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Sample records for bovine vaccinia outbreaks

  1. Could hantavirus circulation superpose areas of highly endemic vaccinia virus outbreaks? A retrospective seroepidemiological study in State of Minas Gerais

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    Giliane de Souza Trindade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hantavirus infections have been described in several regions in Brazil through seroepidemiological studies. Usually, populations are associated with rural and wild environment mainly due to close contact to species of Sigmodontinae rodents, considered hantavirus reservoirs. Methods A retrospective serosurvey was conducted to access the hantavirus seroprevalence in people living in regions affected by bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Results Sera from 53 patients were analyzed and none of them presented anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. Conclusions This study presents an opportunity to analyze seronegativity despite close and recurrent contact with known hantavirus reservoirs. Aspects of hantavirus and bovine vaccinia emergence are also discussed.

  2. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

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    Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV. We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132 with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks.

  3. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

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    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  4. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV.

  5. An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and post outbreak sero-surveillance in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was never reported in Eritrea for the last 20 to 30 years. A major incursion of CBPP was reported from illegally smuggled Raya Azebo type cattle from Ethiopia, introduced through the Southern Red Sea administrative region of Eritrea (the Afar area bordering Ethiopia). The first case was detected in the Asmara abattoir during post mortem inspection. Characteristic CBPP clinical signs and post-mortem lesions were observed in affected herd during the outbreak of the disease. Significant number of in-contact indigenous cattle was infected by the disease. Samples were first sent to OIE reference laboratory CIRADEMVT in France for confirmation. The disease was confirmed by PCR on 15 January 2003.Samples of Pleural fluids and lung tissues were collected from CBPP infected animals and tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The affected cattle herds were held in an isolation pen and eventually destroyed following confirmation of the disease. Following this incident, surveillance of CBPP was stepped-up and a total of 4,695 serum samples were collected from 313 sampling units or villages and submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory for testing in 2004 one year after the outbreak of the disease as part of the epidemiosurveillance. Serum samples collected for sero-surveillance were tested for CBPP antibodies by the use of the monoclonal antibody specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides sc as described in the competitive ELISA kit manual from CIRAD-EMVT, France. During this post outbreak sero-surveillance sampling season, all age group animals were eligible for sampling. Out of the total sampled animals 67 (1.43%) were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides sc antibodies using the cELISA test. This result suggested that very low lateral infectious agent transmission could have taken place. Vaccination as a control measure had never

  6. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2005-01-01

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  7. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms...

  8. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

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    Steinmann Jochen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test.

  9. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

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    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  10. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

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    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country.

  11. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

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    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  12. An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in a fallow deer herd (Dama dama) in Sicily.

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    Amato, Benedetta; Mignacca, Sebastian Alessandro; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Vitale, Maria; Antoci, Salvatore; Cucinotta, Salvatore; Puleio, Roberto; Biasibetti, Elena; Fiasconaro, Michele; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Wild ruminants have an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). This study describes an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis occurring in a fallow deer herd in Sicily. In 2012 a Sicilian herd of 47 animals was referred for cachexia. Pathological examination of 2 dead animals revealed disseminated granulomas predominantly involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Tissue samples were submitted for histological analysis, bacteriological culture, and biomolecular assay. PCR analysis identified Mycobacterium strains. Genotyping by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR profiles identified Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype SB0120 in both animals. In 2014, bTB skin testing of 28 fallow deer from the same group was positive in 4 and inconclusive in another 4. All 8 positive/inconclusive reactors were euthanized. Disseminated granulomatous lesions were noted in 6 of these animals, 3 of which (2 positive and 1 negative to skin tests) also presented cutaneous lesions. M. bovis spoligotype SB0120 was identified from all animals in which tuberculous-like lesions were observed, including 2 negative reactors. Many of the animals involved in this outbreak presented diffuse skin lesions, a potential route of transmission of M. bovis infection. Given the epidemiological role wildlife play in the maintenance of bTB infection and its potential risk for humans, a comprehensive monitoring plan for this zoonosis in wildlife species in Sicily is needed. PMID:27234548

  13. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

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    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  14. Characterization of a new Vaccinia virus isolate reveals the C23L gene as a putative genetic marker for autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus.

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    Felipe L Assis

    Full Text Available Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV, have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods. The results from these approaches have grouped these VACV isolates into two different clusters. This dichotomy has elicited debates surrounding the origin of the Brazilian VACV and its epidemiological significance. To ascertain vital information to settle these debates, we and other research groups have made efforts to identify molecular markers to discriminate VACV from other viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV and other VACV-BR groups. In this way, some genes have been identified as useful markers to discriminate between the VACV-BR groups. However, new markers are needed to infer ancestry and to correlate each sample or group with its unique epidemiological and biological features. The aims of this work were to characterize a new VACV isolate (VACV DMTV-2005 molecularly and biologically using conserved and non-conserved gene analyses for phylogenetic inference and to search for new genes that would elucidate the VACV-BR dichotomy. The VACV DMTV-2005 isolate reported in this study is biologically and phylogenetically clustered with other strains of Group 1 VACV-BR, the most prevalent VACV group that was isolated during the bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Sequence analysis of C23L, the gene that encodes for the CC-chemokine-binding protein, revealed a ten-nucleotide deletion, which is a new Group 1 Brazilian VACV genetic marker. This deletion in the C23L open reading frame produces a premature stop-codon that is shared by all Group 1 VACV-BR strains and may also reflect the VACV-BR dichotomy; the deletion can also be considered to be a putative genetic marker for non-virulent Brazilian VACV isolates and may be used for the detection and molecular characterization of new isolates.

  15. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  16. Geo-spatial distribution of serologically detected bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) serotype outbreaks in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara State-Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Olatunde Olabode; Haruna Makajuola Kazeem; Moshood Abiola Raji; Najume Dogongiginya Ibrahim; Wesley Daniel Nafarnda

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and distribution of bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria. To identify the source of epidemics, geo-spatial analysis was done on the FMD outbreak locations (n=15) using Global Positioning Service (GPS) device (EtrexR). Randomly sampled bovine sera (n=64) from herd representatives were subjected to FMD 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FMD 3ABC ELISA) and solid-phase competitive ELISA (SP-cELISA...

  17. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd

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    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

  18. Herd outbreak of bovine tuberculosis illustrates that route of infection correlates with anatomic distribution of lesions in cattle and cats.

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    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hollinger, Charlotte; Mullaney, Thomas P; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Tilden, John; Smith, Rick; Averill, James; Kaneene, John B

    2016-03-01

    An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a Michigan dairy herd resulted in quarantine, depopulation, pathology, and epidemiologic investigations. This herd, compared to other TB-infected herds in Michigan, was unusual in the long-term feeding of waste milk to its replacement calves. The herd had 80 cattle with positive results on caudal fold test or gamma interferon testing, which were reclassified as suspects because the herd had never been known to be tuberculous previously. Autopsy revealed striking variation in the anatomic distribution of gross anatomic lesions, microscopic lesions, and culture-positive lymph nodes between the adult cattle, the calves, and the domestic cats present on the farm. Adult cattle had lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes predominantly within the thoracic lymph nodes, whereas cats had 50% of their lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens, and 50% of positive calves had culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens. This difference in anatomic distribution correlated with the likely routes of infection, which are believed to be by direct airborne transmission in adult cattle and indirect ingestion of contaminated milk in both calves and cats. Although TB literature over the past 100-plus years states that the route of infection may manifest itself in differences in lesion anatomic distribution, our team has been working with TB for over 20 years, and we have never encountered such striking variation between different groups of animals on the same farm. PMID:26965232

  19. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak.

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    Ridpath, J F; Bayles, D O; Neill, J D; Falkenberg, S M; Bauermann, F V; Holler, L; Braun, L J; Young, D B; Kane, S E; Chase, C C L

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) results in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections result from in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. Clinical presentation, in persistently infected cattle (PI), is highly variable. The reasons for this variation is largely unknown. The BVDV circulating in PI exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses). An outbreak resulting in 34 PI cattle presented an opportunity to compare a large number of PI׳s. Methods were developed to compare the circulating viral populations within PI animals. It was found that PI animals generated in the same outbreak carry circulating viral populations that differ widely in size and diversity. Further, it was demonstrated that variation in PI viral populations could be used as a quantifiable phenotype. This observation makes it possible to test the correlation of this phenotype to other phenotypes such as growth rate, congenital defects, viral shed and cytokine expression.

  20. Characterization of mixed infections with different strains of bovine rotavirus in an outbreak of diarrhea in dairy herds in Goiás, Brazil

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    Brito Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten faecal samples of bovine rotavirus from calves less than 30 days old from an outbreak of diarrhea in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil were submitted to serological and molecular characterization, using enzyme immunoassay for subgrouping and serotyping, PAGE for determination of electropherotypes and PCR for genome typing. Nine samples belonged to group A/subgroup I rotavirus and one sample was group A / subgroup non-I/non-II. Four samples were characterized as G10P[11] (B223-like, four samples showed a mixture of two rotavirus strains (G6G10 and P[5]P[11], one sample was characterized as G6P[11] and one sample was characterized only by G serotyping/genotyping, and did not react with any P primer used. Two electropherotypes were detected and both were present in the same animal. This study demonstrates that two different electropherotypes and/or serotypes of bovine rotavirus can circulate in the same outbreak.

  1. Mass vaccination as a complementary tool in the control of a severe outbreak of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in Extremadura, Spain.

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    Sanz, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Alvarez, Julio; Cortés, María; Pereira, Gema; Reyes, Aurelia; Rubio, Félix; Martín, Javier; García, Nerea; Domínguez, Lucas; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, María; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier

    2010-11-01

    We report the evolution of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the region of Extremadura (Spain) involving more than 1000 herds and nearly 40,000 animals. S19 vaccination of young cattle combined with a test and slaughter strategy did not result in a rapid decrease in herd prevalence and animal incidence; these parameters showed a constant decreasing trend only when a combination of restriction of cattle movements, increased test frequency, S19 vaccination and mass RB51 vaccination (with yearly revaccinations) were applied to all susceptible populations. These measures were applied for 5 years; abortions following RB51 vaccination of pregnant cows were limited to the first inoculation and the involvement of the vaccine strain could only be demonstrated in 78 out of 897 abortions. Our results demonstrate the usefulness - and lack of significant side effects - of RB51 mass vaccination as a complementary tool to control bovine brucellosis outbreaks in areas where the disease cannot be contained using more conservative approaches. PMID:20833439

  2. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

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    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  5. Geo-spatial distribution of serologically detected bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD serotype outbreaks in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara State-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Olatunde Olabode

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and distribution of bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria. To identify the source of epidemics, geo-spatial analysis was done on the FMD outbreak locations (n=15 using Global Positioning Service (GPS device (EtrexR. Randomly sampled bovine sera (n=64 from herd representatives were subjected to FMD 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FMD 3ABC ELISA and solid-phase competitive ELISA (SP-cELISA, for the screening and serotyping of FMD virus, respectively. Through ELISA, the FMD serotypes detected in this study were- serotype O (83%; n=53/64, serotype A (7.8%; n=5/64, serotype vaccine O (1.6%; n=1/64, and serotype vaccine SAT2 (1.6%; n=1/64. Multiple serotypes were observed in two different combinations; these were O and A (4.7%; n=3/64, and O and SAT2 (1.6%; n=1/64. FMD multiple serotype infections were associated with absence of cross-immunity between serotypes and cross reactivity enhanced by clustered herds, highland study area topography, road and river interconnectivity, possible human settlements, activities and traffic. This study provides baseline information on geo-spatial distribution, and identification of prevalent FMD serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria.

  6. Diagnosis of bovine foot and mouth disease virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing from outbreak herd samples in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state, Nigeria

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    Olatunde Hamza Olabode

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Molecular diagnosis of bovine foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV from outbreak herd in Bukaru-Rontuwa, Sinawu/Tumbunya ward of Ilesha Baruba, in Kwara state-Nigeria was conducted to establish the associated serotypes and disease control plan. Materials and Methods: Purposive study was conducted in cattle outbreak herds during the dry season of January-March, 2011. Random sampling of blood and observed epithelial tissues was collected, stored in accordance with standard methods and subjected to RNA extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR. Positive samples for FMDV were further subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing using sequence primers of serotypes O, A, SAT 1-3 and gel electrophoresis. Obtained data were interpreted based on NCBI BLASTN program. Results: Foot and mouth disease (FMD-RNA extract was not found in all the blood tested with beta-actin range of Ct = 30-34. rRT-PCR assay showed two positive samples with Ct values of 18.79 and 15.28. Gel electrophoresis identified sequenced PCR amplicons as serotype A and SAT 2 respectively. Direct product sequencing confirmed SAT 2 serotype was closely related to SAT 2 isolate LIB/7/2003. Cloned RT-PCR product in pGEM-T easy vector confirmed serotype A as closely related to sequence of A/NIG/21/2009, though multiple NIG/2009 sequences were also identified as closely related. Both isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >93% genetic identity in the VP1 region which confirmed heterogeneity and antigenic variation nature of FMDV. Conclusion: Quasi species and subtypes of FMD serotypes A and SAT 2 similar to A/NIG/21/2009 and SAT 2/LIB/7/2003 respectively caused the reported FMD outbreaks in Fulani livestock herds investigated. A combined real-time and optimized RT-PCR protocols that would facilitate effective and timely FMD outbreak control plan based on identified serotypes is thus suggested.

  7. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  8. Spatial epidemiological analysis of bovine encephalomyelitis outbreaks caused by Akabane virus infection in western Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Yoko; Moriguchi, Sachiko; Yanase, Tohru; Ishikura, Youji; Abe, Shigeki; Higashi, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Murai, Kiyokazu; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Akabane disease, which is distributed in temperate and tropical regions in the world, is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by the Akabane virus, transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2011, outbreaks of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis occurred in the Shimane Prefecture in western Japan. In this study, a spatial epidemiological analysis was conducted to understand environmental factors associated with the spread of Akabane disease. By applying a conditional autoregressive model, the relationship between infection and environmental variables was explored. The results showed that the dominance of farmlands and the presence of infected farms within a 3-km radius had a significant effect on infection. This result implies that land use, which would relate with the vector habitat, and the presence of neighboring infected farms as a source of infection may have influenced the spread of the disease in this region. These findings provide basic insights into the spread of Akabane disease and useful suggestions for developing a surveillance program and preventive measures against the disease. PMID:26898692

  9. Frequency of adverse events after vaccination with different vaccinia strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect

  10. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  11. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  12. Vaccinia virus: a selectable eukaryotic cloning and expression vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackett, M; Smith, G L; B. Moss

    1982-01-01

    Foreign DNA was inserted into two nonessential regions of the vaccinia virus genome by homologous recombination in cells infected with virus and transfected with plasmids containing the foreign DNA elements flanked by vaccinia virus DNA. Thymidine kinase-negative (TK-) recombinants were selected after inserting foreign DNA into the coding region of the TK gene of wild-type vaccinia virus; TK+ recombinants were selected after inserting the herpesvirus TK gene into TK- mutants of vaccinia virus...

  13. Preparation of Cell Cultures and Vaccinia Virus Stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Catherine A; Earl, Patricia L; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The culturing of cell lines used with vaccinia virus, both as monolayer and in suspension, is described. The preparation of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) is presented for use in the production of the highly attenuated and host range-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain of vaccinia virus. Protocols for the preparation, titration, and trypsinization of vaccinia virus stocks, as well as viral DNA preparation and virus purification methods are also included.

  14. Vaccinia DNA topoisomerase I promotes illegitimate recombination in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuman, S

    1989-01-01

    Vaccinia virus encapsidates a Mr 32,000 type IDNA topoisomerase. Although the vaccinia gene encoding the topoisomerase is essential for virus growth, the role of the enzyme in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, the physiologic consequences of vaccinia topoisomerase action have been examined in a heterologous system, Escherichia coli. The vaccinia topoisomerase gene was inducibly expressed in an int-lambda lysogen BL21(DE3) using a T7 RNA polymerase-based transcription system. Express...

  15. Vaccinia virus infections in martial arts gym, Maryland, USA, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Blythe, David; Li, Yu; Reddy, Ramani; Jordan, Carol; Edwards, Cindy; Adams, Celia; Conners, Holly; Rasa, Catherine; Wilby, Sue; Russell, Jamaal; Russo, Kelly S; Somsel, Patricia; Wiedbrauk, Danny L; Dougherty, Cindy; Allen, Christopher; Frace, Mike; Emerson, Ginny; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Braden, Zachary; Abel, Jason; Davidson, Whitni; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger K

    2011-04-01

    Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym.

  16. An update on the vaccinia virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G P; Goebel, S J; Paoletti, E

    1993-10-01

    This communication is intended as a single source update of the initial report (Goebel et al., 1990a,b) which described the complete DNA sequence of the vaccinia virus genome. We have integrated published information as well as unpublished data. Our understanding of the complexities of the genetic functional organization of poxviruses is increasing at a remarkable rate. While some previously unknown identities have since been elucidated, the fact that the majority of vaccinia-encoded gene products still lack assigned functions lends excitement to the immediate future of poxvirus research.

  17. Intoxicação de bovinos por aflatoxina B1 presente em polpa cítrica: relato de um surto Aflatoxin B1 poisoning in bovines: an outbreak report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata um surto de intoxicação pela aflatoxina B1 em 150 bovinos machos mestiços, provenientes de um rebanho de 1774 animais, em sistema de confinamento, ingerindo polpa cítrica peletizada comercial, 5kg por animal. Todos os animais foram avaliados clinicamente, e os 18 animais que morreram foram necropsiados e submetidos a exames histopatológicos. A intoxicação foi confirmada pela presença da aflatoxina B1 (5ppm em amostras da polpa cítrica peletizada utilizada na propriedade e em fragmentos de fígado dos animais que morreram.The present work reports an outbreak of intoxication by aflatoxin B1 in 150 adult bovine male, males from a herd of 1774 animals, in confinement system, fed on commercial citrus pellet. All animals were evaluated clinicaly, and ones that died were necropsied and tissues submitted to histopathotology. The intoxication was confirmed by aflatoxin B1 presence in samples of the citrus pellet and in fragments of liver of the animals which died.

  18. Analysis of the L1 gene product of human papillomavirus type 16 by expression in a vaccinia virus recombinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, H M; Churcher, M J; Stanley, M A; Smith, G L; Minson, A C

    1988-06-01

    The L1 open reading frame of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) has been expressed in vaccinia virus under the control of both the 7.5K early and late promoter, and the 4b major late promoter. Antibodies to a beta-galactosidase fusion protein containing a C-terminal portion of the HPV16 L1 gene product were used to compare the levels of L1 expression in the two recombinants, and showed that greater levels of expression were obtained when the gene was placed under the control of the 4b late promoter. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a nuclear location of the L1 gene product when expressed in vaccinia virus. Antibodies to the beta-galactosidase fusion protein detected a major polypeptide species of 57K and a minor species of 64K in Western blots of recombinant-infected cell lysates. The 64K species was not detected when cells were infected in the presence of tunicamycin, indicating that the primary translation product of the HPV16 L1 open reading frame is modified by N-linked glycosylation when expressed in vaccinia virus. Whereas antibodies to HPV16 L1 fusion proteins and to a peptide containing amino acids from the C terminus of HPV16 L1 reacted well in Western blots with the HPV16 L1 target expressed in vaccinia virus, no reactivity was observed with antibodies to bovine papillomavirus type 1 particles or to a HPV6b fusion protein.

  19. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  20. Surto de babesiose cerebral em bovinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Cerebral babesiosis outbreak in bovines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Aline Bobbi Antoniassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de mortalidade em bovinos por Babesia bovis em abril de 2007, no Município de Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul. Em um rebanho com 55 novilhas, 28 (50,9% morreram em cinco dias. A doença iniciou vinte dias após o ingresso dos bovinos na propriedade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam febre, incoordenação, agressividade, anemia, petéquias nas mucosas e morte 1 á 2 dias após. Em 4 animais necropsiados, observaram-se palidez de mucosas, hemorragias múltiplas, esplenomegalia, fígado aumentado e alaranjado, vesícula biliar com parede edemaciada e contendo bile grumosa. Os rins estavam vermelho-escuros e a bexiga continha urina cor de vinho tinto. O encéfalo apresentou cor róseo-cereja externamente e ao corte, mais marcado no córtex telencefálico, cerebelo e corpo estriado, contrastando com a cor branca da substância branca. Na histologia havia nefrose hemoglobinúrica, necrose hepática paracentral, bilestase canalicular, congestão esplênica, além de congestão com grande quantidade de eritrócitos parasitados por estruturas compatíveis com Babesia bovis na região cortical do encéfalo, também observadas em esfregaços teciduais dessas regiões. A morte de 28 bovinos em 5 dias deveu-se, provavelmente, à falta de imunidade contra o parasito. O tratamento foi realizado com dipropionato de imidocarb nos demais animais, havendo recuperação dos bovinos que apresentavam sinais iniciais leves e não ocorrência de novos casos durante um período de dois meses, quando foram enviados para abate.An outbreak of cattle mortality due to Babesia bovis infection in the county of Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in April 2007 is described. Twenty eight heifers (50.9% died, out of a herd of 55 animals, in five days. The disease occurred approximately 20 days after heifers were transferred to this farm. The clinical signs included fever, anemia, aggressiveness, incoordination, petechiae in the mucous membranes

  1. The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, S J; Johnson, G P; Perkus, M E; Davis, S W; Winslow, J P; Paoletti, E

    1990-11-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the genome of vaccinia virus has been determined. The genome consisted of 191,636 bp with a base composition of 66.6% A + T. We have identified 198 "major" protein-coding regions and 65 overlapping "minor" regions, for a total of 263 potential genes. Genes encoded by the virus were located by examination of DNA sequence characteristics and compared with existing vaccinia virus mapping analyses, sequence data, and transcription data. These genes were found to be compactly organized along the genome with relatively few regions of noncoding sequences. Whereas several similarities to proteins of known function were discerned, the function of the majority of proteins encoded by these open reading frames is as yet undetermined.

  2. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-07-30

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.  Created: 7/30/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2007.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Vaccinia Virus Strain L-IVP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvalov, Alexander N.; Sivolobova, Galina F.; Kuligina, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the live vaccine doses of vaccinia virus donated to the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme after 1971 were prepared using the L-IVP strain. A mixture of three clones of the L-IVP strain was sequenced using MySEQ. Consensus sequence similarity with the vaccinia virus Lister strain is 99.5%. PMID:27174282

  4. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  5. Extent of Systemic Spread Determines CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance for Laboratory Strains, Smallpox Vaccines, and Zoonotic Isolates of Vaccinia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Inge E A; Hollett, Natasha A; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G; Tscharke, David C

    2015-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show across a range of vaccinia virus strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic vaccinia virus that occurred in Brazil.

  6. Highly immunogenic variant of attenuated vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubitskyi, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2016-01-01

    The LIVPΔ6 strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) was created by genetic engineering on the basis of previously obtained attenuated 1421ABJCN strain by target deletion of the A35R gene encoding an inhibitor of antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex class II. 1421ABJCN is the LIVP strain of VACV with five inactivated virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), γ-interferon-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), complement-binding protein (C3L), and Bcl2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). The highly immunogenic LIVPΔ6 strain could be an efficient fourth-generation attenuated vaccine against smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:27025484

  7. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs 26 August 2016 Middle East ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Announcement: WHO to change the way it reports ...

  8. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  9. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  10. Antitumor efficacy of vaccinia virus-modified tumor cell vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antitumor efficacies of vaccinia virus-modified tumor cell vaccines were examined in murine syngeneic MH134 and X5563 tumor cells. UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was inoculated i.p. into C3H/HeN mice that had received whole body X-irradiation at 150 rads. After 3 weeks, the vaccines were administered i.p. 3 times at weekly intervals. One week after the last injection, mice were challenged i.p. with various doses of syngeneic MH134 or X5563 viable tumor cells. Four methods were used for preparing tumor cell vaccines: X-ray irradiation; fixation with paraformaldehyde for 1 h or 3 months; and purification of the membrane fraction. All four vaccines were effective, but the former two vaccines were the most effective. A mixture of the membrane fraction of untreated tumor cells and UV-inactivated vaccinia virus also had an antitumor effect. These results indicate that vaccine with the complete cell structure is the most effective. The membrane fraction of UV-inactivated vaccinia virus-absorbed tumor cells was also effective. UV-inactivated vaccinia virus can react with not only intact tumor cells but also the purified membrane fraction of tumor cells and augment antitumor activity

  11. A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H; Schlom, J; Kantor, J

    1991-07-30

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a 180-kDa glycoprotein expressed on most gastrointestinal carcinomas. A 2.4-kb cDNA clone, containing the complete coding sequence, was isolated from a human colon tumor cell library and inserted into a vaccinia virus genome. This newly developed construct was characterized by Southern blotting, DNA hybridization studies, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The CEA gene was stably integrated into the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. The recombinant was efficiently replicated upon serial passages in cell cultures and in animals. The recombinant virus expresses on the surface of infected cells a protein product recognized by a monoclonal antibody (COL-I) directed against CEA. Immunization of mice with the vaccinia construct elicited a humoral immune response against CEA. Pilot studies also showed that administration of the recombinant CEA vaccinia construct was able to greatly reduce the growth in mice of a syngeneic murine colon adenocarcinoma which had been transduced with the human CEA gene. The use of this new recombinant CEA vaccinia construct may thus provide an approach in the specific active immunotherapy of human GI cancer and other CEA expressing carcinoma types.

  12. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results. PMID:27260805

  13. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Risco, Cristina; Fernández, Jose Jesús; Jiménez, Maria Victoria; Estéban, Mariano; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Carrascosa, José L.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of cryo-microscopy and electron tomographic reconstruction has allowed us to determine the structure of one of the more complex viruses, intracellular mature vaccinia virus, at a resolution of 4–6 nm. The tomographic reconstruction allows us to dissect the different structural components of the viral particle, avoiding projection artifacts derived from previous microscopic observations. A surface-rendering representation revealed brick-shaped viral particles with slightly rounded edges and dimensions of ≈360 × 270 × 250 nm. The outer layer was consistent with a lipid membrane (5–6 nm thick), below which usually two lateral bodies were found, built up by a heterogeneous material without apparent ordering or repetitive features. The internal core presented an inner cavity with electron dense coils of presumptive DNA–protein complexes, together with areas of very low density. The core was surrounded by two layers comprising an overall thickness of ≈18–19 nm; the inner layer was consistent with a lipid membrane. The outer layer was discontinuous, formed by a periodic palisade built by the side interaction of T-shaped protein spikes that were anchored in the lower membrane and were arranged into small hexagonal crystallites. It was possible to detect a few pore-like structures that communicated the inner side of the core with the region outside the layer built by the T-shaped spike palisade. PMID:15699328

  14. Incongruencies in Vaccinia Virus Phylogenetic Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smithson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, as more complete poxvirus genomes have been sequenced, phylogenetic studies of these viruses have become more prevalent. In general, the results show similar relationships between the poxvirus species; however, some inconsistencies are notable. Previous analyses of the viral genomes contained within the vaccinia virus (VACV-Dryvax vaccine revealed that their phylogenetic relationships were sometimes clouded by low bootstrapping confidence. To analyze the VACV-Dryvax genomes in detail, a new tool-set was developed and integrated into the Base-By-Base bioinformatics software package. Analyses showed that fewer unique positions were present in each VACV-Dryvax genome than expected. A series of patterns, each containing several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified that were counter to the results of the phylogenetic analysis. The VACV genomes were found to contain short DNA sequence blocks that matched more distantly related clades. Additionally, similar non-conforming SNP patterns were observed in (1 the variola virus clade; (2 some cowpox clades; and (3 VACV-CVA, the direct ancestor of VACV-MVA. Thus, traces of past recombination events are common in the various orthopoxvirus clades, including those associated with smallpox and cowpox viruses.

  15. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  16. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd Descrição de um surto de mamite aguda produzida por Klebsiella pneumoniae em bovinos leiteiros

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, N.; G.M. Costa

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of ac...

  17. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or C: 1-21 days. 8. Fetal Vaccinia Maternal R or C: any time in gestation until 7 days after birth. 9..., disorientation, delirium, drowsiness, seizures, language difficulties (aphasia), coma, muscular incoordination..., a Table injury for FV requires one of the following: (A) A maternal history of vaccinial...

  18. Mapping the active site of vaccinia virus RNA triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RNA triphosphatase component of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme (the product of the viral D1 gene) belongs to a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases that includes the RNA triphosphatases of fungi, protozoa, Chlorella virus, and baculoviruses. The family is defined by two glutamate-containing motifs (A and C) that form the metal-binding site. Most of the family members resemble the fungal and Chlorella virus enzymes, which have a complex active site located within the hydrophilic interior of a topologically closed eight-stranded β barrel (the so-called ''triphosphate tunnel''). Here we queried whether vaccinia virus capping enzyme is a member of the tunnel subfamily, via mutational mapping of amino acids required for vaccinia triphosphatase activity. We identified four new essential side chains in vaccinia D1 via alanine scanning and illuminated structure-activity relationships by conservative substitutions. Our results, together with previous mutational data, highlight a constellation of six acidic and three basic amino acids that likely compose the vaccinia triphosphatase active site (Glu37, Glu39, Arg77, Lys107, Glu126, Asp159, Lys161, Glu192, and Glu194). These nine essential residues are conserved in all vertebrate and invertebrate poxvirus RNA capping enzymes. We discerned no pattern of clustering of the catalytic residues of the poxvirus triphosphatase that would suggest structural similarity to the tunnel proteins (exclusive of motifs A and C). We infer that the poxvirus triphosphatases are a distinct lineage within the metal-dependent RNA triphosphatase family. Their unique active site, which is completely different from that of the host cell's capping enzyme, recommends the poxvirus RNA triphosphatase as a molecular target for antipoxviral drug discovery

  19. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  20. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years...

  1. GMCSF-armed vaccinia virus induces an antitumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Suvi; Ahonen, Marko; Diaconu, Iulia; Kipar, Anja; Siurala, Mikko; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-03-01

    Oncolytic Western Reserve strain vaccinia virus selective for epidermal growth factor receptor pathway mutations and tumor-associated hypermetabolism was armed with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and a tdTomato fluorophore. As the assessment of immunological responses to human transgenes is challenging in the most commonly used animal models, we used immunocompetent Syrian golden hamsters, known to be sensitive to human GMCSF and semipermissive to vaccinia virus. Efficacy was initially tested in vitro on various human and hamster cell lines and oncolytic potency of transgene-carrying viruses was similar to unarmed virus. The hGMCSF-encoding virus was able to completely eradicate subcutaneous pancreatic tumors in hamsters, and to fully protect the animals from subsequent rechallenge with the same tumor. Induction of specific antitumor immunity was also shown by ex vivo co-culture experiments with hamster splenocytes. In addition, histological examination revealed increased infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in GMCSF-virus-treated tumors. These findings help clarify the mechanism of action of GMCSF-armed vaccinia viruses undergoing clinical trials.

  2. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  3. Dengue disease outbreak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayama, Pankaj; Sampath, Kameshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of outbreak of a disease may help in timely and effective public health interventions. Our motivation for this work is to assist EHD planning officer to analyze the incidence data and based on it declare whether there is an outbreak or not. In this paper, we develop ensemble of multiple techniques for detecting dengue disease outbreak. These techniques are applied to dengue incidence data from Singapore and results are summarized.

  4. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a knee, shoulder, or ankle Setting: Outpatient clinics in 20 states Source: Contaminated steroid injections from a compounding pharmacy Outbreak investigation partners: State and local health departments ...

  5. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stittelaar, Koert J; van Amerongen, Geert; Kondova, Ivanela; Kuiken, Thijs; van Lavieren, Rob F; Pistoor, Frank H M; Niesters, Hubert G M; van Doornum, Gerard; van der Zeijst, Ben A M; Mateo, Luis; Chaplin, Paul J; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2005-01-01

    The use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and immunocompromised a

  6. Analysis of variola and vaccinia virus neutralization assays for smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Newman, Frances K; Davidson, Whitni B; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Yan, Lihan; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2012-07-01

    Possible smallpox reemergence drives research for third-generation vaccines that effectively neutralize variola virus. A comparison of neutralization assays using different substrates, variola and vaccinia (Dryvax and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]), showed significantly different 90% neutralization titers; Dryvax underestimated while MVA overestimated variola neutralization. Third-generation vaccines may rely upon neutralization as a correlate of protection.

  7. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); I. Kondova (Ivanela); R.F. van Lavieren (Rob); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); L. Mateo (Luis); P.J. Chaplin (Paul); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and immunoc

  8. Cyclosporiasis Outbreak, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Blans, Marjolijn C.A.; Ridwan, Ben U.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Rozenberg-Arska, Maja; Verhoef, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection among Dutch participants at a scientific meeting in September 2001 in Bogor, Indonesia. Fifty percent of the investigated participants were positive for C. cayetanensis. To our knowledge, this outbreak is the first caused by C. cayetanensis among susceptible persons in a disease-endemic area.

  9. Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Chalmers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most commonly reported vehicle of transmission in Cryptosporidium outbreaks. While mains drinking water quality is highly regulated in industrialised countries, treated recreational water venues remain highly variable and these have emerged as important settings in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks benefit from supplementary microbiological evidence and, more recently, the application of molecular typing data to link isolates from cases to each other and to suspected sources. This article documents how waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks are identified and reported, how such outbreaks have acted as drivers of regulatory change, and some of the recent developments in the detection and investigation of these outbreaks and their spread, especially the application of molecular typing assays.

  10. Expression of the F and HN glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by recombinant vaccinia viruses: contributions of the individual proteins to host immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, M K; Murphy, B R; Prince, G A; Olmsted, R A; Collins, P L

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones containing the complete coding sequences for the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein genes were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus (WR strain) under the control of the P7.5 early-late vaccinia virus promotor. The recombinant vaccinia viruses, designated vaccinia-F and vaccinia-HN, expressed glycoproteins in cell culture that appeared to be authentic with respect to glycosylation, disulfide link...

  11. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  12. National Outbreak Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a web-based platform designed to support reporting to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments in...

  13. A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gubser

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A new apoptosis inhibitor is described from vaccinia virus, camelpox virus, and eukaryotic cells. The inhibitor is a hydrophobic, multiple transmembrane protein that is resident in the Golgi and is named GAAP (Golgi anti-apoptotic protein. Stable expression of both viral GAAP (v-GAAP and human GAAP (h-GAAP, which is expressed in all human tissues tested, inhibited apoptosis induced by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. Conversely, knockout of h-GAAP by siRNA induced cell death by apoptosis. v-GAAP and h-GAAP display overlapping functions as shown by the ability of v-GAAP to complement for the loss of h-GAAP. Lastly, deletion of the v-GAAP gene from vaccinia virus did not affect virus replication in cell culture, but affected virus virulence in a murine infection model. This study identifies a new regulator of cell death that is highly conserved in evolution from plants to insects, amphibians, mammals, and poxviruses.

  14. The role of vaccinia termination factor and cis-acting elements in vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jessica; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination requires the virion form of the viral RNA polymerase (vRNAP), Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPHI), ATP, the vaccinia termination factor (VTF), and a U5NU termination signal in the nascent transcript. VTF, also the viral mRNA capping enzyme, binds U5NU, and NPHI hydrolyzes ATP to release the transcript. NPHI can release transcripts independent of VTF and U5NU if vRNAP is not actively elongating. However, VTF and U5NU are required for transcript release from an elongating vRNAP, suggesting that the function of VTF and U5NU may be to stall the polymerase. Here we demonstrate that VTF inhibits transcription elongation by enhancing vRNAP pausing. Hence VTF provides the connection between the termination signal in the RNA transcript and viral RNA polymerase to initiate transcription termination. We also provide evidence that a second cis-acting element downstream of U5NU influences the location and efficiency of early gene transcription termination.

  15. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  16. In silico-accelerated identification of conserved and immunogenic variola/vaccinia T-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A; Buus, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted....... This experimental validation of computational predictions illustrates the potential for immunoinformatics methods to identify candidate immunogens for a new, safer smallpox vaccine....

  17. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin;

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality.......Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  18. Stringent chemical and thermal regulation of recombinant gene expression by vaccinia virus vectors in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, G. A.; Stover, C. K.; B. Moss; Fuerst, T R

    1995-01-01

    We developed a stringently regulated expression system for mammalian cells that uses (i) the RNA polymerase, phi 10 promoter, and T phi transcriptional terminator of bacteriophage T7; (ii) the lac repressor, lac operator, rho-independent transcriptional terminators and the gpt gene of Escherichia coli; (iii) the RNA translational enhancer of encephalomyocarditis virus; and (iv) the genetic background of vaccinia virus. In cells infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus, reporter beta-galac...

  19. Pox proteomics: mass spectrometry analysis and identification of Vaccinia virion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemulapalli Srilakshmi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many vaccinia virus proteins have been identified and studied in detail, only a few studies have attempted a comprehensive survey of the protein composition of the vaccinia virion. These projects have identified the major proteins of the vaccinia virion, but little has been accomplished to identify the unknown or less abundant proteins. Obtaining a detailed knowledge of the viral proteome of vaccinia virus will be important for advancing our understanding of orthopoxvirus biology, and should facilitate the development of effective antiviral drugs and formulation of vaccines. Results In order to accomplish this task, purified vaccinia virions were fractionated into a soluble protein enriched fraction (membrane proteins and lateral bodies and an insoluble protein enriched fraction (virion cores. Each of these fractions was subjected to further fractionation by either sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electophoresis, or by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The soluble and insoluble fractions were also analyzed directly with no further separation. The samples were prepared for mass spectrometry analysis by digestion with trypsin. Tryptic digests were analyzed by using either a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometer, a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, or a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (the latter two instruments were equipped with electrospray ionization sources. Proteins were identified by searching uninterpreted tandem mass spectra against a vaccinia virus protein database created by our lab and a non-redundant protein database. Conclusion Sixty three vaccinia proteins were identified in the virion particle. The total number of peptides found for each protein ranged from 1 to 62, and the sequence coverage of the proteins ranged from 8.2% to 94.9%. Interestingly, two vaccinia open reading frames were confirmed as being expressed

  20. Human CD4+ T cell epitopes from vaccinia virus induced by vaccination or infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mauricio Calvo-Calle

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of vaccinia virus in basic and applied immunology, our knowledge of the human immune response directed against this virus is very limited. CD4(+ T cell responses are an important component of immunity induced by current vaccinia-based vaccines, and likely will be required for new subunit vaccine approaches, but to date vaccinia-specific CD4(+ T cell responses have been poorly characterized, and CD4(+ T cell epitopes have been reported only recently. Classical approaches used to identify T cell epitopes are not practical for large genomes like vaccinia. We developed and validated a highly efficient computational approach that combines prediction of class II MHC-peptide binding activity with prediction of antigen processing and presentation. Using this approach and screening only 36 peptides, we identified 25 epitopes recognized by T cells from vaccinia-immune individuals. Although the predictions were made for HLA-DR1, eight of the peptides were recognized by donors of multiple haplotypes. T cell responses were observed in samples of peripheral blood obtained many years after primary vaccination, and were amplified after booster immunization. Peptides recognized by multiple donors are highly conserved across the poxvirus family, including variola, the causative agent of smallpox, and may be useful in development of a new generation of smallpox vaccines and in the analysis of the immune response elicited to vaccinia virus. Moreover, the epitope identification approach developed here should find application to other large-genome pathogens.

  1. A Novel High-Throughput Vaccinia Virus Neutralization Assay and Preexisting Immunity in Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Liu; Weijin Huang; Jianhui Nie; Rong Zhu; Dongying Gao; Aijing Song; Shufang Meng; Xuemei Xu; Youchun Wang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT) resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralization assay tha...

  2. An outbreak of bovine meningoencephalomyelitis with identification of Halicephalobus gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2016-01-01

    Halicephalobus gingivalis is an opportunistic parasite which is known to cause fatal meningoencephalomyelitis primarily in equines but sporadically also in humans. In April 2014, laboratory examination of the head of a young dairy calf, euthanized due to severe central nervous system symptoms, re...... from another three calves in the herd. This is the first scientific publication of H. gingivalis induced meningoencephalomyelitis in ruminants. As ante mortem diagnosis is a major challenge, the infection may easily remain undiagnosed in cattle....

  3. An outbreak of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle in northeastern Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Burnes, J; LÓPEZ, A; Medellín, J; Haines, D; Loza, E; Martínez, M.

    1997-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine rabies occurred on a ranch when cattle were bitten by vampire bats. Microscopic lesions showed a nonsuppurative encephalitis with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigen in the brain, and monoclonal antibodies identified a serotype 1 (vampire strain) of the rabies virus.

  4. Investigating Listeria Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-04

    Dr. Emily Cartwright, Infectious Disease fellow at Emory University and former EIS Officer with CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases discusses foodborne Listeria outbreaks.  Created: 1/4/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  5. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  6. Responding to Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-27

    In this podcast, a team of CDC specialists travels to Uganda and tracks the source of an Ebola outbreak where CDC scientists are studying bats for clues to the Ebola mystery.  Created: 4/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/27/2009.

  7. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter;

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys natalen...

  8. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  9. Outbreaks in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Geeta; Perl, Trish M

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in health care settings can be complex and should be evaluated systematically using epidemiologic tools. Laboratory testing is an important part of an outbreak evaluation. Health care personnel, equipment, supplies, water, ventilation systems, and the hospital environment have been associated with health care outbreaks. Settings including the neonatal intensive care unit, endoscopy, oncology, and transplant units are areas that have specific issues which impact the approach to outbreak investigation and control. Certain organisms have a predilection for health care settings because of the illnesses of patients, the procedures performed, and the care provided. PMID:27515142

  10. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  11. Protective effect of Toll-like receptor 4 in pulmonary vaccinia infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A Hutchens

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses are essential for controlling poxvirus infection. The threat of a bioterrorist attack using Variola major, the smallpox virus, or zoonotic transmission of other poxviruses has renewed interest in understanding interactions between these viruses and their hosts. We recently determined that TLR3 regulates a detrimental innate immune response that enhances replication, morbidity, and mortality in mice in response to vaccinia virus, a model pathogen for studies of poxviruses. To further investigate Toll-like receptor signaling in vaccinia infection, we first focused on TRIF, the only known adapter protein for TLR3. Unexpectedly, bioluminescence imaging showed that mice lacking TRIF are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than wild-type mice. We then focused on TLR4, the other Toll-like receptor that signals through TRIF. Following respiratory infection with vaccinia, mice lacking TLR4 signaling had greater viral replication, hypothermia, and mortality than control animals. The mechanism of TLR4-mediated protection was not due to increased release of proinflammatory cytokines or changes in total numbers of immune cells recruited to the lung. Challenge of primary bone marrow macrophages isolated from TLR4 mutant and control mice suggested that TLR4 recognizes a viral ligand rather than an endogenous ligand. These data establish that TLR4 mediates a protective innate immune response against vaccinia virus, which informs development of new vaccines and therapeutic agents targeted against poxviruses.

  12. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection

  13. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseda, Clement A. [Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Srinivasan, Kumar [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wise, Jasen [Qiagen, Frederick, MD (United States); Catalano, Jennifer [Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  14. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  15. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  16. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing an 11-kilodalton beta-galactosidase fusion protein incorporate active beta-galactosidase in virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Samsonoff, W A; Grzelecki, A

    1988-10-01

    Recombinant plasmids in which vaccinia virus transcriptional regulatory sequences were fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were constructed for insertion of the lacZ gene into the vaccinia virus genome. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) was found in some purified recombinant vaccinia virions. By enzyme activity, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and microscopic techniques, the evidence suggested that beta-gal accounted for 5% of the total protein in the virion. These recombinant viruses were constructed so that a portion of the coding sequences of a late vaccinia virus structural polypeptide was fused to the amino terminus of beta-gal to produce the fusion protein. Removal of the coding sequences resulted in the complete loss of beta-gal activity. This demonstrated that a vaccinia virus DNA segment from a late structural gene is responsible for the incorporation of beta-gal into the virion.

  17. Frequency of Adverse Events after Vaccination with Different Vaccinia Strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter F M; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-re

  18. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  19. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  20. Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Bianca M; Tscharke, David C

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) genes are characterized as either essential or non-essential for growth in culture. It seems intuitively obvious that if a gene can be deleted without imparting a growth defect in vitro it does not have a function related to basic replication or spread. However, this interpretation relies on the untested assumption that there is no redundancy across the genes that have roles in growth in cell culture. First, we provide a comprehensive summary of the literature that describes the essential genes of VACV. Next, we looked for interactions between large blocks of non-essential genes located at the ends of the genome by investigating sets of VACVs with large deletions at the genomic termini. Viruses with deletions at either end of the genome behaved as expected, exhibiting only mild or host-range defects. In contrast, combining deletions at both ends of the genome for the VACV Western Reserve (WR) strain caused a devastating growth defect on all cell lines tested. Unexpectedly, we found that the well-studied VACV growth factor homologue encoded by C11R has a role in growth in vitro that is exposed when 42 genes are absent from the left end of the VACV WR genome. These results demonstrate that some non-essential genes contribute to basic viral growth, but redundancy means these functions are not revealed by single-gene-deletion mutants.

  1. Effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Aldabe, R; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-15

    The effects of transient expression of poliovirus 2A(pro) on p220 cleavage in COS cells have been analyzed. When 2A(pro) was cloned in plasmid pTM1 and transiently expressed in COS cells, efficient cleavage of p220 occurred after infection of these cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus bearing phage T7 RNA polymerase. High numbers of COS cells were transfected with pTM1-2A, as judged by p220 cleavage, thereby allowing an analysis of the effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression. A 40-50% cleavage of p220 by transfected poliovirus 2A(pro) was observed ten hours post infection and cleavage was almost complete (80-90%) 20-25 hours post infection with vaccinia virus. Profound inhibition of vaccinia virus protein synthesis was detectable ten hours post infection and was maximal 20-25 hours post infection. This inhibition resulted from neither a blockade of transcription of vaccinia virus nor a lack of translatability of the mRNAs present in cells that synthesize poliovirus 2A(pro). Addition of ara-C inhibited the replication of vaccinia virus and allowed the continued synthesis of cellular proteins. Under these conditions, 2A(pro) is expressed and blocks cellular translation. Finally, p220 cleavage by 2A(pro) did not inhibit the translation of a mRNA encoding poliovirus protein 2C, as directed by the 5' leader sequences of encephalomiocarditis virus. Therefore, these findings show a correlation between p220 cleavage and inhibition of translation from newly made mRNAs. Our results are discussed in the light of present knowledge of p220 function, and new approaches are considered that might provide further insights into the function(s) of initiation factor eIF-4F.

  2. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  3. Production and characterisation of a monoclonal antibody to human papillomavirus type 16 using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, C S; Churcher, M J; Meinke, J.; Smith, G.L.; Higgins, G; Stanley, M.; Minson, A C

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was raised against the major capsid protein L1 of human papillomavirus type 16, using a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the L1 protein, as a target for screening. This antibody, designated CAMVIR-1, reacted with a 56 kilodalton protein in cells infected with L1-vaccinia virus, and the protein was present in a predominantly nuclear location. The antibody also detects the HPV-16 L1 antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens and on routine c...

  4. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  5. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  6. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  7. Live-Cell Imaging of Vaccinia Virus Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowski, Patrick; Noyce, Ryan S.; Evans, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between co-infecting poxviruses provides an important mechanism for generating the genetic diversity that underpins evolution. However, poxviruses replicate in membrane-bound cytoplasmic structures known as factories or virosomes. These are enclosed structures that could impede DNA mixing between co-infecting viruses, and mixing would seem to be essential for this process. We hypothesize that virosome fusion events would be a prerequisite for recombination between co-infecting poxviruses, and this requirement could delay or limit viral recombination. We have engineered vaccinia virus (VACV) to express overlapping portions of mCherry fluorescent protein fused to a cro DNA-binding element. In cells also expressing an EGFP-cro fusion protein, this permits live tracking of virus DNA and genetic recombination using confocal microscopy. Our studies show that different types of recombination events exhibit different timing patterns, depending upon the relative locations of the recombining elements. Recombination between partly duplicated sequences is detected soon after post-replicative genes are expressed, as long as the reporter gene sequences are located in cis within an infecting genome. The same kinetics are also observed when the recombining elements are divided between VACV and transfected DNA. In contrast, recombination is delayed when the recombining sequences are located on different co-infecting viruses, and mature recombinants aren’t detected until well after late gene expression is well established. The delay supports the hypothesis that factories impede inter-viral recombination, but even after factories merge there remain further constraints limiting virus DNA mixing and recombinant gene assembly. This delay could be related to the continued presence of ER-derived membranes within the fused virosomes, membranes that may once have wrapped individual factories. PMID:27525721

  8. Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth

    Full Text Available Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial.Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI were monitored after each injection.A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis. The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions.Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524.

  9. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöcklein Walter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method.

  10. Relationship between RNA polymerase II and efficiency of vaccinia virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from previous studies that host transcriptase or RNA polymerase II (pol II) has a role in poxvirus replication. To elucidate the participation of this enzyme further, in this study the authors examined several parameters related to pol II during the cycle of vaccinia virus infection in L-strain fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and L6H9 rat myoblasts. Nucleocytoplasmic transposition of pol II into virus factories and virions was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting by using anti-pol II immunoglobulin G. RNA polymerase activities were compared in nuclear extracts containing cured enzyme preparations. Rates of translation into cellular or viral polypeptides were ascertained by labeling with [35S]methionine. In L and HeLa cells, which produced vaccinia virus more abundantly, the rate of RNA polymerase and translation in controls and following infection were higher than in myoblasts. The data on synthesis and virus formation could be correlated with observations on transmigration of pol II, which was more efficient and complete in L and HeLa cells. The stimulus for pol II to leave the nucleus required the expression of both early and late viral functions. On the basis of current and past information, the authors suggest that mobilization of pol II depends on the efficiency of vaccinia virus replication and furthermore that control over vaccinia virus production by the host is related to the content or availability (or both) of pol II in different cell types

  11. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors: oncolytic virus efficiency predicted by boolean models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start.

  12. Production and characterisation of a monoclonal antibody to human papillomavirus type 16 using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, C S; Churcher, M J; Meinke, J; Smith, G L; Higgins, G; Stanley, M; Minson, A C

    1990-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody was raised against the major capsid protein L1 of human papillomavirus type 16, using a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the L1 protein, as a target for screening. This antibody, designated CAMVIR-1, reacted with a 56 kilodalton protein in cells infected with L1-vaccinia virus, and the protein was present in a predominantly nuclear location. The antibody also detects the HPV-16 L1 antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens and on routine cervical smears. The antibody reacts strongly and consistently with biopsy specimens containing HPV-16 or HPV-33, but very weak reactions were occasionally observed with biopsy specimens or smears containing HPV-6 or HPV-11. The potential advantages of using a vaccinia recombinant are (i) the target protein is synthesised in a eukoryotic cell so that its "processing" and location are normal; (ii) cells infected with vaccinia recombinants can be subjected to various fixing procedures similar to those used for routine clinical material. This greatly increases the probability that an identified antibody will be useful in a clinical setting.

  13. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dorothy I; McGee, Charles E; Sample, Christopher J; Sempowski, Gregory D; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2016-07-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination. PMID:27146001

  14. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  16. Engineering the vaccinia virus L1 protein for increased neutralizing antibody response after DNA immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Bernard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The licensed smallpox vaccine, comprised of infectious vaccinia virus, has associated adverse effects, particularly for immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, safer DNA and protein vaccines are being investigated. The L1 protein, a component of the mature virion membrane that is conserved in all sequenced poxviruses, is required for vaccinia virus entry into host cells and is a target for neutralizing antibody. When expressed by vaccinia virus, the unglycosylated, myristoylated L1 protein attaches to the viral membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor without traversing the secretory pathway. The purpose of the present study was to investigate modifications of the gene expressing the L1 protein that would increase immunogenicity in mice when delivered by a gene gun. Results The L1 gene was codon modified for optimal expression in mammalian cells and potential N-glycosylation sites removed. Addition of a signal sequence to the N-terminus of L1 increased cell surface expression as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry of transfected cells. Removal of the transmembrane domain led to secretion of L1 into the medium. Induction of binding and neutralizing antibodies in mice was enhanced by gene gun delivery of L1 containing the signal sequence with or without the transmembrane domain. Each L1 construct partially protected mice against weight loss caused by intranasal administration of vaccinia virus. Conclusion Modifications of the vaccinia virus L1 gene including codon optimization and addition of a signal sequence with or without deletion of the transmembrane domain can enhance the neutralizing antibody response of a DNA vaccine.

  17. The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G; Scheiflinger, F; Dorner, F; Falkner, F G

    1998-05-10

    The complete genomic DNA sequence of the highly attenuated vaccinia strain modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) was determined. The genome of MVA is 178 kb in length, significantly smaller than that of the vaccinia Copenhagen genome, which is 192 kb. The 193 open reading frames (ORFs) mapped in the MVA genome probably correspond to 177 genes, 25 of which are split and/or have suffered mutations resulting in truncated proteins. The left terminal genomic region of MVA contains four large deletions and one large insertion relative to the Copenhagen strain. In addition, many ORFs in this region are fragmented, leaving only eight genes structurally intact and therefore presumably functional. The inserted DNA codes for a cluster of genes that is also found in the vaccinia WR strain and in cowpox virus and includes a highly fragmented gene homologous to the cowpox virus host range gene, providing further evidence that a cowpox-like virus was the ancestor of vaccinia. Surprisingly, the central conserved region of the genome also contains some fragmented genes, including ORF F5L, encoding a major membrane protein, and ORFs F11L and O1L, encoding proteins of 39.7 and 77.6 kDa, respectively. The right terminal genomic region carries three large deletions all classical poxviral immune evasion genes and all ankyrin-like genes located in this region are fragmented except for those encoding the interleukin-1 beta receptor and the 68-kDa ankyrin-like protein B18R. Thus, the attenuated phenotype of MVA is the result of numerous mutations, particularly affecting the host interactive proteins, including the ankyrin-like genes, but also involving some structural proteins.

  18. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected...

  19. Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced thermotherapy of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stritzker, Jochen; Kirscher, Lorenz; Scadeng, Miriam; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C.; Morscher, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Schaefer, Karin; Zhang, Qian; Buckel, Lisa; Hess, Michael; Donat, Ulrike; Bradley, William G.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2013-01-01

    We reported earlier the delivery of antiangiogenic single chain antibodies by using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide evidence that gene-evoked production of melanin can be used as a therapeutic and diagnostic mediator, as exemplified by insertion of only one or two genes into the genome of an oncolytic vaccinia virus strain. We found that produced melanin is an excellent reporter for optical imaging without addition of substrate. Melanin...

  20. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Rui; Xu, Shiyuan; WANG, LIANG; Lei, Hongyi; Cai, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pre...

  1. Contribution du modèle Age-Période-Cohorte à l'étude de l'épizootie d'Encéphalopathie Spongiforme Bovine en France et en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Sala, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Contribution Model Age-Period-Cohort to study the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in France and Europe Contribution du modèle Age-Période-Cohorte à l'étude de l'épizootie d'Encéphalopathie Spongiforme Bovine en France et en Europe

  2. Construction of Poxviruses as Cloning Vectors: Insertion of the Thymidine Kinase Gene from Herpes Simplex Virus into the DNA of Infectious Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicali, Dennis; Paoletti, Enzo

    1982-08-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by contransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine.

  3. Impacts of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and avian inlfuenza on U.S. meat demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhong E Mu; Bruce A McCarl; Amy Hagerman; David Bessler

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the U.S. meat demand impacts of the announced outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and avian inlfuenza (AI). Findings indicate that beef and chicken demand was negatively affected by BSE and AI disease outbreaks. Speciifcal y, in the short run, U.S. consumers shift demand due to both outbreaks but more so due to domestic disease outbreaks than for outbreaks occurring overseas-the impact of U.S. AI outbreaks is about 0.5%for beef and the impact of U.S. BSE cases is around–0.42%for beef and 0.4%for pork, respectively. Regarding the BSE shock on meat demand, there is a high rate of beef demand adjusted from disturbance to the long-run equilibrium and a lower adjustment rate for chicken demand because of the repeated outbreaks of AI worldwide. In the long run, information related to severe, persistently recurring overseas animal disease outbreaks changes U.S. consumers’ meat consumption patterns. Although effects of animal diseases on U.S. meat demand were statistical y signiifcant, the magnitudes were smal-the impact of WHO reported human death numbers for AI is 0.005%for beef,–0.002%for pork, and–0.006%for chicken and the impact of U.S. BSE cases is 1.1%for pork and–0.7%for chicken.

  4. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Li; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Xiao, Genfu; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  5. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  6. Vaccinia virus induces rapid necrosis in keratinocytes by a STAT3-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens.To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin.Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3.Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus.

  7. Vaccinia Virus-mediated Therapy of Solid Tumor Xenografts: Intra-tumoral Delivery of Therapeutic Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, much effort and financial support have been invested in the fight against cancer, yet cancer still represents the leading cause of death in the world. Conventional therapies for treatment of cancer are predominantly directed against tumor cells. Recently however, new treatments options have paid more attention to exploiting the advantage of targeting the tumor stroma instead. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has played an important role in human medicine since the 18th century...

  8. Structure–function analysis of vaccinia virus mRNA cap (guanine-N7) methyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Sushuang; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The guanine-N7 methyltransferase domain of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit and a stimulatory subunit. Structure–function analysis of the catalytic subunit by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions (49 mutations at 25 amino acids) identified 12 functional groups essential for methyltransferase activity in vivo, most of which were essential for cap methylation in vitro. Defects in cap binding were demonstrated for a subset of lethal m...

  9. Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: A 3-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Joseph R.; Fry, Alethea M.; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironment...

  10. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    OpenAIRE

    Artois, M.; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M. K.; Campbell, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and...

  11. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    OpenAIRE

    MacCarthy Kathleen A; Slate Dennis; McLean Robert G; Root J Jeffrey; Osorio Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor). The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on success...

  12. Pexa-Vec double agent engineered vaccinia: oncolytic and active immunotherapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, Caroline J; Parato, Kelley; Burke, James; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Bell, John C; Kirn, David H

    2015-08-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapies (OI) selectively infect, amplify within and destroy cancer cells, thereby representing a novel class of anti-cancer therapy. In addition to this primary mechanism-of-action (MOA), OI based on vaccinia have been shown to selectively target tumor-associated vasculature, triggering an acute reduction in tumor perfusion. This review focuses on a third complementary MOA for this product class: the induction of active immunotherapy. While the active immunotherapy approach has been validated by recent product approvals, the field is still faced with significant challenges. Tumors have evolved diverse mechanisms to hide from immune-mediated destruction. Here we hypothesize that oncolytic immunotherapy replication within tumors may tip the immune balance to allow for the effective induction and execution of adaptive anti-tumor immunity, resulting in long-term tumor control following OI clearance. This immune activation against the cancer can be augmented through OI 'arming' for the expression of immunostimulatory transgene products from the virus genome. With the first vaccinia OI (Pexa-Vec, thymidine kinase-inactivated vaccinia expressing Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) now in advanced-stage clinical trials, it has become more important than ever to understand the complimentary MOA that contributes to tumor destruction and control in patients. PMID:25900822

  13. Potent T cell Responses Induced by Single DNA Vaccine Boosted with Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxing Liu; Chao Qiu; Yang Huang; Jianqing Xu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid DNA,an effective vaccine vector,can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses.However,plasmid DNA raises issues concerning potential genomic integration after injection.This issue should be considered in preclinical studies.Tiantan vaccinia virus (TV) has been most widely utilized in eradicating smallpox in China.This virus has also been considered as a successful vaccine vector against a few infectious diseases.Potent T cell responses through T-cell receptor (TCR) could be induced by three injections of the DNA prime vaccine followed by a single injection of recombinant vaccinia vaccine.To develop a safer immunization strategy,a single DNA prime followed by a single recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) AIDS vaccine was used to immunize mice.Our data demonstrated that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen induced mature TCR activation with high functional avidity,preferential T cell Vβ receptor usage and high sensitivity to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation.No differences in T cell responses were observed among one,two or three DNA prime/rTV boost regimens.This study shows that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen is sufficient to induce potent T cell responses against HIV.

  14. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedognetti Davide

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. Methods In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. Results We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection.

  15. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, Richard C., E-mail: condit@mgm.ufl.edu; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  16. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid

  17. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  18. Polymeric Cups for Cavitation-mediated Delivery of Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rachel; Coviello, Christian; Erbs, Philippe; Foloppe, Johann; Rowe, Cliff; Kwan, James; Crake, Calum; Finn, Seán; Jackson, Edward; Balloul, Jean-Marc; Story, Colin; Coussios, Constantin; Carlisle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) could become the most powerful and selective cancer therapies. However, the limited transport of OV into and throughout tumors following intravenous injection means their clinical administration is often restricted to direct intratumoral dosing. Application of physical stimuli, such as focused ultrasound, offers a means of achieving enhanced mass transport. In particular, shockwaves and microstreaming resulting from the instigation of an ultrasound-induced event known as inertial cavitation can propel OV hundreds of microns. We have recently developed a polymeric cup formulation which, when delivered intravenously, provides the nuclei for instigation of sustained inertial cavitation events within tumors. Here we report that exposure of tumors to focused ultrasound after intravenous coinjection of cups and oncolytic vaccinia virus , leads to substantial and significant increases in activity. When cavitation was instigated within SKOV-3 or HepG2 xenografts, reporter gene expression from vaccinia virus was enhanced 1,000-fold (P cavitation to a vaccinia virus expressing a prodrug converting enzyme provided significant (P < 0.05) retardation of tumor growth. This technology could improve the clinical utility of all biological therapeutics including OV. PMID:27375160

  19. Escherichia coli gpt gene provides dominant selection for vaccinia virus open reading frame expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, F G; Moss, B

    1988-06-01

    Mycophenolic acid, an inhibitor of purine metabolism, was shown to block the replication of vaccinia virus in normal cell lines. This observation led to the development of a dominant one-step plaque selection system, based on expression of the Escherichia coli gpt gene, for the isolation of recombinant vaccinia viruses. Synthesis of xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enabled only the recombinant viruses to form large plaques in a selective medium containing mycophenolic acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine. To utilize the selection system efficiently, we constructed a series of plasmids that contain the E. coli gpt gene and allow insertion of foreign genes into multiple unique restriction endonuclease sites in all three reading frames between the translation initiation codon of a strong late promoter and synthetic translation termination sequences. The selection-expression cassette is flanked by vaccinia virus DNA that directs homologous recombination into the virus genome. The new vectors allow high-level expression of complete or partial open reading frames and rapid construction of recombinant viruses by facilitating the cloning steps and by simplifying their isolation. The system was tested by cloning the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene; in 24 h, this enzyme accounted for approximately 3.5% of the total infected-cell protein.

  20. Determination of the promoter region of an early vaccinia virus gene encoding thymidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, J P; Moss, B

    1987-05-01

    Nine recombinant vaccinia viruses that contain overlapping segments of the putative promoter region of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene linked to DNA coding for the prokaryotic enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were constructed. In each case, the RNA start site and 5 bp of DNA downstream were retained. No significant difference in CAT expression occurred as the deletion was extended from 352 to 32 bp before the RNA start site. Deletion of a further 10 bp, however, led to complete cessation of early promoter activity. Primer extension analysis of the 5' ends of the transcripts verified that the natural TK RNA start site was still used when only 32 bp of upstream DNA remained. Loss of early promoter activity was previously found when deletions were extended from 31 to 24 bp before the RNA start site of another vaccinia gene that is expressed constitutively throughout infection (M.A. Cochran, C. Puckett, and B. Moss, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 19-23). Sequence similarities in the promoter regions of these two genes were noted.

  1. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  2. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  3. Seroprevalence of Orthopoxvirus in rural Brazil: insights into anti-OPV immunity status and its implications for emergent zoonotic OPV

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Augusto, Lídia Teodoro Santos; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus, a virus from Orthopoxvirus genus (OPV) that affects mainly cattle herds and humans in rural areas in Brazil. Because most studies have focused on outbreaks situations, data on BV epidemiology is limited. A cross sectional study in Brazilian rural areas during 2012–2013 was conducted to determine the neutralizing antibodies seroprevalence and risk factors for BV. Methods A structured questionnaire was applied to elicit dem...

  4. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  5. Three Essays on the Economic Impact of Bovin Spngiform Encephalopathy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gollamudi, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The first native-born case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or commonly known as Mad Cow Disease) in North American continent was reported on 20 May 2003 in central Alberta, Canada. The first case of BSE in the United States was announced on 23 December 2003. My dissertation is divided into three essays on the economic impact of the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003. The first essay focuses on quantifying the impact of the outb...

  6. Genome Sequence of Vaccinia virus Strain Lister-Butantan, a Lister Vaccine Variant Used during a Smallpox Eradication Campaign in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Felipe; Trindade, Giliane; Drumond, Betânia; Frace, Mike; Sammons, Scott; Emerson, Ginny; Li, Yu; Carroll, Darin; Batra, Dhwani; Kroon, Erna

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 187.8-kb genome sequence of Vaccinia virus Lister-Butantan, which was used in Brazil during the WHO smallpox eradication campaign. Its genome showed an average similarity of 98.18% with the original Lister isolate, highlighting the low divergence among related Vaccinia virus vaccine strains, even after several passages in animals and cell culture. PMID:27340056

  7. Oncolytic and immunologic cancer therapy with GM-CSF-armed vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lili; Fan, Jun; Guo, Mingming; Huang, Biao

    2016-03-28

    Targeted oncolytic vaccinia viruses are being developed as a novel strategy in cancer therapy. Arming vaccinia viruses with immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance antitumor efficacy. Such engineered oncolytic viruses, like JX-594, a Wyeth strain vaccinia virus modified with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have shown promising results and have proceeded rapidly in clinical trials. However, the oncolytic potential of the Chinese vaccine strain Tian Tan (VTT) has not been explored. In this study, we constructed a targeted oncolytic vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9 (VG9) expressing murine GM-CSF (VG9-GMCSF) and evaluated the antitumor effect of this recombinant vaccinia virus in a murine melanoma model. In vitro, viral replication and cytotoxicity of VG9-GMCSF was as potent as VG9; in vivo, VG9-GMCSF significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted melanoma tumors, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and produced an antitumor cytotoxic response. Such antitumor effect may be due to the lytic nature of virus as well as the stimulation of immune activity by GM-CSF production. Our results indicate that VG9-GMCSF induces strong tumoricidal activity, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. PMID:26803055

  8. Identification of the DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus were located on the viral genome. The formation of an enzyme-guanylate covalent intermediate labeled with [alpha-32P]GTP allowed the identification of the large subunit of the capping enzyme and was used to monitor the appearance of the enzyme during the infectious cycle. This assay confirmed that after vaccinia infection, a novel 84,000-molecular-weight polypeptide corresponding to the large subunit was rapidly synthesized before viral DNA replication. Hybrid-selected cell-free translation of early viral mRNA established that vaccinia virus encoded a polypeptide identical in molecular weight with the 32P-labeled 84,000-molecular-weight polypeptide found in vaccinia virions. Like the authentic capping enzyme, this virus-encoded cell-free translation product bound specifically to DNA-cellulose. A comparison of the partial proteolytic digestion fragments generated by V8 protease, chymotrypsin, and trypsin demonstrated that the 32P-labeled large subunit and the [35S]methionine-labeled cell-free translation product were identical. The mRNA encoding the large subunit of the capping enzyme was located 3.1 kilobase pairs to the left of the HindIII D restriction fragment of the vaccinia genome. Furthermore, the mRNA was determined to be 3.0 kilobases in size, and its 5 and 3 termini were precisely located by S1 nuclease analysis

  9. Incomplete but infectious vaccinia virions are produced in the absence of oncolysis in feline SCCF1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Suvi; Autio, Karoliina; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Guse, Kilian; Pesonen, Sari; Rosol, Thomas J; Zhao, Fang; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus is a large, enveloped virus of the poxvirus family. It has broad tropism and typically virus replication culminates in accumulation and lytic release of intracellular mature virus (IMV), the most abundant form of infectious virus, as well as release by budding of extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Vaccinia viruses have been modified to replicate selectively in cancer cells and clinically tested as oncolytic agents. During preclinical screening of relevant cancer targets for a recombinant Western Reserve strain deleted for both copies of the thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes, we noticed that confluent monolayers of SCCF1 cat squamous carcinoma cells were not destroyed even after prolonged infection. Interestingly, although SCCF1 cells were not killed, they continuously secreted virus into the cell culture supernatant. To investigate this finding further, we performed detailed studies by electron microscopy. Both intracellular and secreted virions showed morphological abnormalities on ultrastructural inspection, suggesting compromised maturation and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus in SCCF1 cells. Our data suggest that SCCF1 cells produce a morphologically abnormal virus which is nevertheless infective, providing new information on the virus-host cell interactions and intracellular biology of vaccinia virus.

  10. Incomplete but infectious vaccinia virions are produced in the absence of oncolysis in feline SCCF1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Parviainen

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus is a large, enveloped virus of the poxvirus family. It has broad tropism and typically virus replication culminates in accumulation and lytic release of intracellular mature virus (IMV, the most abundant form of infectious virus, as well as release by budding of extracellular enveloped virus (EEV. Vaccinia viruses have been modified to replicate selectively in cancer cells and clinically tested as oncolytic agents. During preclinical screening of relevant cancer targets for a recombinant Western Reserve strain deleted for both copies of the thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes, we noticed that confluent monolayers of SCCF1 cat squamous carcinoma cells were not destroyed even after prolonged infection. Interestingly, although SCCF1 cells were not killed, they continuously secreted virus into the cell culture supernatant. To investigate this finding further, we performed detailed studies by electron microscopy. Both intracellular and secreted virions showed morphological abnormalities on ultrastructural inspection, suggesting compromised maturation and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus in SCCF1 cells. Our data suggest that SCCF1 cells produce a morphologically abnormal virus which is nevertheless infective, providing new information on the virus-host cell interactions and intracellular biology of vaccinia virus.

  11. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  13. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  14. TOWARDS MODELING DISEASE OUTBREAK NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag Azzedin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreak detection, monitoring and notification systems play an important role in assessing threats to public health since disease outbreaks are becoming increasingly common world-wide. There are several systems in use around the world, with coverage of national, international and global disease outbreaks. These systems use different taxonomies and classifications for the detection and prioritization of potential disease outbreaks. In this paper, we study and analyze the current disease outbreak systems. Subsequently, we extract features and functions of typical and generic disease outbreak systems. We then propose a generic model for disease outbreak notification systems. Our effort is directed towards standardizing the design process for typical disease outbreak systems.

  15. Non-essential genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII K fragment: a gene related to serine protease inhibitors and a gene related to the 37K vaccinia virus major envelope antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursnell, M E; Foulds, I J; Campbell, J I; Binns, M M

    1988-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned copy of the HindIII K fragment of the WR strain of vaccinia virus has been determined. Eight open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified, on the basis of size and codon usage. The predicted amino acid sequences of the putative genes have been compared to the Protein Identification Resource and to published vaccinia virus sequences. One gene, predicted to encode a 42.2K protein, is highly related to the family of serine protease inhibitors. It shows approximately 25% identity to human antithrombin III and 19% identity to the cowpox virus 38K protein gene which is also related to serine protease inhibitors. The product of another gene shows a similar high level of identity to the 37K vaccinia virus major envelope antigen. The existence of viable deletion mutants and recombinants containing foreign DNA inserted into both these genes indicates that they are non-essential.

  16. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  17. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban K.; Tripathi, Nagesh K.; ,; Sannarangaiah, Santhosh; Saxena, Parag; Agarwal, Surekha; Sahni, Ajay K.; Singh, Sanjay P; Rathi, Arvind K.; Bhargava, Rakesh; Abhyankar, Ajay; Shailendra K Verma; Rao, Putcha V. Lakshmana; Sekhar, Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in Gorakhpur, India, from July through November 2005. The etiologic agent was confirmed to be Japanese encephalitis virus by analyzing 326 acute-phase clinical specimens for virus-specific antibodies and viral RNA and by virus isolation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates belonged to genogroup 3.

  18. An epidemic outbreak of cryptosporidiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Højlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte;

    1990-01-01

    significantly associated with diarrhea (OR = 2.79, P = 0.0006). The seasonal distribution was striking, with a peak prevalence in the beginning of the rainy season (May 17.6%) when an epidemic outbreak of diarrhea started. The prevalence was highest in children younger than 18 months, an age at which...

  19. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by uv irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective

  20. Efficient cleavage of p220 by poliovirus 2Apro expression in mammalian cells: effects on vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-10-24

    Poliovirus protease 2A cleaves p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize p220 and the cleaved products from different species have been raised. Transfection of several cell lines with poliovirus 2Apro cloned in different plasmids leads to efficient cleavage of p220 upon infection with VT7, a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the T7 RNA polymerase. Under these conditions vaccinia virus protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while expression of poliovirus protein 2C from a similar plasmid has no effect. These results show by the first time the effects of p220 cleavage on vaccinia virus translation in the infected cells.

  1. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillien, R; Spehner, D; Kirn, A

    1978-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by UV irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective.

  2. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  3. A novel high-throughput vaccinia virus neutralization assay and preexisting immunity in populations from different geographic regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30-55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT. Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6% in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. CONCLUSION: A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in

  4. Modeling of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Two-Species Feedback Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard; Lehman, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, otherwise known as mad cow disease, can spread when an individual cow consumes feed containing the infected tissues of another individual, forming a one-species feedback loop. Such feedback is the primary means of transmission for BSE during epidemic conditions. Following outbreaks in the European Union and elsewhere, many governments enacted legislation designed to limit the spread of such diseases via elimination or reduction of one-species feedback loops i...

  5. Vaccinia Virus LC16m8∆ as a Vaccine Vector for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Kidokoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LC16m8 strain of vaccinia virus, the active ingredient in the Japanese smallpox vaccine, was derived from the Lister/Elstree strain. LC16m8 is replication-competent and has been administered to over 100,000 infants and 3,000 adults with no serious adverse reactions. Despite this outstanding safety profile, the occurrence of spontaneously-generated large plaque-forming virulent LC16m8 revertants following passage in cell culture is a major drawback. We identified the gene responsible for the reversion and deleted the gene (B5R from LC16m8 to derive LC16m8Δ. LC16m8∆ is non-pathogenic in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice, genetically-stable and does not reverse to a large-plaque phenotype upon passage in cell culture, even under conditions in which most LC16m8 populations are replaced by revertants. Moreover, LC16m8∆ is >500-fold more effective than the non-replicating vaccinia virus (VV, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA, at inducing murine immune responses against pathogenic VV. LC16m8∆, which expresses the SIV gag gene, also induced anti-Gag CD8+ T-cells more efficiently than MVA and another non-replicating VV, Dairen I minute-pock variants (DIs. Moreover, LC16m8∆ expressing HIV-1 Env in combination with a Sendai virus vector induced the production of anti-Env antibodies and CD8+ T-cells. Thus, the safety and efficacy of LC16m8∆ mean that it represents an outstanding platform for the development of human vaccine vectors.

  6. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  7. Role for CCR5 in Dissemination of Vaccinia Virus In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbar, Ramtin; Murooka, Thomas T.; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier report, we provided evidence that expression of CCR5 by primary human T cells renders them permissive for vaccinia virus (VACV) replication. This may represent a mechanism for dissemination throughout the lymphatic system. To test this hypothesis, wild-type CCR5+/+ and CCR5 null mice were challenged with VACV by intranasal inoculation. In time course studies using different infective doses of VACV, we identified viral replication in the lungs of both CCR5+/+ and CCR5−/− mice, ye...

  8. Construction of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Expressing Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The T lymphocyte response has been shown to be the determinant in the clearance of many viral infections.Hence, therapeutic vaccine candidates against HBV are designed to enhance this response of the immune system.Vaccinia virus vector-based vaccines have been proposed as excellent candidates to elicit long-term and strong T lymphocyte mediated immune responses. In this study, the recombinant MVA expressing HBV surface antigen has been constructed, which can elicit a potent T cell mediated response. The ELISA results for the surface protein in the medium of the recombinant MVA, strongly indicate that the recombinant virus has been successfully obtained.

  9. Enhanced expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J P; Hampson, I N; Heinrich, H W; Mackett, M; Arrand, J R

    1989-05-01

    The complete coding sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus strain B95-8 latent membrane protein (LMP) was cloned using a Raji cell cDNA library and genomic B95-8 DNA. The clone was characterized by sequencing and then used to make a recombinant vaccinia virus. This virus (VLMP) was shown to express a relatively high level of LMP in an authentic fashion. Antisera raised in rabbits against VLMP were shown to react with B95-8 LMP as well as cross-reacting with a 50K cellular protein.

  10. Analysis of a large cluster of nonessential genes deleted from a vaccinia virus terminal transposition mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, G J; Moss, B

    1988-12-01

    The principal objectives of this study were to analyze the structure and coding potential of a long segment of DNA missing from a previously isolated (B. Moss, E. Winters, and J. A. Cooper (1981) J. Virol. 40, 387-395) attenuated variant of vaccinia virus strain WR and to examine the precise changes in the genome accompanying the deletion. The sequences of a 14.5-kbp region located at the left end of the standard vaccinia virus genome, extending from within the inverted terminal repetition (ITR) of the HindIII C fragment to the end of the HindIII N fragment, and of a 3-kbp segment from a corresponding region of the variant genome were determined. A comparison of these sequences revealed that the variant contained a deletion of 12 kbp and an insertion of 2.1 kbp. The origin of the inserted DNA was traced to the HindIII B region by using oligonucleotide probes indicating that a transposition of unique DNA located adjacent to the right ITR had occurred. Structural analysis indicated no extensive homologies, nucleotide substitutions, additions, or deletions at the boundaries of the transposed DNA. Examination of the right end of the variant genome indicated that a copy of the transposed DNA was still present and, therefore, the length of the ITR had been increased by 2.1 kbp. The variant genome could have formed by a mechanism that resulted in the replacement of a 22-kbp left-terminal fragment with a 12-kbp right-terminal fragment. The DNA missing from the variant and contained within the standard vaccinia virus WR genome contains 17 contiguous open reading frames (ORFs), all of which are directed leftward and apparently not required for replication in cultured cells. One deleted ORF has a 60% sequence similarity to another gene encoding a 42,000-Da protein present within the ITR suggesting that duplications have previously occurred during the evolution of vaccinia virus. Another deleted ORF has a 39% sequence similarity to a complement 4b binding protein. The

  11. Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Infectious disease during an emergency condition can raise the death rate 60 times in comparison to other causes including trauma. An epidemic, or outbreak, can occur when several aspects of the agent (pathogen), population (hosts), and the environment create an ideal situation for spread. Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, dirty drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. Once it has been established that an emergency condition exists, there must be a prompt and thorough response for communicable disease control. A camp should be created, and the disease managed rapidly. The overall goals are rapid assessment, prevention, surveillance, outbreak control, and disease management. PMID:27437528

  12. Economic impact of RVF outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Chevalier, Véronique; Peyre, Marisa; Abdo-Salem, Shaïf; Bonnet, Pierre; Roger, François

    2012-01-01

    Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countri...

  13. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  14. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  15. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  16. Preclinical evaluation of oncolytic vaccinia virus for therapy of canine soft tissue sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV strains is one promising new strategy for canine cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of an in vivo model of canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS using the new isolated cell line STSA-1 and the analysis of the virus-mediated oncolytic and immunological effects of two different Lister VACV LIVP1.1.1 and GLV-1h68 strains against CSTS. Cell culture data demonstrated that both tested VACV strains efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine soft tissue sarcoma line STSA-1. In addition, in our new canine sarcoma tumor xenograft mouse model, systemic administration of LIVP1.1.1 or GLV-1h68 viruses led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control mice. Furthermore, LIVP1.1.1 mediated therapy resulted in almost complete tumor regression and resulted in long-term survival of sarcoma-bearing mice. The replication of the tested VACV strains in tumor tissues led to strong oncolytic effects accompanied by an intense intratumoral infiltration of host immune cells, mainly neutrophils. These findings suggest that the direct viral oncolysis of tumor cells and the virus-dependent activation of tumor-associated host immune cells could be crucial parts of anti-tumor mechanism in STSA-1 xenografts. In summary, the data showed that both tested vaccinia virus strains and especially LIVP1.1.1 have great potential for effective treatment of CSTS.

  17. Fine structure of the vaccinia virion determined by controlled degradation and immunolocalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussatche, Nissin, E-mail: nissin@ufl.edu; Condit, Richard C.

    2015-01-15

    The vaccinia virion is a membraned, slightly flattened, barrel-shaped particle, with a complex internal structure featuring a biconcave core flanked by lateral bodies. Although the architecture of the purified mature virion has been intensely characterized by electron microscopy, the distribution of the proteins within the virion has been examined primarily using biochemical procedures. Thus, it has been shown that non-ionic and ionic detergents combined or not with a sulfhydryl reagent can be used to disrupt virions and, to a limited degree, separate the constituent proteins in different fractions. Applying a controlled degradation technique to virions adsorbed on EM grids, we were able to immuno-localize viral proteins within the virion particle. Our results show after NP40 and DTT treatment, membrane proteins are removed from the virion surface revealing proteins that are associated with the lateral bodies and the outer layer of the core wall. Combined treatment using high salt and high DTT removed lateral body proteins and exposed proteins of the internal core wall. Cores treated with proteases could be disrupted and the internal components were exposed. Cts8, a mutant in the A3 protein, produces aberrant virus that, when treated with NP-40 and DTT, releases to the exterior the virus DNA associated with other internal core proteins. With these results, we are able to propose a model for the structure the vaccinia virion.

  18. Identification of a Bohle iridovirus thymidine kinase gene and demonstration of activity using vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupar, B E H; Goldie, S G; Hyatt, A D; Pallister, J A

    2005-09-01

    In recent years interest in the family Iridoviridae has been renewed by the identification of a number of viruses, particularly from the genus Ranavirus, associated with disease in a range of poikilotherms. Ranaviruses have been isolated from amphibian, piscine and reptilian species. Here we describe an open reading frame (ORF) identified in the genome of Bohle iridovirus (BIV) which contains a nucleotide binding motif conserved within the thymidine kinase (TK) genes of iridoviruses from other genera (lymphocystis disease virus, LCDV, type species of the genus Lymphocystivirus; Chilo iridescent virus, CIV, type species of the genus Iridovirus). The ability of this putative gene to express a functional TK was confirmed by rescue of a TK negative mutant vaccinia virus in the presence of selective media, when expression was controlled by a vaccinia virus promoter. The sequence of the BIV TK was compared with the homologous sequences from epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), a virus associated with disease in fish, from Wamena iridovirus (WIV) associated with systemic disease in green pythons, and from frog virus 3 (FV3) the ranavirus type species. Comparisons between these sequences and those available from other ranaviruses, other iridoviruses, other DNA viruses and cellular TKs are presented. PMID:15883656

  19. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  20. Chronic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 attenuates antibody responses against vaccinia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Matthew P; Bancos, Simona; Chapman, Timothy J; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Treanor, John J; Rose, Robert C; Topham, David J; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-02-01

    Generation of optimal humoral immunity to vaccination is essential to protect against devastating infectious agents such as the variola virus that causes smallpox. Vaccinia virus (VV), employed as a vaccine against smallpox, provides an important model of infection. Herein, we evaluated the importance cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in immunity to VV using Cox-2 deficient mice and Cox-2 selective inhibitory drugs. The effects of Cox-2 inhibition on antibody responses to live viruses such as vaccinia have not been previously described. Here, we used VV infection in Cox-2 deficient mice and in mice chronically treated with Cox-2 selective inhibitors and show that the frequency of VV-specific B cells was reduced, as well as the production of neutralizing IgG. VV titers were approximately 70 times higher in mice treated with a Cox-2 selective inhibitor. Interestingly, Cox-2 inhibition also reduced the frequency of IFN-gamma producing CD4(+) T helper cells, important for class switching. The significance of these results is that the chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other drugs that inhibit Cox-2 activity or expression, blunt the ability of B cells to produce anti-viral antibodies, thereby making vaccines less effective and possibly increasing susceptibility to viral infection. These new findings support an essential role for Cox-2 in regulating humoral immunity.

  1. DNA sequence analysis of the Hind III M fragment from Chinese vaccine strain of vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, V J; Jin, Q; Jin, D Y; Hou, Y D

    1989-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Hind III M fragment of vaccinia virus (VV) Tian Tan strain genome was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. Three open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the complementary strand of the sequence, comprised of 2218bp. Among them, ORF K1 initiates its transcription at -45 of the Hind III K fragment. The deduced peptide encoded by K1 contains 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32.48 KDa. Its sequence is homologous to the host range protein of VV Copenhagen strain; the variation is only 2.46% at the amino acid level. ORF M2 could encode a peptide of 21.94 KDa with 196 amino acids. This gene was shown to be homologous to that of the 23 KDa peptide of herpes simplex virus type I. A non-coding region of 204bp located between K1 and M2 is rich in palindromic structures. ORF M1 extends its 3' terminus into the Hind III N fragment. Within the M fragment, M1 can only encode 212 amino acids. The major part of ORF M1 is very similar to the M portion of a possible alpha-amanitin resistance gene isolated from VV-WR strain. This work provides a molecular foundation in the construction of a new insertion vector for the preparation of a recombinant vaccinia virus to be used as a polyvalent live vaccine.

  2. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Song (Fei); R. Fux (Robert); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A. Volz (Asisa); M. Eickmann; S. Becker (Stephan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); G. Suttera (Gerd)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic sta

  3. Combined immunity of DNA vector and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Gag proteins of equine infectious anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chunming; ZHANG Xiaoyan; WANG Shuhui; LIU Ying; DUAN Danli; SHEN Rongxian; SHAO Yiming

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a new vaccine candidate for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), gag gene of Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated strain (EIAV DLV) and its parental virulent strain (EIAV LN) were inserted respectively into the TK region of the Tiantan strain (VV) of vaccinia virus by homologous recombination and the positive clone was confirmed by blue plaque assay. Protein expression was examined by Western blot. Prime and prime-boost procedures were used to immunize mice with two DNA vectors and two recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing EIAV Gag proteins. The results showed that the specific lysis of CTL responses in the DNA+rVV groups was stronger than those in the DNA groups, amounting to 31%. Although the levels of specific antibodies were not significantly different, we could conclude that the recombinant vaccinia virus could boost the cellular responses following DNA vector priming. There was no detectable difference between the immune responses induced by DLV and LN Gag proteins. This data demonstrates that the combined immunity of DNA vector and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing EIAV gag proteins, utilizing the prime-boost procedure, can drive immunized mice to produce powerful cellular responses. These results lay an important foundation for the development of a new EIAV genetic engineering vaccine.

  4. Chemical inactivation of recombinant vaccinia viruses and the effects on antigenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); S.G. Norley (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe efficiency of paraformaldehyde (PFA) and binary ethylenimine (BEI) in inactivating recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), present in baby hamster kidney cells expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (SIV-Env), was measured in a series of inactivation studies. Both

  5. Mapping of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene by marker rescue and cell-free translation of selected RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous demonstration that a phosphonoacetate (PAA)-resistant (PAA/sup r/) vaccinia virus mutant synthesized an altered DNA polymerase provided the key to mapping this gene. Marker rescue was performed in cells infected with wild-type PAA-sensitive (PAA/sup s/) vaccinia by transfecting with calcium phosphate-precipitated DNA from a PAA/sup r/ mutant virus. Formation of PAA/sup r/ recombinants was measured by plaque assay in the presence of PAA. Of the 12 HindIII fragments cloned in plasmid or cosmid vectors, only fragment E conferred the PAA/sup r/ phenotype. Successive subcloning of the 15-kilobase HindIII fragment E localized the marker within a 7.5-kilobase BamHI-HindIII fragment and then within a 2.9-kilobase EcoRI fragment. The location of the DNA polymerase gene, about 57 kilobases from the left end of the genome, was confirmed by cell-free translation of mRNA selected by hybridization to plasmids containing regions of PAA/sup r/ vaccinia DNA active in marker rescue. A 100,000-dalton polypeptide that comigrated with authentic DNA polymerase was synthesized. Correspondence of the in vitro translation product with purified vaccinia DNA polymerase was established by peptide mapping

  6. CD40 ligand and tdTomato-armed vaccinia virus for induction of antitumor immune response and tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, S; Ahonen, M; Diaconu, I; Hirvinen, M; Karttunen, Å; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A; Cerullo, V

    2014-02-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy. Oncolysis releases tumor antigens and provides co-stimulatory danger signals. However, arming the virus can improve efficacy further. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) can induce apoptosis of tumor cells and it also triggers several immune mechanisms. One of these is a T-helper type 1 (Th1) response that leads to activation of cytotoxic T-cells and reduction of immune suppression. Therefore, we constructed an oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing hCD40L (vvdd-hCD40L-tdTomato), which in addition features a cDNA expressing the tdTomato fluorochrome for detection of virus, potentially important for biosafety evaluation. We show effective expression of functional CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. In a xenograft model of bladder carcinoma sensitive to CD40L treatment, we show that growth of tumors was significantly inhibited by the oncolysis and apoptosis following both intravenous and intratumoral administration. In a CD40-negative model, CD40L expression did not add potency to vaccinia oncolysis. Tumors treated with vvdd-mCD40L-tdtomato showed enhanced efficacy in a syngenic mouse model and induced recruitment of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes at the tumor site. In summary, oncolytic vaccinia virus coding for CD40L mediates multiple antitumor effects including oncolysis, apoptosis and induction of Th1 type T-cell responses.

  7. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  8. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  9. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  10. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  12. Comparison of the replication characteristics of vaccinia virus strains Guang 9 and Tian Tan in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    Vaccinia virus is widely used as a vector in the development of recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus strain Guang 9 (VG9), which was derived from vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan (VTT) by successive plaque-cloning purification, was more attenuated than VTT. In this study, the host cell range and the growth and replication of VG9 were compared with those of VTT. The results showed that both VG9 and VTT could infect permissive cells (Vero, TK-143 and CEF) and semipermissive cells PK (15) and induced a visible cytopathic effect (CPE). Both strains could infect nonpermissive CHO-K1 cells but neither was able to reproduce. The replicative ability of VG9 was a little lower than that of VTT. Additionally, recombinant vaccinia viruses containing a firefly luciferase gene (VG9-L and VTT-L) were constructed, and their expression in vitro and replication and spread in vivo were compared. The expression ability of VG9-L was lower than that of VTT-L. Whole-animal imaging data indicated that VG9-L could reproduce quickly and express the exogenous protein at the site of inoculation, regardless of whether the intramuscular, intracutaneous, subcutaneous or celiac inoculation route was used. VG9-L was better in its ability to express a foreign protein than VTT-L, but the time during which expression occurred was shorter. There was no dissemination of virus in mice inoculated with either strain. In summary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using VG9 for the production of smallpox vaccines or the construction of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines.

  13. Outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Aagaard; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    illustreret via udbredelsen af Leadership Pipeline modellen. Trods den hastige udbredelse er forskningslitteraturen om Leadership Pipeline i den offentlige sektor beskeden; det meste af den eksisterende litteratur udgøres af ”konceptlitteratur”. I denne artikel zoomer vi ind på institutionalisering af...... Leadership Pipeline. Med teoretisk ammunition fra ”idé på rejse” perspektivet og et longtudinelt case studie i den danske offentlige sektor illustrerer artiklen, hvordan et dynamisk sammenspil mellem lokale translationer i individuelle organisationer og det sociale konstruktionsarbejde, som udspillede sig i...... det bredere organisatoriske felt sikrede Leadership Pipeline modellen legitimitet og fremskyndede dens udbredelse. Navnlig demonstrerer artiklen hvordan et aktionsforskningsprojekt med en stærk konstellation af forskere, konsulenter og offentlige ledere formede den offentlige Leadership Pipeline...

  14. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  15. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  16. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxing Huang; Bin Lu; Wenbo Yu; Qing Fang; Li Liu; Ke Zhuang; Tingting Shen; Haibo Wang; Po Tian; Linqi Zhang; Zhiwei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallp...

  17. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  18. Characterization of an attenuated TE3L-deficient vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Kan, Shifu; Du, Shouwen; Qi, Yanxin; Wang, Jinhui; Liu, Liming; Ji, Huifan; He, Dongyun; Wu, Na; Li, Chang; Chi, Baorong; Li, Xiao; Jin, Ningyi

    2012-12-01

    An attenuated vaccinia virus (VACV), TE3L(-)VTT, was evaluated for virulence and safety to determine its potential use as a vaccine or as a recombinant virus vector to express foreign genes. The virulence of TE3L(-)VTT was compared with that of the wild-type VTT both in vivo and in vitro. The humoral and cellular immune responses were detected in a mouse model to test the vaccine efficacy of the TE3L mutant. The results suggested that deletion of the TE3L gene decreased the virulence and neurovirulence significantly in mice and rabbit models, yet retained the immunogenicity. Thus, the deletion of TE3L improved the safety of the VTT vector; this approach may yield a valuable resource for studies of recombinant VACV-vectored vaccines.

  19. Vaccinia complement control protein: Multi-functional protein and a potential wonder drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purushottam Jha; Girish J Kotwal

    2003-04-01

    Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) was one of the first viral molecules demonstrated to have a role in blocking complement and hence in the evasion of host defense. Structurally it is very similar to the human C4b-BP and the other members of complement control protein. Functionally it is most similar to the CR1 protein. VCP blocks both major pathways of complement activation. The crystal structure of VCP was determined a little over a year ago and it is the only known structure of an intact and complete complement control protein. In addition to binding complement, VCP also binds to heparin. These two binding abilities can take place simultaneously and contribute to its many function and to its potential use in several inflammatory diseases, e.g. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), CNS injury, xenotransplantation, etc. making it a truly fascinating molecule and potential drug.

  20. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoddevik Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes.

  1. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  2. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  3. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  4. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24735072

  5. Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced thermotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzker, Jochen; Kirscher, Lorenz; Scadeng, Miriam; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Morscher, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Schaefer, Karin; Zhang, Qian; Buckel, Lisa; Hess, Michael; Donat, Ulrike; Bradley, William G; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Szalay, Aladar A

    2013-02-26

    We reported earlier the delivery of antiangiogenic single chain antibodies by using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide evidence that gene-evoked production of melanin can be used as a therapeutic and diagnostic mediator, as exemplified by insertion of only one or two genes into the genome of an oncolytic vaccinia virus strain. We found that produced melanin is an excellent reporter for optical imaging without addition of substrate. Melanin production also facilitated deep tissue optoacoustic imaging as well as MRI. In addition, melanin was shown to be a suitable target for laser-induced thermotherapy and enhanced oncolytic viral therapy. In conclusion, melanin as a mediator for thermotherapy and reporter for different imaging modalities may soon become a versatile alternative to replace fluorescent proteins also in other biological systems. After ongoing extensive preclinical studies, melanin overproducing oncolytic virus strains might be used in clinical trials in patients with cancer.

  6. Evidence for Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees by Immunization with Replicating Recombinant Vaccinia Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, François-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved...

  7. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. METHODS: Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603

  8. Heat shock protein and heat shock factor 1 expression and localization in vaccinia virus infected human monocyte derived macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Jakub

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses remain one of the inducers of the stress response in the infected cells. Heat shock response induced by vaccinia virus (VV infection was studied in vitro in human blood monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs as blood cells usually constitute the primary site of the infection. Methods Human blood monocytes were cultured for 12 – 14 days. The transcripts of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 and two viral genes (E3L and F17R were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the corresponding proteins measured by Western blot. Heat shock factor 1 DNA binding activities were estimated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and its subcellular localization analyzed by immunocytofluorescence. Results It appeared that infection with vaccinia virus leads to activation of the heat shock factor 1. Activation of HSF1 causes increased synthesis of an inducible form of the HSP70 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Although HSP90 mRNA was enhanced in vaccinia virus infected cells, the HSP90 protein content remained unchanged. At the time of maximum vaccinia virus gene expression, an inhibitory effect of the infection on the heat shock protein and the heat shock factor 1 was most pronounced. Moreover, at the early phase of the infection translocation of HSP70 and HSP90 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the infected cells was observed. Conclusion Preferential nuclear accumulation of HSP70, the major stress-inducible chaperone protein, suggests that VV employs this particular mechanism of cytoprotection to protect the infected cell rather than to help viral replication. The results taken together with our previuos data on monocytes or MDMs infected with VV or S. aureus strongly argue that VV employs multiple cellular antiapoptotic/cytoprotective mechanisms to prolong viability and proinflammatory activity of the cells of monocytic

  9. Efficacy and safety of oncolytic vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus in the treatment of canine and feline malignant tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Autio, Karoliina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs, cats and humans. New therapeutic modalities are necessary to improve disease outcome. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. Until now, the only oncolytic virus evaluated in a clinical trial in veterinary medicine has been canine oncolytic adenovirus, but a clinical trial has been started with oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) in pet dogs. In cats, oncolytic viruses have not been evaluated in clinical settings. Tumour treatment...

  10. Oral immunization and protection of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Rupprecht, C E; Wiktor, T. J.; Johnston, D. H.; Hamir, A N; Dietzschold, B; Wunner, W H; Glickman, L T; Koprowski, H

    1986-01-01

    Animal rabies control has been frustrated by the existence of multiple wildlife reservoirs and the lack of efficacious oral vaccines. In this investigation, raccoons fed a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus in a sponge bait developed rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (0.6-54.0 units) and resisted street rabies virus infection 28 and 205 days after feeding. Additional raccoons immunized by oral infusion with attenuated antigenic variants of rabies virus strains CVS-11 and ERA fail...

  11. Efficient colonization and therapy of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC using the oncolytic vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains is one of the most promising new strategies for cancer therapy. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 in two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HuH7 and PLC/PRF/5 (PLC in cell culture and in tumor xenograft models. By viral proliferation assays and cell survival tests, we demonstrated that GLV-1h68 efficiently colonized, replicated in, and did lyse these cancer cells in culture. Experiments with HuH7 and PLC xenografts have revealed that a single intravenous injection (i.v. of mice with GLV-1h68 resulted in a significant reduction of primary tumor sizes compared to uninjected controls. In addition, replication of GLV-1h68 in tumor cells led to strong inflammatory and oncolytic effects resulting in intense infiltration of MHC class II-positive cells like neutrophils, macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells and in up-regulation of 13 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, GLV-1h68 infection of PLC tumors inhibited the formation of hemorrhagic structures which occur naturally in PLC tumors. Interestingly, we found a strongly reduced vascular density in infected PLC tumors only, but not in the non-hemorrhagic HuH7 tumor model. These data demonstrate that the GLV-1h68 vaccinia virus may have an enormous potential for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma in man.

  12. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising.

  13. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by varicella-zoster virus gpII glycoprotein expressed from recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaer, M; Haumont, M; Place, M; Bollen, A; Jacobs, P

    1993-03-01

    The gpII glycoprotein of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was produced in CV1 cells via vaccinia virus recombinants. Two different DNA constructs were expressed: the first one encodes the complete gpII protein (gpII s+a+) and the second a truncated species lacking the membrane anchorage domain (gpII s+a-). To achieve expression both coding sequences had to be engineered at the 5' end by substituting the unusually short (24 bp) natural signal sequence by a more conventional one encoding 29 amino acids. Recombinant gpII proteins were detected in vaccinia virus-infected cells by ELISA and immunoprecipitation. Both forms of recombinant gpII proteins were produced as glycosylated single-chain molecules of respectively 110K and 90K. Upon reduction these were only partially converted into subunits. A rabbit infected with the vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the complete gpII produced antibodies which recognized VZV antigens and neutralized VZV infectivity in vitro, independent of complement.

  14. A PCR-based method for manipulation of the vaccinia virus genome that eliminates the need for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

    1992-11-01

    A general method is described for altering specific genes of vaccinia virus (VV). We demonstrate and evaluate the procedure by gene inactivation, using a dominant selectable marker in conjunction with recombinant polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primers based on the sequence of the target gene enable amplification of flanking arms and their subsequent attachment to the gpt cassette that confers resistance to mycophenolic acid. Linear PCR constructs are transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. Mutant viruses with gpt inserted into the target gene by homologous recombination are then selected by growth in the presence of MPA. This technique was applied to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and compared to the traditional method of constructing gpt-containing plasmids by cloning. The PCR scheme was found to be highly efficient and could theoretically be used to insert any foreign DNA element into any nonessential target gene for which partial or complete sequence information is available. The procedure can potentially be used for a wide variety of genetic modifications, including the insertion of foreign genes, with poxviruses and other DNA viruses. Genomes of microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast that can be transformed with linear DNA, are also candidates for manipulation by this methodology.

  15. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  17. Do Marketing Margins Change with Food Scares? Examining the Effects of Food Recalls and Disease Outbreaks in the U.S. Red Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Colin-Castillo, Sergio; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Hernandez, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industry. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price margins and the extent of price transmission at the slaughter-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail levels. We use monthly data for the period 1986–2008. The results indicate that marketing margins are differentially affected by Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) recalls and bovine spongif...

  18. A Hospital-wide Outbreak of Serratia marcescens, and Ishikawa's "Fishbone" Analysis to Support Outbreak Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Luzia; Schuepfer, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P; Rossi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of Serratia marcescens in respiratory samples predominantly from patients in a surgical intensive care unit is reported. Most of these patients were cardiac surgical patients. Initially, a vigorous but inconclusive investigation was implemented on the basis of standardized (according the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) steps of outbreak investigation. Then, a systemic quality management approach with "fishbone" analysis was added. As a consequence, plausible causes for the outbreak were identified: (i) S marcescens was found on the transesophageal echocardiography probe used during cardiac surgery; and (ii) the quality of the surface disinfection was insufficient due to multiple reasons and was completely reengineered. In conclusion, in addition to the standardized steps of outbreak investigation, the complementary use of quality management tools such as the Ishikawa "fishbone" analysis is helpful for outbreak control. The complete reengineering of the disinfectant procurement and logistics is assumed to have been the most effective measure to control the described outbreak. PMID:26783861

  19. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion antigenpr

  20. Using Major Outer Membrane Protein Typing as an Epidemiological Tool To Investigate Outbreaks Caused by Milk-Borne Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Robert E.; Yuan, Jean; Bates, Anna; Manalac, Rosa; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Kimura, Akiko; Lidgard, Janice; Miller, William G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the Campylobacter jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milk-borne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. The genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental strains with identical or closely related porA sequences was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The first outbreak involved 1,644 C. jejuni infections at 11 state correctional facilities and was associated with consumption of pasteurized milk supplied by an on-site dairy (dairy A) at a prison in the central valley. The second outbreak involved eight confirmed and three suspect C. jejuni cases linked to consumption of commercial raw milk and raw chocolate colostrum at another central valley dairy (dairy B). Both dairies bottled fluid milk on the farm and distributed the finished product to off-site locations. Altogether, C. jejuni was isolated from 7 of 15 (46.7%) bovine fecal, 12 of 20 (60%) flush alley water, and 1 of 20 (5%) lagoon samples collected on dairy A. At dairy B, C. jejuni was cultured from 9 of 26 (34.6%) bovine fecal samples. Environmental strains indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak strains were found in five flush alley water samples (dairy A) and four bovine fecal samples (dairy B). The findings demonstrate that MOMP typing is a useful tool to triage environmental isolates prior to conducting more labor-intensive molecular typing methods. PMID:23115263

  1. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  2. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  3. Lessons learned from previous dengue outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an important tropical infection caused by an arbovirus dengue. As a mosquito borne infection, this disease is widely spread in several tropical endemic countries. Millions of world populations are at risk for this arboviral infection. Each year, thousands of dengue infections are reported and there are several death cases. Each year, the outbreaks of dengue emerge in several countries and this implies the global importance of this infection. Fighting with dengue outbreak is importan...

  4. Giardiasis in Bergen. Outbreak and clinical consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Giardia lamblia is a common cause of waterborne disease. It is endemic in many parts of the world, especially where sanitation is poor, but in Europe and North America it is most often encountered in outbreaks following contamination of drinking water. The first registered outbreak of giardiasis affecting a large community in Norway happened in Bergen in the autumn of 2004. The reservoir “Svartediket” was the source, and the water probably held Giardia cysts for s...

  5. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

  6. Adverse events post smallpox-vaccination: insights from tail scarification infection in mice with Vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno E F Mota

    Full Text Available Adverse events upon smallpox vaccination with fully-replicative strains of Vaccinia virus (VACV comprise an array of clinical manifestations that occur primarily in immunocompromised patients leading to significant host morbidity/mortality. The expansion of immune-suppressed populations and the possible release of Variola virus as a bioterrorist act have given rise to concerns over vaccination complications should more widespread vaccination be reinitiated. Our goal was to evaluate the components of the host immune system that are sufficient to prevent morbidity/mortality in a murine model of tail scarification, which mimics immunological and clinical features of smallpox vaccination in humans. Infection of C57BL/6 wild-type mice led to a strictly localized infection, with complete viral clearance by day 28 p.i. On the other hand, infection of T and B-cell deficient mice (Rag1(-/- produced a severe disease, with uncontrolled viral replication at the inoculation site and dissemination to internal organs. Infection of B-cell deficient animals (µMT produced no mortality. However, viral clearance in µMT animals was delayed compared to WT animals, with detectable viral titers in tail and internal organs late in infection. Treatment of Rag1(-/- with rabbit hyperimmune anti-vaccinia serum had a subtle effect on the morbidity/mortality of this strain, but it was effective in reduce viral titers in ovaries. Finally, NUDE athymic mice showed a similar outcome of infection as Rag1(-/-, and passive transfer of WT T cells to Rag1(-/- animals proved fully effective in preventing morbidity/mortality. These results strongly suggest that both T and B cells are important in the immune response to primary VACV infection in mice, and that T-cells are required to control the infection at the inoculation site and providing help for B-cells to produce antibodies, which help to prevent viral dissemination. These insights might prove helpful to better identify

  7. Epitope mapping by random peptide phage display reveals essential residues for vaccinia extracellular enveloped virion spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A33 is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (VACV. Passive transfer of A33-directed monoclonal antibodies or vaccination with an A33 subunit vaccine confers protection against lethal poxvirus challenge in animal models. Homologs of A33 are highly conserved among members of the Orthopoxvirus genus and are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines or assays targeting extracellular enveloped virus activity. One monoclonal antibody directed against VACV A33, MAb-1G10, has been shown to target a conformation-dependent epitope. Interestingly, while it recognizes VACV A33 as well as the corresponding variola homolog, it does not bind to the monkeypox homolog. In this study, we utilized a random phage display library to investigate the epitope recognized by MAb-1G10 that is critical for facilitating cell-to-cell spread of the vaccinia virus. Results By screening with linear or conformational random phage libraries, we found that phages binding to MAb-1G10 display the consensus motif CEPLC, with a disulfide bond formed between two cysteine residues required for MAb-1G10 binding. Although the phage motif contained no linear sequences homologous to VACV A33, structure modeling and analysis suggested that residue D115 is important to form the minimal epitope core. A panel of point mutants expressing the ectodomain of A33 protein was generated and analyzed by either binding assays such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation or a functional assessment by blocking MAb-1G10 mediated comet inhibition in cell culture. Conclusions These results confirm L118 as a component of the MAb-1G10 binding epitope, and further identify D115 as an essential residue. By defining the minimum conformational structure, as well as the conformational arrangement of a short peptide sequence recognized by MAb-1G10, these results introduce the possibility of designing small molecule mimetics that may

  8. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  9. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells

  10. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil;

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...... and phylogenetic studies were performed. The results showed (i) identical sequences from different animals in the same herds and from paired nasal and fecal samples, suggesting a dominant virus circulating in each herd at a given time; (ii) sequence differences among four outbreaks in different years in the same...... herd, indicating new introduction of virus; (iii) identical sequences in four different Danish herds in samples obtained within 2 months, implying virus transmission between herds; and (iv) that at least two different virus strains were involved in the outbreaks of BCoV in Denmark during the spring...

  11. Legionella outbreak at a spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Santa Marina Rodríguez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The start of seasonal activity at a spa in Guipuzcoa coincided with the detection of an associated legionnaire outbreak in 1998. This led to the closure of the premises and to the carrying out of opportune environmental and epidemiological studies. The latter included case-control study. A case was defined as a person who, either during his stay or in a period of 10 days thereafter, developed pneumonia or a clinical sindrome compatible with that of Pontiac fever (EIC-9.The environmental study included spa and surrounds, and samples of the sanitary water systems and all water therapy elements.12.5% of the 278 people surveyed in the Basque Autonomous Community matched the case definition. 9 had pneumonia and 27 Pontiac fever. The epidemic curve began on May 7th, peaked on May 14th and 15th, and finalized on the 20th. The risk of illness adjusted according to age, sex and tobacco consumption was associated with the length of stay at the spa (RR=118.5, 95% C.I.: 18.7-750.2 and with swimming-pool use. Serogroup 1 L. pneumophila was detected in counts above 103 ufc/l at different points in the water therapy system and in the shower in the room of one patient. The pulsed field gel eletrophoresis analysis of one of the biological samples and environmental samples allowed genotypic confirmation. The establishment was reopened to the public after emergency treatment was carried out and confirm that after 15 days no L. pneumophila had been detected in the environmental samples.

  12. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  13. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Pozmogova; Oleksandr Kutsan; Anton Gerilovych; Borys Stegniy; Andriy Zavgorodniy; Artem Skrypnyk; Richard Weller; Svitlana Sapko

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radia...

  14. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development.

  15. Seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovines in Sri Lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic

  16. Forecasting fluctuating outbreaks in seasonally driven epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lewi

    2009-03-01

    Seasonality is a driving force that has major impact on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, chickenpox, and pertussis. Here we gain new insights into the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent diseases through the analysis of the classical seasonally forced SIR epidemic model. Despite many efforts over the last decades, it has been difficult to gain general analytical insights because of the complex synchronization effects that can evolve between the external forcing and the model's natural oscillations. The analysis advanced here attempts to make progress in this direction by focusing on the dynamics of ``skips'' where we identify and predict years in which the epidemic is absent rather than outbreak years. Skipping events are intrinsic to the forced SIR model when parameterised in the chaotic regime. In fact, it is difficult if not impossible to locate realistic chaotic parameter regimes in which outbreaks occur regularly each year. This contrasts with the well known Rossler oscillator whose outbreaks recur regularly but whose amplitude vary chaotically in time (Uniform Phase Chaotic Amplitude oscillations). The goal of the present study is to develop a ``language of skips'' that makes it possible to predict under what conditions the next outbreak is likely to occur, and how many ``skips'' might be expected after any given outbreak. We identify a new threshold effect and give clear analytical conditions that allow accurate predictions. Moreover, the time of occurrence (i.e., phase) of an outbreak proves to be a useful new parameter that carries important epidemiological information. In forced systems, seasonal changes can prevent late-initiating outbreaks (i.e., having high phase) from running to completion. These principles yield forecasting tools that should have relevance for the study of newly emerging and reemerging diseases.

  17. Generation of an attenuated Tiantan vaccinia virus by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shifu; Jia, Peng; Sun, Lili; Hu, Ningning; Li, Chang; Lu, Huijun; Tian, Mingyao; Qi, Yanxin; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Attenuation of the virulence of vaccinia Tiantan virus (VTT) underlies the strategy adopted for mass vaccination campaigns. This strategy provides advantages of safety and efficacy over traditional vaccines and is aimed at minimization of adverse health effects. In this study, a mutant form of the virus, MVTT was derived from VTT by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) (TI4L). Compared to wild-type parental (VTT) and revertant (VTT-rev) viruses, virulence of the mutant MVTT was reduced by 100-fold based on body weight reduction and by 3,200-fold based on determination of the intracranial 50% lethal infectious dose. However, the immunogenicity of MVTT was equivalent to that of the parental VTT. We also demonstrated that the TI4L gene is not required for efficient replication. These data support the conclusion that MVTT can be used as a replicating virus vector or as a platform for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and for cancer therapy.

  18. Brazilian vaccinia virus strains show a classical orthopoxvirus in-fection course and cross-protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betania Paiva Drumond; Jonatas Santos Abraho; Zlia Ins Portela Lobato; Cludio Antonio Bonjardim; Paulo Csar Peregrino Ferreira; Erna Geessien Kroon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:The purpose of this work was to study the infection course and cross-protection in mice after intra-dermal injection of Vaccinia virus (VACV ) strain Western Reserve and three Brazilian VACV strains:Araatuba,Muriaéand BeAn58058 isolated from cow,human and rodent,respectively.Methods:Balb /c mice were inoculated by footpad and back scarification and daily monitored regarding lesion development and weight loss.To check cross protection after intradermal VACV inoculation,mice were subsequently infected with different VACV strains and monitored to check lesion development.Serum neutralization assays were per-formed to check for the presence of antibodies against Orthopoxvirus.Results:After VACV intradermal inocu-lation the lesion development pattern was similar in mice infected with the different virus strains.By using the footpad scarification model,cross-protection among VACV strains was observed.Moreover,neutralizing anti-bodies against Orthopoxvirus were detected in sera from mice infected with all VACV strains.Conclusion:Al-though it was not possible to observe virulence differences among VACV strains isolated from cow,rodent and human using the murine model,this inoculation route showed to be an appropriated model to study lesions de-velopment since it mimics natural infections by VACV in nature.

  19. Delivery of Echinococcus granulosus antigen EG95 to mice and sheep using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, S; Fleming, S B; Ueda, N; Heath, D D; Hibma, M H; Mercer, A A

    2012-06-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease and affects sheep, cattle, dogs and humans worldwide. It has a two-stage life cycle existing as worms in the gut of infected dogs (definitive host) and as cysts in herbivores and humans (intermediate host). The disease is debilitating and can be life threatening where the cysts interfere with organ function. Interruption of the hydatid life cycle in the intermediate host by vaccination may be a way to control the disease, and a protective oncosphere antigen EG95 has been shown to protect animals against challenge with E. granulosus eggs. We explored the use of recombinant vaccinia virus as a delivery vehicle for EG95. Mice and sheep were immunized with the recombinant vector, and the result monitored at the circulating antibody level. In addition, sera from immunized mice were assayed for the ability to kill E. granulosus oncospheres in vitro. Mice immunized once intranasally developed effective oncosphere-killing antibody by day 42 post-infection. Antibody responses and oncosphere killing were correlated and were significantly enhanced by boosting mice with either EG95 protein or recombinant vector. Sheep antibody responses to the recombinant vector or to EG95 protein mirrored those in mice.

  20. High cytokine production and effective antitumor activity of a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine interleukin 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, J B; Yim, J H; Tsung, K; Norton, J A

    1995-11-01

    We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (recVV), vKT0334 mIL-12, containing the genes encoding the p35 and p40 subunits of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12). In vitro experiments demonstrated that vKT0334 mIL-12 efficiently infected a variety of murine and human tumor cell lines and produced very high amounts (1.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h) of biologically active mIL-12. Mice injected s.c. with 10(6) MCA 105 sarcoma cells, followed by injection at the same site with saline or a control recVV, vKT033, containing no mIL-12 genes, all developed progressively growing tumor, whereas 60% of animals injected with vKT0334 mIL-12 remained tumor free (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly reduced in the remaining mice treated with vKT0334 mIL-12 that did develop tumor compared with mice treated with vKT033 (P < 0.03) or saline (P < 0.0001). We conclude that recVV expressing high levels of mIL-12 offers an effective in vivo method of cytokine gene delivery and expression in tumors with subsequent antitumor effect.

  1. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K. [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom); James, John; Prescott, Alan [Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Haga, Ismar R. [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Beard, Philippa M., E-mail: pip.beard@roslin.ed.ac.uk [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  2. Stunned silence: gene expression programs in human cells infected with monkeypox or vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Rubins

    Full Text Available Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV, an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC, a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, or poly (I-C was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection.

  3. Structural analysis of point mutations at the Vaccinia virus A20/D4 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesto-Richefeu, Céline; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Peyrefitte, Christophe N; Iseni, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Vaccinia virus polymerase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: E9, the catalytic DNA polymerase subunit; D4, a uracil-DNA glycosylase; and A20, a protein with no known enzymatic activity. The D4/A20 heterodimer is the DNA polymerase cofactor, the function of which is essential for processive DNA synthesis. The recent crystal structure of D4 bound to the first 50 amino acids of A20 (D4/A201-50) revealed the importance of three residues, forming a cation-π interaction at the dimerization interface, for complex formation. These are Arg167 and Pro173 of D4 and Trp43 of A20. Here, the crystal structures of the three mutants D4-R167A/A201-50, D4-P173G/A201-50 and D4/A201-50-W43A are presented. The D4/A20 interface of the three structures has been analysed for atomic solvation parameters and cation-π interactions. This study confirms previous biochemical data and also points out the importance for stability of the restrained conformational space of Pro173. Moreover, these new structures will be useful for the design and rational improvement of known molecules targeting the D4/A20 interface. PMID:27599859

  4. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCarthy Kathleen A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG, to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor. The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10 with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1 responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10 and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted.

  5. Effect of the deletion of genes encoding proteins of the extracellular virion form of vaccinia virus on vaccine immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.

  6. Comparison on Virulence and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccines, Tian Tan and Guang9 Strains, Expressing the HIV-1 Envelope Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Zhu; Weijin Huang; Wenbo Wang; Qiang Liu; Jianhui Nie; Shufang Meng; Yongxin Yu; Youchun Wang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vaccinia virus Guang9 strain (VG9), derived from the vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) has been found to be less virulent than VTT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether VG9 could be a potential replicating virus vector, the TK genes in VG9 and VTT were replaced with the HIV-1 envelope gene via homologous recombination, resulting in the recombinant viruses, VG9-E and VTT-E. The biology, virulence, humoral and cellular immunological responses of VG9-E and VT...

  7. Deletion of C7L and K1L Genes Leads to Significantly Decreased Virulence of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus TianTan

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Liu; Shuhui Wang; Qicheng Zhang; Meijuan Tian; Jue Hou; Rongmin Wang; Chang Liu; Xu Ji; Ying Liu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity o...

  8. The development and use of a vaccinia-rabies recombinant oral vaccine for the control of wildlife rabies; a link between Jenner and Pasteur.

    OpenAIRE

    PASTORET, P.P.; Brochier, B

    1996-01-01

    To improve both safety and stability of the oral vaccines used in the field to vaccinate foxes against rabies, a recombinant vaccinia virus, which expresses the immunizing G protein of rabies virus has been developed by inserting the cDNA which codes for the immunogenic glycoprotein of rabies virus into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus. The efficacy of this vaccine was tested by the oral route, primarily in foxes. The immunity conferred, a minimum of 1...

  9. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  10. Detecting and responding to a dengue outbreak: evaluation of existing strategies in country outbreak response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Julia; Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans. PMID:24222774

  11. Detecting and Responding to a Dengue Outbreak: Evaluation of Existing Strategies in Country Outbreak Response Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans.

  12. Genomic sequence and analysis of a vaccinia virus isolate from a patient with a smallpox vaccine-related complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Inger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus (VACV-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin. The availability of the VACV-DUKE genome sequence permits a first time genomic comparison of a VACV isolate associated with a smallpox vaccine complication with the sequence of culture-derived clonal isolates of the Dryvax vaccine. Results This study showed that VACV-DUKE is most similar to VACV-ACAM2000 and CLONE3, two VACV clones isolated from the Dryvax® vaccine stock confirming VACV-DUKE as an isolate from Dryvax®. However, VACV-DUKE is unique because it is, to date, the only Dryvax® clone isolated from a patient experiencing a vaccine-associated complication. The 199,960 bp VACV-DUKE genome encodes 225 open reading frames, including 178 intact genes and 47 gene fragments. Between VACV-DUKE and the other Dryvax® isolates, the major genomic differences are in fragmentation of the ankyrin-like, and kelch-like genes, presence of a full-length Interferon-α/β receptor gene, and the absence of a duplication of 12 ORFs in the inverted terminal repeat. Excluding this region, the DNA sequence of VACV-DUKE differs from the other two Dryvax® isolates by less than 0.4%. DNA sequencing also indicated that there was little heterogeneity in the sample, supporting the hypothesis that virus from an individual lesion is clonal in origin despite the fact that the vaccine is a mixed population. Conclusion Virus in lesions that result from progressive vaccinia following vaccination with Dryvax are likely clonal in origin. The genomic sequence of VACV-DUKE is overall very similar to that of Dryvax® cell culture-derived clonal isolates. Furthermore, with the sequences of multiple clones from Dryvax® we can begin to appreciate the diversity of the viral population in the smallpox vaccine.

  13. Tc17 cells are capable of mediating immunity to vaccinia virus by acquisition of a cytotoxic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Norman; Glosson, Nicole L.; Wang, Nan; Guindon, Lynette; McKinley, Carl; Hamada, Hiromasa; Li, Qingsheng; Dutton, Richard W.; Shrikant, Protul; Zhou, Baohua; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Blum, Janice S.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    CD8 T cells can acquire cytokine-secreting phenotypes paralleling cytokine production from Th cells. IL-17-secreting CD8 T cells, termed Tc17 cells, have been shown to promote inflammation and mediate immunity to influenza. However, most reports have observed a lack of cytotoxic activity by Tc17 cells. In this report, we explored the anti-viral activity of Tc17 cells using a vaccinia virus infection (VV) model. Tc17 cells expanded during VV infection, and TCR transgenic Tc17 cells were capabl...

  14. Interferon gamma is involved in the recovery of athymic nude mice from recombinant vaccinia virus/interleukin 2 infection

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Athymic nude mice recover from an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but treatment with a mAb to IL-2 accentuated infection. Administration of a mAb against interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to mice infected with the IL-2-encoding virus completely prevented the IL-2-induced mechanisms of recovery. Both asialo-GM1+ (NK) and asialo-GM1- (non-NK) cells were participants in the IFN-gamma-mediated recovery of nude mice from infection with the IL-2-encod...

  15. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies. PMID:25591490

  16. No evidence of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain or enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC found in cattle faeces in northern Germany, the hotspot of the 2011 HUS outbreak area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieler Lothar H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruminants, in particular bovines, are the primary reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, but whole genome analyses of the current German ESBL-producing O104:H4 outbreak strain of sequence type (ST 678 showed this strain to be highly similar to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Strains of the EAEC pathotype are basically adapted to the human host. To clarify whether in contrast to this paradigm, the O104:H4 outbreak strain and/or EAEC may also be able to colonize ruminants, we screened a total of 2.000 colonies from faecal samples of 100 cattle from 34 different farms - all located in the HUS outbreak region of Northern Germany - for genes associated with the O104:H4 HUS outbreak strain (stx2, terD, rfbO104, fliCH4, STEC (stx1, stx2, escV, EAEC (pAA, aggR, astA, and ESBL-production (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV. Results The faecal samples contained neither the HUS outbreak strain nor any EAEC. As the current outbreak strain belongs to ST678 and displays an en-teroaggregative and ESBL-producing phenotype, we additionally screened selected strains for ST678 as well as the aggregative adhesion pattern in HEp-2 cells. However, we were unable to find any strains belonging to ST678 or showing an aggregative adhesion pattern. A high percentage of animals (28% shed STEC, corroborating previous knowl-edge and thereby proving the validity of our study. One of the STEC also harboured the LEE pathogenicity island. In addition, eleven animals shed ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions While we are aware of the limitations of our survey, our data support the theory, that, in contrast to other Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, cattle are not the reservoir for the O104:H4 outbreak strain or other EAEC, but that the outbreak strain seems to be adapted to humans or might have yet another reservoir, raising new questions about the epidemiology of STEC O104:H4.

  17. Dairy-borne Disease Outbreak and Milk Demand: A Study Using Outbreak Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yuqing; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize the outbreak surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to examine whether consumer demand is impacted by the outbreak of food-borne disease. An additional person sickened due to the ingestion of tainted cheese products at home is found to decrease per capita milk demand in New York State by 0.13 percent (or 0.07 pound), while milk and ice cream-borne disease outbreaks, occurring at home or in public places, are found to have no impact on fluid milk...

  18. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses.

  19. Antibody against extracellular vaccinia virus (EV protects mice through complement and Fc receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Cohen

    Full Text Available Protein-based subunit smallpox vaccines have shown their potential as effective alternatives to live virus vaccines in animal model challenge studies. We vaccinated mice with combinations of three different vaccinia virus (VACV proteins (A33, B5, L1 and examined how the combined antibody responses to these proteins cooperate to effectively neutralize the extracellular virus (EV infectious form of VACV. Antibodies against these targets were generated in the presence or absence of CpG adjuvant so that Th1-biased antibody responses could be compared to Th2-biased responses to the proteins with aluminum hydroxide alone, specifically with interest in looking at the ability of anti-B5 and anti-A33 polyclonal antibodies (pAb to utilize complement-mediated neutralization in vitro. We found that neutralization of EV by anti-A33 or anti-B5 pAb can be enhanced in the presence of complement if Th1-biased antibody (IgG2a is generated. Mechanistic differences found for complement-mediated neutralization showed that anti-A33 antibodies likely result in virolysis, while anti-B5 antibodies with complement can neutralize by opsonization (coating. In vivo studies found that mice lacking the C3 protein of complement were less protected than wild-type mice after passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or vaccination with B5. Passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or monoclonal antibody into mice lacking Fc receptors (FcRs found that FcRs were also important in mediating protection. These results demonstrate that both complement and FcRs are important effector mechanisms for antibody-mediated protection from VACV challenge in mice.

  20. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  1. A vaccinia virus renaissance: new vaccine and immunotherapeutic uses after smallpox eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Paulo H; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J

    2012-07-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies.

  2. Increased attenuation but decreased immunogenicity by deletion of multiple vaccinia virus immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Rebecca P; Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2016-09-14

    Vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived vectors are popular candidates for vaccination against diseases such as HIV-1, malaria and tuberculosis. However, their genomes encode a multitude of proteins with immunomodulatory functions, several of which reduce the immunogenicity of these vectors. Hitherto only limited studies have investigated whether the removal of these immunomodulatory genes in combination can increase vaccine efficacy further. To this end we constructed viruses based on VACV strain Western Reserve (WR) lacking up to three intracellular innate immunomodulators (N1, C6 and K7). These genes were selected because the encoded proteins had known functions in innate immunity and the deletion of each gene individually had caused a decrease in virus virulence in the murine intranasal and intradermal models of infection and an increase in immunogenicity. Data presented here demonstrate that deletion of two, or three of these genes in combination attenuated the virus further in an incremental manner. However, when vaccinated mice were challenged with VACV WR the double and triple gene deletion viruses provided weaker protection against challenge. This was accompanied by inferior memory CD8(+) T cell responses and lower neutralising antibody titres. This study indicates that, at least for the three genes studied in the context of VACV WR, the single gene deletion viruses are the best vaccine vectors, and that increased attenuation induced by deletion of additional genes decreased immunogenicity. These data highlight the fine balance and complex relationship between viral attenuation and immunogenicity. Given that the proteins encoded by the genes examined in this study are known to affect specific aspects of innate immunity, the set of viruses constructed here are interesting tools to probe the role of the innate immune response in influencing immune memory and vaccine efficacy. PMID:27544585

  3. Seven major genomic deletions of vaccinia virus Tiantan strain are sufficient to decrease pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiquan; Sheng, Yuan; Chu, Yunjie; Ji, Huifan; Jiang, Shuang; Lan, Tian; Li, Min; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Sun, Lili; Jin, Ningyi

    2016-05-01

    Attenuated strain TTVAC7, as a multi-gene-deleted vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out parts of non-essential genes related to virulence, host range and immunomodulation of VTT, and by combining double marker screening with exogenous selectable marker knockout techniques. In this study, shuttle vector plasmids pTC-EGFP, pTA35-EGFP, pTA66-EGFP, pTE-EGFP, pTB-EGFP, pTI-EGFP and pTJ-EGFP were constructed, which contained seven pairs of recombinant arms linked to the early and late strong promoter pE/L, as well as to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as an exogenous selectable marker. BHK cells were co-transfected/infected successively with the above plasmids and VTT or gene-deleted VTT, and homologous recombination and fluorescence plaque screening methods were used to knock out the gene fragments (TC: TC7L ∼ TK2L; TA35: TA35L; TA66: TA66R; TE: TE3L ∼ TE4L; TB: TB13R; TI: TI4L; TJ: TJ2R). The Cre/LoxP system was then applied to knock out the exogenous selectable marker, and ultimately the gene-deleted attenuated strain TTVAC7 was obtained. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that not only the host range of TTVAC7 could be narrowed and its toxicity weakened significantly, but its high immunogenicity was maintained at the same time. These results support the potential of TTVAC7 to be developed as a safe viral vector or vaccine.

  4. Characterization of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein complexes expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, R; Thudium, K; Berger, K; Kuo, C; Gervase, B; Hall, J; Selby, M; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Choo, Q L

    1993-11-01

    We constructed recombinant vaccinia virus vectors for expression of the structural region of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Infection of mammalian cells with a vector (vv/HCV1-906) encoding C-E1-E2-NS2 generated major protein species of 22 kDa (C), 33 to 35 kDa (E1), and 70 to 72 kDa (E2), as observed previously with other mammalian expression systems. The bulk of the E1 and E2 expressed by vv/HCV1-906 was found integrated into endoplasmic reticulum membranes as core-glycosylated species, suggesting that these E1 and E2 species represent intracellular forms of the HCV envelope proteins. HCV E1 and E2 formed E1-E2 complexes which were precipitated by either anti-E1 or anti-E2 serum and which sedimented at approximately 15 S on glycerol density gradients. No evidence of intermolecular disulfide bonding between E1 and E2 was detected. E1 and E2 were copurified to approximately 90% purity by mild detergent extraction followed by chromatography on Galanthus nivalus lectin-agarose and DEAE-Fractogel. Immunization of chimpanzees with purified E1-E2 generated high titers of anti-E1 and anti-E2 antibodies. Further studies, to be reported separately, demonstrated that purified E1-E2 complexes were recognized at high frequency by HCV+ human sera (D. Y. Chien, Q.-L. Choo, R. Ralston, R. Spaete, M. Tong, M. Houghton, and G. Kuo, Lancet, in press) and generated protective immunity in chimpanzees (Q.-L. Choo, G. Kuo, R. Ralston, A. Weiner, D. Chien, G. Van Nest, J. Han, K. Berger, K. Thudium, J. Kansopon, J. McFarland, A. Tabrizi, K. Ching, B. Mass, L. B. Cummins, E. Muchmore, and M. Houghton, submitted for publication), suggesting that these purified HCV envelope proteins display native HCV epitopes. PMID:8411378

  5. Single-particle characterization of oncolytic vaccinia virus by flow virometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vera A; Renner, Tyler M; Varette, Oliver; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Wang, Jiahu; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Bell, John C; Langlois, Marc-André

    2016-09-30

    Vaccinia virus (VV) is an oncolytic virus that is currently being evaluated as a promising cancer vaccine in several phase I, II and III clinical trials. Although several quality control tests are performed on each new batch of virus, these do not routinely include a systematic characterization of virus particle homogeneity, or relate the infectious titer to the total number of submicron sized particles (SSPs) present in the sample. SSPs are comprised of infectious virus and non-infectious viral particles, but also cell contaminants derived from the virus isolation procedures, such as cellular vesicles and debris. Here we have employed flow virometry (FV) analysis and sorting to isolate and characterize distinct SSP populations in therapeutic oncolytic VV preparations. We show that VV preparations contain SSPs heterogeneous in size and include large numbers of non-infectious VV particles. Furthermore, we used FV to illustrate how VV has a propensity to aggregate over time and under various handling and storage procedures. Accordingly, we find that together the infectious titer, the total number of SSPs, the number of viral genomes and the level of particle aggregation in a sample constitute useful parameters that greatly facilitate inter-sample assessment of physical quality, and also provides a means to monitor sample deterioration over time. Additionally, we have successfully employed FV sorting to further isolate virus from other particles by identifying a lipophilic dye that preferentially stains VV over other SSPs in the sample. Overall, we demonstrate that FV is a fast and effective tool that can be used to perform quality, and consistency control assessments of oncolytic VV vaccine preparations.

  6. Apoptosis and necrosis in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa G and BSC-40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskova, Jana; Knitlova, Jarmila; Honner, Richard; Melkova, Zora

    2011-09-01

    In most cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) infection is considered to cause a lytic cell death, an equivalent of necrosis. However, upon infection of the epithelial cell lines HeLa G and BSC-40 with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR), we have previously observed an increased activation of and activity attributable to caspases, a typical sign of apoptosis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the type of cell death in VACV-infected cells HeLa G and BSC-40. In a cell-based flow cytometric assay, we showed a specific activation of caspase-2 and 4 in HeLa G and BSC-40 cells infected with VACV, strain WR, while we did not find any effects of inhibitors of calpain and cathepsin D and E. The actual activity of the two caspases, but also of caspase-3, was then confirmed in lysates of infected HeLa G, but not in BSC-40 cells. Accordingly, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage was found increased only in infected HeLa G cells. Consequently, we have determined morphological features of apoptosis and/or activity of the executioner caspase-3 in infected HeLa G cells in situ, while only a background apoptosis was observed in infected BSC-40 cells. Finally, vaccination strains Dryvax and Praha were found to induce apoptosis in both HeLa G and BSC-40 cells, as characterized morphologically and by PARP cleavage. These findings may be important for understanding the differences in VACV-host interactions and post-vaccination complications in different individuals.

  7. Seven major genomic deletions of vaccinia virus Tiantan strain are sufficient to decrease pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiquan; Sheng, Yuan; Chu, Yunjie; Ji, Huifan; Jiang, Shuang; Lan, Tian; Li, Min; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Sun, Lili; Jin, Ningyi

    2016-05-01

    Attenuated strain TTVAC7, as a multi-gene-deleted vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out parts of non-essential genes related to virulence, host range and immunomodulation of VTT, and by combining double marker screening with exogenous selectable marker knockout techniques. In this study, shuttle vector plasmids pTC-EGFP, pTA35-EGFP, pTA66-EGFP, pTE-EGFP, pTB-EGFP, pTI-EGFP and pTJ-EGFP were constructed, which contained seven pairs of recombinant arms linked to the early and late strong promoter pE/L, as well as to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as an exogenous selectable marker. BHK cells were co-transfected/infected successively with the above plasmids and VTT or gene-deleted VTT, and homologous recombination and fluorescence plaque screening methods were used to knock out the gene fragments (TC: TC7L ∼ TK2L; TA35: TA35L; TA66: TA66R; TE: TE3L ∼ TE4L; TB: TB13R; TI: TI4L; TJ: TJ2R). The Cre/LoxP system was then applied to knock out the exogenous selectable marker, and ultimately the gene-deleted attenuated strain TTVAC7 was obtained. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that not only the host range of TTVAC7 could be narrowed and its toxicity weakened significantly, but its high immunogenicity was maintained at the same time. These results support the potential of TTVAC7 to be developed as a safe viral vector or vaccine. PMID:26821204

  8. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1 viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1 and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs. ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  9. Complete nucleotide sequences of two adjacent early vaccinia virus genes located within the inverted terminal repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S; Gershowitz, A; Moss, B

    1982-11-01

    The proximal part of the 10,000-base pair (bp) inverted terminal repetition of vaccinia virus DNA encodes at least three early mRNAs. A 2,236-bp segment of the repetition was sequenced to characterize two of the genes. This task was facilitated by constructing a series of recombinants containing overlapping deletions; oligonucleotide linkers with synthetic restriction sites provided points for radioactive labeling before sequencing by the chemical degradation method of Maxam and Gilbert (Methods Enzymol. 65:499-560, 1980). The ends of the transcripts were mapped by hybridizing labeled DNA fragments to early viral RNA and resolving nuclease S1-protected fragments in sequencing gels, by sequencing cDNA clones, and from the lengths of the RNAs. The nucleotide sequences for at least 60 bp upstream of both transcriptional initiation sites are more than 80% adenine . thymine rich and contain long runs of adenines and thymines with some homology to procaryotic and eucaryotic consensus sequences. The gene transcribed in the rightward direction encodes an RNA of approximately 530 nucleotides with a single open reading frame of 420 nucleotides. Preceding the first AUG, there is a heptanucleotide that can hybridize to the 3' end of 18S rRNA with only one mismatch. The derived amino acid sequence of the protein indicated a molecular weight of 15,500. The gene transcribed in the leftward direction encodes an RNA 1,000 to 1,100 nucleotides long with an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides and a leader sequence of only 5 to 6 nucleotides. The derived amino acid sequence of this protein indicated a molecular weight of 38,500. The 3' ends of the two transcripts were located within 100 bp of each other. Although there are adenine . thymine-rich clusters near the putative transcriptional termination sites, specific AATAAA polyadenylic acid signal sequences are absent.

  10. Ground Zero revisits shape outbreaks: Zika and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection outbreak, many people continue to revisit Ground Zero - such as the one square mile of Miami involved in the current Zika outbreak- for work, family or social reasons. Public health planning must account for the counterintuitive ways in which this human flow affects the outbreak's duration, severity and time-to-peak. Managing this flow of revisits can allow the outbreak's evolution to be tailored.

  11. Viewpoint: filovirus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks: much ado about nothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Borchert, Matthias; Boelaert, M.; Sleurs, H.; Muyembe-Tamfum, J.J.; Pirard, P; Colebunders, Robert; Van Der Stuyft, P; van der Groen, G

    2000-01-01

    SummaryThe recent outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo has put the filovirus threat back on the international health agenda. This paper gives an overview of Marburg and Ebola outbreaks so far observed and puts them in a public health perpsective. Damage on the local level has been devastating at times, but was marginal on the international level despite the considerable media attention these outbreaks received. The potential hazard of outbreaks, however, ...

  12. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  13. Modeling Classical Swine Fever Outbreak-Related Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Shankar; Olynk Widmar, Nicole J.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to estimate classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak-related outcomes, such as epidemic duration and number of infected, vaccinated, and depopulated premises, using defined most likely CSF outbreak scenarios. Risk metrics were established using empirical data to select the most likely CSF outbreak scenarios in Indiana. These scenarios were simulated using a stochastic between-premises disease spread model to estimate outbreak-related outcomes. A total of 19 single-site (...

  14. Modeling classical swine fever outbreak-related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar eYadav; Olynk Widmar, Nicole J.; HSIN-YI eWENG

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to estimate classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak-related outcomes such as epidemic duration and number of infected, vaccinated, and depopulated premises, using defined most likely CSF outbreak scenarios. Risk metrics were established using empirical data to select the most likely CSF outbreak scenarios in Indiana. The scenarios were simulated using a stochastic between-premises disease spread model to estimate outbreak-related outcomes. A total of 19 single-site (i.e...

  15. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae transmission and clinical outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterium causing respiratory disease and mortality in pigs. Outbreaks of clinical disease occur regularly in pig farms. More knowledge of the epidemiology of the bacteria in pig populations should contribute to the design of more effective measures for preventio

  16. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  17. Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Due to Sapovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Saito, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Chihiro; Ishizuka, Shizuko; Oseto, Mitsuaki; Oka, Tomoichiro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a kindergarten in Yokote City, Japan, between February 2006 and March 2006. Sapovirus was identified in 19 of 26 stool specimens by reverse transcription-PCR. A high viral shedding pattern was found for this strain, which was shown to be antigenically distinct from other genogroups.

  18. METHODS USED TO ANALYZE A NOROVIRUS OUTBREAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project Goals and Objectives:To isolate and identify the viral agents in well water samples associated with two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis reported to the Wyoming Department of Health in February 2001 and October 2001. To isolate and identify the viral agents in pati...

  19. An outbreak of Plesimonus Shigelloides in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesiomonas shigelloides is a flagellated, gram-negative rod that is an emergent pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Recently, we experienced a disease outbreak in zebrafish that were obtained from a commercial source. Fourteen days after being held at 27°C in our flow-through quarantine...

  20. Randomness of Dengue Outbreaks on the Equator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yirong; Cook, Alex R; Lim, Alisa X L

    2015-09-01

    A simple mathematical model without seasonality indicated that the apparently chaotic dengue epidemics in Singapore have characteristics similar to epidemics resulting from chance. Randomness as a sufficient condition for patterns of dengue epidemics in equatorial regions calls into question existing explanations for dengue outbreaks there.

  1. Randomness of Dengue Outbreaks on the Equator

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YiRong; Cook, Alex R.; Lim, Alisa X.L.

    2015-01-01

    A simple mathematical model without seasonality indicated that the apparently chaotic dengue epidemics in Singapore have characteristics similar to epidemics resulting from chance. Randomness as a sufficient condition for patterns of dengue epidemics in equatorial regions calls into question existing explanations for dengue outbreaks there.

  2. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  3. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  4. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  5. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  6. Quantifying reporting timeliness to improve outbreak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel; Swaan, Corien; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, MEE

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which reporting delays should be reduced to gain substantial improvement in outbreak control is unclear. We developed a model to quantitatively assess reporting timeliness. Using reporting speed data for 6 infectious diseases in the notification system in the Netherlands, we calculated

  7. Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective. Arnout Fischer Consumer risk perceptions is not necessarily the same as an economic weighing of risks and benefits. Consumers tend to be risk averse, tend to estimate catastrophic, unnatural or involuntary risks as larger, while personal lifestyle risks te

  8. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Rosenke, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Hoenen, Andreas; Judson, Seth D; Martellaro, Cynthia; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Squires, R Burke; Wollenberg, Kurt R; de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; Feldmann, Friederike; McNally, Kristin; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fields, Barry; Sealy, Tara; Rayfield, Mark; Nichol, Stuart T; Zoon, Kathryn C; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.

  9. Two Linked Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli Outbreaks, Nottingham, UK, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Vanessa; Robbins, Vivienne; Bayliss, Laura; Chattaway, Marie Anne; Dallman, Tim; Ready, Derren; Aird, Heather; Puleston, Richard; Hawker, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) outbreaks are uncommon in Europe. In June 2014, two EIEC outbreaks occurred in Nottingham, UK, within 2 days; outbreak A was linked to a takeaway restaurant and outbreak B to a wedding party. We conducted 2 analytical studies: a case–control study for outbreak A and a cohort study for outbreak B. We tested microbiological and environmental samples, including by using whole-genome sequencing. For both outbreaks combined, we identified 157 probable case-patients; 27 were laboratory-confirmed as EIEC O96:H19–positive. Combined epidemiologic, microbiological, and environmental findings implicated lettuce as the vehicle of infection in outbreak A, but the source of the organism remained unknown. Whole-genome sequencing identified the same organism in cases from both outbreaks, but no epidemiologic link was confirmed. These outbreaks highlight that EIEC has the capacity to cause large and severe gastrointestinal disease outbreaks and should be considered as a potential pathogen in foodborne outbreaks in Europe. PMID:27314432

  10. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  11. Detecting and Responding to a Dengue Outbreak: Evaluation of Existing Strategies in Country Outbreak Response Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Harrington; Axel Kroeger; Silvia Runge-Ranzinger; Tim O'Dempsey

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted ac...

  12. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation...

  13. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function

  14. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  15. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus shows enhanced suppression of stem-cell like colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Bang, Seo Young; Jeong, Su-Nam; Kang, Dae Hwan; Heo, Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-like colon cancer cells (SCCs) pose a major challenge in colon cancer treatment because of their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oncolytic virus-based therapy has shown promising results in uncured cancer patients; however, its effects on SCCs are not well studied yet. Here, we engineered a cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV) as a potent biotherapeutic and investigated its therapeutic efficacy in terms of killing SCCs. CVV is an evolved Wyeth strain vaccinia virus (EVV) lacking the viral thymidine kinase. SCC models were established using human or mouse colon cancer spheres, which continuously expressed stemness markers. The cancer-favoring characteristics and different cytotoxic pathways for killing cancer cells successfully overrode general drug resistance, thereby killing colon cancer cells regardless of the presence of SCCs. Subcutaneously injected HT29 spheres showed lower growth in CVV-treated models than in 5-Fu-treated models. Intraperitoneally injected CT26 spheres induced tumor masses in the abdominal region. CVV-treated groups showed higher survival rates and smaller tumor mass formation, compared to 5-Fu-treated groups. Interestingly, the combined treatment of CVV with 5-Fu showed improved survival rates and complete suppression of tumor mass. The CVV developed in this study, thus, effectively suppresses SCCs, which can be synergistically enhanced by simultaneous treatment with the anticancer drug 5-Fu. Our novel CVV is highly advantageous as a next-generation therapeutic for treating colon cancer. PMID:26918725

  16. One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Zhu, Weijun; Wang, Haibo; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2010-02-25

    To combat variola virus in bioterrorist attacks, it is desirable to develop a noninvasive vaccine. Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic region from HindIII fragment C2L to F3L. MVTT(ZCI) was characterized for its host cell range in vitro and preclinical safety and efficacy profiles in mice. Despite replication-competency in some cell lines, unlike VTT, MVTT(ZCI) did not cause death after intracranial injection or body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. MVTT(ZCI) did not replicate in mouse brain and was safe in immunodeficient mice. MVTT(ZCI) induced neutralizing antibodies via the intranasal route of immunization. One time intranasal immunization protected animals from the challenge of the pathogenic vaccinia WR strain. This study established proof-of-concept that the attenuated replicating MVTT(ZCI) may serve as a safe noninvasive smallpox vaccine candidate.

  17. Local Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Encoded by Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is Effective in Controlling Viral Replication in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhi, Sharan K.; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-α. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-α during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo.

  18. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification.

  19. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  20. High-affinity human leucocyte antigen class I binding variola-derived peptides induce CD4(+) T cell responses more than 30 years post-vaccinia virus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-gamma secreting T lymphocytes against pox virus-derived synthetic 9-mer peptides were tested by enzyme-linked immunospot in peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated with vaccinia virus more than 30 years ago. The peptides were characterized biochemically as high-affinity human...

  1. Biophysical analysis of bacterial and viral systems. A shock tube study of bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/nanosims investigation of vaccinia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Sean Damien [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The work presented herein is concerned with the development of biophysical methodology designed to address pertinent questions regarding the behavior and structure of select pathogenic agents. Two distinct studies are documented: a shock tube analysis of endospore-laden bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/NanoSIMS study of the structure of vaccinia virus.

  2. Increased antibody responses to human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus lacking serine protease inhibitor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Crawford, L; McLean, L; Sun, X Y; Stanley, M; Almond, N; Smith, G L

    1990-09-01

    The L1 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) driven by the vaccinia virus major late 4b gene promoter has been inserted into three different sites of the vaccinia virus genome. Insertion into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene was achieved by selection of TK- mutants in BUdR on TK- cells. Insertion into two vaccinia virus serine protease inhibitor (serpin) genes was achieved by co-insertion of the Escherichia coli xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene linked to the vaccinia virus 7.5K promoter and selection of mycophenolic acid-resistant recombinant viruses. Each recombinant virus expressed a 57K L1 protein at similar levels and with similar kinetics. However, immunization of mice with these recombinant viruses induced different levels of antibody to the L1 protein. Viruses lacking serpin genes B13R and B24R induced significantly higher antibody levels than did viruses lacking the TK gene. The presence of functional B13R and B24R gene products is therefore somehow immunosuppressive at least for antibody responses to the L1 protein of HPV-16.

  3. Live-vaccinia virus encapsulation in pH-sensitive polymer increases safety of a reservoir-targeted Lyme disease vaccine by targeting gastrointestinal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Aurelie; Zhou, Chensheng W; Jia, Feng; Xu, Qiaobing; Hu, Linden T

    2016-08-31

    The incidence of Lyme disease has continued to rise despite attempts to control its spread. Vaccination of zoonotic reservoirs of human pathogens has been successfully used to decrease the incidence of rabies in raccoons and foxes. We have previously reported on the efficacy of a vaccinia virus vectored vaccine to reduce carriage of Borrelia burgdorferi in reservoir mice and ticks. One potential drawback to vaccinia virus vectored vaccines is the risk of accidental infection of humans. To reduce this risk, we developed a process to encapsulate vaccinia virus with a pH-sensitive polymer that inactivates the virus until it is ingested and dissolved by stomach acids. We demonstrate that the vaccine is inactive both in vitro and in vivo until it is released from the polymer. Once released from the polymer by contact with an acidic pH solution, the virus regains infectivity. Vaccination with coated vaccinia virus confers protection against B. burgdorferi infection and reduction in acquisition of the pathogen by naïve feeding ticks. PMID:27502570

  4. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  5. Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to

  6. Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica after the first disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sirera

    Full Text Available Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47% and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79% and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.

  7. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda;

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, raspberries have emerged as high risk foods for norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. However, the lack of robust and standardized methods has limited our understanding of the level of NoV contamination of raspberries correlated to public health risk. We present an optimized and quality...... controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... of detection was 119 and 140 RT-qPCR units/25g for NoV GI or GII, respectively. Nineteen (37%) of 51 raspberry samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoVs with the respective geometric mean values of 70 (range 22-330) or 29 (range 3-217) detectable genome copies/g of raspberries, when corrected using...

  8. Recurrent and synchronous insect pest outbreaks in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    A minimal model for the interactions of trees, insects, and their enemies suggests a simple formula for splitting all forests where insect outbreaks can occur into two categories: where outbreaks are periodic and endogenously generated and where outbreaks are triggered by exogenous factors and are, in general, recurrent but aperiodic. The formula is in full agreement with all field studies in which various phenomena triggering insect outbreaks have been identified. The observed consequences of introductions and removals of insects are also well predicted by the minimal model. But, even more surprisingly, the model allows a simple and explicit condition for the synchronization of outbreaks in spatially extended forests to be derived analytically. This condition is, in general, satisfied when the insect is a so-called pest, that is, when the outbreaks are extreme. The model also predicts the possibility of traveling waves of insect outbreaks. PMID:21867722

  9. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  10. Descripción de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos en el trópico mexicano - Report of a dermatophytosis outbreak in cattle in the mexican tropic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge, García Márquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este informe se describen los hallazgos clínicos y patológicos de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos (Suizo/Cebú en la zona tropical de Tomatlán, Jalisco, México.AbstractThis report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a dermatophytosis outbreak in bovines (Swizz/Zebu in the tropical zone of Tomatlan, Jalisco, Mexico.

  11. A36-dependent actin filament nucleation promotes release of vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Horsington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell transmission of vaccinia virus can be mediated by enveloped virions that remain attached to the outer surface of the cell or those released into the medium. During egress, the outer membrane of the double-enveloped virus fuses with the plasma membrane leaving extracellular virus attached to the cell surface via viral envelope proteins. Here we report that F-actin nucleation by the viral protein A36 promotes the disengagement of virus attachment and release of enveloped virus. Cells infected with the A36(YdF virus, which has mutations at two critical tyrosine residues abrogating localised actin nucleation, displayed a 10-fold reduction in virus release. We examined A36(YdF infected cells by transmission electron microscopy and observed that during release, virus appeared trapped in small invaginations at the plasma membrane. To further characterise the mechanism by which actin nucleation drives the dissociation of enveloped virus from the cell surface, we examined recombinant viruses by super-resolution microscopy. Fluorescently-tagged A36 was visualised at sub-viral resolution to image cell-virus attachment in mutant and parental backgrounds. We confirmed that A36(YdF extracellular virus remained closely associated to the plasma membrane in small membrane pits. Virus-induced actin nucleation reduced the extent of association, thereby promoting the untethering of virus from the cell surface. Virus release can be enhanced via a point mutation in the luminal region of B5 (P189S, another virus envelope protein. We found that the B5(P189S mutation led to reduced contact between extracellular virus and the host membrane during release, even in the absence of virus-induced actin nucleation. Our results posit that during release virus is tightly tethered to the host cell through interactions mediated by viral envelope proteins. Untethering of virus into the surrounding extracellular space requires these interactions be relieved, either

  12. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  13. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    the following 9 days, 14 possible poisoning victims were identified, 6 of whom were transferred for HBO. After hospital stays with repeated HBO treatment and examinations without identification of significant physical disease, the majority of the 10 HBO-treated victims remained symptomatic, some on prolonged......BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...... influence from dramatic intervention was probably a strong driving force in the outbreak. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Awareness of MPI may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment as well as improve health care resilience, particularly with respect to preparedness...

  14. Quasi-Neutral Theory of Epidemic Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Oscar A.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Some epidemics have been empirically observed to exhibit outbreaks of all possible sizes, i.e., to be scale-free or scale-invariant. Different explanations for this finding have been put forward; among them there is a model for “accidental pathogens” which leads to power-law distributed outbreaks without apparent need of parameter fine tuning. This model has been claimed to be related to self-organized criticality, and its critical properties have been conjectured to be related to directed percolation. Instead, we show that this is a (quasi) neutral model, analogous to those used in Population Genetics and Ecology, with the same critical behavior as the voter-model, i.e. the theory of accidental pathogens is a (quasi)-neutral theory. This analogy allows us to explain all the system phenomenology, including generic scale invariance and the associated scaling exponents, in a parsimonious and simple way. PMID:21760930

  15. A Short Overview of Ebola Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The illness affects humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence. In the current outbreak in West Africa, the majority of cases in humans have occurred as a result of human-to-human transmission. Infection occurs from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, semen of infected people.

  16. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  17. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J McMichael

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  18. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P;

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects.......05). CONCLUSIONS--The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS....

  19. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  20. Cooler temperatures inductive to locust outbreaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A joint study by Prof. ZHANG Zhibin from the CAS Institute of Zoology and his co-workers from Norway, US and Swiss have indicated that historical outbreaks of migratory locusts in China were associated with cold spells, suggesting that China's projected climate warming could decrease the pest's numbers. The study was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 17 September, 2007.

  1. Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Telfer, Barbara L.; Moberley, Sarah A.; Hort, Krishna P.; Branley, James M.; Dominic E. Dwyer; Muscatello, David J; Correll, Patricia K.; England, John; McAnulty, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    In autumn 2002, an outbreak of probable psittacosis occurred among residents of the Blue Mountains district, Australia. We conducted a case-control study to determine independent risk factors for psittacosis by comparing exposures between hospitalized patients and other residents selected randomly from the telephone directory. Of the 59 case-patients with laboratory results supportive of psittacosis, 48 participated in a case-control study with 310 controls. Independent risk factors were resi...

  2. Negative selection algorithm for dengue outbreak detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, Maryam; BAKAR, Azuraliza ABU; ZAINUDIN, Suhaila; LONG, Zalizah AWANG; Sahani, Mazrura; VAKILIAN, Mohammadmahdi

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a critical communicable and vector-borne disease and is becoming a serious concern in Malaysia. It is important to have an early detection system that could provide immediate action, such as the control of dengue transmission at a specific location. However, the available strategy and action may give long-term effects to the community since inaccurate decision making or prediction may lead to other circumstances. Moreover, the need to have a system that can detect the outbreak...

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  5. Nucleotide sequence of XhoI O fragment of ectromelia virus DNA reveals significant differences from vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, T G; Muravnik, G L; Pozdnyakov, S G; Chizhikov, V E; Ryazankina, O I; Shchelkunov, S N; Koonin, E V; Chernos, V I

    1993-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3913 base pair XhoI O fragment located in an evolutionary variable region adjacent to the right end of the genome of ectromelia virus (EMV) was determined. The sequence contains two long open reading frames coding for putative proteins of 559 amino acid residues (p65) and 344 amino acid residues (p39). Amino acid database searches showed that p39 is closely related to vaccinia virus (VV), strain WR, B22R gene product (C12L gene product of strain Copenhagen), which belongs to the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Despite the overall high conservation, differences were observed in the sequences of p39, B22R, and C12L in the site known to interact with proteases in other serpins, suggesting that the serpins of EMV and two strains of VV may all inhibit proteases with different specificities. The gene coding for the ortholog of p65 is lacking in the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus; the WR strain contains a truncated variant of this gene (B21R) potentially coding for a small protein (p16) corresponding to the C-terminal region of p65. p65 is a new member of the family of poxvirus proteins including vaccinia virus proteins A55R, C2L and F3L, and a group of related proteins of leporipoxviruses, Shope fibroma and myxoma viruses (T6, T8, T9, M9). These proteins are homologous to the Drosophila protein Kelch involved in egg development. Both Kelch protein and the related poxvirus proteins contain two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain is related to the similarly located domains of transcription factors Ttk, Br-C (Drosophila), and KUP (human), and GCL protein involved in early development in Drosophila. The C-terminal domain consists of an array of four to five imperfect repeats and is related to human placental protein MIPP. Phylogenetic analysis of the family of poxvirus proteins showed that their genes have undergone a complex succession of duplications, and complete or partial deletions.

  6. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

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    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  7. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

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    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  8. Avalanche outbreaks emerging in cooperative contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiran; Chen, Li; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Grassberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of contagions can exhibit a percolation transition, which separates transitory prevalence from outbreaks that reach a finite fraction of the population. Such transitions are commonly believed to be continuous, but empirical studies have shown more violent spreading modes when the participating agents are not limited to one type. Striking examples include the co-epidemic of the Spanish flu and pneumonia that occurred in 1918 (refs , ), and, more recently, the concurrent prevalence of HIV/AIDS and a host of diseases. It remains unclear to what extent an outbreak in the presence of interacting pathogens differs from that due to an ordinary single-agent process. Here we study a mechanistic model for understanding contagion processes involving inter-agent cooperation. Our stochastic simulations reveal the possible emergence of a massive avalanche-like outbreak right at the threshold, which is manifested as a discontinuous phase transition. Such an abrupt change arises only if the underlying network topology supports a bottleneck for cascaded mutual infections. Surprisingly, all these discontinuous transitions are accompanied by non-trivial critical behaviours, presenting a rare case of hybrid transition. The findings may imply the origin of catastrophic occurrences in many realistic systems, from co-epidemics to financial contagions.

  9. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

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    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  10. [Waterborne outbreaks in Norway 2003 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Herrador, Bernardo; Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben de; Lund, Vidar; MacDonald, Emily; Vold, Line; Wahl, Erik; Nygård, Karin

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND We describe the status of waterborne outbreaks notified in Norway and discuss this in the context of outbreaks recorded in previous years, to gain a better understanding of their development in Norway in recent years.MATERIAL AND METHOD We have collected information on all outbreaks notified to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health via the surveillance system for communicable diseases in the ten-year period from 2003 - 2012 for which drinking water was given as the suspected cause.RESULTS Altogether 28 waterborne outbreaks with a total of 8 060 persons reported as ill were notified in the period. The majority of outbreaks resulted in fewer than 100 cases of illness. There were two outbreaks with more than 1 000 cases of illness: an oubreak of campylobacteriosis in Røros and an oubreak of giardiasis in Bergen. In more than half of the outbreaks, water was supplied from public water distribution systems (16/28 outbreaks, 57 %). In addition, a large proportion was linked to individual households with their own water supply (12/28 outbreaks, 43 %).INTERPRETATION Most of the outbreaks in the ten-year period were linked to public water distribution systems, while almost half were linked to non-disinfected water supplies to individual households. Although most of the outbreaks were small, two extensive outbreaks were also registered in the period, resulting in more than one thousand cases of illness. This underscores the need for good contingency planning and surveillance, so that suspicion of waterborne outbreaks is rapidly notified to the responsible authorities, and the importance of good protection of water sources, as well as proper maintenance of water treatment plants and distribution systems. PMID:27094662

  11. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

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    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  12. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  13. Evaluation of radiation effects against C6 glioma in combination with vaccinia virus-p53 gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Timiryasova, T.; Chen, B.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of recombinant vaccinia virus-p53 (rVV-p53) in combination with radiation therapy against the C6 rat glioma, a p53 deficient tumor that is relatively radioresistant. VV-LIVP, the parental virus (Lister strain), was used as a control. Localized treatment of subcutaneous C6 tumors in athymic mice with either rVV-p53 or VV-LIVP together with tumor irradiation resulted in low tumor incidence and significantly slower tumor progression compared to the agents given as single modalities. Assays of blood and spleen indicated that immune system activation may account, at least partly, for the enhance tumor inhibition seen with combined treatment. No overt signs of treatment-related toxicity were noted.

  14. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  15. Production of HIV-1 gp120 in packed-bed bioreactor using the vaccinia virus/T7 expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y C; Kaufman, J; Cho, M W; Golding, H; Shiloach, J

    2000-01-01

    The HeLa cell-vaccinia virus system is an attractive method for producing recombinant mammalian proteins with proper post-translation modifications. This approach is especially important for the production of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, since more than half of its total mass is due to carbohydrates. A recombinant vaccinia virus/T7 RNA polymerase expression system was developed to express and produce large amounts of gp120 tagged with six histidine residues. In this system, the expressed T7 RNA polymerase from one virus drives the transcription of the gp120 encoded in the second virus. During the process development phase, the following parameters were studied: infection time, infection duration, multiplicity of infection, ratio of the two viruses, medium composition, and medium replacement strategy during the infection phase. The chosen production method was based on using the packed-bed bioreactor. The HeLa cells were immobilized on fibrous disks (Fibra-Cel) packed in an internal basket positioned in a vertically mixed bioreactor (Celligen Plus), and 25 g of carriers were packed in a 1.6-L (working volume) reactor. The process included a growth stage followed by a production stage. In the growth stage, the bed was perfused with a serum-containing medium, allowing the cells to grow to saturation, and in the production stage, done using serum-free medium, the cells were infected with the two recombinant viruses. The expressed protein was secreted, collected from the culture fluid, and purified. The specific production was found to be between 2 and 3 microg of protein/10(6) cells, and the volumetric production was around 10 mg/50 g carriers. PMID:11027165

  16. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

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    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  17. A human multi-epitope recombinant vaccinia virus as a universal T cell vaccine candidate against influenza virus.

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    Alan G Goodman

    Full Text Available There is a need to develop a universal vaccine against influenza virus infection to avoid developing new formulations of a seasonal vaccine each year. Many of the vaccine strategies for a universal vaccine target strain-conserved influenza virus proteins, such as the matrix, polymerase, and nucleoproteins, rather than the surface hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. In addition, non-disease-causing viral vectors are a popular choice as a delivery system for the influenza virus antigens. As a proof-of-concept, we have designed a novel influenza virus immunogen based on the NP backbone containing human T cell epitopes for M1, NS1, NP, PB1 and PA proteins (referred as NPmix as well as a construct containing the conserved regions of influenza virus neuraminidase (N-terminal and hemagglutinin (C-terminal (referred as NA-HA. DNA vectors and vaccinia virus recombinants expressing NPmix (WR-NP or both NPmix plus NA-HA (WR-flu in the cytosol were tested in a heterologous DNA-prime/vaccinia virus-boost vaccine regimen in mice. We observed an increase in the number of influenza virus-specific IFNγ-secreting splenocytes, composed of populations marked by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells producing IFNγ or TNFα. Upon challenge with influenza virus, the vaccinated mice exhibited decreased viral load in the lungs and a delay in mortality. These findings suggest that DNA prime/poxvirus boost with human multi-epitope recombinant influenza virus proteins is a valid approach for a general T-cell vaccine to protect against influenza virus infection.

  18. Modeling Classical Swine Fever Outbreak-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shankar; Olynk Widmar, Nicole J; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to estimate classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak-related outcomes, such as epidemic duration and number of infected, vaccinated, and depopulated premises, using defined most likely CSF outbreak scenarios. Risk metrics were established using empirical data to select the most likely CSF outbreak scenarios in Indiana. These scenarios were simulated using a stochastic between-premises disease spread model to estimate outbreak-related outcomes. A total of 19 single-site (i.e., with one index premises at the onset of an outbreak) and 15 multiple-site (i.e., with more than one index premises at the onset of an outbreak) outbreak scenarios of CSF were selected using the risk metrics. The number of index premises in the multiple-site outbreak scenarios ranged from 4 to 32. The multiple-site outbreak scenarios were further classified into clustered (N = 6) and non-clustered (N = 9) groups. The estimated median (5th, 95th percentiles) epidemic duration (days) was 224 (24, 343) in the single-site and was 190 (157, 251) and 210 (167, 302) in the clustered and non-clustered multiple-site outbreak scenarios, respectively. The median (5th, 95th percentiles) number of infected premises was 323 (0, 488) in the single-site outbreak scenarios and was 529 (395, 662) and 465 (295, 640) in the clustered and non-clustered multiple-site outbreak scenarios, respectively. Both the number and spatial distributions of the index premises affected the outcome estimates. The results also showed the importance of implementing vaccinations to accommodate depopulation in the CSF outbreak controls. The use of routinely collected surveillance data in the risk metrics and disease spread model allows end users to generate timely outbreak-related information based on the initial outbreak's characteristics. Swine producers can use this information to make an informed decision on the management of swine operations and continuity of business, so that potential losses could

  19. Electronic Outbreak Surveillance in Germany: A First Evaluation for Nosocomial Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Anja M.; Westbrock, Hans-Jürgen; Claus, Herman; Geis, Steffen; Giernat, Siegfried; Forβbohm, Michael; Uphoff, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Background In Germany, surveillance for infectious disease outbreaks is integrated into an electronic surveillance system. For 2007, the national surveillance database contains case-based information on 201,224 norovirus cases, three-quarters of which are linked to outbreaks. We evaluated the data quality of the national database in reflecting nosocomial norovirus outbreak (NNO) data available in 19 Hessian local public health authorities (LPHAs) and the influence of differences between LPHA's follow-up procedures for laboratory notifications of Norovirus positive stool samples on outbreak underascertainment. Methods Data on NNO beginning in 2007 and notified to the 19 LPHAs were extracted from the national database, investigated regarding internal validity and compared to data collected from LPHAs for a study on NNO control. LPHAs were questioned whether they routinely contacted all persons for whom a laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection was notified. The number of outbreaks per 1,000 hospital beds and the number of cases within NNOs for acute care and rehabilitation hospitals were compared between counties with and without complete follow-up. Results The national database contained information on 155 NNOs, including 3,115 cases. Cases were missed in the national database in 58 (37%) of the outbreaks. Information on hospitalisation was incorrect for an estimated 47% of NNO cases. Information on county of infection was incorrect for 24% (199/820) of cases being forwarded between LPHAs for data entry. Reported NNO incidence and number of NNO cases in acute care hospitals was higher in counties with complete follow-up (incidence-rate ratio (IRR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.7, p-value 0.002 and IRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.4, p-value 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Many NNOs are not notified by hospitals and differences in LPHA procedures have an impact on the number of outbreaks captured in the surveillance system. Forwarding of case-by-case data on Norovirus outbreak

  20. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

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    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  1. Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis Outbreaks, United States, 1938-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis has been described as the most common endemic mycosis in the United States. However, histoplasmosis is not nationally notifiable. Its presumed geographic distribution is largely derived from skin test surveys performed during the 1940s, and information about its local features comes primarily from outbreak investigations. We conducted a literature review to assess epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis outbreaks in the United States. During 1938-2013, a total of 105 outbreaks involving 2,850 cases were reported in 26 states and the territory of Puerto Rico. Common exposure settings were chicken coops and buildings or other structures undergoing renovation or demolition. Birds, bats, or their droppings were reported to be present in 77% of outbreak settings, and workplace exposures were reported in 41% of outbreaks. The continued occurrence of histoplasmosis outbreaks, particularly work-related ones involving known disturbance of bird or bat droppings, highlights the need to increase awareness of the disease. PMID:26890817

  2. Expanding the repertoire of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine vectors via genetic complementation strategies.

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    David A Garber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is a safe, highly attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a recombinant vaccine vector for immunization against a number of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the expression by MVA vectors of large numbers of poxvirus antigens, which display immunodominance over vectored antigens-of-interest for the priming of T cell responses, and the induction of vector-neutralizing antibodies, which curtail the efficacy of subsequent booster immunizations, remain as significant impediments to the overall utility of such vaccines. Thus, genetic approaches that enable the derivation of MVA vectors that are antigenically less complex may allow for rational improvement of MVA-based vaccines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a genetic complementation system that enables the deletion of essential viral genes from the MVA genome, thereby allowing us to generate MVA vaccine vectors that are antigenically less complex. Using this system, we deleted the essential uracil-DNA-glycosylase (udg gene from MVA and propagated this otherwise replication-defective variant on a complementing cell line that constitutively expresses the poxvirus udg gene and that was derived from a newly identified continuous cell line that is permissive for growth of wild type MVA. The resulting virus, MVADeltaudg, does not replicate its DNA genome or express late viral gene products during infection of non-complementing cells in culture. As proof-of-concept for immunological 'focusing', we demonstrate that immunization of mice with MVADeltaudg elicits CD8+ T cell responses that are directed against a restricted repertoire of vector antigens, as compared to immunization with parental MVA. Immunization of rhesus macaques with MVADeltaudg-gag, a udg(- recombinant virus that expresses an HIV subtype-B consensus gag transgene, elicited significantly higher frequencies of Gag-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells following both primary (2

  3. Surveillance for outbreaks of respiratory tract infections in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, M; McGeer, A; McArthur, M; Peeling, R. W.; Petric, M; Simor, A E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of respiratory tract infections are common in long-term care facilities for older people. The objective of our study was to determine both the frequency of such outbreaks and their clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: Prospective surveillance for outbreaks of respiratory tract infections and a retrospective audit of surveillance records were conducted in 5 nursing homes in metropolitan Toronto over 3 years. The clinical manifestations of infected residents wer...

  4. Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lopman, Ben; Reacher, Mark; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne; Hanon, François-Xavier; Brown, David; Koopmans, Marion

    2003-01-01

    To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N=3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000. However, the absolute number and population-based rates of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks differed markedly among European surveillance system...

  5. Diphtheria outbreak with high mortality in northeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Besa, N C; COLDIRON, M. E.; Bakri, A.; A. RAJI; NSUAMI, M. J.; ROUSSEAU, C.; Hurtado, N.; PORTEN, K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in Kimba village and the surrounding settlements to better describe the extent and clinical characteristics of this outbreak. Ninety-eight cases met the criteria of the case definition of diphtheria, 63 (64·3%) of whom were children aged

  6. Characteristics of shigellosis outbreaks in the AP of Vojvodina

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    Đurić Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shigellosis causes around 165 million infections and around 1 million deaths in the world every year. Two thirds of both infections and deaths are among children younger than 10. Shigellosis mainly spreads by direct or indirect contact, but water- and food-borne outbreaks are not rare. Material and methods. A descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyse characteristics of shigellosis outbreaks in the AP of Vojvodina in the period 1979-2005. Results. During this period 9.083 shigellosis infections were registered, 51,9% of them in 202 shigellosis outbreaks. The leading way of transmission was contact, but water- and food-borne outbreaks were also detected. The average number of infections in contact outbreaks of shigellosis was small - 6.3 infections. The highest average is in water-borne outbreaks - 55.1. Most of the outbreaks were those occurring in families (47.5% and most of them were registered in august. Discussion. Shigellosis has been mandatory reported in the AP of Vojvodina since 1945 and results of outbreak investigation of this disease were analyzed since 1979. In the first half of this period water was the most common way of agent transmission in shigellosis outbreaks, but in recent 15 years the contact became the leading one. In the last 5 years there was no water-borne shigellosis outbreaks. Almost one third of all outbreaks were imported from Montenegro and Croatia by tourists coming back from those countries. Most of the outbreaks are small outbreaks occurring in families, primarily transmitted by contact. Outbreaks in facilities for care of disabled children and elders are also important. Sh. sonnei and Sh. flexneri are the two serotypes identified, the former in 57.4% and the latter in 40.1% outbreaks. Conclusion. Shigellosis is a disease occurring in the AP of Vojvodina primarily in small outbreaks inside families, transmitted by contact, most often in August and more often caused by Sh. sonnei. Health

  7. Modeling classical swine fever outbreak-related outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar eYadav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate classical swine fever (CSF outbreak-related outcomes such as epidemic duration and number of infected, vaccinated, and depopulated premises, using defined most likely CSF outbreak scenarios. Risk metrics were established using empirical data to select the most likely CSF outbreak scenarios in Indiana. The scenarios were simulated using a stochastic between-premises disease spread model to estimate outbreak-related outcomes. A total of 19 single-site (i.e., with a single-index premises at the onset of an outbreak and 15 multiple-site (i.e., with more than one index premises at the onset of an outbreak outbreak scenarios of CSF were selected using the risk metrics. The number of index premises in the multiple-site outbreak scenarios ranged from 4 to 32. The multiple-site outbreak scenarios were further classified into clustered (N=6 and non-clustered (N=9 groups. The estimated median (5th, 95th percentiles epidemic duration (days was 224 (24, 343 in the single-site and was 190 (157, 251 and 210 (167, 302 in the clustered and non-clustered multiple-site outbreak scenarios, respectively. The median (5th, 95th percentiles number of infected premises was 323 (0, 488 in the single-site outbreak scenarios and was 529 (395, 662 and 465 (295, 640 in the clustered and non-clustered multiple-site outbreak scenarios, respectively. Both the number and spatial distribution of the index premises affected the outcome estimates. The results also showed the importance of implementing vaccinations to accommodate depopulation in the CSF outbreak controls. The use of routinely collected surveillance data in the risk metrics and disease spread model allows end users to generate timely outbreak-related information based on the initial outbreak’s characteristics. Swine producers can use this information to make an informed decision on management of swine operations and continuity of business so that potential losses could be

  8. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  9. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C

    2016-01-01

    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators. PMID:26095014

  10. Regression of Human Prostate Tumors and Metastases in Nude Mice following Treatment with the Recombinant Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains is one of the most promising new strategies for cancer therapy. In the current study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 against two human prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3 in cell culture and in tumor xenograft models. By viral proliferation assays and cell survival tests, we demonstrated that GLV-1h68 was able to infect, replicate in, and lyse these prostate cancer cells in culture. In DU-145 and PC-3 tumor xenograft models, a single intravenous injection with GLV-1h68 resulted in a significant reduction of primary tumor size. In addition, the GLV-1h68-infection led to strong inflammatory and oncolytic effects resulting in drastic reduction of regional lymph nodes with PC-3 metastases. Our data documented that the GLV-1h68 virus has a great potential for treatment of human prostate carcinoma.

  11. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  12. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  13. Noise in an insect outbreak model

    CERN Document Server

    Bao Quan; Wang Xian Ju; Liu Guo Tao; We De Hua; Xie Hui Zhang; Liu Liang Gang

    2003-01-01

    We study the steady state properties of an insect (spruce budworm) outbreak model in the presence of Gaussian white noise. Based on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation the steady state solution of the probability distribution function and its extrema have been investigated. It was found that fluctuations of the insect birth rate reduces the population of the insects while fluctuations of predation rate and the noise correlation can prevent the population of the insects from going into extinction. Noise in the model can induce a phase transition.

  14. The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zi'abi, Omar; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Meyer, Hermann

    2007-05-01

    In this study we report the first outbreak of camelpox in two provinces in Syria. Clinical symptoms started with fever, salivation and general exanthema. The main features were facial and legs oedema, pustules on the mucosa of the lips and a high rate of abortion. Lesions may also occur on the whole body including scrotum and udder. Specimens were investigated by electron microscopy, virus isolation in cell culture and embryonated eggs and by immunohistochemistry. The causative agent was identified as camelpox virus by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene.

  15. Investigation of Interaction of Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein and Curcumin with Complement Components C3 and C3b Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Amod P.; Randall, Philippa J.; Murthy, Krishna; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Kotwal, Girish J.

    2010-01-01

    C3 and C3b, the components central to the complement activation, also play a damaging role in several inflammatory disorders. Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) and curcumin (Cur) are natural compounds with different biological origins reported to regulate complement activation. However, both VCP and Cur have not been investigated for their interaction with the third component (C3) prior to it being converted to its activated form (C3b). These two compounds have also not been com...

  16. 溶瘤痘苗病毒的研究进展%Advances of Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus for the Treatment of Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明强; 田厚文

    2012-01-01

    Oncolytic virus can selectively kill cancer cells and normal cells are generally left intact. Nearly 10 kinds of oncolytic viruses have been developed in recent years. Vaccinia virus has an enormous use in humans for the eradication of smallpox. In addition, vaccinia virus replicates rapidly, has highly immunogenic and well-known side effect. Genetic modified vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and lyse tumor cells. The reported oncolytic vaccinia virus researches mainly based on the backbone of Western Reverse strain, Wyeth strain, Lister strain and Copenhagen strain. There is no related report about Tian-Tan strain.%溶瘤病毒可靶向性杀伤肿瘤细胞而不对正常细胞产生杀伤作用.近几年已开发出十余种溶瘤病毒.痘苗病毒曾在全球消灭天花行动中被广泛使用,并且有着复制速度快、免疫原性强、副作用明确等优点.痘苗病毒经过基因改造,可以选择性地在肿瘤细胞中复制并裂解细胞.目前,用于溶瘤痘苗病毒改造的主要有痘苗病毒Western Reverse株、Wyeth株、Lister株和Copenhagen株,我国使用的痘苗病毒天坛株尚未有相关报道.

  17. Mucosal Immunization Induces a Higher Level of Lasting Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mice by a Replication-Competent Smallpox Vaccine: Vaccinia Tiantan Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Lu; Wenbo Yu; Xiaoxing Huang; Haibo Wang; Li Liu; Zhiwei Chen

    2011-01-01

    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes ...

  18. Adjuvant-like Effect of Vaccinia Virus 14K Protein: A Case Study with Malaria Vaccine Based on the Circumsporozoite Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Aneesh; Gómez, Carmen E.; Espinosa, Diego A.; Goodman, Alan G.; Sanchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Zavala, Fidel; Esteban, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Development of subunit vaccines for malaria that elicit a strong, long-term memory response is an intensive area of research, with the focus on improving the immunogenicity of a circumsporozoite (CS) protein-based vaccine. In this study, we found that a chimeric protein, formed by fusing vaccinia virus protein 14K (A27) to the CS of Plasmodium yoelii, induces strong effector memory CD8+ T cell responses in addition to high-affinity Abs when used as a priming agent in the absence of any adjuvant, followed by an attenuated vaccinia virus boost expressing CS in murine models. Moreover, priming with the chimeric protein improved the magnitude and polyfunctionality of cytokine-secreting CD8+ T cells. This fusion protein formed oligomers/aggregates that led to activation of STAT-1 and IFN regulatory factor-3 in human macrophages, indicating a type I IFN response, resulting in NO, IL-12, and IL-6 induction. Furthermore, this vaccination regimen inhibited the liver stage development of the parasite, resulting in sterile protection. In summary, we propose a novel approach in designing CS based pre-erythrocytic vaccines against Plasmodium using the adjuvant-like effect of the immunogenic vaccinia virus protein 14K. PMID:22615208

  19. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is an Effective and Non—perturbing Vector for Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with Epstein—Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继军; 姚Kun; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dendritic cells(DC) transfected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) latent membrane protein 2A(LMP2A) gene,and to provide evidence for further investigation on the therapeutic uaccines against EBV-associated malignancies.Methods Mature DC were transfected with EVB-LMP2A recombinant vaccinia virus(rVV-LMP2A).Before and after the transfection,the expression of surface antigens on mature DC including CD1a,CD83,CD40,CD80,HLA-DR was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorter(FACS) and the function of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation was measured by mixed leukocyte reactions(MLR).Results LMP2A protein was highly expressed (66.1%) in DC after the transfection of rVV-LMP2A.No significant changes in the primary surface antigens expression and in the MLR were detected during the transfection.Transfected DC still had strong potential in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.Conclusion Recombinant vaccinia virus was an effective and non-perturbing vector to mediate the transfection of LMP2A into DC.The functions of mature DC were not affected significantly by the transfection of Vac-LMP2A.This study could provide evidence for the further immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies,e.g.nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).

  20. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is an Effective and Non-perturbing Vector for Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继军; 姚堃; 彭光勇; 谢芳艺; 丁传林; 朱建中; 秦健

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effects of dendritic cells (DC) transfected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A(LMP2A) gene,and to provide evidence for further investigation on the therapeutic vaccines against EBV-associated malignancies.MethodsMature DC were transfected with EBV-LMP2A recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV-LMP2A).Before and after the transfection,the expression of surface antigens on mature DC including CD1a,CD83,CD40,CD80,HLA-DR was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and the function of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation was measured by mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR).ResultsLMP2A protein was highly expressed (66.1%) in DC after the transfection of rVV-LMP2A.No significant changes in the primary surface antigens expression and in the MLR were detected during the transfection.Transfected DC still had strong potential in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.ConclusionRecombinant vaccinia virus was an effective and non-perturbing vector to mediate the transfection of LMP2A into DC.The functions of mature DC were not affected significantly by the transfection of Vac-LMP2A.This study could provide evidence for the further immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies,e.g.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).``

  1. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  3. Predicting meningococcal disease outbreaks in structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, J; Mäkelä, P H; Arjas, E

    2004-03-30

    Rational decision making on whether some form of intervention would be necessary to control the spread of a meningococcal epidemic is based on predictions concerning its potential natural progression. Unfortunately, reliable predictions are difficult to make during the early stages of an outbreak. A stochastic discrete time epidemic model was applied to adaptively predict the development of outbreaks of meningococcal disease in 'closed' populations such as military garrisons or boarding schools, which are further divided into subgroups called 'units'. The performance of the adaptive method was assessed by using 3 simulated epidemics representing substantially different realizations in a 'garrison' of 20 units, with 68 men in each. Predictions of the weekly number of disease cases, of the number of carriers, and of the number of new infections were computed. Simulations suggest that predictions based only on the observed numbers of disease cases are generally inaccurate. These predictions can be improved if temporal observations on asymptomatic carriers in different units are utilized together with observed time series of the disease. A sample of 15 per cent from all units can be sufficient for a major improvement if the alternative is to obtain a full sample of only some units. Exploiting fully such information requires computer intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. PMID:15027081

  4. SARS revisited: managing "outbreaks" with "communications".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, K U

    2006-05-01

    "Risk communications" has acquired some importance in the wake of our experience of SARS. Handled well, it helps to build mutual respect between a government or an organisation and the target groups with which it is communicating. It helps nurture public trust and confidence in getting over the crisis. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also come to recognise its importance after SARS and organised the first Expert Consultation on Outbreak Communications conference in Singapore in September 2004. This article assesses the context and the key features which worked to Singapore's advantage. Looking at the data now widely available on the Internet of the experience of SARS-infected countries like China, Taiwan, Canada, the article identifies the key areas of strategic communications in which Singapore fared particularly well. Another issue discussed is whether Singapore's experience has universal applicability or whether it is limited because of Singapore's unique cultural, historical and geographical circumstances. Finally, the article also looks at some of the post-SARS enhancements that have been put in place following the lessons learnt from SARS and the need to confront new infectious outbreaks like avian flu. PMID:16830005

  5. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  6. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  7. Synchronized and mixed outbreaks of coupled recurrent epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Muhua; Min, Byungjoon; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and most of them are focused on the growing aspect of a single epidemic outbreak. Recently, we extended the study to the case of recurrent epidemics (Sci. Rep. {\\bf 5}, 16010 (2015)) but limited only to a single network. We here report from the real data of coupled regions or cities that the recurrent epidemics in two coupled networks are closely related to each other and can show either synchronized outbreak phase where outbreaks occur simultaneously in both networks or mixed outbreak phase where outbreaks occur in one network but do not in another one. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we present a two-layered network model of coupled recurrent epidemics to reproduce the synchronized and mixed outbreak phases. We show that the synchronized outbreak phase is preferred to be triggered in two coupled networks with the same average degree while the mixed outbreak phase is preferred for the case with different average degrees. Further, we show that the coupli...

  8. Epidemic features affecting the performance of outbreak detection algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak detection algorithms play an important role in effective automated surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed to improve the performance of outbreak detection, few published studies have examined how epidemic features of infectious disease impact on the detection performance of algorithms. This study compared the performance of three outbreak detection algorithms stratified by epidemic features of infectious disease and examined the relationship between epidemic features and performance of outbreak detection algorithms. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA, cumulative sum (CUSUM and moving percentile method (MPM algorithms were applied. We inserted simulated outbreaks into notifiable infectious disease data in China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS, and compared the performance of the three algorithms with optimized parameters at a fixed false alarm rate of 5% classified by epidemic features of infectious disease. Multiple linear regression was adopted to analyse the relationship of the algorithms’ sensitivity and timeliness with the epidemic features of infectious diseases. Results The MPM had better detection performance than EWMA and CUSUM through all simulated outbreaks, with or without stratification by epidemic features (incubation period, baseline counts and outbreak magnitude. The epidemic features were associated with both sensitivity and timeliness. Compared with long incubation, short incubation had lower probability (β* = −0.13, P  Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the MPM is a prior algorithm for outbreak detection and differences of epidemic features in detection performance should be considered in automatic surveillance practice.

  9. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  10. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, T.;

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list...

  11. Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigations in the U.S.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr Kiren Mitruka, medical officer with CDC's Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigations team, discusses tuberculosis outbreak investigations in the U.S. from 2002-2008.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/22/2011.

  12. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.;

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  13. A study of the 2006 Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. V. Pydiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya epidemic outbreaks have affected more than 1 million people in 2005-2006 in many Indian Ocean islands and in India. Mauritius experienced a major outbreak in February/March 2006 following a minor outbreak in April/May 2005. No cases have been registered on the island since August 2006. The objectives of this study were to understand the timing and development of the 2006-outbreak in Mauritius, to investigate the possibility of a future outbreak, and to propose measures to prevent the recurrence of an epidemic in Mauritius. Mauritius rainfall, temperature and humidity data were analyzed. A door-to-door household census-type survey was carried out in a study locality on the island. A compartmental human-mosquito interaction model was integrated to understand outbreak evolutions in the surveyed locality and in a theoretical locality. It was observed that the onset of the 2006-outbreak in February followed an abnormally high rainfall in the third week of January 2006. 51% of the surveyed population was found to be suspected Chikungunya cases. Computer simulations indicated that a small number of infected humans and mosquitoes existed in the surveyed locality at the outbreak onset. From simulations in the theoretical locality, it was deduced that the level of infectivity in some localities may be below a herd immunity threshold and that the additional percentage of infected inhabitants in a follow-up epidemic would be significantly reduced with the case-reactive control of infected adult mosquitoes.

  14. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  15. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  16. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  17. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response.

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  20. Molecular investigation of tularemia outbreaks, Spain, 1997-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2014-05-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997-1998 and 2007-2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002-00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection.

  1. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Rostrup

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise.Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013 and Kenya (May and July 2014. Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports.In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066. In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341 and 21% (26/126, respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival.Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging

  2. Immunogenicity of Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Guang 9 Strain%痘苗病毒弱毒株广9株的免疫原性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蓉; 黄维金; 王佑春; 俞永新

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析痘苗病毒弱毒株广9株(Vaccinia virus Guang 9 strain,VG9)对BALB/c小鼠的免疫原性.方法 用鸡胚成纤维细胞培养痘苗病毒VG9株和天坛株(Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain,VTT),离心纯化病毒,经小鼠背部皮内免疫后,每周采血,共4次,采用ELISA法检测小鼠血清中抗痘苗病毒特异性抗体效价;中和试验检测免疫后3周和4周小鼠血清中和抗体效价.结果 两株痘苗病毒免疫后1周,小鼠血清中即产生抗痘苗病毒特异性抗体,效价均达1∶4050;至第3周,抗体效价上升至1∶12 150;第4周时,VG9株抗体效价维持在1∶12 150,而VTT株效价可达1:36 450.两株病毒诱导的中和抗体水平均在免疫后3周达峰值,且具有交叉中和作用,均对VTT株中和效果更好,VG9株诱导产生中和抗体的能力较VTT株略低.结论 痘苗病毒VG9株与VTT株一样,具有良好的免疫原性,皮内免疫均能刺激小鼠产生良好的抗痘菌病毒特异性抗体和中和抗体.%Objective To analyze the immunogenicity of attenuated vaccinia virus Guang 9 (VG9) strain. Methods VG9 and Vaccinia virus Tian Tan (VTT) strains were cultured in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs), purified by centrifugation and inoculated I.d. Into BALB /c mice. Serum samples were collected once a week for 4 times, and determined for specific antibody liter against vaccinia virus by ELJSA. The neutralizing antibody liters in sera 3 and 4 weeks after immunization were determined by neutralization test. Results Specific antibody liters against vaccinia virus in sera of mice were 1 : 4 050 one week after immunization with both the strains and increased to 1 : 12 150 on week 3. However, the antibody titers against VG9 and VTT strains on week 4 after immunization were 1 : 12 150 and 1 : 36 450 respectively. Both the neutralizing antibody levels induced by the two strains reached peak values 3 weeks after immunization, and cross neutralization was observed. The neutralizing effect on

  3. Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of established tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Kate; Ryan, Matthew G; Myers, Kevin A; Shaw, David; Wang, Who; Kingsman, Susan M; Stern, Peter L; Carroll, Miles W

    2002-10-01

    The human oncofetal antigen 5T4 (h5T4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by a wide spectrum of cancers, including colorectal, ovarian, and gastric, but with a limited normal tissue expression. Such properties make 5T4 an excellent putative target for cancer immunotherapy. The murine homologue of 5T4 (m5T4) has been cloned and characterized, which allows for the evaluation of immune intervention strategies in "self-antigen" in vivo tumor models. We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses based on the highly attenuated and modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA strain), expressing h5T4 (MVA-h5T4), m5T4 (MVA-m5T4), and Escherichia coli LacZ (MVA-LacZ). Immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with MVA-h5T4 and MVA-m5T4 constructs induced antibody responses to human and mouse 5T4, respectively. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice vaccinated with MVA-h5T4 were challenged with syngeneic tumor line transfectants, B16 melanoma, and CT26 colorectal cells that express h5T4. MVA-h5T4-vaccinated mice showed significant tumor retardation compared with mice vaccinated with MVA-LacZ or PBS. In active treatment studies, inoculation with MVA-h5T4 was able to treat established CT26-h5T4 lung tumor and to a lesser extent B16.h5T4 s.c. tumors. Additionally, when C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 were challenged with B16 cells expressing m5T4, resulting growth of the tumors was significantly retarded compared with control animals. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 showed no signs of autoimmune toxicity. These data support the use of MVA-5T4 for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:12481437

  4. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  5. BCG protects toddlers during a tuberculosis outbreak.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaensbauer, J T

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in a toddler population attending two child care centres in Cork, Ireland. Of 268 children exposed, 18 were eventually diagnosed with active tuberculosis. We present the initial clinical and radiographic characteristics of the active disease group. Mantoux testing was positive in only 66% of cases. All cases were either pulmonary or involved hilar adenopathy on chest radiograph; there were no cases of disseminated disease or meningitis. 24% of the exposed children had been previously vaccinated with BCG, and no case of active disease was found in this group (p = 0.016), suggesting a profound protective effect of BCG in this population. Our experience provides evidence supporting a protective effect of BCG against pulmonary disease in young children.

  6. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  7. Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2009-02-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258

  8. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  9. Two listeria outbreaks caused by smoked fish consumption-using whole-genome sequencing for outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg Lassen, S.; Ethelberg, S.; Björkman, J. T.;

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes may contaminate and persist in food production facilities and cause repeated, seemingly sporadic, illnesses over extended periods of time. We report on the investigation of two such concurrent outbreaks. We compared patient isolates and available isolates from foods and food...... production facilities by use of whole-genome sequencing and subsequent multilocus sequence type and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Outbreak cases shared outbreak strains, defined as Listeria monocytogenes isolates belonging to the same sequence type with fewer than five single nucleotide....... Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cold smoked or gravad fish products or their two respective production environments were repeatedly found to belong to the outbreak strains. Outbreak cases more often than sporadic cases stated that they consumed the relevant fish products, odds ratio 10.7. Routine...

  10. An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boakye

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has previously been reported in West Africa, but more recently, sporadic reports of CL have increased. Leishmania major has been identified from Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Three zymodemes (MON-26, MON-117, and MON-74, the most frequent have been found. The geographic range of leishmaniasis is limited by the sand fly vector, its feeding preferences, and its capacity to support internal development of specific species of Leishmania. The risk of acquiring CL has been reported to increase considerably with human activity and epidemics of CL have been associated with deforestation, road construction, wars, or other activities where humans intrude the habitat of the vector. In the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana, a localised outbreak of skin ulcers, possibly CL, was noted in 2003 without any such documented activity. This outbreak was consistent with CL as evidenced using various methods including parasite identification, albeit, in a small number of patients with ulcers.This paper reports the outbreak in Ghana. The report does not address a single planned study but rather a compilation of data from a number of ad-hoc investigations in response to the outbreak plus observations and findings made by the authors. It acknowledges that a number of the observations need to be further clarified. What is the detailed epidemiology of the disease? What sparked the epidemic? Can it happen again? What was the causative agent of the disease, L. major or some other Leishmania spp.? What were the main vectors and animal reservoirs? What are the consequences for surveillance of the disease and the prevention of its reoccurrence when the communities see a self-healing disease and may not think it is important?

  11. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  12. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pozmogova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  13. Bovine Norovirus: Carbohydrate Ligand, Environmental Contamination, and Potential Cross-Species Transmission via Oysters ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) epitope not expressed by humans, similar to the GIII.2 Newbury2 strain. This ligand was not detectable on oyster tissues, suggesting that oysters may not be able to accumulate substantial amounts of GIII strains due to the lack of shared carbohydrate ligand and that they should be unable to contribute to select GIII strains with an increased ability to recognize humans. PMID:20709837

  14. Limited emigration from an outbreak of a forest pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnås, Cecilia; Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna; Battisti, Andrea; Wallén, Johan; Larsson, Stig

    2011-11-01

    Population density and individual dispersal behaviour affect species' distribution dynamics. Population densities vary over time, and some species occasionally increase to very high numbers, for example during outbreaks. In such situations, populations are expected to expand into new areas as a result of density-dependent dispersal which sometimes even results in range expansion. A local population of the northern pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pinivora has recently reached outbreak densities at the edge of its northern range at the southern tip of Gotland Island in the Baltic Sea. We first investigated whether the outbreak had resulted in establishment of populations in suitable habitats on Gotland Island outside the outbreak area. Six small populations were found that could potentially have originated from the outbreak area. However, data from 12 microsatellite markers strongly suggest that these populations did not originate from the recent outbreak. Genetic variability was not reduced in these small, isolated populations, and there were several unique alleles, indicating instead a different population history and that there has been no recent range expansion. In addition, there was apparent genetic isolation by geographic distance, implying that despite the high density of the outbreak population, significant gene flow has not occurred. PMID:22004127

  15. Algorithms for rapid outbreak detection: a research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, David L; Burkom, Howard; Campbell, Murray; Hogan, William R; Moore, Andrew W

    2005-04-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated interest in enhancing public health surveillance to detect disease outbreaks more rapidly than is currently possible. To advance research on improving the timeliness of outbreak detection, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency sponsored the Bio-event Advanced Leading Indicator Recognition Technology (BioALIRT) project beginning in 2001. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of research on outbreak detection algorithms conducted by academic and industrial partners in the BioALIRT project. We first suggest a practical classification for outbreak detection algorithms that considers the types of information encountered in surveillance analysis. We then present a synthesis of our research according to this classification. The research conducted for this project has examined how to use spatial and other covariate information from disparate sources to improve the timeliness of outbreak detection. Our results suggest that use of spatial and other covariate information can improve outbreak detection performance. We also identified, however, methodological challenges that limited our ability to determine the benefit of using outbreak detection algorithms that operate on large volumes of data. Future research must address challenges such as forecasting expected values in high-dimensional data and generating spatial and multivariate test data sets. PMID:15797000

  16. Systemic treatment of xenografts with vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 reveals the immunologic facet of oncolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GLV-1h68 is an attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV that selectively colonizes established human xenografts inducing their complete regression. Results Here, we explored xenograft/VACV/host interactions in vivo adopting organism-specific expression arrays and tumor cell/VACV in vitro comparing VACV replication patterns. There were no clear-cut differences in vitro among responding and non-responding tumors, however, tumor rejection was associated in vivo with activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and innate immune host's effector functions (IEFs correlating with VACV colonization of the xenografts. These signatures precisely reproduce those observed in humans during immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD that causes tumor or allograft rejection, autoimmunity or clearance of pathogens. We recently defined these common pathways in the "immunologic constant of rejection" hypothesis (ICR. Conclusion This study provides the first prospective validation of a universal mechanism associated with TSD. Thus, xenograft infection by oncolytic VACV, beyond offering a promising therapy of established cancers, may represent a reliable pre-clinical model to test therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the central pathways leading to TSD; this information may lead to the identification of principles that could refine the treatment of cancer and chronic infection by immune stimulation or autoimmunity and allograft rejection through immune tolerance.

  17. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra van den Doel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been documented, although at low incidences. The CHIKV RNA genome encodes five structural proteins (C, E1, E2, E3 and 6K. The E1 spike protein drives the fusion process within the cytoplasm, while the E2 protein is believed to interact with cellular receptors and therefore most probably constitutes the target of neutralizing antibodies. We have constructed recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA expressing E3E2, 6KE1, or the entire CHIKV envelope polyprotein cassette E3E26KE1. MVA is an appropriate platform because of its demonstrated clinical safety and its suitability for expression of various heterologous proteins. After completing the immunization scheme, animals were challenged with CHIV-S27. Immunization of AG129 mice with MVAs expressing E2 or E3E26KE1 elicited neutralizing antibodies in all animals and provided 100% protection against lethal disease. In contrast, 75% of the animals immunized with 6KE1 were protected against lethal infection. In conclusion, MVA expressing the glycoprotein E2 of CHIKV represents as an immunogenic and effective candidate vaccine against CHIKV infections.

  18. Azathioprine inhibits vaccinia virus replication in both BSC-40 and RAG cell lines acting on different stages of virus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaso, Clarissa R A; Oliveira, Marcus F; Massarani, Susana M; Moussatché, Nissin

    2002-08-15

    In the present study we demonstrate that azathioprine (AZA) inhibits vaccinia virus (VV) replication in both BSC-40 and RAG cell lines, acting on different stages of virus cycle. In BSC-40 cells, early protein synthesis was not significantly affected, but late gene expression was severely impaired. In RAG cells all stages of gene expression were completed during synchronous infection in the presence of the drug. The onset of DNA replication was not affected in RAG cells, but a severe inhibition was observed in BSC-40 cells. Electron microscopic analysis of VV-infected RAG cells treated with AZA revealed brick-shaped particles presenting abnormal definition of the internal structure. Purified virions from AZA-treated RAG cells presented several modifications of the protein content, a lesser amount of DNA, and a lower PFU:particle ratio. Our results suggest that in VV-infected RAG cells AZA interfered with virus morphogenesis, whereas in BSC-40 cells the replicative cycle was inhibited at the DNA replication stage.

  19. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B1 to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B1 to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, and IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B1 as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B1 activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450

  20. Field use of a vaccinia-rabies recombinant vaccine for the control of sylvatic rabies in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Aubert, M F; Pastoret, P P; Masson, E; Schon, J; Lombard, M; Chappuis, G; Languet, B; Desmettre, P

    1996-09-01

    During recent years, most research on the control of sylvatic rabies has concentrated on developing methods of oral vaccination of wild rabies vectors. To improve both the safety and the stability of the vaccine used, a recombinant vaccinia virus, which expresses the immunising glycoprotein of rabies virus (VRG), has been developed and tested extensively in the laboratory as well as in the field. From 1989 to 1995, approximately 8.5 million VRG vaccine doses were dispersed in Western Europe to vaccinate red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and in the United States of America (USA) to vaccinate raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). In Europe, the use of VRG has led to the elimination of sylvatic rabies from large areas of land, which have consequently been freed from the need for vaccination. Nevertheless, despite very good examples of cross-border cooperation, reinfections have occurred in some regions, due to the difficulty of co-ordinating vaccination plans among neighbouring countries. In the USA, preliminary data from field trails indicate a significant reduction in the incidence of rabies in vaccinated areas. PMID:9025144

  1. Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Chen, G J; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 160,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete open reading frames [Niles et al. (1986) Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. We have employed a two-step Northern hybridization protocol using single-stranded DNA probes from M13 recombinants in order to identify the mRNA products from the 13 genes. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection; six are transcribed only at late times; one gene is expressed at both early and late times after virus infection. The D11 gene is transcribed into two late mRNA species, one full-length and the other derived from the 3' one-third of the coding sequence. Translation of hybrid-selected mRNA was carried out in an attempt to identify the protein products encoded by each mRNA. Protein products were found for each early gene but translation was successful for only two of the eight late mRNAs. With the completion of the physical map it is apparent that the early and late genes in the HindIII D fragment are arranged in order to minimize potential interference caused by the expression of closely packed viral genes.

  2. A genotype of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that facilitates replication in suspension cultures in chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ingo; Horn, Deborah; John, Katrin; Sandig, Volker

    2013-01-21

    While vectored vaccines, based on hyperattenuated viruses, may lead to new treatment options against infectious diseases and certain cancers, they are also complex products and sometimes difficult to provide in sufficient amount and purity. To facilitate vaccine programs utilizing host-restricted poxviruses, we established avian suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX) and developed a robust, chemically defined, culturing process for production of this class of vectors. For one prominent member, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), we now describe a new strain that appears to replicate to greater yields of infectious units, especially in the cell-free supernatant of cultures in chemically defined media. The new strain was obtained by repeated passaging in CR suspension cultures and, consistent with reports on the exceptional genetic stability of MVA, sequencing of 135 kb of the viral genomic DNA revealed that only three structural proteins (A3L, A9L and A34R) each carry a single amino acid exchange (H639Y, K75E and D86Y, respectively). Host restriction in a plaque-purified isolate of the new genotype appears to be maintained in cell culture. Processing towards an injectable vaccine preparation may be simplified with this strain as a complete lysate, containing the main burden of host cell contaminants, may not be required anymore to obtain adequate yields.

  3. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F J; Widmer, R.; Attin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: ...

  4. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  5. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  6. Occurrence of C. botulinum in healthy cattle and their environment following poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Hollebecque, F; Rouxel, S; Barbé, A; Houard, E; Léon, D; Poëzévara, T; Fach, P; Woudstra, C; Mahé, F; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2015-10-22

    Ten cattle farms located in an area with a recent history of poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic C. botulinum in healthy cattle. Environmental samples in the 10 cattle farms and bovine fecal contents in farms with a confirmed environmental contamination were collected. Detection of C. botulinum toxin genes C, D, C/D, D/C and E was performed using real-time PCR. 4.9% (7/143) of the environmental samples collected in the 10 investigated cattle farms were positive for C. botulinum type C/D. Theses samples (boot-swabs in stalls and on pasture and water of a stream) were collected in 3 different farms. One cow dung sample and 3 out of 64 fecal contents samples collected in a single farm were also positive for C. botulinum type C/D. This study demonstrates that cattle are probably indirectly contaminated via poultry botulism in the area and that they can be intermittent carrier of C. botulinum type C/D after poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.

  7. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  8. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  9. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  10. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  11. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  12. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  13. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  14. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Taranto; Francesca Conte; Rosario Fruci

    2013-01-01

    Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT), total nitrogen (TN), lactose (...

  15. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  16. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LI; LING FANG; LI RONG ZOU; CHANG WEN KE; PING HUANG; JI CHENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong. During October 2003 and December 2004, fecal and anal swabs specimens collected from 13 outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis were tested for norovirus. Specimens were detected by RT-PCR and sequenced. The descriptive data were also collected. Eight in 13 outbreaks of gastroenteritis were positive for norovirus. All of 8 virus strains were identified as genogroup Ⅱ but belonged to 3 genotypes. Six strains were G Ⅱ-4 genotype. Norovirus is a major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Guangdong province and has a wide distribution. The illness happended from late autumn to winter. The prevalent strains were genogroup Ⅱ virus.

  17. Implication of vaccination against dengue for Zika outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Xiao, Yanni; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus co-circulates with dengue in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cases of co-infection by dengue and Zika have been reported, the implication of this co-infection for an integrated intervention program for controlling both dengue and Zika must be addressed urgently. Here, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission dynamics of co-infection of dengue and Zika with particular focus on the effects of Zika outbreak by vaccination against dengue among human hosts. Our analysis determines specific conditions under which vaccination against dengue can significantly increase the Zika outbreak peak, and speed up the Zika outbreak peak timing. Our results call for further study about the co-infection to direct an integrated control to balance the benefits for dengue control and the damages of Zika outbreak. PMID:27774987

  18. Outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning at Junior World Rowing Championships.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A C

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of Salmonella enteriditis occurring at the Junior World Rowing Championships at Poznan, Poland, in August 1995 which was to have a significant effect on the performance of several of the largest national teams.

  19. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  20. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  1. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  2. An Alternative Method to Facilitate cDNA Cloning for Expression Studies in Mammalian Cells by Introducing Positive Blue White Selection in Vaccinia Topoisomerase I-Mediated Recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Udo

    Full Text Available One of the most basic techniques in biomedical research is cDNA cloning for expression studies in mammalian cells. Vaccinia topoisomerase I-mediated cloning (TOPO cloning by Invitrogen allows fast and efficient recombination of PCR-amplified DNAs. Among TOPO vectors, a pcDNA3.1 directional cloning vector is particularly convenient, since it can be used for expression analysis immediately after cloning. However, I found that the cloning efficiency was reduced when RT-PCR products were used as inserts (about one-quarter. Since TOPO vectors accept any PCR products, contaminating fragments in the insert DNA create negative clones. Therefore, I designed a new mammalian expression vector enabling positive blue white selection in Vaccinia topoisomerase I-mediated cloning. The method utilized a short nontoxic LacZα peptide as a linker for GFP fusion. When cDNAs were properly inserted into the vector, minimal expression of the fusion proteins in E. coli (harboring lacZΔM15 resulted in formation of blue colonies on X-gal plates. This method improved both cloning efficiency (75% and directional cloning (99% by distinguishing some of the negative clones having non-cording sequences, since these inserts often disturbed translation of lacZα. Recombinant plasmids were directly applied to expression studies using GFP as a reporter. Utilization of the P2A peptide allowed for separate expression of GFP. In addition, the preparation of Vaccinia topoisomerase I-linked vectors was streamlined, which consisted of successive enzymatic reactions with a single precipitation step, completing in 3 hr. The arrangement of unique restriction sites enabled further modification of vector components for specific applications. This system provides an alternative method for cDNA cloning and expression in mammalian cells.

  3. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  4. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  5. Potent and Broadly Reactive HIV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by a Vaccinia Virus Vector Prime-C2V3C3 Polypeptide Boost Immunization Strategy▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, José Maria; Borrego, Pedro; Rocha, Cheila; Barroso, Helena; Quintas, Alexandre; Novo, Carlos; Taveira, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection affects about 1 to 2 million individuals, the majority living in West Africa, Europe, and India. As for HIV-1, new strategies for the prevention of HIV-2 infection are needed. Our aim was to produce new vaccine immunogens that elicit the production of broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Native and truncated envelope proteins from the reference HIV-2ALI isolate were expressed in vaccinia virus or in bacteria. This source isolate was used due to its unique phenotype combining CD4 independence and CCR5 usage. NAbs were not elicited in BALB/c mice by single immunization with a truncated and fully glycosylated envelope gp125 (gp125t) or a recombinant polypeptide comprising the C2, V3, and C3 envelope regions (rpC2-C3). A strong and broad NAb response was, however, elicited in mice primed with gp125t expressed in vaccinia virus and boosted with rpC2-C3. Serum from these animals potently neutralized (median 50% neutralizing titer, 3,200) six of six highly divergent primary HIV-2 isolates. Coreceptor usage and the V3 sequence of NAb-sensitive isolates were similar to that of the vaccinating immunogen (HIV-2ALI). In contrast, NAbs were not reactive on three X4 isolates that displayed major changes in V3 loop sequence and structure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that broadly reactive HIV-2 NAbs can be elicited by using a vaccinia virus vector-prime/rpC2-C3-boost immunization strategy and suggest a potential relationship between escape to neutralization and cell tropism. PMID:20844029

  6. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

  7. Clostridium difficile outbreaks: prevention and treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez FJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fernando J Martinez,1 Daniel A Leffler,2 Ciaran P Kelly21Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI have increased dramatically over the past decade. Its treatment, however, has largely remained the same with the exception of oral vancomycin use as a first-line agent in severe disease. From 1999 to 2004, 20,642 deaths were attributed to CDI in the United States, almost 7 times the rate of all other intestinal infections combined. Worldwide, several major CDI outbreaks have occurred, and many of these were associated with the NAP1 strain. This ‘epidemic’ strain has contributed to the rising incidence and mortality of CDI. The purpose of this article is to review the current management, treatment, infection control, and prevention strategies that are needed to combat this increasingly morbid disease.Keywords: antibiotic, antimicrobial, infectious colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, nosocomial, iatrogenic, toxin, Clostridium difficile

  8. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  9. What's unusual in online disease outbreak news?

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accurate and timely detection of public health events of international concern is necessary to help support risk assessment and response and save lives. Novel event-based methods that use the World Wide Web as a signal source offer potential to extend health surveillance into areas where traditional indicator networks are lacking. In this paper we address the issue of systematically evaluating online health news to support automatic alerting using daily disease-country counts text mined from real world data using BioCaster. For 18 data sets produced by BioCaster, we compare 5 aberration detection algorithms (EARS C2, C3, W2, F-statistic and EWMA) for performance against expert moderated ProMED-mail postings. Results: We report sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), mean alerts/100 days and F1, at 95% confidence interval (CI) for 287 ProMED-mail postings on 18 outbreaks across 14 countries over a 366 day period. Results indicate that W2 had the b...

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  11. A family outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K; Frew, C E; Carrington, D

    1992-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described Chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. Here we present a family outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. No history of exposure to birds, pets or animals was obtained. As C. pneumoniae isolation from respiratory secretions is not without difficulty, diagnosis usually relies currently on serum-based tests. In this study C. pneumoniae specific IgM determined by the micro-immunofluorescence test was detected in the three clinical cases. All three cases had an elevated complement-fixing antibody titre to Psittacosis-LGV antigen, which may have suggested psittacosis, if type-specific tests had not been performed. In addition, three other members of the family had C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody although specific IgM was absent. These three younger members of the family had been symptomatic in the month preceding symptoms in their older sibling and their parents. All the symptomatic members of the family made a complete recovery on tetracycline therapy. PMID:1522345

  12. Performance of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Testing in Outbreak Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; King, Eddie-Chong; Blair, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the...

  13. Structuring an event ontology for disease outbreak detection

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu Mika; Chanlekha Hutchatai; Kawazoe Ai; Collier Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes the design of an event ontology being developed for application in the machine understanding of infectious disease-related events reported in natural language text. This event ontology is designed to support timely detection of disease outbreaks and rapid judgment of their alerting status by 1) bridging a gap between layman's language used in disease outbreak reports and public health experts' deep knowledge, and 2) making multi-lingual information ava...

  14. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannis Alamanos; Petros Kokkinos; Georgia Spala; Kassiani Μellou; Apostolos Vantarakis

    2011-01-01

    In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants), triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44), 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis...

  15. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfe...

  16. A DENGUE OUTBREAK: NEW CIVIL HOSPITAL, SURAT IN GUJARAT ALERT!

    OpenAIRE

    Hiteshri; Sukesha; Rahul; Chintan; Keshav; Kosambiya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During September 2014, increased number of fever cases were reported from the New Civil Hospital Campus, Surat (NCHS), Gujarat State. An entomological and epidemiological investigation of this outbreak was conducted to ascertain the nature and cause of the outbreak. METHODOLOGY Epidemiological surveillance of fever cases was carried out in the New Civil Hospital Campus during the period of 3 rd to 20th September 2014. House to house survey wa...

  17. Dengue virus type 1 clade replacement in recurring homotypic outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Tan, Kim-Kee; Johari, Jefree; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Danlami, Mohammed Bashar; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; MatRahim, NorAziyah; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurring dengue outbreaks occur in cyclical pattern in most endemic countries. The recurrences of dengue virus (DENV) infection predispose the population to increased risk of contracting the severe forms of dengue. Understanding the DENV evolutionary mechanism underlying the recurring dengue outbreaks has important implications for epidemic prediction and disease control. Results We used a set of viral envelope (E) gene to reconstruct the phylogeny of DENV-1 isolated between the p...

  18. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  19. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  20. An Alternative Method to Facilitate cDNA Cloning for Expression Studies in Mammalian Cells by Introducing Positive Blue White Selection in Vaccinia Topoisomerase I-Mediated Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    One of the most basic techniques in biomedical research is cDNA cloning for expression studies in mammalian cells. Vaccinia topoisomerase I-mediated cloning (TOPO cloning by Invitrogen) allows fast and efficient recombination of PCR-amplified DNAs. Among TOPO vectors, a pcDNA3.1 directional cloning vector is particularly convenient, since it can be used for expression analysis immediately after cloning. However, I found that the cloning efficiency was reduced when RT-PCR products were used as...

  1. A selective Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for vaccinia H1-related phosphatase--a dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Eunha; Kang, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eun Joung; Cho, Alvin R; Chung, Sang J; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-07-01

    We report a Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for selective monitoring of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). A rational design based on the structures at the active site of dual-specific PTPs can enable SfBP to selectively monitor the activity of these PTPs with a 93-fold change in brightness. Moreover, screening results of SfBP against 30 classical PTPs and 35 dual-specific PTPs show that it is selective toward vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, a dual-specific PTP (DUSP-3).

  2. Protection of Mice from Fatal Measles Encephalitis by Vaccination with Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Encoding Either the Hemagglutinin or the Fusion Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillien, Robert; Spehner, Daniele; Kirn, Andre; Giraudon, Pascale; Buckland, Robin; Wild, Fabian; Lecocq, Jean-Pierre

    1988-02-01

    Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding the hemagglutinin or fusion protein of measles virus have been constructed. Infection of cell cultures with the recombinants led to the synthesis of authentic measles proteins as judged by their electrophoretic mobility, recognition by antibodies, glycosylation, proteolytic cleavage, and presentation on the cell surface. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of the recombinant encoding the hemagglutinin protein developed antibodies capable of both inhibiting hemagglutination activity and neutralizing measles virus, whereas animals vaccinated with the recombinant encoding the fusion protein developed measles neutralizing antibodies. Mice vaccinated with either of the recombinants resisted a normally lethal intracerebral inoculation of a cell-associated measles virus subacute sclerosing panencephalitis strain.

  3. Protection of rhesus monkeys from fatal Lassa fever by vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; McCormick, J. B.; Auperin, D; Brown, B G; Castor, M; Perez, G; Ruo, S; Conaty, A; Brammer, L.; S. Bauer

    1989-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute febrile disease of West Africa, where there are as many as 300,000 infections a year and an estimated 3000 deaths. As control of the rodent host is impracticable at present, the best immediate prospect is vaccination. We tested as potential vaccines in rhesus monkeys a closely related virus, Mopeia virus (two monkeys), and a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene, V-LSGPC (four monkeys). Two monkeys vaccinated with the New York Board of...

  4. Localization at high resolution of antibody-induced mobilization of vaccinia virus hemagglutinin and the major histocompatibility antigens on the plasma membrane of infected cells

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    We examined the consequence of simultaneous or independent binding of monospecific antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) of vaccinia virus and the A-, B- and -determinants of HLA on HeLa or Raji cells or KkDk determinants of H-2 on L929 cells. The bound antibodies were marked by goat-anti-mouse (GAM) or goat-anti-rabbit (GAR) fluorochrome conjugates suitable for light microscopy and GAM or GAR gold conjugates, used in electron microscopy. Specificity and amount of antibody adsorbed was ascertain...

  5. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  6. A Classification System for Hospital-Based Infection Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ganney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff or Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs, are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known and within patients (where it generally is known. A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how ‘realistic’ (or otherwise it is.

  7. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli - are we in control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werber Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are the most virulent diarrheagenic E. coli known to date. They can be spread with alarming ease via food as exemplified by a large sprout-borne outbreak of STEC O104:H4 in 2011 that was centered in northern Germany and affected several countries. Effective control of such outbreaks is an important public health task and necessitates early outbreak detection, fast identification of the outbreak vehicle and immediate removal of the suspected food from the market, flanked by consumer advice and measures to prevent secondary spread. In our view, opportunities to improve control of STEC outbreaks lie in early clinical suspicion for STEC infection, timely diagnosis of all STEC at the serotype-level and integrating molecular subtyping information into surveillance systems. Furthermore, conducting analytical studies that supplement patients' imperfect food history recall and performing, as an investigative element, product tracebacks, are pivotal but underutilized tools for successful epidemiologic identification of the suspected vehicle in foodborne outbreaks. As a corollary, these tools are amenable to tailor microbiological testing of suspected food. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/12

  8. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.

  9. Performance of rapid influenza diagnostic testing in outbreak settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; King, Eddie-Chong; Blair, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2014-12-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the context of institutional respiratory disease outbreaks. This study included outbreak-related respiratory specimens tested for influenza virus at Public Health Ontario Laboratories by both RIDT and rRT-PCR, from 1 September 2010 to 30 April 2013. At the outbreak level, performance testing of RIDTs compared to rRT-PCR for the detection of any influenza virus type demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 99.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.5%, and a negative predictive value of 85.3%. Because of their high specificity and PPV, even outside of the influenza season, RIDTs can play a role in screening for influenza virus in outbreaks and instituting antiviral therapy in a timely manner when positive. RIDTs can also be useful in remote settings where molecular virology testing is not easily accessible. Suboptimal sensitivity of RIDTs can be addressed by the use of molecular testing. PMID:25320225

  10. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  11. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  12. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research ther

  13. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  14. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  15. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  16. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  17. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  18. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  19. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  20. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  1. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  2. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  3. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fähnrich, C.; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O. O.; Benzler, J.; Claus, H.; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; R. Richter; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N.; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G.; Krause, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that ‘critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures’, i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness o...

  4. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak’s spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to ident...

  5. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H Buck

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi. Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h and late (24 h times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p. Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication.

  6. Immunological characterization of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing the human papillomavirus 16 E1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Germain, Claire; Spindler, Anita; Hoffmann, Chantal; Silvestre, Nathalie; Rooke, Ronald; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Préville, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Women showing normal cytology but diagnosed with a persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection have a higher risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer than noninfected women. As no therapeutic management other than surveillance is offered to these women, there is a major challenge to develop novel targeted therapies dedicated to the treatment of these patients. As such, E1 and E2 antigens, expressed early in the HPV life cycle, represent very interesting candidates. Both proteins are necessary for maintaining coordinated viral replication and gene synthesis during the differentiation process of the epithelium and are essential for the virus to complete its normal and propagative replication cycle. In the present study, we evaluated a new active targeted immunotherapeutic, a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector containing the E1 sequence of HPV16, aimed at inducing cellular immune responses with the potential to help and clear persistent HPV16-related infection. We carried out an extensive comparative time course analysis of the cellular immune responses induced by different schedules of immunization in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that multiple injections of MVA-E1 allowed sustained HPV16 E1-specific cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice and had no impact on the exhaustion phenotype of the generated HPV16 E1-specific CD8⁺ T cells, but they led to the differentiation of multifunctional effector T cells with high cytotoxic capacity. This study provides proof of concept that an MVA expressing HPV16 E1 can induce robust and long-lasting E1-specific responses and warrants further development of this candidate. PMID:24307238

  7. A novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in modified vaccinia virus ankara drives very early gene expression and potent immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia T Wennier

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been shown to be suitable for the generation of experimental vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, eliciting strong humoral and cellular immune responses. In viral vectored vaccines, strong recombinant antigen expression and timing of expression influence the quantity and quality of the immune response. Screening of synthetic and native poxvirus promoters for strong protein expression in vitro and potent immune responses in vivo led to the identification of the MVA13.5L promoter, a unique and novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in MVA composed of two 44 nucleotide long repeated motifs, each containing an early promoter element. The MVA13.5L gene is highly conserved across orthopoxviruses, yet its function is unknown. The unique structure of its promoter is not found for any other gene in the MVA genome and is also conserved in other orthopoxviruses. Comparison of the MVA13.5L promoter activity with synthetic poxviral promoters revealed that the MVA13.5L promoter produced higher levels of protein early during infection in HeLa cells and particularly in MDBK cells, a cell line in which MVA replication stops at an early stage before the expression of late genes. Finally, a recombinant antigen expressed under the control of this novel promoter induced high antibody titers and increased CD8 T cell responses in homologous prime-boost immunization compared to commonly used promoters. In particular, the recombinant antigen specific CD8 T cell responses dominated over the immunodominant B8R vector-specific responses after three vaccinations and even more during the memory phase. These results have identified the native MVA13.5L promoter as a new potent promoter for use in MVA vectored preventive and therapeutic vaccines.

  8. Biological properties of H5 hemagglutinin expressed by vaccinia virus vector and its immunological reactivity with human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noisumdaeng, Pirom; Pooruk, Phisanu; Kongchanagul, Alita; Assanasen, Susan; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Auewarakul, Prasert; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2013-02-01

    A recombinant vaccinia virus harboring the full length hemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from a highly pathogenic avian influenza A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1) virus (rVac-H5 HA virus) was constructed. The immunogenicity of the expressed HA protein was characterized using goat antiserum, mouse monoclonal antibody, and human sera. The expressed HA protein localized both in the cytoplasm and on the cytoplasmic membrane of the thymidine kinase negative cells infected with the rVac-H5 HA virus, as determined by immunofluorescence assay. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the rVac-H5 HA protein was post-translationally processed by proteolytic cleavage of the HA0 precursor into HA1 and HA2 domains; and all of these HA forms were immunogenic in BALB/c mice. The molecular weight (MW) of each HA domain was the same as the wild-type H5 HA produced in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with the H5N1 virus, but was higher than that expressed by a baculovirus-insect cell system. Sera from all H5N1 survivors reacted to HA0, HA1, and HA2 domains; whereas sera from H5N1-uninfected subjects reacted to the HA2 domain only, but not to HA0 or HA1, indicating that some cross-subtypic immunity exists in the general population. There was a lot-to-lot variation of the recombinant HA produced in the baculovirus-insect cell system that might affect the detection rate of antibody directed against certain HA domains. PMID:23374152

  9. A Hospital-wide Outbreak of Serratia marcescens, and Ishikawa's “Fishbone” Analysis to Support Outbreak Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Luzia; Schuepfer, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P.

    2016-01-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of Serratia marcescens in respiratory samples predominantly from patients in a surgical intensive care unit is reported. Most of these patients were cardiac surgical patients. Initially, a vigorous but inconclusive investigation was implemented on the basis of standardized (according the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) steps of outbreak investigation. Then, a systemic quality management approach with “fishbone” analysis was added. As a consequence, plausible causes for the outbreak were identified: (i) S marcescens was found on the transesophageal echocardiography probe used during cardiac surgery; and (ii) the quality of the surface disinfection was insufficient due to multiple reasons and was completely reengineered. In conclusion, in addition to the standardized steps of outbreak investigation, the complementary use of quality management tools such as the Ishikawa “fishbone” analysis is helpful for outbreak control. The complete reengineering of the disinfectant procurement and logistics is assumed to have been the most effective measure to control the described outbreak. PMID:26783861

  10. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-01-01

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling. PMID:25846493

  11. Saharan dust outbreaks and iberulite episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Hernandez, Jose L.; Sanchez-Navas, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Mineral dust aerosols coming from the arid and semiarid regions of the world can aggregate and form microspherulites under special atmospheric conditions. This is the case for iberulites, formed in the atmosphere from Saharan dust intrusions into the southern Iberian Peninsula during the summer, prompting a noteworthy case of dust accretion unique in the world. This study consists of a long-term monitoring of Saharan dust outbreaks producing haze that reaches the southern Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol concentration, relative humidity, and temperature time series available at the ground stations in this area indicate sharp variations of these atmospheric variables during the iberulite-forming events. Most of these events occurred during the summer (60%), with 65 episodes for the period 2005-2013, in which 107 plumes reached the Iberian Peninsula. Iberulite episodes lasted 5 days on average, during which an initial increase of particulate matter (PM) levels and temperature, accompanied by a decrease in relative humidity, was registered until the third day. These trends reversed when the plume began to abate. Our data also indicate that iberulites form during dusty episodes when a minimum threshold in the content of large aerosol particles (PM10) reached concentrations above 15 µg × m-3. Surface evaporation due to the sharply rising air temperatures give rise to clouds associated with the plume, where the water droplets that formed from condensation capture large amounts of aerosols as they fall. In this sense, muddy raindrop impacts with variable water:dust ratios recorded during red-rain episodes are interpreted as the precursor of the iberulites. A singular process of dust aggregation is here proposed for the formation of iberulites.

  12. Fresh Produce-Associated Listeriosis Outbreaks, Sources of Concern, Teachable Moments, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Danisha; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes was first demonstrated through the investigation of the 1981 Maritime Provinces outbreak involving coleslaw. In the following two decades, most listeriosis outbreaks involved foods of animal origin, e.g., deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, especially epidemic clones I, II, and Ia, were frequently implicated in these outbreaks. However, since 2008 several outbreaks have been linked to diverse types of fresh produce: sprouts, celery, cantaloupe, stone fruit, and apples. The 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak was one of the deadliest foodborne outbreaks in recent U.S. history. This review discusses produce-related outbreaks of listeriosis with a focus on special trends, unusual findings, and potential paradigm shifts. With the exception of sprouts, implicated produce types were novel, and outbreaks were one-time events. Several involved serotype 1/2a, and in the 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak, serotype 1/2b was for the first time conclusively linked to a common-source outbreak of invasive listeriosis. Also in this outbreak, for the first time multiple strains were implicated in a common-source outbreak. In 2014, deployment of whole genome sequencing as part of outbreak investigation validated this technique as a pivotal tool for outbreak detection and speedy resolution. In spite of the unusual attributes of produce-related outbreaks, in all but one of the investigated cases (the possible exception being the coleslaw outbreak) contamination was traced to the same sources as those for outbreaks associated with other vehicles (e.g., deli meats), i.e., the processing environment and equipment. The public health impact of farm-level contamination remains uncharacterized. This review highlights knowledge gaps regarding virulence and other potentially unique attributes of produce outbreak strains, the potential for novel fresh produce items to become unexpectedly implicated in outbreaks

  13. Mining the key predictors for event outbreaks in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Bao, Yuanyuan; Xue, Yibo

    2016-04-01

    It will be beneficial to devise a method to predict a so-called event outbreak. Existing works mainly focus on exploring effective methods for improving the accuracy of predictions, while ignoring the underlying causes: What makes event go viral? What factors that significantly influence the prediction of an event outbreak in social networks? In this paper, we proposed a novel definition for an event outbreak, taking into account the structural changes to a network during the propagation of content. In addition, we investigated features that were sensitive to predicting an event outbreak. In order to investigate the universality of these features at different stages of an event, we split the entire lifecycle of an event into 20 equal segments according to the proportion of the propagation time. We extracted 44 features, including features related to content, users, structure, and time, from each segment of the event. Based on these features, we proposed a prediction method using supervised classification algorithms to predict event outbreaks. Experimental results indicate that, as time goes by, our method is highly accurate, with a precision rate ranging from 79% to 97% and a recall rate ranging from 74% to 97%. In addition, after applying a feature-selection algorithm, the top five selected features can considerably improve the accuracy of the prediction. Data-driven experimental results show that the entropy of the eigenvector centrality, the entropy of the PageRank, the standard deviation of the betweenness centrality, the proportion of re-shares without content, and the average path length are the key predictors for an event outbreak. Our findings are especially useful for further exploring the intrinsic characteristics of outbreak prediction.

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  15. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased. PMID:26474845

  16. The acidic C-terminus of vaccinia virus I3 single-strand binding protein promotes proper assembly of DNA-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melissa L; Desaulniers, Megan A; Noyce, Ryan S; Evans, David H

    2016-02-01

    The vaccinia virus I3L gene encodes a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that is essential for virus DNA replication and is conserved in all Chordopoxviruses. The I3 protein contains a negatively charged C-terminal tail that is a common feature of SSBs. Such acidic tails are critical for SSB-dependent replication, recombination and repair. We cloned and purified variants of the I3 protein, along with a homolog from molluscum contagiosum virus, and tested how the acidic tail affected DNA-protein interactions. Deleting the C terminus of I3 enhanced the affinity for single-stranded DNA cellulose and gel shift analyses showed that it also altered the migration of I3-DNA complexes in agarose gels. Microinjecting an antibody against I3 into vaccinia-infected cells also selectively inhibited virus replication. We suggest that this domain promotes cooperative binding of I3 to DNA in a way that would maintain an open DNA configuration around a replication site.

  17. The attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by the removal of the viral M1L-K2L genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weijun; Fang, Qing; Zhuang, Ke; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Zhou, Jingying; Liu, Li; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2007-09-01

    To generate a safe vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT)-based vaccine vector, it is necessary to develop a method to attenuate the virus. A modified VTT (MVTT(2-GFP)) was constructed by replacing the viral M1L-K2L genes with a GFP gene. In comparison to the parental VTT, MVTT(2-GFP) lost its replication capacity in rabbit RK13 and human HeLa cell lines. The life cycle of viral replication was blocked at different stages in these two cell lines as determined by electron microscope examination. MVTT(2-GFP) was less virulent than VTT for 100-fold by measuring mouse body weight loss after intranasal viral inoculation and for 340-fold by determining the intracranial LD(50) value in mice. The foreign GFP gene was stable genetically after 10 rounds of passage in Vero cells. Importantly, MVTT(2-GFP) elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the GFP gene in mice. With two intramuscular inoculations of 10(5)PFU virus, the anti-GFP antibody reciprocal endpoint titer reached over 700 as determined by an ELISA. The number of IFN-gamma secreting T cells reached over 350SFU per million splenocytes against a CD8+ T cell-specific epitope of GFP. Collectively, the removal of the M1L-K2L genes is a useful method to generate an attenuated vaccinia Tian Tan vaccine vector.

  18. Protection of rhesus monkeys from fatal Lassa fever by vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; McCormick, J B; Auperin, D; Brown, B G; Castor, M; Perez, G; Ruo, S; Conaty, A; Brammer, L; Bauer, S

    1989-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute febrile disease of West Africa, where there are as many as 300,000 infections a year and an estimated 3000 deaths. As control of the rodent host is impracticable at present, the best immediate prospect is vaccination. We tested as potential vaccines in rhesus monkeys a closely related virus, Mopeia virus (two monkeys), and a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene, V-LSGPC (four monkeys). Two monkeys vaccinated with the New York Board of Health strain of vaccinia virus as controls died after challenge with Lassa virus. The two monkeys vaccinated with Mopeia virus developed antibodies measurable by radioimmunoprecipitation prior to challenge, and they survived challenge by Lassa virus with minimal physical or physiologic disturbances. However, both showed a transient, low-titer Lassa viremia. Two of the four animals vaccinated with V-LSGPC had antibodies to both Lassa glycoproteins, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation. All four animals survived a challenge of Lassa virus but experienced a transient febrile illness and moderate physiologic changes following challenge. Virus was recoverable from each of these animals, but at low titer and only during a brief period, as observed for the Mopeia-protected animals. We conclude that V-LSGPC can protect rhesus monkeys against death from Lassa fever. PMID:2911575

  19. Outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by datterino tomatoes, Denmark, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Frank, C; Jensen, T; Torpdahl, M; Søborg, B; Dorleans, F; Rabsch, W; Prager, R; Gossner, C M; Ethelberg, S

    2016-10-01

    In September 2011, a patient cluster with a rare Salmonella serotype - Strathcona - was identified in Denmark. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. In addition to hypothesis-generating interviews, comparable analyses of patients' household shopping receipts were conducted. A matched case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls was conducted to test the findings of the hypothesis-generating investigation. In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark. Additionally, 28 cases were reported from Germany, Italy, Austria and Belgium. The results of the investigation in Denmark showed that 8/10 cases had bought datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. Illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain [matched odds ratio (mOR) 16·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes (OR 28·1, 95% CI 2·6-302). Traceback investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer. This outbreak, linked to tomatoes, underpins the growing recognition of the broad source range of Salmonella and the ability of fresh produce to cause multi-country outbreaks. It is important to strengthen the international cooperation between public-health and food-safety authorities in the European Union to investigate future multi-country outbreaks in order to prevent illness from ready-to-eat produce.

  20. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, Nh; Naumova, En

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old onesFhealth threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorismFcall for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance.

  1. A Humidity-Driven Prediction System for Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrastarson, H. T.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of absolute (or specific) humidity conditions as a leading explanation for the seasonal behavior of influenza outbreaks in temperate regions. If the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be forecast, this would be of great value for public health response efforts. We have developed and implemented a SIRS (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) type numerical prediction system that is driven by specific humidity to predict influenza outbreaks. For the humidity, we have explored using both satellite data from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instrument as well as ERA-Interim re-analysis data. We discuss the development, testing, sensitivities and limitations of the prediction system and show results for influenza outbreaks in the United States during the years 2010-2014 (modeled in retrospect). Comparisons are made with other existing prediction systems and available data for influenza outbreaks from Google Flu Trends and the CDC (Center for Disease Control), and the incorporation of these datasets into the forecasting system is discussed.

  2. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  3. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  4. Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environm...

  5. Traffic Optimization to Control Epidemic Outbreaks in Metapopulation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Preciado, Victor M

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel framework to study viral spreading processes in metapopulation models. Large subpopulations (i.e., cities) are connected via metalinks (i.e., roads) according to a metagraph structure (i.e., the traffic infrastructure). The problem of containing the propagation of an epidemic outbreak in a metapopulation model by controlling the traffic between subpopulations is considered. Controlling the spread of an epidemic outbreak can be written as a spectral condition involving the eigenvalues of a matrix that depends on the network structure and the parameters of the model. Based on this spectral condition, we propose a convex optimization framework to find cost-optimal approaches to traffic control in epidemic outbreaks.

  6. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  7. Water-borne epidemic outbreaks; Brotes epidemicos de transmision hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciranda Larrea, F.B.; Hidalgo Garcia, E.; Peiro Callizo, E.F.; Herrero Alana, G.

    1995-12-31

    The control of water-transmitted infections is one of the key aims of any Public Heath-Care System. For this paper a descriptive epidemiologic analysis has been performed using data obtained through normalized forms as well as Annual Reports of Epidemiology Units and Veterinary Inspection Records. A total of 22 outbreaks have been recorded in the period of reference. Those outbreaks affected 2.263 people. The attack-rate was of 99 people affected for each 1000 ar risk. The main agents turned out to be Norwalk virus, Rotavirus and A-Hepatitis virus. The most important risk factor was undoubtedly the ingestion of untreated or not properly treated water. The improvement of water treatment and distribution systems, the increase in the population being supplied with potable water, along with the ease of the drought have caused a significant drop in the number of water-transmitted outbreaks. (Author)

  8. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  9. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  10. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  11. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...

  12. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  13. Ebola virus outbreak, updates on current therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Erickson, Timothy B; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2015-07-01

    Filoviruses are enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which include Ebola and Marburg viruses, known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality of up to 90%. There have been several Ebola virus outbreaks since the first outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 of which, the recent 2013-2015 epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone is the largest in recorded history. Within a few months of the start of the outbreak in December 2013, thousands of infected cases were reported with a significant number of deaths. As of March 2015, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there have been nearly 25,000 suspected cases, with 15,000 confirmed by laboratory testing, and over 10,000 deaths. The large number of cases and the high mortality rate, combined with the lack of effective Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments, necessitate the development of potent and safe therapeutic measures to combat the current and future outbreaks. Since the beginning of the outbreak, there have been considerable efforts to develop and characterize protective measures including vaccines and antiviral small molecules, and some have proven effective in vitro and in animal models. Most recently, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies has been shown to be highly effective in protecting non-human primates from Ebola virus infection. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the nature of the virus, phylogenetic classification, genomic organization and replication, disease transmission, and viral entry and highlight the current approaches and efforts, in the development of therapeutics, to control the outbreak. PMID:25962887

  14. Imaging characteristics, tissue distribution, and spread of a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oncolytic viruses show promise for treating cancer. However, to assess therapy and potential toxicity, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed. This study aims to determine the in vivo biodistribution, and imaging and timing characteristics of a vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, encoding the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS. METHODS: GLV-1h153 was modified from GLV-1h68 to encode the hNIS gene. Timing of cellular uptake of radioiodide (131I in human pancreatic carcinoma cells PANC-1 was assessed using radiouptake assays. Viral biodistribution was determined in nude mice bearing PANC-1 xenografts, and infection in tumors confirmed histologically and optically via Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP and bioluminescence. Timing characteristics of enhanced radiouptake in xenografts were assessed via (124I-positron emission tomography (PET. Detection of systemic administration of virus was investigated with both (124I-PET and 99m-technecium gamma-scintigraphy. RESULTS: GLV-1h153 successfully facilitated time-dependent intracellular uptake of (131I in PANC-1 cells with a maximum uptake at 24 hours postinfection (P<0.05. In vivo, biodistribution profiles revealed persistence of virus in tumors 5 weeks postinjection at 10(9 plaque-forming unit (PFU/gm tissue, with the virus mainly cleared from all other major organs. Tumor infection by GLV-1h153 was confirmed via optical imaging and histology. GLV-1h153 facilitated imaging virus replication in tumors via PET even at 8 hours post radiotracer injection, with a mean %ID/gm of 3.82 ± 0.46 (P<0.05 2 days after intratumoral administration of virus, confirmed via tissue radiouptake assays. One week post systemic administration, GLV-1h153-infected tumors were detected via (124I-PET and 99m-technecium-scintigraphy. CONCLUSION: GLV-1h153 is a promising oncolytic agent against pancreatic cancer with a promising biosafety profile. GLV-1h153 facilitated time-dependent hNIS-specific radiouptake in pancreatic

  15. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  16. Estimating the hidden burden of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

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    Andrew J K Conlan

    Full Text Available The number of cattle herds placed under movement restrictions in Great Britain (GB due to the suspected presence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB has progressively increased over the past 25 years despite an intensive and costly test-and-slaughter control program. Around 38% of herds that clear movement restrictions experience a recurrent incident (breakdown within 24 months, suggesting that infection may be persisting within herds. Reactivity to tuberculin, the basis of diagnostic testing, is dependent on the time from infection. Thus, testing efficiency varies between outbreaks, depending on weight of transmission and cannot be directly estimated. In this paper, we use Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC to parameterize two within-herd transmission models within a rigorous inferential framework. Previous within-herd models of bTB have relied on ad-hoc methods of parameterization and used a single model structure (SORI where animals are assumed to become detectable by testing before they become infectious. We study such a conventional within-herd model of bTB and an alternative model, motivated by recent animal challenge studies, where there is no period of epidemiological latency before animals become infectious (SOR. Under both models we estimate that cattle-to-cattle transmission rates are non-linearly density dependent. The basic reproductive ratio for our conventional within-herd model, estimated for scenarios with no statutory controls, increases from 1.5 (0.26-4.9; 95% CI in a herd of 30 cattle up to 4.9 (0.99-14.0 in a herd of 400. Under this model we estimate that 50% (33-67 of recurrent breakdowns in Britain can be attributed to infection missed by tuberculin testing. However this figure falls to 24% (11-42 of recurrent breakdowns under our alternative model. Under both models the estimated extrinsic force of infection increases with the burden of missed infection. Hence, improved herd-level testing is unlikely to reduce recurrence

  17. Estimating the hidden burden of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Andrew J K; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Karolemeas, Katerina; Pollock, Ellen Brooks; Goodchild, Anthony V; Mitchell, Andrew P; Birch, Colin P D; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Wood, James L N

    2012-01-01

    The number of cattle herds placed under movement restrictions in Great Britain (GB) due to the suspected presence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has progressively increased over the past 25 years despite an intensive and costly test-and-slaughter control program. Around 38% of herds that clear movement restrictions experience a recurrent incident (breakdown) within 24 months, suggesting that infection may be persisting within herds. Reactivity to tuberculin, the basis of diagnostic testing, is dependent on the time from infection. Thus, testing efficiency varies between outbreaks, depending on weight of transmission and cannot be directly estimated. In this paper, we use Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to parameterize two within-herd transmission models within a rigorous inferential framework. Previous within-herd models of bTB have relied on ad-hoc methods of parameterization and used a single model structure (SORI) where animals are assumed to become detectable by testing before they become infectious. We study such a conventional within-herd model of bTB and an alternative model, motivated by recent animal challenge studies, where there is no period of epidemiological latency before animals become infectious (SOR). Under both models we estimate that cattle-to-cattle transmission rates are non-linearly density dependent. The basic reproductive ratio for our conventional within-herd model, estimated for scenarios with no statutory controls, increases from 1.5 (0.26-4.9; 95% CI) in a herd of 30 cattle up to 4.9 (0.99-14.0) in a herd of 400. Under this model we estimate that 50% (33-67) of recurrent breakdowns in Britain can be attributed to infection missed by tuberculin testing. However this figure falls to 24% (11-42) of recurrent breakdowns under our alternative model. Under both models the estimated extrinsic force of infection increases with the burden of missed infection. Hence, improved herd-level testing is unlikely to reduce recurrence unless this

  18. Large outbreak caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71 in a Finnish Veterinary Teaching Hospital--from outbreak control to outbreak prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grönthal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe a nosocomial outbreak caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP ST71 SCCmec II-III in dogs and cats at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki in November 2010 - January 2012, and to determine the risk factors for acquiring MRSP. In addition, measures to control the outbreak and current policy for MRSP prevention are presented. METHODS: Data of patients were collected from the hospital patient record software. MRSP surveillance data were acquired from the laboratory information system. Risk factors for MRSP acquisition were analyzed from 55 cases and 213 controls using multivariable logistic regression in a case-control study design. Forty-seven MRSP isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and three were further analyzed with multi-locus sequence and SCCmec typing. RESULTS: Sixty-three MRSP cases were identified, including 27 infections. MRSPs from the cases shared a specific multi-drug resistant antibiogram and PFGE-pattern indicated clonal spread. Four risk factors were identified; skin lesion (OR = 6.2; CI95% 2.3-17.0, P = 0.0003, antimicrobial treatment (OR = 3.8, CI95% 1.0-13.9, P = 0.0442, cumulative number of days in the intensive care unit (OR = 1.3, CI95% 1.1-1.6, P = 0.0007 or in the surgery ward (OR = 1.1, CI95% 1.0-1.3, P = 0.0401. Tracing and screening of contact patients, enhanced hand hygiene, cohorting and barrier nursing, as well as cleaning and disinfection were used to control the outbreak. To avoid future outbreaks and spread of MRSP a search-and-isolate policy was implemented. Currently nearly all new MRSP findings are detected in screening targeted to risk patients on admission. CONCLUSION: Multidrug resistant MRSP is capable of causing a large outbreak difficult to control. Skin lesions, antimicrobial treatment and prolonged hospital stay increase the probability of acquiring MRSP. Rigorous control

  19. Recurrent and synchronous insect pest outbreaks in forests

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The simplest model of plant-insect interactions available in the literature is used to discuss periodicity and synchrony of insect outbreaks in forests. The novelty of the paper is that we present through various formulas and a circular graph a comprehensive theory and show that many, if not all, properties of insect outbreaks pointed out in the past by looking at specific data sets could have been predicted from our theory. In line with the tradition of classical ecology all results are deri...

  20. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.