curing, heating at 78 degrees C for 20 min or irradiation (1.5 Mrad, 2.4 Mrad) that did not alter the sensory characteristics of the product were used singly or in combination. The only processing treatment that was virucidal was the combination of heat and gamma irradiation

  12. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Febvay; Chelsea L. Render; Byrem, Todd M.; Bartlett, Paul C.; Erskine, Ronald J.; Jessica T. Houseman

    2012-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in ...

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  14. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Tweet Share Compartir CDC's Ongoing Work to Contain Ebola in West Africa The Road to Zero: CDC’s ...

  15. [Rescue of bovine Asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus from a full-length cDNA clone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Runxiang; Song, Ge; Gao, Mingchun; Liu, Xiangtao; Wang, Junwei

    2009-11-01

    After sequencing the Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (As01 strain), we amplified the two fragments covering the whole genome by overlapping PCR and long PCR. The 5' fragment was 1.8 kb in length including 15Cs, and the 3' fragment was 6.7 kb in length. The two fragments were cloned into the pBluescript SK vector to construct recombinant plasmid pBSAs carrying the full-length cDNA of FMDV As01 strain. The RNA transcript was synthesized in vitro using T7 polymerase and transfected into BHK-21 cells. We observed the typical CPE caused by rescued FMDV. The harvested virus was confirmed to be Asia 1 FMDV by RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and electron microscope observation. The rescued virus showed a similar pathogenicity in suckling mouse (LD50) compared to its wild-type virus. The infectious cDNA clone of the FMDV As01 strain laid a new ground for further investigation of FMDV virulence determinants and development of novel vaccines against FMD. PMID:20222458

  16. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi-Xin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xin-Lei; Qiao, Wen-Tao; Chen, Qi-Min; Zeng, Yi; Geng, Yun-Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions, and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.

  17. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik; Røntved, C.M.; Uttenthal, Åse; Rønsholt, L.; Alexandersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of severe respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and in immunocompromised adults. Similarly, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is causing severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in calves. Both viruses are pneumovirus...... replication and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was...... and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral...

  18. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  19. Bovine lactoferrin inhibits Toscana virus infection by binding to heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantoni, Agostina; Fortuna, Claudia; Remoli, Maria Elena; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Superti, Fabiana

    2015-02-01

    Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin. PMID:25643293

  20. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  1. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  3. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  4. A Multiepitope Fusion Antigen Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Homologous Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Emad A. Hashish; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E.; Chase, Christopher C.; Richard E Isaacson; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves agains...

  5. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  6. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    H. Leon Thacker; Maria Negron; Duane A. Murphy; Raizman, Eran A.; Schnur, Megan E.; Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory dis...

  7. Specific fluorescein-labeled antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus prepared from sera of rabbits immunized with purified virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, R. A.; Rhodes, M B

    1980-01-01

    Specific fluorescein-labeled antibody conjugates to three strains of bovine virus diarrhea virus were prepared from hyperimmune rabbit sera. Viruses used to hyperimmunize the rabbits were purified by four different procedures. Conjugates were comparable in quality and specificity to conjugates prepared from serum of a calf hyperimmunized to bovine virus diarrhea virus in our laboratory. The latter conjugate was tested by Biologics Laboratories, National Veterinary Services, U.S.D.A., Ames, Iowa.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharam Saepulloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.

  9. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm;

    1999-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle in most countries. The main reservoir of virus in herds are BVDV persistently infected animals, which arise as a result of infection of the bovine fetus early in gestation. The spread of virus to the unborn fetus may be prevented by...

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  11. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  12. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  13. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  14. Establishment of duplex RT-PCR detection for foot and mouth disease virus and bovine enterovirus%同时检测口蹄疫病毒和牛肠道病毒双重RT-PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 吴涛; 张鹤晓; 高志强; 蒲静; 汪琳; 乔彩霞; 谷强; 夏春

    2012-01-01

    To establish a rapid method for detection of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine enterovirus (BEV) infections, a duplex RT-PCR assay was developed with 2 pairs of primers for 5'UTR sequences of FMDV and BEV. Under the optimized conditions, the assay was specifically detection of FMDV and BEV, and no cross-reactions with other related bovine viruses. In addition, the detection limit of this method was 8 TC1D5()/0.l mL of FMDV and 2 TCHV0.1 mL of BEV. Furthermore, tested on 852 clinical samples collected from Beijing areas, the results showed that 18 samples were positive for FMDV, 117 samples were positive for BEV, and 10 samples were positive for both, which were completely consistent with the results by virus isolation. Our data showed that the duplex RT-PCR assay established in the study was rapid, specificity, high sensitivity and repeatability, which provides a useful technical support for detection of FMDV and BEV.%为建立同时检测口蹄疫病毒(FMDV)和牛肠道病毒(BEV)的双重RT-PCR方法,本研究根据已发表的FMDV和BEV基因的5'UTR保守区域,分别设计、筛选出一对特异性引物建立了双重RT-PCR方法,并优化了反应体系和条件.采用该方法检测其他几种牛相关病毒结果均为阴性,表明特异性良好.该方法对FMDV的最低检出限为8 TCID50/0.1 mL,对BEV的最低检出限为2 TCID50/0.1 mL,表明其具有良好的敏感性.采用该方法检测了852份临床样品,并与病毒分离方法比较,结果两种方法检测结果完全一致.本研究首次建立了同时检测FMDV和BEV的双重RT-PCR快速检测方法,该方法的建立为FMDV和BEV的检测提供了一种技术手段.

  15. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  16. Framework Ebola Virus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is the largest recognized outbreak of this disease to date. It is also the first such outbreak including cases infected outside of Africa. The risk of an introduction of EVD to Germany (defined as an infected person entering Germany and passing the infection to others) is very low. But it cannot be totally excluded that in isolated instances infected persons could enter unrecognizably during the incubation period, potentiall...

  17. Adjuvant enhancement of humoral immune response to chemically inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K S; Johnson, D. W.; Muscoplat, C C

    1985-01-01

    Potentiation of the antibody response to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus by immunological adjuvants was studied in guinea pigs and cattle. The inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus alone was demonstrated to be a weak immunogen. Addition of either 2 mg per mL diethylaminoethyl-dextran or 5% alhydrogel to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus did not or only slightly stimulated the antibody response; the combined adjuvants induced a significantly higher titer. A higher concentration...

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the...... outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the...

  19. In vitro neutralization against HoBi-like viruses by antiobodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...

  20. An investigation of serum antibody against bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD) in calf in Nanjing of China%南京市初生犊牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞蕴如; 许炳坤; 秦祥勇; 吴红辉

    2003-01-01

    应用血清中和试验,检测南京市部分奶牛场初生犊牛血清中牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病病毒(BVDV)抗体.共检测血清3 070头份,其中阳性797头份,占25.96%;检测混合血清274批,其中阳性172批,占62.77%;同时随机测定459头份阳性血清的抗体效价,多数为1:8~1:64,最高的达到1:128.

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...

  2. Biochemical map of polypeptides specified by foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, M J; Robertson, B H; Morgan, D O; Moore, D M; Dowbenko, D

    1984-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cells revealed stable and unstable viral-specific polypeptides. To identify precursor-product relationships among these polypeptides, antisera against a number of structural and nonstructural viral-specific polypeptides were used. Cell-free translations programmed with foot-and-mouth disease virion RNA or foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cell lysates, which were shown to contain almost identical pol...

  3. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandya, Mital; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    pathogens, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Six synthetic BoLA class I (BoLA-I) molecules were produced, and the peptide binding motif was generated for five of the six molecules using a combined approach of positional scanning combinatorial peptide libraries (PSCPLs) and neural network......-based predictions (NetMHCpan). The updated NetMHCpan server was used to predict BoLA-I binding peptides within the P1 structural polyprotein sequence of FMDV (strain A24 Cruzeiro) for BoLA-1*01901, BoLA-2*00801, BoLA-2*01201, and BoLA-4*02401. Peptide binding affinity and stability were determined for these Bo....... The results of these analyses showed that BoLA alleles cluster into three distinct groups with the potential to define “BoLA supertypes.” This streamlined approach identifies potential T cell epitopes from pathogens, such as FMDV, and provides insight into T cell immunity following infection or vaccination....

  4. Le virus de la leucémie bovine et l’homéostasie du compartiment lymphocytaire périphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus and peripheral blood lymphocytes homeostasis. Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. This retrovirus can also be transmitted experimentally to the ovine species, in which pathology is more rapid and more frequent. In this model, infection leads to an increased cell turnover. This accelerated lymphocyte dynamics might be related to viral expression which induces cellular proliferation and host cell destruction by the immune system.

  5. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26774254

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Immune Response to a Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, R J; O'Neill, R. G.; Fitzpatrick, J.L; Williams, J.L.; Glass, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV...

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Immune Response to a Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard J; O'Neill, Ronan G; Fitzpatrick, Julie L.; Williams, John L; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV...

  8. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... damages the central nervous system of cattle. More Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. About BSE ...

  9. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jochen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test.

  10. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    César Betancur Hurtado; Alberto Orrego Uribe; Marco González Tous

    2010-01-01

    The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 b...

  11. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  12. Control of bovine leukosis virus in a dairy herd by a change in dehorning.

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G; Darlington, R L; Evermann, J F

    1987-01-01

    Following the demonstration that bovine leukosis virus was transmitted in calves by gouge dehorning, electrical dehorning at a younger age was implemented in a commercial Holstein herd. Subsequently, annual testing of the herd revealed a decline in the prevalence of bovine leukosis virus antibodies as older cattle dehorned by the former method were replaced by younger cattle dehorned by the latter method.

  13. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  14. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  15. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  16. Homology modelling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis B virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Rhinitis B Viruses (BRBV) are picornaviruses responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle and probably the least characterized member of the Aphthoviruses. BRBV is the closest relative known to Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) with around a 43 percent identical polyprotein sequenc...

  17. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aswathy N.; William B. Epperson; Bindu Nanduri

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional ge...

  18. Inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus by photodynamic therapy with HMME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li; Zhaohui Zou; Wentao Qiao; Xue Yao; Yang Su; Hongyan Guo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) can provide the basis theory for photoinactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the protection of HMME-PDT on the cell line Cf2Th infected with BIVR29 by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-yl-3,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT) with power density of 5 and 25 mW/cm2 and energy density from 0.6 to 3 J/cm. To observe the inhibition of membrane fusion using a new reporter cell line BIVE by fluorescence microscope. HMME-PDT has significant protectant effects on Cf2Th-BIVR29 with both power densities, especially in the group of high power density. Fluorescent microscope shows that there is no significant difference between the group of PDT and control, which means PDT could not inhibit the BIV-mediated membrane fusion.

  19. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S.; W. Xue; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C

    1998-01-01

    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demo...

  20. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4) and...... animals immunized with CV (n = 5) developed moderate to severe respiratory disease, whereas calves immunized with ISCOMS (17 = 5) remained clinically healthy. BRSV was re-isolated from the nasopharynx of all controls and from all calves immunized with CV, but from none of the calves immunized with ISCOMs...

  1. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.

  3. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Jodi L McGill; Sacco, Randy E.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  4. Sensitivity of seven different types of cell cultures to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    House, J A; Yedloutschnig, R J

    1982-01-01

    The ability of bovine tongue origin foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A, O and C to replicate in seven different types of cell cultures was studied. Primary and secondary calf thyroid cells were equivalent in susceptibility to bovine kidney cell cultures passaged up to five times. Calf thyroid cells lost their susceptibility after two passages. Cryopreserved bovine kidney cell cultures passaged three and four times were equivalent in susceptibility to sensitive calf thyroid and bovine ki...

  5. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  6. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow. PMID:26025155

  7. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  8. Antiviral activity of bovine uterus and placenta induced by Newcastle disease virus Atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina induzida pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Barreto Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity profile of the uterus and fetal membranes from bovine placenta, induced by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV throughout gestation, was investigated. Explants of the endometrium and caruncles were collected from the uterus, and amniochorion, allantochorion and cotyledons, from fetal placenta. Tissue cultures were induced with ~6.0 hemagglutinating units (HU of NDV. Supernatants were concentrated 20 fold, filtered in 100kDa cut-off membranes and antiviral activity was titrated in MDBK x VSV system. Tissues of the uterus did not exhibit antiviral activity, while allantochorion and amniochorion produced antiviral factors throughout gestation. Antiviral factors were not related with IFN-alpha, gamma, tau or TNF-alpha. The antiviral activity pattern observed showed to be related with the development of fetal membranes and increased at the end of pregnancy. Such data suggest that IFN genes inducible by virus are present in fetal membranes of the cow placenta and their expression is dependent on the age of gestation.Investigou-se a atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina, ao longo da gestação, induzidos pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV. Explantes do endométrio e carúnculas foram colhidos do útero. Os tecidos corioamniótico, corioalantóide e cotilédones foram dissecados da placenta fetal. Os cultivos celulares foram induzidos com aproximadamente 6,0 unidades hemaglutinantes do NDV. Os sobrenadantes foram concentrados 20 vezes, filtrados em dispositivos com superfície de separação de 100kDa e a atividade antiviral foi titulada em células MDBK e vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSV. Endométrio, carúnculas e cotilédones não apresentaram atividade antiviral. Corioamniótico e corioalantóide produziram fatores antivirais ao longo da gestação. Estes fatores não foram relacionados aos IFN - alfa, gama ou tau e nem ao TNF - alfa. O padrão de produção de fatores antivirais acompanhou o desenvolvimento

  9. The Effect of Bovine IFN-α on the Immune Response in Guinea Pigs Vaccinated with DNA Vaccine of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Chen GUO; Zai-Xin LIU; Shi-Qi SUN; Qing-Wen LENG; Dong LI; Xiang-Tao LIU; Qing-Ge XIE

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/P 12X3C3D including P 1, 2A,3C, 3D and part of 2B gene of FMDV and pcDNA3.1/IFN containing the gene encoding bovine IFN-α. We inoculated the DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1/P 12X3C3D with or without pcDNA3.1/IFN to evaluate the efficiency of this DNA vaccine and the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcDNA3.1/IFN. After two times of vaccination with DNA vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 ID50 FMDV type O. Anti-FMDV antibody levels were detected by ELISA and T lymphocyte proliferation response was tested by MTT assay. The result shows that guinea pigs inoculated by pcDNA3. 1/P 12X3C3D alone or with pcDNA3.1/IFN generated specific antibodies and induced an FMDV-specific T lymphocyte proliferation response. FMDV challenge tests showed that one in four guinea pigs immunized by pcDNA3.1/P 12X3C3D with pcDNA3.1/IFN was protected from the FMDV serotype O infection. This result indicated that the efficiency of the DNA vaccine was enhanced by co-delivery with pcDNA3.1/IFN. However, the protection rate was considerably lower than that immunized with conventional FMD vaccine.

  10. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B; Jensen, M. H.; Sørensen, K J; Dalsgaard, K

    1982-01-01

    The serological and virological results of an experimental infection of bovine fetuses with bovine viral diarrhea virus are presented. Four fetuses, 120-165 days gestational age, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Two fetuses received a sham-inoculum. A humoral immune response in the virus-inoculated fetuses, was demonstrated three weeks later. In three fetuses only IgM and IgG1 were detectable. The serum from the fourth fetus also contained IgG2 and IgA. Bovine vira...

  11. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  12. Characterization of novel Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) antisense transcripts by deep sequencing reveals constitutive expression in tumors and transcriptional interaction with viral microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Durkin, Keith; Rosewick, Nicolas; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Griebel, Philip; Arsic, Natasa; Burny, Arsène; Georges, Michel; Van den Broeke, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infection. Most infected animals remain asymptomatic but following a protracted latency period about 5 % develop an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, mirroring the disease trajectory of HTLV-1. The mechanisms by which these viruses provoke cellular transformation remain opaque. In both v...

  13. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  14. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  15. Bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing αVβ3-integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man

  16. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination. PMID:20448278

  17. Subpopulations of bovine T lymphocytes collected during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection are affected by freezing, but are subsequently stable in frozen samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunophenotyping of peripheral-blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry is an important tool for infectious disease research. In many live-animal experiments and other longitudinal studies, the processing, prompt staining, and analysis of fresh samples is a logistical challenge and daily variation can c...

  18. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes severe disease in naive cattle of all ages and is a common pathogen in the respiratory disease complex of calves. Simplified methods for rapid BRSV diagnosis would encourage sampling during outbreaks and would consequently lead to an extended...

  19. Comparison of stability of viral nucleic acid in different tissues and under different conditions in samples collected from fetuses infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...

  20. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  1. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  2. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  3. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shogo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Duffy, J C; Caseltine, S L

    2004-03-01

    The brain from a 15-month-old, black female Angus, with a 48-hour history of central nervous system disease, was submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Microscopic findings consisted of acute, multifocal meningoencephalitis, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis and gliosis. Viral isolation yielded noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus genotyping classified the virus as BVDV type 2. Immunohistochemical labeling for BVDV antigens with BVD MAb 3.12F1 clone was prominent in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells, ependymal epithelium, perivascular macrophages and spindle cells, smooth muscle cells, and intravascular monocytes of the cerebrum and brain stem. Laboratory results support that tissue alterations occurred as a result of BVDV type 2 infection. In the absence of other clinical signs related to BVDV infection and using the microscopic and laboratory evidence presented, we propose that the BVDV type 2 isolated from this case may represent a neurovirulent strain of the virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brain lesions and neuronal viral antigen localization in BVDV genotype 2 viral infection, acquired either congenitally or postnatally. PMID:15017036

  5. Evaluation of the Human Host Range of Bovine and Porcine Viruses that may Contaminate Bovine Serum and Porcine Trypsin Used in the Manufacture of Biological Products

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus-Sekura, Carol; Richardson, James C.; Rebecca K. Harston; Sane, Nandini; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Current U.S. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 9CFR tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9CFR requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9CFR testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. Recent ...

  6. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  7. Antiviral Efficacy of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Inhibitor in a Bovine Model of RSV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert; Shao, Matt; Mackman, Richard L.; Perron, Michel; Cihlar, Tomas; Lewis, Sandy A.; Eisenberg, Eugene J.; Carey, Anne; Strickley, Robert G.; Chien, Jason W.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Behrens, Nicole E.; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Effective treatment for RSV infection is a significant unmet medical need. While new RSV therapeutics are now in development, there are very few animal models that mimic the pathogenesis of human RSV, making it difficult to evaluate new disease interventions. Experimental infection of Holstein calves with bovine RSV (bRSV) causes a severe respiratory infection that is similar to human RSV infecti...

  8. In vivo evidence for quasispecies distributions in the bovine respiratory syncytial virus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Deplanche, Martine; Lemaire, Mylène; Mirandette, Carole; Bonnet, Marion; Schelcher, François; Meyer, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) isolate W2-00131, from its isolation in bovine turbinate (BT) cells to its inoculation in calves. Results showed that the BRSV genomic region encoding the highly variable glycoprotein G remains genetically stable after virus isolation and over 10 serial infections in BT cells, as well as following experimental inoculation in calves. This remarkable genetic stability led us to examine the mutant spectrum of several ...

  9. Factors affecting the infectivity of lymphocytes from cattle with bovine leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton, B A; Schultz, R D

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 13 bovine leukosis virus infected cattle and inoculated subcutaneously into 29 recipient adult steers to determine (a) the number of mononuclear cells (equivalent amount of blood) necessary to cause infection and (b) factors influencing infectivity of mononuclear cells from bovine leukosis virus-infected animals. A total of 55 inoculations were made. Inoculation of 1 X 10(4), 2 X 10(4) and 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells caused seroconversion ...

  10. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  11. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV- positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI, and mucosal disease (MD. Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp, 10 were cytopathic (cp, and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44% followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%. Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36% followed by PI (25% and MD (16%.

  12. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1992-11-01

    A noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), BVDV-890, isolated from a yearling heifer that died with extensive internal hemorrhages, was compared for virulence in calves with noncytopathic BVDV-TGAN, isolated from an apparently healthy persistently infected calf. After challenge exposure with BVDV-890, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most calves (n = 6) died or were euthanatized by 19 days after challenge exposure. Challenge exposure with BVDV-890 did not induce disease in 2 calves that had congenital persistent infection with BVDV or in 3 calves that had neutralizing antibody titer > 4 against BVDV-890. After challenge exposure with BVDV-TGAN, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C and, rarely, diarrhea or lymphopenia. All of those calves survived challenge exposure. The average maximal titer of BVDV-890 isolated from serum was 1,000 times that of BVDV-TGAN. In calves infected with BVDV-890, the average maximal percentages of lymphocytes and platelets associated with virus were greater than those found in calves infected with BVDV-TGAN. Additional findings of epidemiologic significance were prolonged shedding of virus and delayed production of viral-neutralizing antibody in 1 calf challenge-exposed with BVDV-890. Also, after production of neutralizing antibody, mutant virus that was refractory to neutralization was isolated from calves challenge-exposed with BVDV-TGAN. PMID:1334641

  13. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  14. Regeneration and characterization of a recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus and determination of its efficacy to cross the bovine placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-02-01

    The capacity of different bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains to cause transplacental infection is variable. BVDV strain SD-1 was isolated from a persistently infected heifer. Its genome represents the only reported nucleotide sequence of a noncytopathic viral isolate determined without cell culture passage in the laboratory. Thus, SD-1 might possess biological advantages over other NCP BVDV strains to be used as a model virus for investigation of viral transplacental transmission. To evaluate if a molecularly generated BVDV SD-1 is capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, a full-length cDNA clone of SD-1 was constructed using RT-PCR amplification and standard molecular techniques. In vitro transcripts synthesized from the cDNA template directed the generation of infectious virus in MDBK cells with a transfection efficiency as high as 4.7 x 10(5) FFU/mug RNA. The recovered virus termed ASD1 harbored five silent point mutations engineered as genetic markers and was similar to wild type (wt) SD-1 in viral growth kinetics. As evaluated in the pregnant heifers, ASD1 was capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, suggesting that NCP BVDV SD-1 is a suitable viral backbone for investigation of the role of viral genetic element(s) in viral transplacental transmission by allowing for evaluation of newly created viral mutants. PMID:19067148

  15. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote. PMID:10941751

  16. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  17. Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, G; Tautz, N.; Becher, P; Thiel, H J; Kümmerer, B M

    1997-01-01

    After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus was constructed. In comparison with parental BVDV, the recombinant virus was slightly retarded in growth. The NS2 coding region of the CP7...

  18. Subcellular Localization Analysis of Bovine Foamy Virus Borf1 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan TAN; Kai WU; Rui CHANG; Qi-min CHEN; Yun-qi GENG; Wen-tao QIAO

    2008-01-01

    The Borf1 protein is encoded by an immediate-early gene of the bovine foamy virus (BFV) and plays a key role in the viral life cycle. Borf1 is a DNA binding protein which can transactivate both the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the internal promoter (IP) of BFV by specifically binding to the transactivation responsive element (TRE). To analyze the subcellular localization of Borf1 during the BFV life cycle, this gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed in a soluble form. After the purification and immunization, we raised the mouse anti-Borf1 serum with a high titer based on ELISA results. Western blot analysis showed that the antiserum could specifically recognize the Borf1 protein that was expressed in 293T cells. With this specific serum, we revealed the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Borf1 in HeLa cells that was transfected with Borf1. Moreover, the immuno-fluorescence assay also showed that the localization of Borf1 during the infection and transfection of BFV was identical.

  19. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

  20. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  1. Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Ikebuchi Ryoyo; Konnai Satoru; Shirai Tatsuya; Sunden Yuji; Murata Shiro; Onuma Misao; Ohashi Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions ...

  2. Veterinary college's researchers receive grant to explore bovine respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Thomas J. Inzana of Blacksburg, Va., the Tyler J. and Frances F. Young Professor of Bacteriology in the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, has been awarded a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture to study the role biofilm plays in the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

  3. Fine mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eZanella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.

  4. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shigemura, Hiroaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  5. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yamada; Hiroaki Shigemura; Naotaka Ishiguro; Yasuo Inoshima

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  6. Persistence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Is Determined by a Cellular Cofactor of a Viral Autoprotease

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, T.; Müller, A.; König, M; Thiel, H.-J.; Tautz, N.

    2005-01-01

    Polyprotein processing control is a crucial step in the life cycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. Recently, a vital autoprotease generating an essential viral replication factor was identified in such a virus, namely, the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus. Surprisingly, the activity of this protease, which resides in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), diminishes early after infection, resulting in the limitation of viral RNA replication. Here, we describe that a cellular chaperone termed Ji...

  7. Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV Pneumonia in Beef Calf Herds Despite Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV vaccine 2 months prior to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the vaccine induced only sparse levels of antibodies probably due to the presence of maternally derived antibodies at the time of vaccination. Necropsy findings in 5 calves revealed changes typical for infectious pneumonia with involvment of BRSV. In conclusion, vaccination of calves against BRSV in 2 Danish beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.

  8. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  10. Investigation of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral DNA in Human Leukemias and Lung cancers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JeHoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-01-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combinati...

  11. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sandev Nikolay; Zapryanova Dimitrinka; Stoycheva Ivanka; Rusenova Nikolina; Mircheva Teodora

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France), containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum app...

  12. Quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Leach

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501 which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected.Heifers from the same population (n = 195 were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA, and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the

  13. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  14. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  15. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Ronald J.; Bartlett, Paul C.; Byrem, Todd M.; Render, Chelsea L.; Febvay, Catherine; Houseman, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP) was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r = 0.988, P < 0.0001). The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV. PMID:22577607

  16. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  17. Interaction between Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection and age on telomerase misregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Keyvanfar, Hadi; Hasan, Noor Haliza; Niap, Faustina; Bani Hassan, Ebrahim; Hematzade, Azar; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; McWhorter, Andrea; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2015-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV can interact with telomerase and inhibits telomere shortening, contributing in leukemogenesis and tumour induction. The role of telomerase in BLV-induced lymphosarcoma and aging has been extensively studied. To date, the interaction of both BLV and aging on telomerase mis-regulation have, however, not been investigated. In the present study, telomerase activity in BLV positive and negative cows was compared over a wide range of ages (11-85 months). Lymphocyte counts were also measured in both BLV positive and negative groups. Telomerase activity was detected in all BLV infected animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL), especially in older individuals. This study revealed that the cells undergo the natural telomerase shortening even in the presence of an existing viral infection. We also show that viral infection, especially during the PL phase of the disease, increases telomerase activity. A statistically significant interaction between age and viral infection was observed for telomere shortening during BLV infection. Older animals with BLV infection, especially those with persistent lymphocytosis or visible tumors, exhibited a sharp increase in telomerase activity. This study demonstrates that there is a significant interaction between BLV infection and telomerase up-regulation and lymphocytosis. PMID:25665900

  18. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  20. The detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in formalin fixed bovine lung with commercially available monoclonal antibodies and avidin biotin complex immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, D M; Clark, E.G.; Chelack, B J

    1989-01-01

    Eight commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus antigens were tested for ability to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bovine lung using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining. Monoclonal antibodies from clone 18B2 purchased from Biosoft, Paris, France and those from clone 8G12 purchased from the Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska sta...

  1. Intrauterine inoculation of seronegative heifers with bovine viral diarrhea virus concurrent with transfer of in vivo-derived bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, J A; Givens, M D; Marley, M S D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Edmondson, M A; Rodning, S P

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been shown to be associated with single transferable in vivo-derived bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. Hence, the primary objective was to evaluate the potential of BVDV to be transmitted via the intrauterine route at the time of embryo transfer. In vivo-derived bovine embryos (n=10) were nonsurgically collected from a single Bos tarus donor cow negative for BVDV. After collection and washing, embryos were placed into transfer media containing BVDV (SD-1; Type 1a). Each of the 10 embryos was individually loaded into an 0.25-mL straw, which was then nonsurgically transferred into the uterus of 1 of the 10 seronegative recipients on Day 0. The total quantity of virus transferred into the uterus of each of the 10 Bos tarus recipients was 878 cell culture infective doses to the 50% end point (CCID(50))/mL. Additionally, control heifers received 1.5 x 10(6) CCID(50) BVDV/.5 mL without an embryo (positive) or heat-inactivated BVDV (negative). The positive control heifer and all 10 recipients of virus-exposed embryos exhibited viremia by Day 6 and seroconverted by Day 15 after transfer. The negative control heifer did not exhibit a viremia or seroconvert. At 30 d after embryo transfer, 6 of 10 heifers in the treatment group were pregnant; however, 30 d later, only one was still pregnant. This fetus was nonviable and was positive for BVDV. In conclusion, the quantity of BVDV associated with bovine embryos after in vitro exposure can result in viremia and seroconversion of seronegative recipients after transfer into the uterus during diestrus. PMID:20129656

  2. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  3. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; NUNOYA, Tetsuo; Davis, William C.; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently i...

  4. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandev Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.

  5. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five 35S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of 3H-myristate and 3H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50

  6. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisch, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five {sup 35}S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of {sup 3}H-myristate and {sup 3}H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50.

  7. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  8. Synergistic In Vitro Interactions between Alpha Interferon and Ribavirin against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Yellow Fever Virus as Surrogate Models of Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Buckwold, Victor E.; Wei, Jiayi; Wenzel-Mathers, Michelle; Russell, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Monotherapy of hepatitis C virus infection with either alpha interferon or ribavirin alone is rather ineffective, while the use of the two antivirals together is much more efficacious. In vitro drug-drug combination analysis utilizing related members of the family Flaviviridae, bovine viral diarrhea virus and yellow fever virus, revealed significant direct synergistic interactions between these drugs' antiviral activities that might explain this clinical observation.

  9. Borna Disease Virus and Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    The biology of Borna disease virus (BDV) strongly supports the likelihood of human infection with BDV or a variant of BDV. Thus far, the evidence supporting BDV infection in humans has initiated much controversy among basic and clinical scientists; only time and additional research will support or refute the hypothesis of human BDV infection. Until an assay of acceptable specificity and sensitivity has been developed, validated, and used to document human BDV infection, scientists cannot reas...

  10. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  11. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T.; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J.; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogen...

  12. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...

  13. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  14. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  15. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Betancur Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 bulls from the same farms. The serological test used was the ELISA test. A descriptive analysis was carried out, recording data from positives and from negatives sera. A Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables: sex, age, reproductive condition and type of production system, with serological reactivity to the PI-3virus. Concerning the results of the study, the point prevalence for the PI-3 virus found was 13, 5%, and under statistical bases, statistical significance was found between age groups and association was not found for the others variables taken in account for the study. According to the results, it was concluded that the PI-3 virus is present in bovines of Monteria, and that a part of the reproductive failure in females of the region, mostly the return to estrus and abortions, is due to the effect of that pathological entity. Finally, the authors recommend more extensive studies on PI-3 Infection, at the different cattle raising areas of Colombia, a country of 24 million heads.

  16. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi; Khan, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle.

  18. Synthetic analogues of bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide reduce herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Shestakov, Andrey; Hancock, Robert E. W; Nordström, Inger; Eriksson, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential of four synthetic peptides (denoted HH-2, 1002, 1006, 1018) with a distant relationship to the host defense peptide bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide for their ability to prevent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice. All four peptides...

  19. Fatal trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Greg N

    2004-06-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs. PMID:15283522

  20. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  1. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and culling of persistently infected animals and efficacious vaccination are key factors to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of detection of persistently infected cattle and examine the diversity of bo...

  2. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 la

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain Isolated in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e.

  4. Periparturient infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic proctocolitis in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet

    2011-01-01

    After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV.

  5. Detection and Characterization of Genetic Recombination in Cytopathic Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ridpath, Julia F.; Neill, John D.

    2000-01-01

    In cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV1) isolates, insertions are reported at position A (amino acid [aa] 1535) and position B (aa 1589). Insertions at position B predominate. In this survey it was found that in BVDV2, insertions at position A predominate. Possible reasons for this difference in relative frequency are discussed.

  6. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  7. Fatal Trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, Greg N.

    2004-01-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs.

  8. Studies on genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2014-01-01

    Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...

  9. Quantitative assessment of the risk of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources of...

  10. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  11. Development of a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mylissa S D; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Stringfellow, David A

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I and type II. Follicular fluid was collected from a BoHV-1 acutely infected heifer, a BVDV I persistently infected heifer, and from 10 ovaries recovered from an abattoir. Both the BoHV-1 and BVDV contaminated follicular fluid were diluted 1:5 to 1:10(7) using the pooled, abattoir-origin follicular fluid. Each dilution sample was analyzed using the duplex qPCR, virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR (RT-nPCR), and BoHV-1 qPCR. The duplex qPCR was able to simultaneously detect BoHV-1 and BVDV I in the fluid diluted to 1:100 and 1:1000, respectively. These results corresponded with the reverse transcription-nested PCR and BoHV-1 qPCR. Therefore, the duplex qPCR might be used for quality assurance testing to identify these two viruses in cells, fluids and tissues collected from donor animals and used in reproductive technologies. PMID:18452983

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  13. Cellular Changes Induced by Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Expressing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of virus spread. Adenovirus-based FMD subunit vaccines containing the coding region of viral ca...

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals.

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  16. Molecular analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in South Africa has been confirmed by several serological surveys. However, little is known about its biological properties. Twenty five isolates obtained by isolation in tissue culture and detected by means of the antigen capture ELISA from clinically sick cattle and from foetal calf serum in South Africa were characterized on the basis of analysis of the 5' non-translated (NTR region of the genome. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify specific sequences from the 5'NTR of the genome. The oligonucleotide primers corresponding to positions 105-125 and 399-378, respectively, in the sequence of BVDV strain NADL were used to generate the PCR products. Both strands were sequenced directly with these primers and fluorescence-labelled dideoxynucleotides in an automated nucleic acid sequencer. Reference strains of pestiviruses [(BVDV type I, BVDV type II, border disease virus (BDV and hog cholera virus (HCV] and isolates from a previous investigation on BVDV in southern Africa were included for comparative purposes. All the BVDV strains obtained during this study belong to subgroups of BVDV genotype I. No association could be demonstrated between the geographic origin of the isolates. A number of isolates formed another branch separate from the existing branches Ia, Ib and Ic. These findings suggest that extensive genetic diversity can be found within BVDV type I isolates from southern Africa. Isolates that group with the classical BVDV type I strains, particularly of American origin, coexist with variants that appear to represent a local genetic pool and or variants evolving from the classical strains.

  17. A triad of bovine inherited diseases (abstract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F I

    2003-02-01

    Three inherited diseases of cattle seen in the past 2 years were described. Familial acantholysis of Angus cattle was seen in 9/54 calves born to cows inadvertently mated to a full sibling bull. Sloughing skin from the joints, nose and palate were seen at 1 day of age, confirmed as suprabasilar clefts on histopathology. A 2-year-old Charolais steer was noted at ante-mortem slaughter inspection with a whole body tremor and nystagmus. Histopathologically, eosinophilic plaques expanded white matter throughout the brain, consistent with a syndrome of 'progressive ataxia' of Charolais cattle. Two calves born from Red Devon cattle had marked hyperkeratosis, microtia and periocular reddening with deep fissuring of the keratin, characteristic of congenital ichthyosis. PMID:16032297

  18. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) phenotype and capacity to produce BVDV

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Mrigendra KS; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Park, Kaci; Braun, Lyle J; Mwangi, Waithaka; Young, Alan J; Chase, Christopher CL

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presentation cells that monitor, process, and present antigen to T cells. Viruses that infect DC can have a devastating impact on the immune system. In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. The study also examined the effect of BVDV infection on Mo-DC expression of cell surface markers, including MHCI, MH...

  19. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  20. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Glotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i., refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3, and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16. Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines.

  1. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, Alexander G; Glotova, Tatyana I; Koteneva, Svetlana V; Semenova, Olga V; Sergeev, Alexander A; Titova, Ksenya A; Morozova, Anastasia A; Sergeev, Artemiy A

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3-5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm(3)), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4-1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  2. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  3. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population. PMID:25399399

  5. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882

  6. Comparison of flow cytometry and virus isolation in cell culture for identification of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Qvist, P.; Houe, H.; Aasted, B.; Meyling, A

    1991-01-01

    Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in 143 blood samples by virus isolation in cell culture and flow cytometry was performed. The material included 37 samples later shown to originate from persistently infected cattle. Thirty-three samples were positive by virus isolation, and all 37 samples were positive by the flow cytometric assay.

  7. HoBi-like virus challenge of pregnant cows that had previously given birth to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J Kottwitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4 to 6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species.

  9. BoLA antigens are associated with increased frequency of persistent lymphocytosis in bovine leukaemia virus infected cattle and with increased incidence of antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Dimmock, C K; Newman, M J; Nicholas, F W

    1988-01-01

    The association between bovine major histocompatibility system (BoLA) type and persistent lymphocytosis in cattle with antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus was examined by comparing antigen frequencies in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis to controls matched for age, sex, breed and presence of antibodies to BLV. The cattle came from nine dairy herds in south-east Queensland, Australia; six herds were Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS), two herds were Jersey and one herd was Friesian. Antigen W6 and Eu28R were more common in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis than in controls. Antigen W8 was less common in AIS cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. A study of 24 offspring from one sire, heterozygous for W10 and Eu28R, showed that offspring inheriting Eu28R from the sire were significantly more likely to have antibodies to BLV than offspring inheriting the opposing W10 haplotype. PMID:2843067

  10. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  11. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 impairs virus control in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Seung-Uk; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen that causes development of mild to severe clinical signs in wild and domesticated ruminants. We previously showed that mice could be infected by BVDV. In the present study, we infected mice intraperitoneally with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2, harvested the blood and organs of the infected mice at days 4, 7, 10 and 14 postinfection (pi), and performed immunohistochemical analyses to confirm BVDV infection. Viral antigens were detected in the spleens of all infected mice from days 4 through 14 and were also found in the mesenteric lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), heart, kidney, intestine, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of some infected mice. In ncp BVDV2-infected mice, flow cytometric analysis revealed markedly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and lower expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-A/I-E) than those in ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 was higher in the plasma of ncp BVDV2-infected mice than that in that of ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 interact differently with the host innate immune response in vivo. These findings highlight an important distinction between ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 and suggest that ncp BVDV2 impairs the host's ability to control the infection and enhances virus dissemination. PMID:26586332

  12. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    MIURA, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with ...

  13. Epidemiology, infection dynamics and effective control of Bovine Leukemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina: a quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes lymphomas (leucosis) and other disorders in cattle and it has a large economical impact on the livestock sector of many countries around the world. BovineDiverse outcomes of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in a herd naturally infected during pregnancy - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A beef producer purchased Angus crossbred cattle that were pregnant with nursing calves. The purchased cattle, their nursing calves, and subsequent born calves were not initially tested for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a (BVDV2a) was isolated from an aborted bovine fetus, 6.5 months,...

  14. Differential detection of turkey coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and bovine coronavirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loa, C C; Lin, T L; Wu, C C; Bryan, T A; Hooper, T A; Schrader, D L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (TCoV), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). Primers were designed from conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) protein gene among TCoV, IBV, and BCoV and used in the same PCR reaction. Reverse transcription followed by the PCR reaction was used to amplify a portion of N or S gene of the corresponding coronaviruses. The PCR products were detected on agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Two PCR products, a 356-bp band corresponding to N gene and a 727-bp band corresponding to S gene, were obtained for TCoV isolates. In contrast, one PCR product of 356 bp corresponding to a fragment of N gene was obtained for IBV strains and one PCR product of 568 bp corresponding to a fragment of S gene was obtained for BCoV. There were no PCR products with the same primers for Newcastle disease virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey pox virus, pigeon pox virus, fowl pox virus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, enterovirus, astrovirus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Performance of the assay with serially diluted RNA demonstrated that the multiplex PCR could detect 4.8x10(-3) microg of TCoV RNA, 4.6x10(-4) microg of IBV RNA, and 8.0x10(-2) microg of BCoV RNA. These results indicated that the multiplex PCR as established in the present study is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for differential detection of TCoV, IBV, and BCoV in a single PCR reaction. PMID:16137773

  15. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... applied modelling principle. The validation problem in relation to the model was discussed. A comparison between real and simulated data using data from a published case report was shown to illustrate how user acceptance can be obtained. © 1995....

  16. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears tha...

  17. Iminosugars in Combination with Interferon and Ribavirin Permanently Eradicate Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Persistently Infected Cells▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Stephen D; SMITH, Caroline; Michelet, Maud; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Hussey, Mark; Dwek, Raymond A.; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) as dual therapy and as part of triple-combination therapies with the iminosugars N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin, and N-7-oxanonyl-6-deoxymethyl-galactonojirimycin. The ability of these compounds to clear bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus (HCV), from a persistently infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells cell line was determined by monitoring the secretion of viral RNA and ...

  18. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  19. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  1. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  2. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530

  3. Single-Tube Single-Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Pooled Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Daniel; Bhudevi, Bodreddigari; Castro, Anthony E.

    2001-01-01

    A reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was developed for use as a diagnostic screening test for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in pooled bovine serum samples. Individual serum samples from 60 dairy cattle herds located in Pennsylvania were evaluated by the microplate virus isolation method, and pooled sera were analyzed by RT-PCR. RT-PCR was sensitive and specific and detected a single viremic serum sample in up to 100 pooled serum samples. RT-PCR analysis of pooled sera pr...

  4. Detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G F; Haggard, D L; Weber, A F; Meiske, J C

    1991-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely distributed in U.S. cattle herds. It infects B lymphocytes and causes neoplastic disease in 5-10% of infected animals. Direct economic losses are incurred as a result of death, reduced milk production and condemnation at slaughter. Thus the identification of cattle infected with BLV is of significant concern to the U.S. cattle industry. For this reason, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to examine seropositive and seronegative cattle for the presence of BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an amplification protocol able to detect 1 viral genome in 100,000 cells, BLV was not detected in 7 seronegative cattle in an infected herd. BLV sequences were detected in 13 of 18 seropositive animals with various levels of infection as determined by in vitro lymphocyte culture and electron microscopy. An active infection was demonstrated in one animal, based on the presence of viral RNA. These findings indicate that PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of BLV in cattle and provides new information regarding the dynamics of the infection. PMID:1658030

  5. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  6. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01) and weight gain (p = 0.08) seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune

  7. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  8. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. Impact of species and subgenotypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus on control by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are diverse genetically and antigenically. This diversity impacts both diagnostic testing and vaccination. In North America, there are two BVDV species, 1 and 2 with 3 subgenotypes, BVDV1a, BVDV1b and BVDV2a. Initially, US vaccines contained BVDV1a cytopathic strains. With the reporting of BVDV2 severe disease in Canada and the USA there was focus on protection by BVDV1a vaccines on BVDV2 disease. There was also emphasis of controlling persistently infected (PI) cattle resulted in studies for fetal protection afforded by BVDV1a vaccines. Initially, studies indicated that some BVDV1a vaccines gave less than 100% protection against BVDV2 challenge for fetal infection. Eventually vaccines in North America added BVDV2a to modified live virus (MLV) and killed BVDV1a vaccines. Ideally, vaccines should stimulate complete immunity providing 100% protection against disease, viremias, shedding, and 100% fetal protection in vaccinates when challenged with a range of diverse antigenic viruses (subgenotypes). There should be a long duration of immunity stimulated by vaccines, especially for fetal protection. MLV vaccines should be safe when given according to the label and free of other pathogens. While vaccines have now included BVDV1a and BVDV2a, with the discovery of the predominate subgenotype of BVDV in the USA to be BVDV1b, approximately 75% or greater in prevalence, protection in acute challenge and fetal protection studies became more apparent for BVDV1b. Thus many published studies examined protection by BVDV1a and BVDV2a vaccines against BVDV1b in acute challenge and fetal protection studies. There are no current BVDV1b vaccines in the USA. There are now more regulations on BVDV reproductive effects by the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) regarding label claims for protection against abortion, PI calves, and fetal infections, including expectations for studies regarding those claims. Also, the USDA CVB has a memorandum

  10. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Nan; Sun Changjiang; Wang Quankai; Du Rui; Wang Shijie; Gao Yugang; Zhang Pengju; Zhang Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  11. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early in...

  12. Complete Genome Sequencing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1, Subgenotypes 1n and 1o.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Asuka; Tateishi, Kentaro; Shinohara, Minami; Naoi, Yuki; Shiokawa, Mai; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    To gain further insight into the genomic features of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subgenotypes, we sequenced the complete genome of BVDV-1n Shitara/02/06 and BVDV-1o IS26NCP/01. The complete genome of Shitara/02/06 and IS26NCP/01 shared 77.7 to 79.3% and 78.0 to 85.7% sequence identities with other BVDV-1 subgenotype strains, respectively. PMID:26893426

  13. Coinfection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot cattle with chronic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...

  14. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Entry Is Dependent on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lecot, Steve; Belouzard, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) entry in MDBK cells were investigated. Chloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or ammonium chloride inhibited BVDV infection, indicating that an acidic endosomal pH is required for BVDV entry. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially inhibited BVDV infection at a postentry step, whereas BVDV entry was strongly inhibited by chlorpromazine or by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of EPS15, a protein essential for the formation ...

  15. Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Directly from Blood of Persistently Infected Cattle by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D

    1999-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.

  16. Chromatin disruption in the promoter of Bovine Leukemia Virus during transcriptional activation

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Laurence; Dekoninck, Ann; Reichert, Michal; Calao, Miriam; Merimi, Makram; Van den Broeke, Anne; Vierendeel, Valérie; Cleuter, Yvette; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus expression relies on its chromatin organization after integration into the host cell genome. Proviral latency, which results from transcriptional repression in vivo, represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and likely allows for tumor progression. Here, we discriminated two types of latency: an easily reactivable latent state of the YR2 provirus and a ‘locked’ latent state of the L267 provirus. The defective YR2 provirus was characterized by the prese...

  17. Clinical and Haematological Findings in Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus (BIV) Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Zeki; YEŞİLBAĞ, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and haematological findings in dairy cattle with naturally infected bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection were evaluated. Thirty-seven (12.3%) out of 300 cattle that had previously been found positive for BIV infection were monitored. Thirty-seven BIV-free cattle selected from BIV-positive herds were used as a control group. Routine clinical and haematological parameters were recorded 6 times, at 1-month intervals. Mastitis (n = 18), metritis (n = 9), respiratory system...

  18. Transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds by simulation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, T.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways...

  19. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gp51 gene from Korean bovine leukemia virus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-hye; SONG, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been reported in Korea for more than three decades. However, to date, there have been few studies regarding Korean BLV since 1980s. Thus, the purpose of this study is to perform a diagnosis and molecular characterization of BLV strains circulating in Korea and to estimate genetic diversity of different genotypes of BLV. Method To investigate the distribution of BLV variants in the world and assess the evolutionary history of Korea...

  20. Evaluation of viral inactivation of pseudorabies virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus in pancreatin of porcine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, C; Gobbi, E; Biosa, T; Andra', M; Cavallazzi, U; Masoero, L

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Because of the product's virucidal effect and high cytotoxicity, the starting material was diluted to a ratio of 0.67 g of dried pancreatin resuspended in 13.5 mL of cell culture medium followed by a 50-fold dilution in cell culture medium before spiking. After heating at 60±1°C for 5 h, the samples were diluted about 5-fold in cell culture medium and titered by the plaque assay method. The virus reduction factor ranged from 5.59 (for PPV) to 7.07 (for EMCV) and no viral plaque was observed, indicating that the process step was effective in the reduction and removal of virus contamination. Though no virus contamination events in pancreatin have been reported to date, evaluation of the production process for its ability to inactivate and/or remove virus contamination, particularly from zoonotic viral agents such as hepatitis E virus and Norovirus considered emerging pathogens, is necessary to ensure the viral safety of animal-derived biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25110118

  1. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) in Denmark during a 10-year eradication period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Stadejek, T.; Nylin, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 243 base-pair fragment of the 5'- untranslated region (5'-UTR) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was RT-PCR amplified from tissue samples (after one passage) or from plasma collected from Danish cattle in 1962 (1), 1993 (7), or in 2002-03 (28) when BVD was almost extinct as a result of a 6...... subtype, the samples collected in 2002-2003 belonged to Id (22 samples), 1b (5 samples) and le (I sample) subtypes. In five herds, materials from two animals were obtained for PCR analysis. In four of five herds the sequences of the two viruses were identical, but in one herd the obtained sequences...

  2. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  3. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  4. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  5. Sporadic Bovine Leukosis: A Description of Eight Calves Received at Animal Diseases Research Institute from 1974-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, A.; Greig, A. S.; Chander, S; Dukes, T W

    1980-01-01

    Eight calves with sporadic bovine leukosis are described. The common features were generalized lymphadenopathy, visceral involvement and raised total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. Agar gel immunodiffusion tests for bovine leukemia virus antibodies were negative in eight animals and in all animals from three herds of origin. Lymphocytic nuclear pockets were found in the tissues of one calf but attempts to isolate bovine leukemia virus from two animals were unsuccessful.

  6. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b

    OpenAIRE

    Soltan, Mohamed A.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Elsheery, Mohamed N.; Elhaig, Mahmoud M.; Riley, Matthew C.; Melissa A. Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed N; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt. PMID:26701085

  10. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The propagation of viruses, for use in research and the production of vaccines, is dependent on growth of the virus in cell culture. The media used to grow cells is commonly supplemented with serum collected from the fetuses of pregnant cattle that have gone to slaughter. This fetal bovine serum (...

  11. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. Vesicles and ulcerations can also occur on the mammary gland. Recovery in adult animals usually occurs in 8-15 days. Clinical signs for most serotypes are less dramatic in sheep and goats. Swine can develop very severe coronary band lesions and high mortality in piglets has been observed. One of the challenges of diagnosing FMD is that it may be clinically similar to several other vesicular or ulcerative diseases. FMD is clinically indistinguishable from Vesicular stomatitis, Swine vesicular disease and Vesicular exanthema of swine. It may also resemble Bovine viral diarrhea, Mucosal disease, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Bluetongue, Bovine papular stomatitis, Bovine mammillitis and Rinderpest.

  12. Comparison of the prevalence and incidence of infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Denmark and Michigan and association with possible risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H.; Baker, J.C.; Maes, R.K.;

    1995-01-01

    Based on 2 previous surveys on the occurrence of infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Danish and Michigan dairy herds, the prevalence and incidence of the infection were compared. The presence of certain possible risk factors for the occurrence of infection in the 2 areas were su...

  13. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  14. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for bovine leukemia virus: lessons for HTLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-07-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  15. Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Bovine Leukemia Virus: Lessons for HTLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Vagnoni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1. BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads.

  16. Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Bovine Leukemia Virus: Lessons for HTLV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  17. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding......, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....

  18. Does this patient have Ebola virus disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Tattevin, Pierre; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Massaquoi, Moses

    2014-01-01

    (beginning of the introduction) Ebola virus is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Since 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has caused more than 20 outbreaks in Africa, with case fatality rates of 30%-90%, in the absence of any approved treatment or vaccination [1].

  19. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. II. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus on the endometrial response to lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Anstaett, Olivia L; Brownlie, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2015-10-01

    Infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) is associated with uterine disease and infertility. This study investigated the influence of ncpBVDV on immune functions of the bovine endometrium by testing the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary cultures of mixed epithelial and stromal cells were divided into four treatment groups (control [CONT], BVDV, CONT+LPS, and BVDV+LPS) and infected with ncpBVDV for 4 days followed by treatment with LPS for 6 h. Whole-transcriptomic gene expression was measured followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differential expression of 184 genes was found between CONT and BVDV treatments, showing interplay between induction and inhibition of responses. Up-regulation of TLR3, complement, and chemotactic and TRIM factors by ncpBVDV all suggested an ongoing immune response to viral infection. Down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, CXCR4, and serine proteinase inhibitors suggested mechanisms by which ncpBVDV may simultaneously counter the host response. Comparison between BVDV+LPS and CONT+LPS treatments showed 218 differentially expressed genes. Canonical pathway analysis identified the key importance of interferon signaling. Top down-regulated genes were RSAD2, ISG15, BST2, MX2, OAS1, USP18, IFIT3, IFI27, SAMD9, IFIT1, and DDX58, whereas TRIM56, C3, and OLFML1 were most up-regulated. Many of these genes are also regulated by IFNT during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Many innate immune genes that typically respond to LPS were inhibited by ncpBVDV, including those involved in pathogen recognition, inflammation, interferon response, chemokines, tissue remodeling, cell migration, and cell death/survival. Infection with ncpBVDV can thus compromise immune function and pregnancy recognition, thereby potentially predisposing infected cows to postpartum bacterial endometritis and reduced fertility. PMID:26353892

  20. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  1. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr) on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Abdul Adjid; M Saepulloh

    2010-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial inseminat...

  2. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  3. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  4. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-08-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combination. All 517 cases of human leukemia and 162 lung cancer were negative for a PCR of the BLV proviral DNA. In conclusion, although meat has been imported from BLV endemic areas, the BLV infection does not appear to be the cause of human leukemia or lung cancer in Koreans. These results can be used as a control for further studies on the BLV in Koreans. PMID:16100451

  5. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin Zhu; Chang Liu; Xin-Lei Liu; Wen-Tao Qiao; Qi-Min Chen; Yi Zeng; Yun-Qi Geng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions,and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.METHODS: A series of chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs differing in the replacement regions in gag gene were constructed, and then were transfected into 293T cells. The expression of chimeric viral genes was detected at the RNA and protein level. The supematant of 293T cell was ultra centrifuged to detect the probable chimeric virion. Once the chimeric virion was detected, its biological activities were also assayed by infecting HIV-sensitive MT4 cells.RESULTS: Four chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs were constructed. Genes in chimeric viruses expressed correctly in transfected 293T cells. All four constructs assembled chimeric virions with different degrees of efficiency. These virions had complete structures common to retroviruses and packaged genomic RNAs, but the cleavages of the precursor Gag proteins were abnormal to some extent. Three of these virions tested could attach and enter into MT4 cells, and one of them could complete the course of reverse transcription. Yet none of them could replicate in MT4 cells.CONCLUSION: The replacement of partial gag gene of HIV with BIV gaggene is feasible. Genes in chimeric BHIVs are accurately expressed, and virions are assembled. These chimeric BHIVs (proviral DNA together with virus particles) have the potential to become a new kind of HIV/AIDS vaccine.

  6. Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R

    2016-09-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060

  7. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...

  8. Antigenic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies and cross-neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV were characterized antigenically with a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs (Corapi WV, Donis RO and Dubovi EJ (1990 American Journal of Veterinary Research, 55: 1388-1394. Eight isolates were further characterized by cross-neutralization using sheep monospecific antisera. Analysis of mAb binding to viral antigens by indirect immunofluorescence revealed distinct patterns of reactivity among the native viruses. Local isolates differed from the prototype Singer strain in recognition by up to 14 mAbs. Only two mAbs - one to the non-structural protein NS23/p125 and another to the envelope glycoprotein E0/gp48 - recognized 100% of the isolates. No isolate was recognized by more than 14 mAbs and twelve viruses reacted with 10 or less mAbs. mAbs to the major envelope glycoprotein E2/gp53 revealed a particularly high degree of antigenic variability in this glycoprotein. Nine isolates (47.3% reacted with three or less of 10 E2/gp53 mAbs, and one isolate was not recognized by any of these mAbs. Virus-specific antisera to eight isolates plus three standard BVDV strains raised in lambs had virus-neutralizing titers ranging from 400 to 3200 against the homologous virus. Nonetheless, many antisera showed significantly reduced neutralizing activity when tested against heterologous viruses. Up to 128-fold differences in cross-neutralization titers were observed for some pairs of viruses. When the coefficient of antigenic similarity (R was calculated, 49 of 66 comparisons (74.24% between viruses resulted in R values that antigenically distinguish strains. Moreover, one isolate had R values suggesting that it belongs to a distinct serologic group. The marked antigenic diversity observed among Brazilian BVDV isolates should be considered when planning diagnostic and immunization strategies.

  9. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. PMID:24648561

  10. Influence of herd structure and type of virus introduction on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Ezanno, Pauline; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A herd is a population structured into groups not all equally in contact, which may influence within-herd spread of pathogens. Herd structure varies among cattle herds. However, published models of the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) assume no herd structure or a unique structure chosen as a representative. Our objective was to identify - for different index cases introduced into an initially BVDV - free dairy herd - risky (favourable) herd structures, which increased (decreased...

  11. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA from a pneumopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus and its diagnostic application.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, K V; Brian, D A; Rouse, B T; Potgieter, L N

    1988-01-01

    A pneumopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus was grown in cell culture and purified. Genomic ribonucleic acid was extracted, polyadenylated at the 3' end, and copied into complementary DNA after oligo-dT priming. Complementary DNA was male double stranded and cloned into the pUC9 plasmid. Approximately 200 complementary DNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.5 kilobases were obtained. Hybridization assays indicated that the sequences isolated were specific for bovine viral diarrhe...

  12. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    González Ester T.; Norimine Junzo; Valera Alejandro R.; Travería Gabriel; Oliva Graciela A.; Etcheverrigaray María E.

    1999-01-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies. Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain r...

  13. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi Misako; Kameyama Ken-ichiro; Hayama Yoko; Yamamoto Takehisa; Tsutsui Toshiyuki; Kobayashi Sota; Murakami Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several attempts have been made to control enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) at the local level, a nationwide control program has not been implemented in Japan, except for passive surveillance. Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of BL...

  14. Detection and analysis of bovine foamy virus infection by an indicator cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe MA; Wen-tao QIAO; Cheng-hao XUAN; Jin-hui XIE; Qi-min CHEN; Yun-qi GENG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the infectivity and replication strategy of bovine foamy virus (BFV) in different cultured cells using the BFV indicator cell line (BICL) system. Methods: BFV infection was induced by the co-culture method or the transient transfection of the infectious BFV plasmid [Pcmv (cytomegalovirus) - BFV] clone. The infectivity of BFV was monitored by the percentage of green fluorescent protein-positive cells in the BICL. The effect of reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (AZT) on BFV replication was also evaluated in the BICL. Results-The titer of BFV in fetal bovine lung cells was 4-5-folds more than that in either 293T or HeLa (Cells from Henrietta lacks) cells using the co-culture method, and in the meantime was significantly higher than that produced by the infectious clone Pcmv-BFV in the same cells. AZT had only a minor effect on viral titers when added to cells prior to the virus infection. In contrast, viral titers reduced sharply to the level of the negative control when the virus was produced from cells in the presence of AZT. Conclusions: BICL can be used for the titration of the BFV viral infection in non-cytopathic condition. In addition, we provide important evi-dence to show that reverse transcription is essential for BFV replication at a late step of viral infection.

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  17. Analysis of a pair of END+ and END- viruses derived from the same bovine viral diarrhea virus stock reveals the amino acid determinants in Npro responsible for inhibition of type I interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozasa, Takashi; Abe, Yuri; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Tamura, Tomokazu; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ishimaru, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    The Exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon is induced by the inhibition of type I interferon in pestivirus-infected cells in vitro, via proteasomal degradation of cellular interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 with the property of the viral autoprotease protein N(pro). Reportedly, the amino acid residues in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) determine the difference in characteristics between END-phenomenon-positive (END(+)) and END-phenomenon-negative (END(-)) classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs). However, the basic mechanism underlying this function in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has not been elucidated from the genomic differences between END(+) and END(-) viruses using reverse genetics till date. In the present study, comparison of complete genome sequences of a pair of END(+) and END(-) viruses isolated from the same virus stock revealed that there were only four amino acid substitutions (D136G, I2623V, D3148G and D3502Y) between two viruses. Based on these differences, viruses with and without mutations at these positions were generated using reverse genetics. The END assay, measurements of induced type I interferon and IRF-3 detection in cells infected with these viruses revealed that the aspartic acid at position 136 in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) was required to inhibit the production of type I interferon via the degradation of cellular IRF-3, consistently with CSFV. PMID:25648277

  18. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy John Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. Vaccine made from particles was generated in Vero cells and administered to BVDV free calves in a prime/boost regimen at two dosage levels. Vaccination resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that cross-neutralized both type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes following booster vaccination. Additionally, high dose vaccine administration demonstrated some protection from clinical disease and significantly reduced the degree of leukopenia caused by viral infection. Conclusions Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. This strategy holds promise for a safe and effective vaccine to BVDV.

  19. Use of DNA from milk tank for diagnostic and typing of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is an exogenous retrovirus distributed worldwide. Most BLV infected cattle remain clinically normal during their lifetime, with only 1-5% eventually developing lymphosarcoma. However, up to one-third of BLV-infected cattle may develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a polyclonal expansion of infected B-lymphocytes. In Chile the infection was first described in the early 80's, and has since progressed slowly since then mainly because of a National Program implemented in the middle 90's. Nevertheless, infection persists and there is a continue need for development of more sensitive tests that can be applied to control the spread of the disease. We have been evaluating milk as a source of DNA that can be used for the rapid diagnosis and typing of BLV. In order to find seropositive herds we made a random screening of milk tank samples obtained directly from our milk quality laboratory. Samples were analysed by an indirect ELISA (BLV Svanova Biotech) according to the manufacturer instructions. Twenty three out of 76 milk tank samples analysed gave seropositive results to BLV antibodies with various degrees of reaction. To confirm the diagnosis through direct detection of proviral BLV DNA, leukocyte preparations from all 23 milk tank samples were prepared by an 'in house DNA protocol'. DNA samples were tested by nested PCR using primers specific for a highly conserved region of the env gene and PCR conditions described elsewhere. In samples from 15 herds BLV-env specific amplification products were detected (65%). The restriction analysis of these amplicons using the endonucleases BamH I, Bcl I and Pvu II, showed that 11 samples yielded the same pattern as first characterised by in Australia. Three other isolates produced the same pattern as the Belgian variant and no Japanese variants have been found so far. A wide variability in somatic cell count was observed in the analysed herd samples, which could explain the relatively low correlation

  20. Comparison of nucleic acid hybridization and nucleic acid amplification using conserved sequences from the 5' noncoding region for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridpath, J F; Bolin, S R; Katz, J

    1993-01-01

    Primers and probes derived from conserved sequences located in the 5' noncoding region of pestiviruses were evaluated for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus. With these reagents, hybridization and polymerase chain reaction tests detected 62 of 90 and 90 of 90 bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates, respectively. A quick lysis method for preparing RNA for use in polymerase chain reaction amplification also was evaluated.

  1. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C; Neill, John D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; McGill, Jodi L; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-01

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains. PMID:26174699

  2. Cytokine regulation by virus infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus, a flavivirus, downregulates production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in macrophages in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, H; Jungi, T. W.; Pfister, H; Strasser, M; Sileghem, M; Peterhans, E

    1996-01-01

    Bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected in vitro with noncytopathic or cytopathic strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Infection with both biotypes resulted in a decreased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha upon stimulation with heat-inactivated Salmonella dublin or lipopolysaccharide. Other macrophage functions were not downregulated, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a loss in macrophage viability. The downregulated production of tumor necrosis factor...

  3. [Detection of the level of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus in the cow milk by immune sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrohova, L V; Starodub, M F; Nahaeva, L I

    2005-01-01

    An immune sensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was developed for express diagnostics of bovine leucosis. Sensor used for detection of the level of antibodies against bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) in the milk serum. It was shown that immune sensor analysis is more sensitive, rapid and simple in comparison with the traditional AGID test. It was stated that the developed immune sensor may be used for performance of screening of bovine leucosis at the farms and the minimal dilution of the milk serum should be 1:20. PMID:16335252

  4. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  5. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody in cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, H J; Masri, S A; Deregt, D; Yeo, S G; Thomas, E J

    1991-01-01

    A reliable bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viral antigen was prepared from BVD virus grown on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells by solubilizing the virus with detergent MEGA-10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide) followed by removal of hydrophobic proteins with Triton X-100 treatment. By these treatments, problems of high background associated with BVD viral antigen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were eliminated. With this new antigen, an ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum a...

  7. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Glotov, Alexander G.; Tatyana I. Glotova; Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Alexander A. Sergeev; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.; Sergeev, Artemiy A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtyp...

  8. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izedin Goga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.

  9. Immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus--looking at newly defined targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher C L; Thakur, Neelu; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Morarie-Kane, Susan E; Rajput, Mrigendra K

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection. PMID:26050567

  10. Use of DNA from milk tank for diagnosis and typing of bovine leukaemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the epidemiology of Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection, we investigated the suitability of milk tank samples for effecting molecular epidemiology studies of BLV in a southern area of Chile. As part of a serological survey for BLV antibodies carried out in 280 herds, we selected 33 strong positive samples, from which DNA was isolated to perform a BLV-specific nested PCR. Using RFLP analysis, all 33 PCR products could be assigned to the known Australian or the Belgium subgroups. A phylogenetic tree resulting from the comparison of these sequences demonstrates the relations and differences among and within the subgroups. (author)

  11. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2015-07-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with persistent leukosis. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle. PMID:25766769

  12. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  13. Reproductive performance of apparently healthy cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurkin, A W; Coria, M F; Cutlip, R C

    1979-05-15

    A Holstein-Friesian bull and three Holstein-Friesian cows were seronegative for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus but were persistently infected with the virus. Virus was isolated from buffy coat cells and nasal and lacrimal secretions during their lifetime, and they remained free of clinical signs of BVD. The three cows were pregnant when purchased, and they gave birth to full-term calves. One calf lived only a few hours, one calf became ill and died within a few days, and one calf became ill and was euthanatized within a few weeks. One cow was then bred and became pregnant but aborted a 7-month fetus. A second cow was bred approximately 5 months after parturition but did not conceive. The third cow was necropsied 6 weeks after calving, because of loss of weight. Although the bull's semen contained BVD virus when seropositive cows were bred, normal calves were born. When seronegative heifers were bred, they became seropositive to BVD virus within two weeks, with higher titers in six weeks. On heifer conceived after one service but aborted a 6-month fetus. Three others continued to have estrous cycles until their titers rose to 1:128, then they conceived and gave birth to normal calves. Another heifer conceived on the first service, had a titer of 1:128 two weeks after breeding, and gave birth to a normal calf. PMID:220208

  14. Optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescent (IF) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural and non-structural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (PFPE) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. Immunohistochemical local...

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: The Past Present and Future of Mad Cow Disease in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotthauer, Brent G.

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to provide an introductory, yet thorough, discussion of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and its ramifications in the United States, this paper shall: discuss the history of and explain the disease known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; explain Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease; outline the history, responsibility and structure of the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine; provide a comparative analysis of the steps that the United States and other countries ha...

  16. Impact of viruses on airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Johnston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological evidence that respiratory viral infections are associated with 80–85% of asthma exacerbations in children. There is less evidence in adults, but the available data suggest viruses are associated with around two-thirds to three-quarters of exacerbations in adults. These associations include severe exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. The most common viruses detected in these studies were rhinoviruses, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. Asthmatics have increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infection and have recently been shown to have profoundly defective interferon-beta responses to virus infection, resulting in increased virus replication. Atypical bacterial infections are also associated with chronic asthma and asthma exacerbations and a recent study indicates antibiotic therapy active against atypical bacteria is effective in treatment of exacerbations. Recent data also indicates asthmatics are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting they may also have impaired antibacterial immunity. Research is urgently required to determine whether augmenting anti-infective immunity is beneficial in the treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations. More recent data also implicates viruses in the majority of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies are also required investigating anti-infective host defence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals 3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries. PMID:26676243

  18. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方法。牛呼吸道合胞体病在全球范围内流行,对各国养牛业造成极大危害。论文综述了牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法的研究进展,为牛呼吸道合胞体病的诊断和预防提供参考。%Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article

  19. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article summarized the re-search progress on the laboratory test methods of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.The overview of thesis will provide some references for the diagnosis and prevention of the bovine respiratory syncytial disease.%牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方

  20. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  1. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saepulloh M; Sendow I

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those ...

  2. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. PMID:24139177

  3. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization ...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. Recovery of Virulent and RNase-Negative Attenuated Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses from Infectious cDNA Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christiane; von Freyburg, Martina; Elbers, Knut; Meyers, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Cloned cDNA derived from the genome of the virulent type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NY'93/C was sequenced and served for establishment of the infectious cDNA clone pKANE40A. Virus recovered from pKANE40A exhibited growth characteristics similar to those of wild-type BVDV NY'93/C and proved to be clinically indistinguishable from the wild-type virus in animal experiments. A virus mutant in which the RNase residing in the viral glycoprotein Erns was inactivated, revealed an att...

  6. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  7. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  8. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare health...

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus structural protein E2 as a complement regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachuk, Agustín

    2016-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self. PMID:27038454

  11. Isolation and confirmation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Serbia and comparative typing with recent Slovenian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in fetal calf serum (FCS, whole blood and pathological material obtained from sick or dead cattle in Serbia are presented. Whole blood and FCS from sick animals were screened for BVDV antigen (Erns by ELISA. ELISA positive samples and pathological material from dead animals were inoculated into primary cell cultures of fetal calf testis (FTTe. After threefold passage in FTTe cells, BVDV was detected by direct immunofluorescence and indirect immunoperoxidase tests and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Among 64 individual samples of FCS, two were positive for noncytopathogenic BVDV. One cytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from a whole blood sample from a heifer with clinical signs of mucosal disease. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of three Serbian BVDV isolates was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and, together with 15 recent Slovenian BVDV isolates characterized by phylogenetic analysis. All isolates were classified as BVDV genotype 1 viruses. The majority of the BVDV isolates were of the 1f (Serbia - 2 isolates, Slovenia - 7 isolates and 1d subtypes (Slovenia - 7 isolates whilst one Serbian and one Slovenian isolate were genotyped as BVDV 1b.

  12. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  13. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish; Rajak; Deepak; Kumar; Jain; Avineesh; Singh; Ajay; Kumar; Sharma; Anshuman; Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate(up to 90%) accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever(EHF) is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, C?te d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  14. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Yugang Gao; Xueliang Zhao; Pu Zang; Qun Liu; Gongqing Wei; Lianxue Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in tr...

  15. Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikebuchi Ryoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection.

  16. Antiviral Activity of Marine Actinobacteria against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus (Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus genus represents a major public health problem worldwide and it is responsible for chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As this virus does not replicate efficiently in cell culture and in animals, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is used as a surrogate model for screening assays of antiviral activity, and mechanism of action assays. From marine invertebrates and their microorganisms isolated, we prepared extracts and fractions, and we isolated substances for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 71 tested, seven were considered promising presenting protection percentage of more than 80%. The best inhibition results were obtained from the extracts produced by the Gordonia bacteria samples with 99.9% inhibition and by Micrococcus with 99% inhibition. Furthermore, most of the extracts selected by the protection percentage showed selectivity index values considered promising, especially the extracts of the bacteria Williansia (SI=27 and Brachybacterium (SI=39. On the action mechanism, most of the promising extracts showed activity in the inhibition of intracellular replication steps, although it has been observed action of different extracts in several stages of viral replicative cycle. Thus, various extracts stood out and may lead to the development of drugs that ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C.

  17. Co-existence of genetically and antigenically diverse bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in an endemic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Braun, Ueli; Hilbe, Monika; Ehrensperger, Felix; Peterhans, Ernst

    2008-09-18

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important cattle pathogen that causes acute or persistent infections. These are associated with immunotolerance to the viral strain persisting in animals that became infected early in their intrauterine development. To this date, the epidemiology of BVD in Switzerland runs virtually undisturbed by control measures such as restrictions on animal traffic or vaccination. Here, we analysed the viral genetics of 169 Swiss isolates and carried out crossed serum neutralisation tests to assess the antigenic spectrum of BVDV strains present in the cattle population. Besides confirming the presence of BVDV type 1 subgroups b, e, h and k, a single "orphan" BVDV-1 virus was detected that does not belong to any known BVDV-1 subgroup. No BVDV type 2 viruses were detected, suggesting that they are rare or not present in the cattle population. Antigenic comparison revealed significant differences between the different subgroups, with anti-1k immune serum having up to tenfold lower neutralising activity against 1b, 1e and 1h subgroup viruses, which however may still suffice to protect 1k-immune animals against superinfection by viruses of those other subgroups. Serum from routinely vaccinated animals revealed generally low titres but good cross-neutralisation. A geographic information system revealed that the viruses of the different subgroups are distributed in an apparently randomised fashion in the cattle population. This geographic distribution pattern may reflect peculiarities of the management practice in the Swiss cattle industry that, especially through annual transhumance of up to 25% of the entire population in the alpine region, tend to optimise the spread of BVDV. PMID:18424020

  18. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Vonèche, V; Portetelle, D; Kettmann, R; Willems, L; Limbach, K.; E. Paoletti; Ruysschaert, J M; Burny, A; Brasseur, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modified bovine leukemia virus (BLV) glycoproteins were expressed by using vaccinia virus recombinants, and their fusogenic capacities were examined by a syncytia-formation assay. This analysis indicates that (i) both BLV envelope glycoproteins gp51 and gp30 are necessary for cell fusion; (ii) insertion of the N-terminal segment of gp30 (fusion peptide) into the lipid bilayer in an oblique orientation, as predicted by computer conformational analysis, results in fusogenic capacities higher th...

  19. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Clarice Weis Arns; Cláudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes; Bárbara Pereira da Silva; Eduardo Furtado Flores; Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini; Marina Aiello Padilla; Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos; Luciana Konecny Kohn

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced fro...

  20. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Mayuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in BLV-infected animals. Indeed, the assay was highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. This assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with serotests. Results BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was found to be highly sensitive when compared with the real-time PCR-based TaqMan MGB assay developed by Lew et al. and the commercial TaKaRa cycleave PCR system. The BLV copy number determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was only partially correlated with the positive rate for anti-BLV antibody as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination reaction, or agar gel immunodiffusion. This result indicates that, although serotests are widely used for the diagnosis of BLV infection, it is difficult to detect BLV infection with confidence by using serological tests alone. Two cattle were experimentally infected with BLV. The kinetics of the provirus did not precisely correlate with the change in anti-BLV antibody production. Moreover, both reactions were different in cattle that carried different bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3 genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that the quantitative measurement of proviral load by BLV

  1. Activation of cell signaling pathways is dependant on the biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an economically important cattle pathogen with a world wide distribution. Besides the segregation into two distinct species (BVDV1 / BVDV2) two different biotypes, a cytopathic (cp) and a noncytopathic (ncp) biotype, are...

  2. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100% of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by five years of age. Similarly, in cattle PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine re...

  3. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses.Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea vi...

  4. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Doblies, D.; Arquint, A.; Schaller, P.;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, six immunocompetent calves were experimentally infected with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and the effects of the viral infection on parameters of the innate immune response of the host were analyzed. Clinical and virological data were compared with...

  5. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  6. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  7. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  8. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  9. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endoth...

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies and Vitiligo Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jadali

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by depigmented patches due to selective destruction of melanocytes. The etiology of this disease is unknown. A number of hypotheses including viral theory have been proposed to explain the etiology. To determine the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus infection in vitiligo patients, the present study was performed. Third generation ELISA test was used for detection of antibodies to HCV in human sera. All normal controls were anti-HCV negative whereas only one patient was positive for anti-HCV and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of anti-HCV between patients and controls. These results indicate that hepatitis C virus has not a direct causal role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, however, this does not rul out a "hit and run" virus induced disease.

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  13. Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Høyer, M.J.; Grøndahl, C.;

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) 1f from a persistently infected (PI) lesser Malayan mousedeer to two bovine calves. Different contact routes to two calves were analysed: 1) aerosol contact between two adjacent pens without physical contact; 2......) indirect contact by use of common utensils; 3) direct nose-to-nose contact for 30 seconds. One of the calves was infected either by aerosol or indirect contact. The virus sequence in 247 nucleotides in the 5'-UTR was 100% identical in mousedeer and calf. To elucidate the distribution of BVDV within the...... mousedeer BVD virus in the E2 region (420 nucleotides) through 4 generations showed only 7 mutations, which were maintained from mother to offspring....

  14. Ebola virus disease: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and...

  15. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent. PMID:26121276

  16. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  17. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  18. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  19. Immune Responses in Mice Injected with gD Plasmid DNA of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-chang; TONG Guang-zhi; QIU Hua-ji

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding gD of isolate Luojing of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV)was amplified,sequenced, and cloned into plasmid pcDNA 3.1, resulting in a recombinant pcDNA-gD. Groups of BALB/c mice were injected with 100 μ g of plasmid only or together with liposome. After immunization, serum samples were collected from mice every 2 weeks for a 10-week period and tested for protein-specific antibody with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). It was showed that the plasmid encoding IBRV glycopretein D developed gene-specific antibody. This report indicates the potential of DNA injection as a method of vaccination.

  20. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  1. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: Quantitation of bovine leukemia virus proviral load using the CoCoMo algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoba Kazuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV and is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly extended course that often involves persistent lymphocytosis and culminates in B-cell lymphomas. BLV provirus remains integrated in cellular genomes, even in the absence of detectable BLV antibodies. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of BLV-induced leukemogenesis and carry out the selection of BLV-infected animals, a detailed evaluation of changes in proviral load throughout the course of disease in BLV-infected cattle is required. The aim of this study was to develop a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in clinical animals. Results Degenerate primers were designed from 52 individual BLV long terminal repeat (LTR sequences identified from 356 BLV sequences in GenBank using the CoCoMo algorithm, which has been developed specifically for the detection of multiple virus species. Among 72 primer sets from 49 candidate primers, the most specific primer set was selected for detection of BLV LTR by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification. An internal BLV TaqMan probe was used to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the assay, and a parallel amplification of a single-copy host gene (the bovine leukocyte antigen DRA gene was used to normalize genomic DNA. The assay is highly specific, sensitive, quantitative and reproducible, and was able to detect BLV in a number of samples that were negative using the previously developed nested PCR assay. The assay was also highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. Finally, this assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but

  2. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aiello Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  3. Phylogenetic study on the 5'-untranslated region of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaelizad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus is a pathogen of bovids associated with reproduction system, causing in infected animals a range of ailments, from abortion to congenital defects. In this article, the nucleotide structure of the 5'-untranslated region (5-UTR from 7 Iranian bovine diarrhoea virus (BVDV isolates was characterized and subjected to comparative analysis against a panel of BVDV isolates from different sources. To this end, a 288 bp-long stretch of the internal ribosome entry site was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products subsequently cloned into PTZ57T vector and sequenced using T7 promoter primers. This resulted in detection of 3 new point mutations G→A and G→T in 2 isolates. When these findings were phylogenetically assessed, all the examined Iranian isolates were deemed to belong to the type1 of BVDV. Besides, 2 subtypes were identified among these isolates. In group A, a high level of similarity (99.2% between Iranian isolates with a cytopathic Australian strain of BVDV-1c was detected; while in group B, the 4 Iranian isolates proved to be very similar to NADL-like BVDV-1a strains. We believe that the surprisingly high level of similarity between group A Iranian isolates and their corresponding Australian strain is likely to be an indication of a shared common ancestor. If correct, the most likely explanation of this observation is the introduction of such strains from Australia to Iran, possibly through exportation of infected live animals or animal productions (e.g. semen and meat at some points in the past. Nevertheless, this hypothesis remains to be proved as further epidemiological work at genomic level is required to understand population of BVDV in Iran.

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Kreutz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, antigenically distinct from the standard North American isolates, were selected to immunize BALB/c mice in order to obtain hybridoma cells secreting anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Two hybridoma clones secreting mAbs, reacting specifically with BVDV-infected cells (mAbs 3.1C4 and 6.F11, were selected after five fusions and screening of 1001 hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-resistant clones. These mAbs reacted in an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA assay with all 39 South and North American BVDV field isolates and reference strains available in our laboratory, yet failed to recognize other pestiviruses, namely the hog cholera virus. The mAbs reacted at dilutions up to 1:25,600 (ascitic fluid and 1:100 (hybridoma culture supernatant in IFA and immunoperoxidase (IPX staining of BVDV-infected cells but only mAb 3.1C4 neutralized virus infectivity. Furthermore, both mAbs failed to recognize BVDV proteins by IPX in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and following SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis of virus-infected cells, suggesting they are probably directed to conformational-type epitopes. The protein specificity of these mAbs was then determined by IFA staining of CV-1 cells transiently expressing each of the BVDV proteins: mAb 3.1C4 reacted with the structural protein E2/gp53 and mAb 6.F11 reacted with the structural protein E1/gp25. Both mAbs were shown to be of the IgG2a isotype. To our knowledge, these are the first mAbs produced against South American BVDV isolates and will certainly be useful for research and diagnostic purposes.

  6. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, B.; Rønsholt, Leif

    The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine respi...

  7. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  8. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  9. Clinical response and immunomodulation following experimental challenge of calves with type 2 noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, D; Béliveau, C; Couture, Y; Carman, S

    2000-01-01

    Eight calves between 16 and 18 weeks of age that were seronegative to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leucosis virus and bovine immunodeficiency-like virus were infected (day 0) intranasally with the type 2 noncytopathogenic Canadian 24515 field isolate of BVDV in order to evaluate the effect of BVDV infection on certain clinical, hematological and immunological parameters. All virus-exposed animals developed fever and showed a significant (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001) drop in the number of circulating leucocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) by day 3 or 5 post-exposure (PE), which continued to the end of the experiment at day 12 PE. BVDV was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells from day 5 PE, and also from selected tissues (spleen, thymus, mesenteric and submaxillary lymph nodes, small intestine, lungs and thyroid gland) that were collected at the time of euthanasia of the animals at day 12 PE. Diminished significant (P < 0.05) percentages of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressing at their surface either B7 and MHC II molecules were observed in virus-exposed calves at days 7, 10 and/or 12 PE, when compared to virus-nonexposed control calves (n = 5). However, no changes in the percentages of PBMCs expressing either B4 or MHC I molecules were observed throughout the experiment. Finally, a significant (P < 0.05 or 0.01) enhanced phagocytic capability of the PBMCs, as analyzed by flow cytometry, was observed in virus-exposed animals at days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 PE, when compared to control calves. These results demonstrated the virulence of the 24515 isolate of BVDV in 4 to 4.5 month-old calves, and suggest that type 2 BVDV infection in calves is associated with dysregulation of certain immunological functions. PMID:10779200

  10. Effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, J. L.; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary chromium (Cr) on antibody responses of feedlot calves. Fifty-five newly weaned calves were divided into two groups, 28 that received supplemental Cr and 27 that did not, and were immunized with a commercial vaccine against bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3(PI-3). Sera harvested from blood sampled preimmunization, and at days 14 and 28 postimmunization (PI), were as...

  11. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  12. First report of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen from pneumonic cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.

  13. Effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on the fertility of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Gulay, Mehmet Sukru; Yapici, Orhan; Bulut, Oya; Ata, Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the possible relationship between bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection and the appearance of cervical mucous discharge (CMD) and the reproductive performance of cows in oestrus. For this purpose, CMD from 97 Holstein cows in oestrus was evaluated visually before artificial insemination (AI). Cows in oestrus were inseminated with frozen semen free from BVD virus (BVDV). Blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) of BVDV. The presence of the BVDV genome in cervical mucus samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of BVDV Ab, Ag or genome was not associated with abnormal cervical mucous discharge (A-CMD). However, the presence of BVDV Ag (but not of the BVDV Ab) in blood samples was associated with a lower first service conception rate (FSCR; 27.8 vs. 70.9%; P < 0.01), indicating that BVDV viraemia at the time of AI has a negative effect on the fertility of cows. PMID:23661395

  14. The use of ELISA and nucleic acid hybridization tests in research and diagnosis of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease that affects adult cattle although animals can carry the virus without showing any clinical symptoms. An initial survey in Cuba using the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) revealed that only 15% of the animals on the island were infected and it was therefore decided to undertake a control and eradication campaign. However, prior to the onset of this campaign it was felt necessary to examine a variety of more modern diagnostic procedures to determine which might be most applicable. For the detection of antibodies an ELISA system based on the use of SUMA (a micro-analytical system developed in Cuba) was compared with the AGID and syncytia inhibition test and found to be more sensitive than AGID and far more suitable for large-scale use than either of the other two. For detection of viral proteins the ELISA was compared with a reverse transcriptase assay and the use of immunoperoxidase staining. The latter two methods detected viral proteins in over 50% more samples than the ELISA and although the ELISA is more simple than either of the other to assays when used routinely, its low sensitivity would preclude its use in an eradication programme. (author). 10 refs, 4 tabs

  15. Susceptibility loci revealed for bovine respiratory disease complex in pre-weaned holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Neibergs, Holly L.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Kiser, Jennifer N; Neupane, Mahesh; Womack, James E.; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Hagevoort, Gerald Robert; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Taylor, Jeremy F; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High ...

  16. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease)

    OpenAIRE

    G.K. Bruckner

    1997-01-01

    Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect o...

  17. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496

  18. Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltayb M. Abuelzein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

  19. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  20. Interactions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus glycoprotein E(rns) with cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Flick-Smith, H; McCauley, J W

    2000-02-01

    Recombinant E(rns) glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has been tagged with a marker epitope or linked to an immunoglobulin Fc tail and expressed in insect and mammalian cell lines. The product was shown to be functional, both having ribonuclease activity and binding to a variety of cells that were permissive and non-permissive for replication of BVDV. Addition of soluble E(rns) to the medium blocked replication of BVDV in permissive cells. Binding of epitope-tagged E(rns) to permissive calf testes (CTe) cells was abolished and virus infection was reduced when cells were treated with heparinases I or III. E(rns) failed to bind to mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that lacked glycosaminoglycans (pgsA-745 cells) or heparan sulphate (pgsD-677 cells) but bound to normal CHO cells. E(rns) also bound to heparin immobilized on agarose and could be eluted by heparin and by a high concentration of salt. Flow cytometric analysis of E(rns) binding to CTe cell cultures showed that glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, fucoidan and dermatan sulphate all inhibit binding but dextran sulphate, keratan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and mannan fail to inhibit binding. The low molecular mass polysulphonated inhibitor suramin also inhibited binding to CTe cells but poly-L-lysine did not. Furthermore, suramin, the suramin analogue CPD14, fucoidan and pentosan polysulphate inhibited the infectivity of virus. It is proposed that binding of E(rns) to cells is through an interaction with glycosaminoglycans and that BVDV may bind to cells initially through this interaction. PMID:10644844

  1. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualley, Dominic F., E-mail: dqualley@berry.edu; Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  2. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC

  3. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  4. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  6. Homology Modeling and Analysis of Structure Predictions of the Bovine Rhinitis B Virus RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K. Rai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Rhinitis B Virus (BRBV is a picornavirus responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle. It is probably the least characterized among the aphthoviruses. BRBV is the closest relative known to Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV with a ~43% identical polyprotein sequence and as much as 67% identical sequence for the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, which is also known as 3D polymerase (3Dpol. In the present study we carried out phylogenetic analysis, structure based sequence alignment and prediction of three-dimensional structure of BRBV 3Dpol using a combination of different computational tools. Model structures of BRBV 3Dpol were verified for their stereochemical quality and accuracy. The BRBV 3Dpol structure predicted by SWISS-MODEL exhibited highest scores in terms of stereochemical quality and accuracy, which were in the range of 2Å resolution crystal structures. The active site, nucleic acid binding site and overall structure were observed to be in agreement with the crystal structure of unliganded as well as template/primer (T/P, nucleotide tri-phosphate (NTP and pyrophosphate (PPi bound FMDV 3Dpol (PDB, 1U09 and 2E9Z. The closest proximity of BRBV and FMDV 3Dpol as compared to human rhinovirus type 16 (HRV-16 and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV 3Dpols is also substantiated by phylogeny analysis and root-mean square deviation (RMSD between C-α traces of the polymerase structures. The absence of positively charged α-helix at C terminal, significant differences in non-covalent interactions especially salt bridges and CH-pi interactions around T/P channel of BRBV 3Dpol compared to FMDV 3Dpol, indicate that despite a very high homology to FMDV 3Dpol, BRBV 3Dpol may adopt a different mechanism for handling its substrates and adapting to physiological requirements. Our findings will be valuable in the

  7. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle. (author)

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Nagai, Makoto; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; SHIRAI, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region.

  9. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus genome in leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by RNA-cDNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, J.; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent sta...

  10. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  11. Alpha/Beta and Gamma Interferons Are Induced by Infection with Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, B; Brackenbury, L.S; Carr, B. V.; Fray, M D; Hope, Jayne; Howard, CJ; Morrison, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels ...

  12. Short communication. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 using serum neutralisation (SN and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73% out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69% out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively. Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23% and Aomori (14.28%. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  13. An experimental infection model for reproduction of calf pneumonia with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) based on one combined exposure of calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.; Larsen, Lars Erik; Rontved, C.; Ronsholt, L.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been recognised as an important pathogen in calf pneumonia for 30 years, but surprisingly few effective infection models for studies of the immune response and the pathogenesis in the natural host have been established. We present a reproducible...... experimental infection model for BRSV in 2-5-month-old, conventionally reared Jersey calves. Thirty-four colostrum-fed calves were inoculated once by aerosol and intratracheal injection with BRSV. Respiratory disease was recorded in 91% of the BRSV-inoculated calves, 72% had an accompanying rise in rectal...... temperature and 83% exhibited >5%, consolidation of the lung tissue. The disease closely resembled natural outbreaks of BRSV-related pneumonia, and detection of BRSV in nasal secretions and lung tissues confirmed the primary role of BRSV. Nine mock-inoculated control calves failed to develop respiratory...

  14. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Sydney H. ALVES; Rudi Weiblen; Luciane T. Lovato

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were add...

  15. Iron and Ferritin Levels in the Serum and Milk of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, Star A.; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kakinuma, Seiichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected dairy cows (2.6–7.8 years old). BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51). The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-i...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica Strain 42548 from a Case of Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eidam, Christopher; Poehlein, Anja; Brenner Michael, Geovana; Kadlec, Kristina; Liesegang, Heiko; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Daniel, Rolf; Sweeney, Michael T.; Murray, Robert W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the major bacterial component in the bovine respiratory disease complex, which accounts for considerable economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. The complete genome sequence of M. haemolytica strain 42548 was determined. It has a size of 2.73 Mb and contains 2,888 genes, including several antibiotic resistance genes.

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas; Weis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  18. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  19. Development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (Bombyx mori pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. In 2009, FMDV serotype A caused outbreaks of FMD in cattle in China. Although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control FMD, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. Here, we expressed the P1-2A and the 3C coding regions of a serotype A FMDV field isolate in silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori and evaluated the immunogenicity of the expression products. Four of five cattle vaccinated with these proteins developed high titers of FMDV-specific antibody and were completely protected against virulent homologous virus challenge with 10,000 50% bovine infectious doses (BID(50. Furthermore, the 50% bovine protective dose (PD(50 test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the empty capsid subunit vaccine and was shown to achieve 4.33 PD(50 per dose. These data provide evidence that silkworm pupae can be used to express immunogenic FMDV proteins. This strategy might be used to develop a new generation of empty capsid subunit vaccines against a variety of diseases.

  20. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  1. Types of Maize Virus Diseases and Progress in Virus Identification Techniques in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu; Zhang Ai-hong; Ren Ai-jun; Miao Hong-qin

    2014-01-01

    There are a total of more than 40 reported maize viral diseases worldwide. Five of them have reportedly occurred in China. They are maize rough dwarf disease, maize dwarf mosaic disease, maize streak dwarf disease, maize crimson leaf disease, maize wallaby ear disease and corn lethal necrosis disease. This paper reviewed their occurrence and distribution as well as virus identification techniques in order to provide a basis for virus identification and diagnosis in corn production.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  3. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC): Viral and bacterial pathogens in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurćubić V.; Đoković R.; Vidanović D.; Šekler M.; Matović K.; Ilić Z.; Stojković J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens causing BRDC in Serbia were investigated. Two herds of beef cattle with bovine respiratory disease were included, with twenty diseased calves (10 from each farm) were chosen for isolation of bacteria on artificial culture media and determination by aerobic cultivation. The most common bacterial pathogen was isolated was Pasteurella multocida. Diffusion method of sensitivity to antibiotics (antibiogram), revealed that Enrofloxacin and Floron were m...

  4. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analy...

  5. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  6. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum

    2002-10-01

    BVDV-2 foram capazes de reproduzir a enfermidade aguda quando inoculadas em bezerros e que as conseqüências clínico-patológicas da infecção foram mais severas nos animais mais jovens.Two Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2 were inoculated in calves to evaluate their virulence and to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Previously to virus inoculation, the calves were immunossupressed with dexamethasone. Four 45 to 90-days-old calves (group A were inoculated with isolate SV-260 (n=2 or LV-96 (n=2, and four 6 to 8-months-old calves (group B were inoculated with isolate SV-260. Following virus inoculation, group A calves showed anorexia, depression, hyperthermia, signs of respiratory infection and profuse diarrhea, bloody in two cases. The respiratory and digestive signs progressed and the animals died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 12 post-inoculation. Ulcers and erosions in the digestive tract (tongue, n=4; esophagus, n=1; rumen, n=1 and abomasum, n=3, edema of the lung (n=4 and abomasal mucosa (n=3; echimosis and suffusions in the spleen serosa (n=2, rumen, small intestine and ceccum (n=1, heart (n=1 and urinary bladder mucosa (n=1 and intestinal intussuseption (n=1 were the most prominent findings. Ulcerations and erosions accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates in the digestive tract mucosa and submucosa, and lymphoid depletion in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches were frequently observed. Infectious virus was detected in several tissues and organs. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in mononuclear cells of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces; in lymph node septae and capsule; and in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells of the spleen and Peyer’s patches. Group B calves showed depression, hyperthermia, moderate signs of respiratory and digestive infection, small ulcerations in the tongue and recovered after a few days. These

  7. Ebola virus disease:a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30%to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  8. Ebola virus disease: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kimura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  9. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on fertility of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A; Thurmond, Mark C; Hietala, Sharon K

    2004-04-15

    A prospective field study in heifers from birth to first breeding was undertaken on two commercial dairies to assess the effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) congenital and post-natal infection (PNI) on fertility. A high BVDV Type 2 antibody titer (1:4096) at 10 months of age was associated with 32 more days to conceive, compared with a low titer (1:128). Conversely, infection with BVDV by 5-6 months of age and high BVDV Type 2 titers 1 month before conception or breeding was associated with improved fertility. Heifers with evidence of congenital BVDV infection had lower fertility than non-infected heifers (15-42 days longer time-to-first AI), which depended on BVDV Type 2 titers at 10 months of age. Neospora caninum infection was associated with additional services per conception (SPC) and Leptospira interrogans infection was associated with a delay in the time-to-first breeding. It appears that under field conditions, the effect of subclinical BVDV infection on subsequent heifer fertility may be due to a complex of interrelationships among multiple BVDV infections that depend on the type and timing of infection relative to reproductive development and events. PMID:15036997

  10. Herd-level determinants of bovine leukaemia virus prevalence in dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Ronald J; Bartlett, Paul C; Byrem, Todd M; Render, Chelsea L; Febvay, Catherine; Houseman, Jessica T

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) was determined in 113 Michigan dairy herds by ELISA testing for anti-BLV antibodies in milk. Additionally, an interview regarding management practices with cooperating herd managers identified farm-level variables thought to be associated with prevalence of BLV. Twenty-three risk factors (P ≤ 0·1) were identified on one-way ANOVA or simple linear regression. Multivariate analysis identified several management practices whose predictive value for increased prevalence of BLV may relate to transmission among herd mates, e.g. reuse of hypodermic needles, lack of fly control, gouge dehorning and increased use of injections in dry cows. Additionally, exclusive breeding of heifers with artificial insemination was associated with decreased BLV prevalence, as compared with at least some use of natural service by a bull. Although intervention studies are needed before causal relationships can be concluded, and unaccounted variables related to transmission exist among dairy herds, these findings suggest management practices that may help dairy producers reduce the transmission of BLV within their herds. PMID:22963749

  11. A New Indicator Cell Line Established to Monitor Bovine Foamy Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Guo; Zhi-bin Liang; Yue Li; Juan Tan; Qi-min Chen; Wen-tao Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy for quantitating the bovine foamy virus(BFV)in vitro,we developed a baby hamster kidney cell(BHK)-21-derived indicator cell line containing a plasmid that encodes the firefly luciferase driven by the BFV long terminal repeat promoter(LTR,from -7 to 1012). The BFV titer could be determined by detecting the luciferase expression since the viral trans-activator BTas protein activates the promoter activity of the LTR. One clone,designated BFVL,was selected from ten neomycin-resistant clones.BFVL showed a specific and inducible dose-and time-dependent luciferase activity in response to BFV infection.Although the changes in luciferase activity of BFVL peaked at 84 h post infection,it was possible to differentiate infected and uninfected cells at 48 h post infection. A linear relationship was established between the multiplicity of infection(MOI)of BFV and the activated ratio of luciferase expression in BFVL. Moreover,the sensitivity of the BFVL-based assay for detecting infectious BFV was 10,000 times higher than the conventional CPE-based assay at 48 h post infection. These findings suggest that the BFVL-based assay is rapid,easy,sensitive,quantitative and specific for detection of BFV infection.

  12. Identification and structural analysis of the thymidine kinase gene of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to understand the gene expression of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), the viral thymidine kinase ge (tk), a well regulated viral gene, has been cloned in Escherichia coli HB101 by integrating partially Sau 3A-digested DNA fragments into a cosmid vector, pJB8. Recombinant cosmids were further analyzed by restriction digestions and by Southern blot hybridization. Results showed that this plasmid library comprised all of the IBRV genome with the exception of both termini. The individual recombinant cosmid clones were then transformed to E. coli tdk- mutant strains, Ky895 or C600 tdk- for the selection of the IBRV tk gene. The physical location of the viral DNA inserts of one of the clones, pIBR5, was determined and sequences complementing the tk activity were isolated by subcloning. The E. coli mutant strain mutant strain C600 tdk- harboring pIBRTK partially restores the tk activity by exhibiting a three and half fold increase in the level of the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into bacterial DNA over that of the C600 tdk- mutant. The plasmid, pIBRTK was also used as a probe to examine the expression of IBRV-tk gene in infected MDBK cells. A species of mRNA from infected cells with molecular weight of 2.2 kb was obtained when the total RNA or polyA-enriched RNA were electrophoresized in agarose gels and hybridized with 32P-pIBRTK DNA

  13. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27023592

  14. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix de Brogniez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis.

  15. Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Viana Pinto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. It is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (CAV, 1 and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DA, 2, 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB1, 3 and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB3, 4. The screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to MDBK cells. The antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (PA and EC50 values were calculated for CAV (EC=2,0± 5.8, DA (EC 2,8± 7.7, DB1 (EC 2,0±9.7, and DB3 (EC 2,3±7.4. Acyclovir (EC50 322± 5.9 was used in all experiments as the control standard. Although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against BVDV, the Selectivity Index suggests that DB1 is the safest of the compounds tested.

  16. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

  17. Processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alonso, J M; Casais, R.; Boga, J A; Parra, F

    1996-01-01

    Expression of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) cDNAs in vitro with rabbit reticulocyte lysates and in Escherichia coli have been used to study the proteolytic processing of RHDV polyprotein encoded by ORF1. An epitope tag was used for monitoring the gene products by a specific antibody. We have identified four gene products with molecular masses of 80, 43, 73, and 60 kDa, from the amino to the carboxy terminus of the polyprotein. The amino-terminal sequences of the 43- and 73-kDa produ...

  18. A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Hug, Corinne; Zanoni, Reto; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2016-06-15

    Pestiviruses infect a wide variety of animals of the order Artiodactyla, with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) being an economically important pathogen of livestock globally. BVDV is maintained in the cattle population by infecting fetuses early in gestation and, thus, by generating persistently infected (PI) animals that efficiently transmit the virus throughout their lifetime. In 2008, Switzerland started a national control campaign with the aim to eradicate BVDV from all bovines in the country by searching for and eliminating every PI cattle. Different from previous eradication programs, all animals of the entire population were tested for virus within one year, followed by testing each newborn calf in the subsequent four years. Overall, 3,855,814 animals were tested from 2008 through 2011, 20,553 of which returned an initial BVDV-positive result. We were able to obtain samples from at least 36% of all initially positive tested animals. We sequenced the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of more than 7400 pestiviral strains and compiled the sequence data in a database together with an array of information on the PI animals, among others, the location of the farm in which they were born, their dams, and the locations where the animals had lived. To our knowledge, this is the largest database combining viral sequences with animal data of an endemic viral disease. Using unique identification tags, the different datasets within the database were connected to run diverse molecular epidemiological analyses. The large sets of animal and sequence data made it possible to run analyses in both directions, i.e., starting from a likely epidemiological link, or starting from related sequences. We present the results of three epidemiological investigations in detail and a compilation of 122 individual investigations that show the usefulness of such a database in a country-wide BVD eradication program. PMID:26403669

  19. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  20. Comparison of Two Aquatic Alphaviruses, Salmon Pancreas Disease Virus and Sleeping Disease Virus, by Using Genome Sequence Analysis, Monoclonal Reactivity, and Cross-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Jonathan; Villoing, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel; Castric, Jeanette; Pfeffer, Martin; Jewhurst, Victoria; McLoughlin, Marian; Rødseth, OddMagne; Christie, Karen Elina; Koumans, Joseph; Todd, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Cell culture isolates of salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) of farmed Atlantic salmon and sleeping disease virus (SDV) of rainbow trout were compared. Excluding the poly(A) tracts, the genomic nucleotide sequences of SPDV and SDV RNAs include 11,919 and 11,900 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis places SPDV and SDV between the New World viruses of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the Old World viruses of Aura virus and Sindbis virus...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  2. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  3. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  4. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  5. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: improvements to the BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR assay for bovine leukemia virus by reducing primer degeneracy and constructing an optimal standard curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Yuan, Yuan; Polat, Meripet; Saito, Susumu; Aida, Yoko

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Because BLV infection can remain clinically silent, the proviral load is an important index for estimating disease progression. CoCoMo-qPCR, an assay developed to estimate BLV proviral load, allows the highly sensitive detection of BLV originating in different countries. Here, we developed a modified version of the CoCoMo-qPCR assay, the "BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2" assay, which uses optimized degenerate primers. We also constructed a new plasmid standard. Finally, we used both assays to examine DNA samples from BLV-infected cattle and compared the results. PMID:25731158

  6. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  7. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, F.; J.H. Vorster; M. Van Vuuren; P. Mapham

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or persistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important ch...

  8. Puesta en evidencia del virus diarrea viral bovina en bovinos clínicamente afectados Isolation of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus from tissue of clinically affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O CELEDON

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la presencia del virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB en animales sospechosos de estar cursando un cuadro clínico provocado por este virus, se trabajó con un total de 33 animales, correspondiendo a 23 fetos abortados, 2 mortinatos, un nonato, 3 vacas: una madre de mortinato, una madre de aborto y una muerta, 2 novillos muertos y 2 terneros muertos. Muestras de órganos se inocularon en cultivos primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (PFB y en la línea MDBK. Después del primer pasaje en células de PFB, se detectó la presencia de antígenos del VDVB por la prueba de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI. Todas las muestras con reacción positiva a IPI se inocularon por segunda y tercera vez en células de PFB, aplicándose la prueba de IPI en el tercer pasaje. Sobre un cuarto pasaje se aplicó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia direccta (IFD. Todas las muestras, positivas y negativas a IPI, se inocularon en 3 pasajes seriados en las células MDBK. En 23 de los 33 animales se aisló VDVB cepas no citopatogénicas (NCP, correspondiendo a 14 fetos abortados, un nonato, un mortinato, 3 vacas, 2 novillos y 2 terneros. En 6 fetos abortados, independiente de los infectados con el VDVB, se aisló el virus de la rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina (RIB. Se concluye que la presencia del VDVB es de alta frecuencia en muestras clínicas de ganado bovino con patologías asociables al VDVB, desconociéndose el rol patógeno del virus en estos aislados.Cattle infected with the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD virus can present a variety of clinical signs. This research studied the presence of BVD virus in cattle by virus isolation in primary cell cultures of bovine embryo lungs. Virus identification was done using the immunoperoxidase staining assay and the direct fluorescent antibody staining. As a result, 23 out of 33 animals were identified as positive to BVD virus: 14 foetal abortions, 2 stillbirths, 3 dams, 2 steers and 2 calves. No cytopathogenic isolates were

  9. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  10. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  11. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  12. Macrophages infected with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus release a factor(s) capable of priming uninfected macrophages for activation-induced apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, B; Adler, H; Pfister, H; Jungi, T. W.; Peterhans, E

    1997-01-01

    Bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with the cytopathic biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus released an antiviral activity into the supernatant which was tentatively characterized as type I interferon because of its physicochemical properties. Such supernatants primed both infected and uninfected macrophages for decreased nitric oxide production and apoptosis in response to lipopolysaccharide. This finding strongly suggests a role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of mucosal ...

  13. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay...

  14. Selected biochemical and oxidative stress parameters and ceruloplasmin as acute phase protein associated with bovine leukaemia virus infection in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Akalın Pınar Peker; Ataseven Veysel Soydal; Fırat Doğan; Ergün Yaşar; Başpınar Nuri; Özcan Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ceruloplasmin (Cp) and vitamin C concentrations, the total antioxidant status (TAS), and selected biochemical parameters in dairy cows spontaneously infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). Of the 27 cows included in the study, 18 animals were seropositive for enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), whereas nine cows were seronegative and were used as controls. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.003) and Cp concentrations (P = 0.03) decreas...

  15. Transcriptome profile of a bovine respiratory disease pathogen: Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational methods for structural gene annotation have propelled gene discovery but face certain drawbacks with regards to prokaryotic genome annotation. Identification of transcriptional start sites, demarcating overlapping gene boundaries, and identifying regulatory elements such as small RNA are not accurate using these approaches. In this study, we re-visit the structural annotation of Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213, a bovine respiratory disease pathogen. M. haemolytica is on...

  16. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P yield (P yield (P yield (P < 0.01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass

  17. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Ad de Groof; Lars Guelen; Martin Deijs; Yorick van der Wal; Masato Miyata; Kah Sing Ng; Lotte van Grinsven; Bartjan Simmelink; Yvonne Biermann; Luc Grisez; Jan van Lent; Anthony de Ronde; Siow Foong Chang; Carla Schrier; Lia van der Hoek

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus wa...

  18. Large and small subunits of the Aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase: nucleotide sequence and putative structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, A V; Boldogköi, Z; Fodor, I

    1994-09-13

    We determined the entire DNA sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of Aujeszky's disease virus encoding ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of 9 bp. From the sequence analysis we deduce that ORFs encode large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison of ADV RR2 with that of equine herpesvirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus type 1, HSV-1 and varicella zoster virus revealed that 48% of amino acids represent clusters of residues conserved in all compared sequences. In the N-terminal part ADV RR1 shows low homology to the RR1 of other herpesviruses. Rest of the RR1 protein contains highly conserved amino acid sequences divided by blocks of low homology. PMID:8086454

  19. Infection of the upper respiratory tract of hamsters by the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-1 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Minakuchi, Moeko; Sagai, Mami; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is an important pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). We have generated a recombinant BPIV3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rBPIV3-EGFP) based on the BN-1 strain isolated in Japan. After intranasal infection of hamsters with rBPIV3-EGFP, EGFP fluorescence was detected in the upper respiratory tract including the nasal turbinates, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. In the nasal turbinates, rBPIV3-EGFP attained high titers (>10(6) TCID50/g of tissue) 2-4 days after infection. Ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates and trachea were infected with rBPIV3-EGFP. Histopathological analysis indicated that mucosal epithelial cells in bronchi were shed by 6 days after infection, leaving non-ciliated cells, which may have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection leading to the development of BRDC. These data indicate that rBPIV3-EGFP infection of hamsters is a useful small animal model for studying the development of BPIV3-associated BRDC. PMID:25543964

  20. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...