WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine tuberculosis risk

  1. Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in Nili Ravi buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was executed to determine the magnitude of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in buffaloes in native type of husbandry practices and impact of certain factors in the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan. Three year cross sectional study was carried out on female population of Nili Ravi buffaloes (n = 2526 maintained at 10 Government Livestock Experimental Stations, and peri urban areas of the three major cites i.e., Lahore, Faisalabad and Okara. These animals were screened with comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT by using two types of tuberculins i.e., mammalian and avian. The reaction of tuberculins injected was interpreted after 72 hours post injection. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test and Pearson correlation. Relative risk and other associated factors were calculated to describe the association with prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis on the basis of CIDT was 12.72%. The BTB among different livestock farms varied significantly (P8 years old age, body weight >550 kg, 3-6 parity, pregnant animals, and animals with >7 liters milk yield. The husbandry factors which greatly influence the prevalence was poor feeding (RR=2.615, high fly density (RR= 1.3474, poor management (RR=1.315, contact with wildlife (RR=1.4507, poor farm conditions (RR=1.4708, quarantine measures (RR=1.1557 and poor sanitation of farm (RR= 1.3701.

  3. Herd-Level Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Skuce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is one of the most challenging endemic diseases currently facing government, the veterinary profession, and the farming industry in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in several other countries. The disease has a notoriously complex epidemiology; the scientific evidence supports both cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle transmission routes. To produce more effective ways of reducing such transmission, it is important to understand those risk factors which influence the presence or absence of bovine TB in cattle herds. Here we review the literature on herd-level risk factor studies. Whilst risk factors operate at different scales and may vary across regions, epidemiological studies have identified a number of risk factors associated with bovine TB herd breakdowns, including the purchase of cattle, the occurrence of bovine TB in contiguous herds, and/or the surrounding area as well as herd size. Other factors identified in some studies include farm and herd management practices, such as, the spreading of slurry, the use of certain housing types, farms having multiple premises, and the use of silage clamps. In general, the most consistently identified risk factors are biologically plausible and consistent with known transmission routes involving cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle pathways.

  4. Developing a risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England: farmer perspectives on managing trading risk for bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R; Wheeler, K; Edge, S

    2017-02-11

    This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB. Supplementary interviews and focus groups with farmers were also carried out across the risk areas. Results suggest a greater enthusiasm for a risk-based trading scheme in low-risk areas compared with high-risk areas and among members of breed societies and cattle health schemes. Third-party certification of herds by private vets or the Animal and Plant Health Agency were regarded as the most credible source, with farmer self-certification being favoured by sellers, but being regarded as least credible by buyers. Understanding farmers' attitudes towards voluntary risk-based trading is important to gauge likely uptake, understand preferences for information provision and to assist in monitoring, evaluating and refining the scheme once established.

  5. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  6. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  7. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  8. Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha V. Meunier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA rangers in a wildlife crime database. Secondly, we aimed to quantify wildlife-livestock interactions and cattle movements, on the border of QENP, using a longitudinal questionnaire completed by 30 livestock owners. From this database, 426 cattle sightings were recorded within QENP in 8 years. Thirteen (3.1% of these came within a 300 m–4 week space-time window of a buffalo herd, using the recorded GPS data. Livestock owners reported an average of 1.04 (95% CI 0.97–1.11 sightings of Uganda kob, waterbuck, buffalo or warthog per day over a 3-month period, with a rate of 0.22 (95% CI 0.20–0.25 sightings of buffalo per farmer per day. Reports placed 85.3% of the ungulate sightings and 88.0% of the buffalo sightings as further than 50 m away. Ungulate sightings were more likely to be closer to cattle at the homestead (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.6 compared with the grazing area. Each cattle herd mixed with an average of five other cattle herds at both the communal grazing and watering points on a daily basis. Although wildlife and cattle regularly shared grazing and watering areas, they seldom came into contact close enough for aerosol transmission. Between species infection transmission is therefore likely to be by indirect or non-respiratory routes, which is suspected to be an infrequent mechanism of transmission of BTB

  9. Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Natascha V; Sebulime, Peregrine; White, Richard G; Kock, Richard

    2017-01-23

    The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database. Secondly, we aimed to quantify wildlife-livestock interactions and cattle movements, on the border of QENP, using a longitudinal questionnaire completed by 30 livestock owners. From this database, 426 cattle sightings were recorded within QENP in 8 years. Thirteen (3.1%) of these came within a 300 m-4 week space-time window of a buffalo herd, using the recorded GPS data. Livestock owners reported an average of 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) sightings of Uganda kob, waterbuck, buffalo or warthog per day over a 3-month period, with a rate of 0.22 (95% CI 0.20-0.25) sightings of buffalo per farmer per day. Reports placed 85.3% of the ungulate sightings and 88.0% of the buffalo sightings as further than 50 m away. Ungulate sightings were more likely to be closer to cattle at the homestead (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6) compared with the grazing area. Each cattle herd mixed with an average of five other cattle herds at both the communal grazing and watering points on a daily basis. Although wildlife and cattle regularly shared grazing and watering areas, they seldom came into contact close enough for aerosol transmission. Between species infection transmission is therefore likely to be by indirect or non-respiratory routes, which is suspected to be an infrequent mechanism of transmission of BTB. Occasional cross

  10. Risk factors for visible lesions or positive laboratory tests in bovine tuberculosis reactor cattle in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Courcier, E A; Drewe, J A; Gordon, A W; McNair, J; Abernethy, D A

    2015-07-01

    An observational case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection in cattle reacting positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) in Northern Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2006. Macroscopic lesions were detected at slaughter (positive visible lesion (VL) status) in 43.0% of reactor cattle, whilst 45.3% of those sampled were confirmed as bTB positive due to the presence of lesions or positive histopathology/mycobacterial culture (positive bTB status). In 97.5% of the reactors, the VL status and bTB status were either both negative or both positive. Generalized linear mixed model analyses were conducted on data of 24,923 reactor cattle with the variables herd identifier, local veterinary office (DVO) and abattoir being used as random effects within all the models generated at univariable and multivariable level. The other variables within the dataset were used as fixed effects. Significant risk factors associated with VL status and bTB status at multivariable level (pbovine tuberculin injection site, epidemiological status of skin test, total number of reactors at the disclosure test, mean herd size and prior response to the skin test. These risk factors are likely related to the time since infection, the strength of the challenge of infection and the susceptibility of the animal. These findings are important as the detection of visible lesions and the confirmation of bTB are an integral part of the overall bTB control programme in Northern Ireland and the veterinary meat inspection and hygiene programme. The visible lesion status and bTB status of an animal can affect the way in which bTB breakdowns are managed, since failure to detect visible lesions and recovery of Mycobacterium bovis can lead to a less stringent follow-up after other risk factors have been taken into account.

  11. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  12. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  13. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  14. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date.

  15. Assessing the impact of a cattle risk-based trading scheme on the movement of bovine tuberculosis infected animals in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Downs, S H; Kelly, L

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk-based trading (RBT) schemes has the potential to reduce the risk of bTB spread. However, any scheme will have cost implications that need to be balanced against its likely success in reducing bTB. This paper describes the first stochastic quantitative model assessing the impact of the implementation of a cattle risk-based trading scheme to inform policy makers and contribute to cost-benefit analyses. A risk assessment for England and Wales was developed to estimate the number of infected cattle traded using historic movement data recorded between July 2010 and June 2011. Three scenarios were implemented: cattle traded with no RBT scheme in place, voluntary provision of the score and a compulsory, statutory scheme applying a bTB risk score to each farm. For each scenario, changes in trade were estimated due to provision of the risk score to potential purchasers. An estimated mean of 3981 bTB infected animals were sold to purchasers with no RBT scheme in place in one year, with 90% confidence the true value was between 2775 and 5288. This result is dependent on the estimated between herd prevalence used in the risk assessment which is uncertain. With the voluntary provision of the risk score by farmers, on average, 17% of movements was affected (purchaser did not wish to buy once the risk score was available), with a reduction of 23% in infected animals being purchased initially. The compulsory provision of the risk score in a statutory scheme resulted in an estimated mean change to 26% of movements, with a reduction of 37% in infected animals being purchased initially, increasing to a 53% reduction in infected movements from higher risk sellers (score 4 and 5). The estimated mean reduction in infected animals being purchased could be improved to 45% given a 10% reduction in risky purchase behaviour by farmers which may be achieved through education programmes, or to an estimated mean of 49% if a rule was implemented

  16. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (≈100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1

  17. Spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Horacio Zendejas; Suazo, Feliciano Milián; Cuador Gil, José Quintín; Bello, Gustavo Cruz; Anaya Escalera, Ana María; Márquez, Gabriel Huitrón; Casanova, Leticia García

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use geographic information systems (GIS) and geo-statistical methods of ordinary kriging to predict the prevalence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Jalisco, Mexico. A random sample of 2 287 herds selected from a set of 48 766 was used for the analysis. Spatial location of herds was obtained by either a personal global positioning system (GPS), a database from the Instituto Nacional de Estadìstica Geografìa e Informàtica (INEGI) or Google Earth. Information on TB prevalence was provided by the Jalisco Commission for the Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (COEETB). Prediction of TB was obtained using ordinary kriging in the geostatistical analyst module in ArcView8. A predicted high prevalence area of TB matching the distribution of dairy cattle was observed. This prediction was in agreement with the prevalence calculated on the total 48 766 herds. Validation was performed taking estimated values of TB prevalence at each municipality, extracted from the kriging surface and then compared with the real prevalence values using a correlation test, giving a value of 0.78, indicating that GIS and kriging are reliable tools for the estimation of TB distribution based on a random sample. This resulted in a significant savings of resources.

  18. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  19. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  20. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel;

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN-y-based...

  1. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN...

  2. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing.

  3. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  4. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland irene.schiller@prionics.com Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Canadian wildlife: An updated history

    OpenAIRE

    Wobeser, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild animals attracted little attention in Canada until the disease was almost eliminated from domestic livestock. Tuberculosis was endemic in plains bison and occurred in elk, moose, and mule deer in Buffalo National Park (BNP), Alberta during the 1920s and 1930s. Bison were moved from BNP to Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP), where tuberculosis became, and remains, endemic in bison, posing a risk to efforts to restore bison in northern Canada. Tuberculosis w...

  6. Scientific Opinion on field trials for bovine tuberculosis vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opinion provides advice relating to the design of field trials to test the performance of a vaccine for bovine tuberculosis (bTB, along with a test to Detect Infected among Vaccinated Animals (DIVA. The objective of cattle vaccination is to use the vaccine in combination with presently applied control measures within the EU as an aid towards bTB eradication. The ideal field trials for the DIVA test will follow the OIE guidelines for test validation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to DIVA test performance should be justified, and the bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. The ideal field trial design for vaccination performance should implement a double-blind randomised test scenario, and allow for known risk factors in the field situation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to vaccine performance should also be justified and bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. Relevant risk factors and possible confounders that should be taken into consideration in the design of field trials are described in this opinion. The safety of a candidate vaccine is guaranteed in the registration of a vaccine medication by a competent authority. The field trials will need to fulfil these requirements to prove that the use of this vaccine in the field is safe for both public health and the environment. Some additional remarks regarding the safety of this specific vaccine are included in this opinion.

  7. Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis: review of main techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (BTB remains an important economic and zoonotic problem in Latin America. Traditionally, the fight against BTB is initiated by the implementation of routine diagnostic tests for certification of free properties. The diagnosis of BTB can be made by direct and indirect methods, in which we can mention clinical, post mortem, histopathological, immunological, bacteriological and molecular methods. The renewal of scientific interest in tuberculosis in recent year has led to develop and improve methods of diagnosis, prevention, control and eradication of BTB. The aim of this review is to present and discuss different diagnosis methods of BTB.

  8. Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis: review of main techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D F; Silva, P E A; Dellagostin, O A

    2015-11-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains an important economic and zoonotic problem in Latin America. Traditionally, the fight against BTB is initiated by the implementation of routine diagnostic tests for certification of free properties. The diagnosis of BTB can be made by direct and indirect methods, in which we can mention clinical, post mortem, histopathological, immunological, bacteriological and molecular methods. The renewal of scientific interest in tuberculosis in recent year has led to develop and improve methods of diagnosis, prevention, control and eradication of BTB. The aim of this review is to present and discuss different diagnosis methods of BTB.

  9. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis in a patient treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Thomsen, V Ø; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB). Screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) and prophylactic treatment has become mandatory. A 79-yr-old female with a history of severe erosive sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis was screened for LTBI......-infected cattle. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis is a risk in people with recent or previous exposure to unpasteurised dairy products. The QuantiFERON-TB test has the potential to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection. Indeterminate test results reflect either anergy, due to poor immunity, or technical...... problems and should be cautiously interpreted and as a minimum be repeated. Studies are ongoing to determine the role of QuantiFERON-TB testing in the screening for latent tuberculosis infection....

  10. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis in a patient treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Thomsen, V Ø; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB). Screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) and prophylactic treatment has become mandatory. A 79-yr-old female with a history of severe erosive sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis was screened for LTBI....... QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) testing performed during screening and immunosuppressive treatment was indeterminate, whereas the QFT test performed at the time of ascites puncture was positive. The patient history revealed previous work at a dairy, with probable exposure to unpasteurised milk from M. bovis......-infected cattle. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis is a risk in people with recent or previous exposure to unpasteurised dairy products. The QuantiFERON-TB test has the potential to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection. Indeterminate test results reflect either anergy, due to poor immunity, or technical...

  11. First approach to molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Jojoa-Jojoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the presence of Mycobacterium bovis and other Mycobacterium species in samples of cattle and buffalo in Colombia, to start the molecular characterization of M. bovis in the country. Material and methods. 492 samples were collected from herds identified with the presence of infected animals through the PPD, by the Group of Bovine Tuberculosis ICA Colombian Agricultural Institute in eight departments of Colombia. Lymph nodes of head, thorax and abdomen, gross lesions of tissues with tuberculosis, nasal swabs, milk, blood and fresh cheeses were included. Samples were subjected to detection of Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacteria by conventional microbiological analysis and PCR-6110 and spoligotyping molecular assays. Results. In the samples analyzed especially in lymph nodes, Mycobacterium bovis was demonstrated with genotypes reported and not previously reported in the world, as well as M. tuberculosis in Antioquia, Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Magdalena departments. Conclusions. In Colombia there are at least 7 genotypes of M. bovis that are infected and sick cattle and buffalo from four different departments becoming serious threat to public health.

  12. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, B; Inangolet, F; Oloya, J; Asseged, B; Badaso, M; Yilkal, A; Skjerve, E

    2009-06-01

    prevalence of tuberculosis could be a major obstacle, particularly at this moment when sanitary requirements from importing countries are so much strict. Furthermore, the growing concern over increasing incidence of tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS co-infection, the high incidence of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and a high risk of acquiring zoonotic tuberculosis among the majority of the population emphasize the need for paying the necessary attention towards the control of bovine tuberculosis.

  13. Progress in the control of bovine tuberculosis in Spanish wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín; Boadella, Mariana; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C; Garrido, Joseba; Aranaz, Alicia; de la Fuente, José

    2011-07-01

    Despite the compulsory test and slaughter campaigns in cattle, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still present in Spain, and the role of wildlife reservoirs is increasingly recognized. We provide an update on recent progress made in bTB control in Spanish wildlife, including aspects of epidemiology, surveillance, host-pathogen interaction and wildlife vaccination. At the high densities and in the particular circumstances of Mediterranean environments, wild ungulates, mainly Eurasian wild boar and red deer, are able to maintain Mycobacterium bovis circulation even in absence of domestic livestock. Infection is widespread among wild ungulates in the south of the country, local infection prevalence being as high as 52% in wild boar and 27% in red deer. Risk factors identified include host genetic susceptibility, abundance, spatial aggregation at feeders and waterholes, scavenging, and social behaviour. An increasing trend of bTB compatible lesions was reported among wild boar and red deer inspected between 1992 and 2004 in Southwestern Spain. Sporadic cases of badger TB have been detected, further complicating the picture. Gene expression profiles were characterized in European wild boar and Iberian red deer naturally infected with M. bovis. The comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in wildlife hosts in response to infection advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis, revealed common and distinctive host responses to infection and identified candidate genes associated with resistance to bTB and for the characterization of host response to infection and vaccination. Ongoing research is producing valuable knowledge on vaccine delivery, safety and efficacy issues. Baits for the oral delivery of BCG vaccine preparations to wild boar piglets were developed and evaluated. The use of selective feeders during the summer was found to be a potentially reliable bait-deployment strategy. Safety experiments yielded no isolation of M

  14. Bovine tuberculosis in Canadian wildlife: an updated history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild animals attracted little attention in Canada until the disease was almost eliminated from domestic livestock. Tuberculosis was endemic in plains bison and occurred in elk, moose, and mule deer in Buffalo National Park (BNP), Alberta during the 1920s and 1930s. Bison were moved from BNP to Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP), where tuberculosis became, and remains, endemic in bison, posing a risk to efforts to restore bison in northern Canada. Tuberculosis was found in a white-tailed deer in Ontario in 1959, and in an infected elk near Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP), Manitoba in 1992. Intense surveillance has resulted in detection of 40 elk, 8 white-tailed deer, and 7 cattle herds infected between 1997 and 2008 in the RMNP area. The strains of M. bovis in the RMNP area are different from strains tested from cattle and bison elsewhere in Canada. Management of tuberculosis in cattle and wild animals is challenging because of uncertainty about the ecology of the disease in various species, difficulty in obtaining samples and population data from wildlife, lack of validated tests, overlapping jurisdictions and authority, and conflicting values and opinions among stakeholders.

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis: Analyzing the Parameters of the Interferon Gamma Assay and Improved Diagnosis with New Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective. The BOVIGAM® interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay constitutes a laboratory-based tuberculosis test and is widely used complementary to the tuberculin skin test....

  16. Vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for protection against bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis and other related species in the M. tuberculosis complex, pose a serious continual threat to the health and economic wellbeing of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide. Wildlife reservoirs of bTB play a very important role in the epidemio...

  17. Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis OmpATb as a Novel Antigen for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In search for improved tools to control bovine tuberculosis, the development of diagnostic tests with improved specificity and sensitivity has a high priority. Such tests require the identification of enhanced immunodiagnostic reagents. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rv0899 (Outer memb...

  18. A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A

    2015-11-01

    Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present.

  19. Use of genomics to track bovine tuberculosis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, R R; Price-Carter, M; Robbe-Austerman, S

    2016-04-01

    The control of any infectious disease of livestock is made more difficult by the presence of a wildlife reservoir, as the reservoir is often poorly observed and difficult to manage. This problem is particularly acute for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) because the long duration of infection and low levels of infectiousness make tracing the sources of infection difficult. For over 30 years, the process of contact tracing has been aided by the exploitation of molecular markers in the pathogen, but this has largely only been capable of characterising broad associations between large communities of similar types. However, the recent advent of mass high-throughput 'whole-genome' sequencing (WGS) has revolutionised forensic epidemiology for other diseases, and now it has the potential to do so for bTB. In this review, the authors consider the historical context of WGS use and look at what prior molecular techniques have already achieved. They outline the key approaches to interpreting WGS data and consider both the role of advanced analytical techniques that exploit the evolutionary and epidemiological properties of the system and the problems associated with quantifying the role of hidden reservoirs of disease. Finally, they consider the particular difficulties associated with developing this technology for routine diagnostics and its potential for mass use.

  20. Evaluation of Surveillance for Documentation of Freedom from Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza R. Nielsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study how surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB could be made more resource-effective in a bTB free country. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed to: (1 evaluate the sensitivity (CSe of four surveillance system components (SSC (i.e., meat inspection of slaughtered domestic cattle, farmed deer and pigs, and tuberculin testing of adult export cattle given that bTB would enter one of these components, (2 estimate the probability of freedom (PFree from bTB over time, and (3 evaluate how future alternative programmes based on visual meat inspection would affect the confidence in freedom from bTB at the very low animal-level design prevalence 0.0002% and a low probabilities of introduction (1%. All, except the export cattle component reached a PFree above 96% within five years. The PFree was slightly reduced if surveillance was changed to visual inspection, e.g., PFree was reduced from 96.5% to 94.3% in the cattle component, and from 98.5% to 97.7% in the pig component after 24 years. In conclusion, visual meat inspection of pigs and cattle will only reduce the confidence in freedom from bTB slightly. However, with negligible probability of introduction (0.1% the PFree could be maintained well above 99% in the cattle, pigs and deer components, which highlights the importance of rigid testing and quarantine procedures in trade of livestock.

  1. Opportunities for Improved Serodiagnosis of Human Tuberculosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, and Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial infections—tuberculosis (TB, bovine tuberculosis (bTB, and Johne’s disease (JD—are major infectious diseases of both human and animals. Methods presently in use for diagnosis of mycobacterial infections include bacterial culture, nucleic acid amplification, tuberculin skin test, interferon-γ assay, and serology. Serological tests have several advantages over other methods, including short turn-around time, relatively simple procedures, and low cost. However, current serodiagnostic methods for TB, bTB and JD exhibit low sensitivity and/or specificity. Recent studies that have aimed to develop improved serodiagnostic tests have mostly focused on identifying useful species-specific protein antigens. A review of recent attempts to improve diagnostic test performance indicates that the use of multiple antigens can improve the accuracy of serodiagnosis of these mycobacterial diseases. Mycobacteria also produce a variety of species-specific nonprotein molecules; however, only a few such molecules (e.g., cord factor and lipoarabinomannan have so far been evaluated for their effectiveness as diagnostic antigens. For TB and bTB, there has been recent progress in developing laboratory-free diagnostic methods. New technologies such as microfluidics and “Lab-on-Chip” are examples of promising new technologies that can underpin development of laboratory-free diagnostic devices for these mycobacterial infections.

  2. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  3. Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, F.; Bannerman, F.; Liggett, S.; Griffin, F.; Clarke, J.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Rhodes, S.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes how Mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of England, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. By taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with gross visible lesions typical of bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Without detection and removal, these animals would have posed a continued risk of BTB persistence within the herd and potentially contributed to the spread of infection from deer into wildlife and surrounding cattle farms in an area of low BTB incidence. This case supports the use of ancillary diagnostic serological tests to speed up the resolution of incidents of BTB caused by M bovis in captive deer herds. PMID:28100768

  4. Local cattle movements in response to ongoing bovine tuberculosis zonation and regulations in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel A; Kaneene, John B; Averill, James J; Webb, Colleen T

    2014-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) is an ongoing management issue in the state of Michigan with eradication from livestock as the ultimate goal. Eradication has been a challenge owing to the presence of a wildlife reservoir; competing interests in managing the livestock and wildlife hosts; and many uncertainties in transmission dynamics of M. bovis. One of the cornerstones of the eradication effort has been to stop movement of infected cattle among farms by imposing strict pre-movement testing on cattle being moved within, into and out of the Modified Accredited Zone (MAZ) in northeastern Michigan. In addition to pre-movement tuberculosis testing, detailed information about the origin and destination premises of all movements within the MAZ has been recorded in Michigan. The aim of this study was to describe the farm-to-farm movements of cattle within the MAZ, report changes in the network of movements during a 6-year period when the MAZ was a constant size (2004-2009), and examine changes in cattle movement patterns when the MAZ was reduced from 11 to 5 counties in 2010. Non-slaughter cattle movement within the MAZ was characterized by predominantly local movements at a sub-county scale. Premises that shipped cattle were primarily senders or receivers, but rarely both. From 2004 to 2009, the number of cattle shipped, size of shipments, number of shipments and distance of shipments decreased; there was little change in the network patterns of interaction among individual premises; and interactions among all premises became more disconnected. After accounting for MAZ size, there were also no changes in cattle movement network patterns following the reduction of the MAZ in 2010. The movement of cattle was likely not a key risk factor in bTB spread among premises in the MAZ during the study period and the effect of zonation and movement regulations appeared to further reduce the risk of tuberculosis spread via cattle movements among farms in Michigan's MAZ.

  5. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complexes by Real-Time PCR in Bovine Milk from Brazilian Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are a public health problem worldwide. The consumption of contaminated raw milk has been recognized as a major cause of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. Other mycobacteria that may be present in raw milk and may cause diseases are those belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, molecular biology tools were applied to investigate raw milk contamination with Mycobacterium spp. in family dairy farms from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Furthermore, different variables related to the source of the milk, herd characteristics, and management were evaluated for their effect on milk contamination. Five hundred and two samples were analyzed, of which 354 were from the Northwest region (102 farms with samples from 93 bulk tanks and 261 animals) and 148 from the South region of the state (22 farms with samples from 23 bulk tanks and 125 animals). Among them, 10 (1.99%) and 7 (1.39%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9 confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis) and M. avium complexes, respectively. There was no difference in the frequencies of positive samples between the regions or the sample sources. Of the positive samples, 4 were collected from a bulk tank (1 positive for M. avium and 3 for M. tuberculosis). Moreover, 1 sample was positive concomitantly for M. tuberculosis and M. avium complexes. On risk analysis, no variable was associated with raw milk contamination by M. tuberculosis complex species. However, washing the udders of all animals and drying them with paper towels were weakly classified as risk factors for M. avium contamination. Positive samples were obtained from both animals and bulk tanks, which emphasizes the importance of tuberculosis control programs and provides evidence that milk monitoring can be used as a control practice. Moreover, the findings of this study reinforce the need for awareness of the problems of raw milk consumption among the general population.

  6. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on the Interferon Gamma Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. Despite intensive eradication efforts over decades, bTB continues to be a problem with global perspective. The control of bTB is based on a test and slaughter policy and/or abattoir surveillance. Two types of tu...

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on In vitro Interferon gamma Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. In many countries, control is based on test and slaughter policies and/or abattoir surveillance. For testing, cell mediated immune- (CMI-) based assays (i.e., Tuberculin skin test (TST) supplemented by the interferon gamma (...

  8. Comparison of Tuberculin Activity in the Interferon-gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis still represent a serious regulatory and health concern in a variety of countries. Early diagnosis using the in vitro interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay has been applied for more than a decade. Briefly, IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated w...

  9. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  10. Estimating the hidden burden of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J K Conlan

    Full Text Available The number of cattle herds placed under movement restrictions in Great Britain (GB due to the suspected presence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB has progressively increased over the past 25 years despite an intensive and costly test-and-slaughter control program. Around 38% of herds that clear movement restrictions experience a recurrent incident (breakdown within 24 months, suggesting that infection may be persisting within herds. Reactivity to tuberculin, the basis of diagnostic testing, is dependent on the time from infection. Thus, testing efficiency varies between outbreaks, depending on weight of transmission and cannot be directly estimated. In this paper, we use Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC to parameterize two within-herd transmission models within a rigorous inferential framework. Previous within-herd models of bTB have relied on ad-hoc methods of parameterization and used a single model structure (SORI where animals are assumed to become detectable by testing before they become infectious. We study such a conventional within-herd model of bTB and an alternative model, motivated by recent animal challenge studies, where there is no period of epidemiological latency before animals become infectious (SOR. Under both models we estimate that cattle-to-cattle transmission rates are non-linearly density dependent. The basic reproductive ratio for our conventional within-herd model, estimated for scenarios with no statutory controls, increases from 1.5 (0.26-4.9; 95% CI in a herd of 30 cattle up to 4.9 (0.99-14.0 in a herd of 400. Under this model we estimate that 50% (33-67 of recurrent breakdowns in Britain can be attributed to infection missed by tuberculin testing. However this figure falls to 24% (11-42 of recurrent breakdowns under our alternative model. Under both models the estimated extrinsic force of infection increases with the burden of missed infection. Hence, improved herd-level testing is unlikely to reduce recurrence

  11. Understanding the Mechanisms of Immunopathogenesis of Human and Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive investigations have revealed that zoonotic pathogens in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) evolved from a common ancestor. Although all the members can cause disease in one or more species of mammals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and M. bovis (Mbv) are the major pathogens ...

  12. Farming on the edge: farmer attitudes to bovine tuberculosis in newly endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Hinchliffe, S; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Elgin, R; Ashton, A; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Goodchild, T; Brunton, L; Broughan, J

    2015-10-31

    Defra's recent strategy to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB) establishes three spatial zones: high-risk areas (HRAs) and low-risk areas, and an area referred to as 'the edge', which marks the areas where infection is spreading outwards from the HRA. Little is known about farmers in the edge area, their attitudes towards bTB and their farming practices. This paper examines farmers' practices and attitudes towards bTB in standardised epidemiologically defined areas. A survey was developed to collect data on farmer attitudes, behaviours, practices and environmental conditions as part of an interdisciplinary analysis of bTB risk factors. Survey items were developed from a literature review and focus groups with vets and farmers in different locations within the edge area. A case-control sampling framework was adopted with farms sampled from areas identified as recently endemic for bTB. 347 farmers participated in the survey including 117 with bTB, representing a 70per cent response rate. Results show that farmers believe they are unable to do anything about bTB but are keen for the government intervention to help control the spread of bTB.

  13. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, B.J.; Ssengooba, W.; Muwonge, C.; Nakiyingi, L.; Kyaligonza, S.; Kasozi, S.; Mugabe, F.; Boeree, M.J.; Joloba, M.; Okwera, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the ot

  14. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bovine and bubaline tissues through nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.

  15. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bovine and bubaline tissues through nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristina P; Osório, Ana Luiza A R; Jorge, Klaudia S G; Ramos, Carlos A N; Souza Filho, Antonio F; Vidal, Carlos E S; Vargas, Agueda P C; Roxo, Eliana; Rocha, Adalgiza S; Suffys, Philip N; Fonseca, Antônio A; Silva, Marcio R; Barbosa Neto, José D; Cerqueira, Valíria D; Araújo, Flábio R

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.

  16. Systemic bovine tuberculosis: a case report/
    Tuberculose bovina sistêmica: um relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2002-01-01

    Gross and histopathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis in an ox are described. Differential diagnoses of frequently occurring gross lesions in cattle that could be easily confused with bovine tuberculosis are discussed, and a comparative analysis of M. bovis induced tuberculosis lesions in wildlife is made.Alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas associadas a Mycobacterium bovis são descritas em um bovino. O diagnóstico diferencial de lesões macroscópicas mais freqüentemen...

  17. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  18. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  19. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Mentaberre

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  20. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Uruguay (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Wells, Scott J; Perez, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries. Clustering of incident outbreaks was assessed using the Cuzick-Edwards' test and the Bernoulli model of the spatial scan statistic, and a conditional multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with bTB in a subset of Uruguayan dairy farms. Significant (P<0.05) global clustering was detected in 2012, while high-risk local clusters were detected in southwestern (2011, 2012, 2013), northwestern (2012), and southeastern (2012) Uruguay. Increased risk of bTB in different regions of Uruguay suggests a potential role of animal movements in disease dissemination. Larger herds, higher numbers of animals purchased, and incoming steers to the farm were associated with increased odds of breaking with bTB, in agreement with previous studies but also suggesting other additional sources of risk. These results will contribute to enhanced effectiveness of bTB control programs in Uruguay with the ultimate objective of preventing or mitigating the impact of the disease in the human and animal populations of the country.

  1. Diabetes, Glycemic Control, and Risk of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leegaard, Anne; Riis, Anders; Kornum, Jette B; Prahl, Julie B.; Thomsen, Vibeke Ø; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Horsburgh, C. Robert; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of tuberculosis (TB). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a population-based case-control study in Northern Denmark. Cases of active TB were all individuals with a first-time principal hospital diagnosis of TB between 1980 and 2008. Each case subject was matched with up to five population control subjects with similar age, sex, place and length of residence in Denmark, and country of emigration. We computed...

  2. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, A; Orton, R J; Bessell, P R; Kao, R R

    2014-05-22

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems.

  3. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. William Hench, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Eradication and Surveillance Team... the captive cervid regulations, the definition of official tuberculosis test has provided that the... reported in accordance with the captive cervid regulations. In the same section, the definitions of...

  4. Interleukin-17A as a biomarker for bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    T helper (Th) 17-associated cytokines are integral in the immune response to tuberculosis, initiating both protective and harmful inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate applied aspects of IL-17 biology in the context of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Using RNA...

  5. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  6. The immune response to bovine tuberculosis: Correlates of protection and relevance to human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model for demonstration of the One Health Concept. Early studies with cattle were instrumental in the development of the use of Koch’s tuberculin as an in vivo measure of cell-med...

  7. Vaccine approaches for bovine tuberculosis: Correlates of protection and relevance to human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model of the One Health Concept. M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) was first proven effective in cattle prior to use in humans. Recent experimental trials with cattle have d...

  8. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  9. The importance of 'neighbourhood' in the persistence of bovine tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul W; Martin, S Wayne; De Jong, Mart C M; O'Keeffe, James J; More, Simon J; Frankena, Klaas

    2013-07-01

    Local persistence of infection is a key feature of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of 'neighbourhood', specifically farm-to-farm spread and spread from wildlife, in the persistence of bTB by investigating herds having a bTB episode in 2006. A case-control study was conducted on the association between the occurrence of a bTB episode in 2006 and the occurrence of bTB in previous years among neighbouring herd(s) within 1 km, while controlling for each herd's bTB history and other risk factors. Neighbouring herds were grouped into three zones, based on distance, and bTB incidence measures summarised within each zone and by calendar year (2001-2005). The incidence of bTB was associated with an increased animal incidence in two subsets of neighbouring herds: (i) herds directly contiguous during the previous 2 years (attributable fraction=0.20), and (ii) herds at a distance of >25 m in the previous year (attributable fraction=0.19). Other predictors of bTB in a herd in 2006 included the occurrence of a bTB episode within that herd in any of the previous 5 years, herd size, and the number of animals purchased at age greater than 12 months. An infected wildlife source best explains the existence of a "neighbouring herd risk" for bTB at distances greater than 25 m. Further studies will be necessary to determine to what extent neighbouring herd risk within 25 m may be confounded by the same wildlife (badger) source.

  10. Sensitivity of Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Wildlife in France: A Scenario Tree Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rivière

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. Infected wild animals have been detected in some European countries, and bTB reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of bTB from cattle populations. However, the surveillance of bTB in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by EU legislation. We report here the first assessment of the sensitivity of the bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife launched in France in 2011 (the Sylvatub system, based on scenario tree modelling. Three surveillance system components were identified: (i passive scanning surveillance for hunted wild boar, red deer and roe deer, based on carcass examination, (ii passive surveillance on animals found dead, moribund or with abnormal behaviour, for wild boar, red deer, roe deer and badger and (iii active surveillance for wild boar and badger. The application of these three surveillance system components depends on the geographic risk of bTB infection in wildlife, which in turn depends on the prevalence of bTB in cattle. We estimated the effectiveness of the three components of the Sylvatub surveillance system quantitatively, for each species separately. Active surveillance and passive scanning surveillance by carcass examination were the approaches most likely to detect at least one infected animal in a population with a given design prevalence, regardless of the local risk level and species considered. The awareness of hunters, which depends on their training and the geographic risk, was found to affect surveillance sensitivity. The results obtained are relevant for hunters and veterinary authorities wishing to determine the actual efficacy of wildlife bTB surveillance as a function of geographic area and species, and could provide support for decision-making processes concerning the enhancement

  11. Evidence of presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovine tissue samples by multiplex PCR: possible relevance to reverse zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, M; Chakravarti, S; Sharma, V; Sanjeeth, B S; Churamani, C P; Kanwar, N S

    2014-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains one of the most important zoonotic health concerns worldwide. The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from humans to animals also occurs especially in countries where there is close interaction of humans with the animals. In the present study, thirty bovine lung tissue autopsy samples from an organized dairy farm located in North India were screened for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by smear microscopy, histopathological findings and PCR. Differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis was made based on the deletion of mce-3 operon in M. bovis. The present study found eight of these samples positive for M. tuberculosis by multiplex PCR. Sequencing was performed on two PCR-positive representative samples and on annotation, and BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of gene fragment specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The presence of M. tuberculosis in all the positive samples raises the possibility of human-to-cattle transmission and possible adaptation of this organism in bovine tissues. This study accentuates the importance of screening and differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in humans and livestock for adopting effective TB control and eradication programmes.

  12. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread. Farmers were questioned about a range of farm management strategies, farm characteristics, herd health, wildlife and biosecurity measures with a focus on farmer attitudes and behaviours such as farmers' perception of endemicity and feelings of control, openness and social cohesion. Data generated in the telephone surveys was supplemented with existing herd-level data and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Overall, herd size (OR 1.07), purchasing an animal at a cattle market compared to purchasing outside of markets (OR 2.6), the number of contiguous bTB incidents (2.30) and the number of inconclusive reactors detected in the 2 years prior to the case incident (OR 1.95) significantly increased the odds of a bTB incident. Beef herds using a field parcel more than 3.2km away from the main farm and dairy herds reporting Johne's disease in the previous 12 months were 3.0 and 4.7 times more likely to have a recent history of a bTB incident, respectively. Beef herds reporting maize growing near, but not on, their farm were less likely to be case herds. Operating a closed farm in the two years prior to the case breakdown did not reduce the odds of a bTB incident. Farmers

  13. Disease Control in Wildlife: Evaluating a Test and Cull Programme for Bovine Tuberculosis in African Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Hoal, E G; Jolles, A E

    2016-12-01

    Providing an evidence base for wildlife population management is difficult, due to limited opportunities for experimentation and study replication at the population level. We utilized an opportunity to assess the outcome of a test and cull programme aimed at limiting the spread of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffalo. Buffalo act as reservoirs of M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which can have major economic, ecological and public health impacts through the risk of infection to other wildlife species, livestock and surrounding communities. BTB prevalence data were collected in conjunction with disease control operations in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, from 1999 to 2006. A total of 4733 buffalo (250-950 per year) were tested for BTB using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) test, with BTB-positive animals culled, and negative animals released. BTB prevalence was spatially and temporally variable, ranging from 2.3% to 54.7%. Geographic area was a strong predictor of BTB transmission in HiP, owing to relatively stable herds and home ranges. Herds experiencing more intensive and frequent captures showed reduced per capita disease transmission risk and less increase in herd prevalence over time. Disease hot spots did not expand spatially over time, and BTB prevalence in all but the hot spot areas was maintained between 10% and 15% throughout the study period. Our data suggest that HiP's test and cull programme was effective at reducing BTB transmission in buffalo, with capture effort and interval found to be the crucial components of the programme. The programme was thus successful with respect to the original goals; however, there are additional factors that should be considered in future cost/benefit analyses and decision-making. These findings may be utilized and expanded in future collaborative work between wildlife managers, veterinarians and scientists, to optimize wildlife disease control programmes and

  14. Spatial dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa de la Cruz

    Full Text Available Progress in control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB is often not uniform, usually due to the effect of one or more sometimes unknown epidemiological factors impairing the success of eradication programs. Use of spatial analysis can help to identify clusters of persistence of disease, leading to the identification of these factors thus allowing the implementation of targeted control measures, and may provide some insights of disease transmission, particularly when combined with molecular typing techniques. Here, the spatial dynamics of bTB in a high prevalence region of Spain were assessed during a three year period (2010-2012 using data from the eradication campaigns to detect clusters of positive bTB herds and of those infected with certain Mycobacterium bovis strains (characterized using spoligotyping and VNTR typing. In addition, the within-herd transmission coefficient (β was estimated in infected herds and its spatial distribution and association with other potential outbreak and herd variables was evaluated. Significant clustering of positive herds was identified in the three years of the study in the same location ("high risk area". Three spoligotypes (SB0339, SB0121 and SB1142 accounted for >70% of the outbreaks detected in the three years. VNTR subtyping revealed the presence of few but highly prevalent strains within the high risk area, suggesting maintained transmission in the area. The spatial autocorrelation found in the distribution of the estimated within-herd transmission coefficients in herds located within distances <14 km and the results of the spatial regression analysis, support the hypothesis of shared local factors affecting disease transmission in farms located at a close proximity.

  15. Spatial Dynamics of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maria Luisa; Perez, Andres; Bezos, Javier; Pages, Enrique; Casal, Carmen; Carpintero, Jesus; Romero, Beatriz; Dominguez, Lucas; Barker, Christopher M.; Diaz, Rosa; Alvarez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Progress in control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is often not uniform, usually due to the effect of one or more sometimes unknown epidemiological factors impairing the success of eradication programs. Use of spatial analysis can help to identify clusters of persistence of disease, leading to the identification of these factors thus allowing the implementation of targeted control measures, and may provide some insights of disease transmission, particularly when combined with molecular typing techniques. Here, the spatial dynamics of bTB in a high prevalence region of Spain were assessed during a three year period (2010–2012) using data from the eradication campaigns to detect clusters of positive bTB herds and of those infected with certain Mycobacterium bovis strains (characterized using spoligotyping and VNTR typing). In addition, the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) was estimated in infected herds and its spatial distribution and association with other potential outbreak and herd variables was evaluated. Significant clustering of positive herds was identified in the three years of the study in the same location (“high risk area”). Three spoligotypes (SB0339, SB0121 and SB1142) accounted for >70% of the outbreaks detected in the three years. VNTR subtyping revealed the presence of few but highly prevalent strains within the high risk area, suggesting maintained transmission in the area. The spatial autocorrelation found in the distribution of the estimated within-herd transmission coefficients in herds located within distances <14 km and the results of the spatial regression analysis, support the hypothesis of shared local factors affecting disease transmission in farms located at a close proximity. PMID:25536514

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  17. 牛结核病研究进展%Advances on Bovine Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付建; 王敏兰; 温荣辉

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cattle,and the epidemic has been taking advantage of the spread in recent years, so it not only has caused significant economic losses to China' s aquaculture industry, but also has affected the public health and safety. The epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and integrated control of bovine tuberculosis were reviewed in order to provide reference for related studies.%牛结核病是由牛分支杆菌引起的一种人畜共患慢性传染病,近年来该病的发病率有增长的趋势,不仅给我国的养殖业造成重大经济损失,而且影响到公共卫生安全。主要对牛结核病的流行病学、病原学、发病机制、诊断方法、综合防控等方面的研究进展作一介绍,以期为相关研究提供参考。

  18. Gene polymorphisms in African buffalo associated with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki le Roex

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic, highly infectious disease that affects humans, cattle and numerous species of wildlife. In developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of extensive wildlife-human-livestock interfaces poses a significant risk of Mycobacterium bovis transmission between these groups, and has far-reaching ecological, economic and public health impacts. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer, acts as a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and maintains and transmits the disease within the buffalo and to other species. In this study we aimed to investigate genetic susceptibility of buffalo for Mycobacterium bovis infection. Samples from 868 African buffalo of the Cape buffalo subspecies were used in this study. SNPs (n = 69, with predicted functional consequences in genes related to the immune system, were genotyped in this buffalo population by competitive allele-specific SNP genotyping. Case-control association testing and statistical analyses identified three SNPs associated with BTB status in buffalo. These SNPs, SNP41, SNP137 and SNP144, are located in the SLC7A13, DMBT1 and IL1α genes, respectively. SNP137 remained significantly associated after permutation testing. The three genetic polymorphisms identified are located in promising candidate genes for further exploration into genetic susceptibility to BTB in buffalo and other bovids, such as the domestic cow. These polymorphisms/genes may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programmes, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national parks and the private sector.

  19. Systemic bovine tuberculosis: a case report/ Tuberculose bovina sistêmica: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Gross and histopathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis in an ox are described. Differential diagnoses of frequently occurring gross lesions in cattle that could be easily confused with bovine tuberculosis are discussed, and a comparative analysis of M. bovis induced tuberculosis lesions in wildlife is made.Alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas associadas a Mycobacterium bovis são descritas em um bovino. O diagnóstico diferencial de lesões macroscópicas mais freqüentemente encontradas em bovinos que podem ser confundidas com a tuberculose bovina é discutida. Uma análise comparativa de lesões induzidas por M. bovis em animais silvestres foi realizada.

  20. Potential application of new diagnostic methods for controlling bovine Tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Medeiros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an economic and public health problem for several countries. Due to its economic impact on international trade, contagious nature, and implications for human health, global programs to eradicate the disease were implemented worldwide. Those programs are based on slaughtering PPD-reactive animals. Despite the National Programs in Brazil, complete eradication has not been achieved, and the disease remains, albeit at a lower prevalence. The central purpose of this review is to address diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Considering the course of the infection in cattle, at least two tests, ideally complementary to one another, may be necessary for an adequate diagnosis: the first based on the cellular response, and the second capable of identifying anergic animals by detection of specific anti-M.bovis antibodies.

  1. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  2. Comparison of nine DNA extraction methods for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a high impact on the cattle industry, particularly in developing countries. PCR is a very sensitive method for detection of infectious agents, but the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis is largely dependent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA extraction methods for direct detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue. Nine commercial kits for DNA extraction were evaluated when combined with two real time PCRs. The DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit from QIAGEN showed better performance and sensitivity followed by the DNA Mini Kit RBC and FTA Elute Micro Card. Results suggested that, even when the analytical sensitivity of the qPCR is very high, the extraction method can influence the diagnostic sensitivity.

  3. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith

    2014-01-01

    of TST and IGRAs in five different groups of immunocompromised patients, and evaluated their ability to identify those at risk for development of tuberculosis. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients with HIV infection, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, solid-organ or stem-cell transplantation......, and healthy control subjects were evaluated head-to-head by the TST, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold in-tube test (ELISA), and T-SPOT.TB test (enzyme-linked immunospot) at 17 centers in 11 European countries. Development of tuberculosis was assessed during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequencies of positive...... test results varied from 8.7 to 15.9% in HIV infection (n = 768), 25.3 to 30.6% in chronic renal failure (n = 270), 25.0% to 37.2% in rheumatoid arthritis (n = 199), 9.0 to 20.0% in solid-organ transplant recipients (n = 197), 0% to 5.8% in stem-cell transplant recipients (n = 103), and 11.2 to 15...

  4. Evaluation of adenosine deaminase seric activity in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roberto Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of seric levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA, an enzyme produced by monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, has been used in the diagnosis of human tuberculosis (TB. In the present study, ADA seric activity was evaluated comparatively to the comparative tuberculin test in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Two hundred fifty-six cattle were classified by origin and by the comparative tuberculin test as TB-positive animals (n = 52, from herds where the Mycobacterium bovis had previously been isolated, and TB-negative animals (n = 204, TB-free herds. The mean ADA seric value from the TB-positive group (4.45 ± 2.33 U/L was significantly lower (p = 0.008 than that observed in sera from the TB-negative group (6.12 ± 4.47 U/L. When animals from a herd with clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis of TB-negative group were withdrawn from analysis, the mean ADA seric values of TB-negative group (5.12 ± 3.75 U/L was not significantly different anymore from that of the TB-positive group (p = 0.28. There was no agreement in the diagnosis of bovine TB between comparative tuberculin test and determination of ADA seric values, using two different cutoff points, being 6.12 U/L and 15.0 U/L, (kappa = -0.086 and kappa = -0.082, respectively. In conclusion, the determination of ADA seric activity was not a good auxiliary test for bovine TB, because it was not able to distinguish between TB-positive and TB-negative animals.

  5. Validity of intradermal tuberculin testing for the screening of bovine tuberculosis in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, R; Rasolofo, V; Andriambololona, R; Ramboasolo, A; Rasolonavalona, T; Raharisolo, C; Rakotoaritahina, H; Chanteau, S; Boisier, P

    2001-09-01

    A sample survey with the objective of determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis by means of an intradermal tuberculin test was conducted in Madagascar and it was found that the prevalence rate varied from 0-30% by veterinary district. In order to estimate the true prevalence, the validity of the test was investigated by assessing its sensitivity and specificity in two groups of animals from two different regions, which were destined for slaughter. In the first group where the probability of non-infected animals should have been the highest, sensitivity was estimated at 0.52 (n = 21) and specificity at 0.99 (n = 79). In the second group selected on the basis of apparent ill health of the animals in a high-prevalence bovine tuberculosis area, sensitivity was estimated at 0.8 (n = 10) and specificity at 1 (n = 12). The results obtained from both groups of cattle were not combined for statistical purposes because the sensitivity of the skin test seemed to fluctuate in relation to the chronicity of the disease. These fluctuations are discussed. However, since the first group of zebu cattle was more representative of the cattle population across the country as a whole, its results were retained as operational parameters for further screening.

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  7. A Summary of Research on Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccines%牛结核病疫苗研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭伟; 谢志勤; 谢芝勋

    2014-01-01

    It is almost one hundred years since the Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG)vaccine strain were isolated by Calmette and Guerin. BCG vaccine can be used for prevention of bovine tuberculosis. Research and development of bovine tuberculosis vaccines have been continuously conducted as the currently used BCG vaccines can only provide partial protection for cattle. In this review, we will introduce bovine tuberculosis vaccines that are currently in use, and major types, challenges and future directions of candidate bovine tuberculosis vaccines that are under development.%BCG疫苗株自Calmette和Guerin俩人分离出至今已有近百年的历史。BCG疫苗可用于预防牛结核病,但对牛的保护效果不完全,所以人们仍在不断地研发新型的牛结核病疫苗。本文将介绍目前正在使用及研发的牛结核病疫苗的主要类型、面临的挑战及今后的发展方向。

  8. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB

  9. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  10. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E.A.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Yu, Y.Y.; He, X.Z.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Rockville, MD (USA). Infectious and Immunoepidemiology Branch

    2009-03-15

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2,459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1,000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first 5 years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios (HRs) ranging 6.7-13) but remained strong 5-9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis.

  11. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  12. Role of Cattle Movements in Bovine Tuberculosis Spread in France between 2005 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1-5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0-4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7-5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%-18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%-78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014.

  13. Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Tuberculosis Herd Breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4–25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8–15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0–45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs. PMID:25127254

  14. Lupus pleuritis: a relevant risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoto, S G; Borba, E F; Bonfa, E; Shinjo, S K

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical/laboratorial features of 1283 SLE patients (ACR criteria) followed at the Lupus Clinic were obtained from the electronic register database from 2001 to 2009. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 20 patients (1.6%) (TB+ group). As control group (TB-), 40 patients without tuberculosis matched for age, gender, ethnicity, age at SLE diagnosis, and disease duration were arbitrarily selected. All 20 patients of the TB+ group presented confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis from 1 to 23 years after SLE diagnosis (7.6 ± 8.1 years). Frequencies of previous SLE involvements (cutaneous, articular, hematological, renal, pericarditis, pneumonitis, and central nervous system) were alike in TB+ and TB- groups (p > 0.05). In contrast, prior pleuritis was more frequent in the TB+ group (40% vs. 5%, p = 0.001). In fact, pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 8/10 patients with previous pleuritis. Immunosuppressive and corticosteroid therapies at the moment of tuberculosis diagnosis were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). We have identified pleuritis as a relevant risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that previous pleural injury is a critical part of the complex interplay between altered immune system, socio-economic conditions, and increased susceptibility to this mycobacterial infection.

  15. Descriptive epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in michigan (1975-2010): lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Grooms, Daniel L; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Averill, James J; Kaneene, John B

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing eradication efforts, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains a challenge in Michigan livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1) review the epidemiology of BTB in Michigan cattle, privately owned cervids, and wildlife between 1975 and 2010 and (2) identify important lessons learned from the review and eradication strategies. BTB information was accessed from the Michigan BTB Eradication Project agencies. Cattle herds (49), privately owned deer herds (4), and wild white-tailed deer (668) were found infected with BTB during the review period. BTB has occurred primarily in counties located at the northern portion of the state's Lower Peninsula. Currently used BTB eradication strategies have successfully controlled BTB spread. However additional changes in BTB surveillance, prevention, and eradication strategies could improve eradication efforts.

  16. Descriptive Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Michigan (1975–2010: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika C. Okafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing eradication efforts, bovine tuberculosis (BTB remains a challenge in Michigan livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1 review the epidemiology of BTB in Michigan cattle, privately owned cervids, and wildlife between 1975 and 2010 and (2 identify important lessons learned from the review and eradication strategies. BTB information was accessed from the Michigan BTB Eradication Project agencies. Cattle herds (49, privately owned deer herds (4, and wild white-tailed deer (668 were found infected with BTB during the review period. BTB has occurred primarily in counties located at the northern portion of the state's Lower Peninsula. Currently used BTB eradication strategies have successfully controlled BTB spread. However additional changes in BTB surveillance, prevention, and eradication strategies could improve eradication efforts.

  17. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  18. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, T C; Kriek, N P; Bengis, R G; Whyte, I J; Viljoen, P C; de Vos, V; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was first detected in Kruger National Park (KNP) in a single African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in 1990. In 1991/1992, 2,071 African buffalo were examined for BTB as part of a culling program that removed animals from all known herds in KNP. The prevalence of BTB in 1991/1992 was estimated to be 0%, 4.4% (+/-0.6%), and 27.1% (+/-1.4%), in the north, central, and south zones of KNP, respectively. In 1998, a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling method was used to estimate that the prevalence of BTB was 1.5% (+/-2.5%), 16% (+/-5.3%), and 38.2% (+/-6.3%), in the north, central, and south zones, respectively. This represented a significant increase in prevalence (P management strategies. The methodology and sample sizes used in 1998 are appropriate for future BTB monitoring in KNP.

  19. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation.

  20. Bovine tuberculosis at the human-livestock-wildlife interface: Is it a public health problem in Tanzania? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugwesa Z. Katale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the apparent public health concern about Bovine tuberculosis (BTB in Tanzania, little has been done regarding the zoonotic importance of the disease and raising awareness of the community to prevent the disease. Bovine tuberculosis is a potential zoonotic disease that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. The presence of multiple hosts including wild animals, inefficient diagnostic techniques, absence of defined national controls and eradication programs could impede the control of bovine TB. In Tanzania, the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in animals is mostly carried out by tuberculin skin testing, meat inspection in abattoirs and only rarely using bacteriological techniques. The estimated prevalence of BTB in animals in Tanzania varies and ranges across regions from 0.2% to 13.3%, which is likely to be an underestimate if not confirmed by bacteriology or molecular techniques. Mycobacterium bovis has been detected and isolated from different animal species and has been recovered in 10% of apparently healthy wildebeest that did not show lesions at post-mortem. The transmission of the disease from animals to humans can occur directly through the aerosol route and indirectly by consumption of raw milk. This poses an emerging disease threat in the current era of HIV confection in Tanzania and elsewhere. Mycobacterium bovis is one of the causative agents of human extra pulmonary tuberculosis. In Tanzania there was a significant increase (116.6% of extrapulmonary cases reported between 1995 and 2009, suggesting the possibility of widespread M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection due to general rise of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This paper aims to review the potential health and economic impact of bovine tuberculosis and challenges to its control in order to safeguard human and animal population in Tanzania.

  1. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  2. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  3. Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

    2013-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k = 0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k = 0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In

  4. Tuberculosis and risk of acute myocardial infarction: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, M A; Kryscio, R J; Fichtenbaum, C J; Henson, D; Salt, E; Sterling, T R; Garvy, B A

    2017-02-16

    Several pathogens have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether this occurs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unclear. We assessed if tuberculosis disease increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients with tuberculosis index claims from a large de-identified database of ~15 million adults enrolled in a U.S. commercial insurance policy between 2008 and 2010. Tuberculosis patients were 1:1 matched to patients without tuberculosis claims using propensity scores. We compared the occurrence of index AMI claims between the tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. Data on 2026 patients with tuberculosis and 2026 propensity-matched patients without tuberculosis were included. AMI was more frequent in the tuberculosis cohort compared with the non-tuberculosis cohort, 67 (3·3%) vs. 32 (1·6%) AMI cases, respectively, P < 0·01. Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1·98, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·3-3·0). The results were similar when the analysis was restricted to pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·5-4·1). Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI. CVD risk assessment should be considered in tuberculosis patients. Mechanistic studies of tuberculosis and CVD are warranted.

  5. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pozmogova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  6. The consequences of vaccination with the Johne's disease vaccine, Gudair, on diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, M; Clifford, D J; Vordermeier, H M; Whelan, A O

    2013-03-09

    The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin-test (SICCT) remains the primary surveillance tool to diagnose bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK. Therefore, understanding the potential confounding influences on this test is important. This study investigated the effects of vaccination against Johne's disease (JD) on the immunodiagnosis of BTB using a Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination model as a surrogate of M bovis infection. Calves were vaccinated with either BCG (an attenuated live vaccine) or the JD vaccine, Gudair (a heat-inactivated suspension of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis), or a combination of both, and SICCT responses were measured approximately six and 12 weeks postvaccination. Animals vaccinated with Gudair only were negative to the SICCT test, thus supporting the specificity of the SICCT test following Gudair vaccination. However, while animals vaccinated with BCG-only demonstrated a bovine tuberculin-biased response as expected, covaccination with Gudair resulted in a bias towards avian tuberculin in the SICCT test. Therefore, our model demonstrates the potential of the Gudair vaccine to reduce the sensitivity of the SICCT. In addition, while we also demonstrate that Gudair vaccination can compromise the specificity of serological tests to detect JD, the specificity of defined M bovis antigens in serological or interferon gamma-based blood assays was not compromised by the vaccine.

  7. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Tschopp

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2% with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4% with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4% yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

  8. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB dynamics in an Irish badger population. A spatial agent-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effect of various control strategies for bovine tuberculosis in badgers: single control strategies (culling, selective culling, vaccination, and vaccine baits), and combined strategies (Test vaccinate/cull (TVC)), split area approaches using culling and vaccination, or selective culling and vaccination, and mixed scenarios where culling was conducted for five years and followed by vaccination or by a TVC strategy. The effect of each control strategy was evaluated over a 20-year period. Badger control was simulated in 25%, 50%, and 75% area (limited area strategy) or in the entire area (100%, wide area strategy). For endemic bTB, a culling strategy was successful in eradicating bTB from the population only if applied as an area-wide strategy. However, this was achieved only by risking the extinction of the badger population. Selective culling strategies (selective culling or TVC) mitigated this negative impact on the badger population's viability. Furthermore, both strategies (selective culling and TVC) allowed the badger population to recover gradually, in compensation for the population reduction following the initial use of removal strategies. The model predicted that vaccination can be effective in reducing bTB prevalence in badgers, when used in combination with culling strategies (i.e. TVC or other strategies). If fecundity was reduced below its natural levels (e.g. by using wildlife contraceptives), the effectiveness of vaccination strategies improved. Split-area simulations highlighted that interventions can have indirect effects (e.g. on

  9. Exploring the use of molecular epidemiology to track bovine tuberculosis in Nigeria: an overview from 2002 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, S I B; Gordon, S V; Hewinson, R G; Smith, N H

    2011-07-05

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Nigeria. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is clearly of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic in Nigeria, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. Molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in Nigeria will increase our understanding of this endemic disease and provide tools to assess cattle-to-human transmission. Between 2002 and 2004, molecular techniques including spoligotyping, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing and deletion typing were used to track and analyze a sample of strains of the M. tuberculosis complex circulating in the cattle population in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. In all, 180 isolates were typed with a view to elucidating epidemiological information on circulating strains, occurrence of transborder transmission and molecular diversity of the M. bovis strains. Results obtained showed that 99% (178/180) of the isolates were M. bovis, while the remaining were M. tuberculosis and M. africanum. In all, strains of M. bovis had 34 different spoligotypes: strains with spoligotype pattern SB0944 (as designated by www.mbovis.org) were the most common (46% of strains). This molecular type is also common in countries neighbouring Nigeria. Strains with this spoligotype pattern could be further divided into 40 different VNTR types. This analysis shows the value of simple molecular epidemiological techniques applied to strains of M. bovis and suggests that further epidemiological studies will shed more light on the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis locally and across neighbouring African countries.

  10. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was comp

  11. La Tuberculosis Bovina en Venezuela: patogénesis, epidemiología, respuesta inmunitaria y nuevas alternativas para el diagnóstico - Bovine Tuberculosis in Venezuela: pathogenesis, epidemiology, immune response and new alternative for the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera P., Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa tuberculosis bovina, enfermedad infectocontagiosa causada porMycobacterium bovis, se encuentra difundida por el mundo entero, es unproblema de salud pública (Zoonosis, debido a que el M. bovis puedeinfectar al hombre produciendo un cuadro de tuberculosis clínicamenteindistinguible al causado por M. tuberculosis, el cual es causa de latuberculosis humana.SummaryBovine tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is widespread throughout the world, is a public health problem (Zoonosis, because M. bovis can infect humans producing a sindrome of tuberculosis clinically indistinguishable to that caused by M. tuberculosis, which causes human tuberculosis. M. bovis is an intracellular pathogen that infects cells of the host immune system mainly macrophages, once inside the macrophage the mycobacteria may be destroyed those of the different microbicides mechanisms and used the macrophage for survival, multiply and travel within the body and gain access to other tissues via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

  12. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  13. Bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the South-West region of England: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahay, R J; Smith, G C; Barlow, A M; Walker, N; Harris, A; Clifton-Hadley, R S; Cheeseman, C L

    2007-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. This paper presents the results of the largest systematic UK survey of M. bovis infection in other wild mammals. Mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the South-West region of England were subjected to a systematic post mortem examination, microbiological culture of tissues and spoligotyping of isolates. Infection was confirmed in fox, stoat, polecat, common shrew, yellow-necked mouse, wood mouse, field vole, grey squirrel, roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and muntjac. Prevalence in deer may have been underestimated because the majority were incomplete carcasses, which reduced the likelihood of detecting infection. Infected cases were found in Wiltshire, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall, Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. Lesions were found in a high proportion of spoligotype-positive fallow, red and roe deer, and a single fox, stoat and muntjac. M. bovis spoligotypes occurred in a similar frequency of occurrence to that in cattle and badgers. Data on prevalence, pathology, abundance and ecology of wild mammals was integrated in a semi-quantitative risk assessment of the likelihood of transmission to cattle relative to badgers. Although most species presented a relatively low risk, higher values and uncertainty associated with muntjac, roe, red and in particular fallow deer, suggest they require further investigation. The results suggest that deer should be considered as potential, although probably localised, sources of infection for cattle.

  14. Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

    2013-07-13

    Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

  15. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L N

    2015-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain.

  16. Evaluation of Cocktails with Recombinant Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis for a Specific Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Mon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delayed type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH and interferon-gamma assay are used for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TBB. The specificity of these diagnoses, however, is compromised because both are based on the response against purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium bovis (PPD-B. In this study, we assessed the potential of two cocktails containing M. bovis recombinant proteins: cocktail 1 (C1: ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MPB83 and cocktail 2 (C2: ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83, HspX, TB10.3, and MPB70. C1, C2, and PPD-B showed similar response by DTH in M. bovis-sensitized guinea pigs. Importantly, C1 induced a lower response than PPD-B in M. avium-sensitized guinea pigs. In cattle, C1 displayed better performance than PPD-B and C2; indeed, C1 showed the least detection of animals either vaccinated or Map-infected. To optimize the composition of the cocktails, we obtained protein fractions from PPD-B and tested their immunogenicity in experimentally M. bovis-infected cattle. In one highly reactive fraction, seven proteins were identified. The inclusion of FixB in C1 enhanced the recognition of M. bovis-infected cattle without compromising specificity. Our data provide a promising basis for the future development of a cocktail for TBB detection without interference by the presence of sensitized or infected animals with other mycobacteria.

  17. Evaluation of Cocktails with Recombinant Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis for a Specific Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, María Laura; Moyano, Roberto Damián; Viale, Mariana Noelia; Colombatti Olivieri, María Alejandra; Gamietea, Ignacio José; Montenegro, Valeria Noely; Alonso, Bernardo; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Singh, Mahavir; Duran, Rosario; Romano, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The Delayed type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH) and interferon-gamma assay are used for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TBB). The specificity of these diagnoses, however, is compromised because both are based on the response against purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium bovis (PPD-B). In this study, we assessed the potential of two cocktails containing M. bovis recombinant proteins: cocktail 1 (C1): ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MPB83 and cocktail 2 (C2): ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83, HspX, TB10.3, and MPB70. C1, C2, and PPD-B showed similar response by DTH in M. bovis-sensitized guinea pigs. Importantly, C1 induced a lower response than PPD-B in M. avium-sensitized guinea pigs. In cattle, C1 displayed better performance than PPD-B and C2; indeed, C1 showed the least detection of animals either vaccinated or Map-infected. To optimize the composition of the cocktails, we obtained protein fractions from PPD-B and tested their immunogenicity in experimentally M. bovis-infected cattle. In one highly reactive fraction, seven proteins were identified. The inclusion of FixB in C1 enhanced the recognition of M. bovis-infected cattle without compromising specificity. Our data provide a promising basis for the future development of a cocktail for TBB detection without interference by the presence of sensitized or infected animals with other mycobacteria. PMID:25110654

  18. Monitoring and Analysis of Bovine Tuberculosis%牛结核病监测与分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷程红; 冉多良; 余佳琳; 蒋龙; 刘瑜; 张寅生

    2012-01-01

    [目的]掌握牛结核病的感染情况及其感染原因,逐步控制包括人在内的结核病的发病率,帮助奶牛养殖业持续健康发展.[方法]2010年下半年对乌鲁木齐周边地区部分牛用“提纯结核菌素皮内变态反应”方法进行了结核病监测.[结果]对监测结果数据进行统计分析显示:此次共监测牛1 052头,其中检出结核阳性牛5头,阳性率为0.47%.[结论]牛结核病零星散发,应做好检疫和扑杀工作.%[ Objective ] To have a good knowledge of the infection of bovine tuberculosis and its causes in order to gradually control the tuberculosis rate including human being's and help cow industry go into a continuous and healthy development. [ Method ]" Purification of cattle tuberculin skin allergy" method was used to monitor the tuberculosis of cattle in those areas around Urumqi in the second half of 2010. [Result] The result shows; among the 1,052 cattle detected, five heads of cattle showed positive tuberculosis signs. The rate is 0.47%. [ Conclusion] Bovine tuberculosis occurred sporadically, and the quarantine and culling work should be done well.

  19. The Causes and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Deaths in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Seyed Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the 10 leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Understanding the cause and risk factors of TB death and lowering them can reduce its mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the cause and risk factors for death of tuberculosis. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the south west of Iran, from 2002 to 2006. Medical records of tuberculosis cases over the 5-year period were reviewed and death data were analyzed. Including criteria were documented TB diagnosed based on National Tuberculosis Program (NTP. Extracted data were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 system and by chi squared test. One hundred and twenty five deaths (3.15% with mean age of 48.96±10.03 years were detected. Risk factors for death were: cigarette smoking, diabetes, chronic peritoneal dialysis, MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage. 93 deaths (74.4% were directly attributed to tuberculosis. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, AIDS/HIV and MDR-TB were the cause of death with the rate of 69.9%, 11.8%, 9.7% and 8.6%, respectively. 32 (25.6% deaths were due to medical problems unrelated to TB, among which were cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers with the rate of 25%, 21.9% and 15.6%, respectively. The deaths of TB not only are directly related to TB, but also are caused due to comorbid conditions. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers are the main cause of death. MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage are the main risk factors for TB mortality.

  20. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  1. The road to tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis elimination in Arkansas; a re-examination of risk groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Berzkalns

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. METHODS: The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004-December 31, 2010. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered versus reactivation (non-clustered. Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. RESULTS: A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%, clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%, and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%. However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S.

  2. THE RELATIVE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN AND BOVINE TYPES OF TUBERCLE BACILLI IN BONE AND JOINT TUBERCULOSIS OCCURRING IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J

    1912-10-01

    The all important point revealed by the investigation is the fact that a large proportion of bone and joint tuberculosis occurring in children in Edinburgh owes its origin to infection by the bovine bacillus. The bovine bacillus is introduced into the system practically by one route only, that of ingestion, and the medium with which it is ingested is cow's milk. It is not my intention to criticize in any way the existing conditions of milk supply. I have furnished proof of what is actually occurring and no one will deny that the evil is a remediable one. In those cases in which the human bacillus was present, a considerable proportion showed a definite history of pulmonary tuberculosis affecting a co-resident, and every fact went to prove that the infection had been a direct one from patient to child. A complete distinction can be drawn between human and bovine bacilli, and the distinction is best secured by subjecting the organism to a series of tests such as I have detailed. The subject is one which ought to be investigated in a series of different localities. It is possible that the locus may be a factor in the explanation of the difference between the above results and those of other observers.

  3. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2. Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+IL-2(+TNF-α(+ and IFN-γ(+ TNF-α(+ response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hiCD45RO(+CD62L(lo T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future.

  4. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to adjust the boundaries of the modified accredited, modified accredited advanced, and accredited-free tuberculosis risk...

  5. Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccine Efficacy Studies: Neonatal Calves and White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedi, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti)(#1). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from ...

  6. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  7. Risk factors against bovine respiratory diseade in suckling calves from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio José; Perea-Remujo, J.A.; Arenas-Casas, Antonio; Torralbo, A.; Borge-Rodríguez, Carmen; Carbonero-Martínez, Alfonso; Maldonado García, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    An observacional cross-sectional study was performed to determine the risk factors associated to the main viral agents of the bovine respiratory disease: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (HVB1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (VDVB), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB) and parainfluenza 3 virus (VPI3). Blood samples from dairy calves in the provinces of Cordova and Santa Fe (Argentina) were obtained, and an epidemiological ques-tionnaire was filled. Antibodies against studied viruses were detect...

  8. Modeling and mitigating winter hay bale damage by elk in a low prevalence bovine tuberculosis endemic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, R M; Brook, R K

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife causes extensive crop damage throughout much of North America and these shared feeds are a key risk factor in the transmission of diseases between wildlife and livestock, including bovine tuberculosis (TB). Predicting wildlife use of agricultural crops can provide insight directed toward targeted disease mitigation at areas of potential indirect interaction. In this study, we quantified use of hay bales by elk (Cervus canadensis) during the winter in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using a database of 952 damage claims paid compensation from 1994 to 2012. We evaluated environmental factors predicted to determine risk of hay bale damage on each quarter section by elk using a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) model. The most important variables (as measured for each quarter section and based on cumulative Akaike weights that scale from 0 to 1) were distance to protected areas (1.00), forest including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), forage crop including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), distance from streams (0.99), forage crop (0.92), cereal and oilseed crop cover including a buffer (0.85), and forest cover (0.82). We then developed an RSPF-based predictive map of damage to hay bales by elk that identified key areas with high probability of damage (RSPF≥0.6), accounting for 3.5% of the study area. We then multiplied the RSPF values by the inverse of the proximity to known cases of TB positive elk and determined that 0.51% of the study area had an overall high combined probability of hay bale damage and proximity to TB positive elk (i.e. adjusted probability of ≥0.6). In the southern half of the study area where 164 hay yard barrier fences have been implemented since 2002, there has been a significant decrease in the number of annual claims. Barrier fencing around Riding Mountain National Park has been successful at reducing elk damage where it has been implemented. In our study area, prevalence of TB in both cattle (0

  9. IFNgamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk of infection and disease in household contacts of tuberculosis patients in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena del Corral

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Household contacts (HHCs of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNgamma produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP, and assessed whether IFNgamma levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development. METHODS: A cohort of 2060 HHCs was followed for 2-3 years after exposure to a tuberculosis case. Besides TST, IFNgamma responses to mycobacterial antigens: CFP, CFP-10, HspX and Ag85A were assessed in 7-days whole blood cultures and compared to 766 individuals from the SP in Medellín, Colombia. Isoniazid prophylaxis was not offered to child contacts because Colombian tuberculosis regulations consider it only in children under 5 years, TST positive without BCG vaccination. RESULTS: Using TST 65.9% of HHCs and 42.7% subjects from the SP were positive (OR 2.60, p<0.0001. IFNgamma response to CFP-10, a biomarker of M. tuberculosis infection, tested positive in 66.3% HHCs and 24.3% from the SP (OR = 6.07, p<0.0001. Tuberculosis incidence rate was 7.0/1000 person years. Children <5 years accounted for 21.6% of incident cases. No significant difference was found between positive and negative IFNgamma responders to CFP-10 (HR 1.82 95% CI 0.79-4.20 p = 0.16. However, a significant trend for tuberculosis development amongst high HHC IFNgamma producers was observed (trend Log rank p = 0.007. DISCUSSION: CFP-10-induced IFNgamma production is useful to establish tuberculosis infection prevalence amongst HHC and identify those at highest risk

  10. 牛结核病的诊断研究进展%The Research Progress in Diagnosis for Bovine Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉

    2014-01-01

    牛结核病是由结核分支杆菌引起的牛的一种慢性消耗性传染病,不仅严重危害养牛业的发展,也对人的身体健康造成威胁。做好牛结核病的诊断,是实现该病净化的一种重要手段和前提。本文从病原学、血清学、分子生物学等方面对该病的诊断进行了阐述。%Bovine tuberculosis is a serious zoonotic disease which caused by mycobacterium bo-vis, it not only cause losses to the dairy industry, but also closely related to people’s health. The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis is an important method in the control of the epidemic. The methods of diagnostic techniques such as aetiology, serum and molecular biology techniques were re-viewed in this paper.

  11. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  12. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  13. [Risk assessment for importing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnlimann, B; Guidon, D; Griot, C

    1994-07-01

    Since the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Switzerland in 1990, extensive epidemiological investigations and risk factor analyses were carried out. In this study, statistical data on meat and bone meal traded from 1985 to 1989 were analysed addressing the following questions: i) what amount of meat and bone meal was exported from Great Britain (GB) and where to and ii) what amount of meat and bone meal was imported into Switzerland and where from? The findings led to the hypothesis that imported material potentially infected with scrapie-like agents was the cause for BSE in Switzerland.

  14. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Alemseged, Fessahaye

    2017-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS windows version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to generate summary values for the variables and those significant variables in the bivariate analysis at p-value less than 0.25 were entered to multivariable logistic regression to identify independent determinants. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than or equal to 0.05. Results A total of 90 cases and 90 controls were included in the study. Age of respondents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6–24.5), living in a household with only one room (AOR=5; 95%CI: 1.68–15.38), history of previous treatment (AOR=21; 95% CI: 17.8–28) and being HIV infected (AOR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.02–9.4) were found to be independent predictors of MDR-TB. Conclusion In light of these findings, the strategies in controlling MDR-TB should emphasize on patients with HIV coinfection, young patients, those who have a history of previous treatment, and those living in crowded places. PMID:28331350

  15. Update on Comparative Studies for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon Gamma (IFN-gamma) Assay with Tuberculins or Alternative Antigens for Whole Blood Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Tuberculosis is a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). It is a major infectious disease found worldwide in domestic animals, particularly cattle, as well as in certain wildlife populations. Although the disease has been effectively eliminated in many countries and reg...

  16. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.

  17. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers’ visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring–summer and waterholes in autumn–winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies b

  18. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, William D.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  19. Increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household child contacts exposed to passive tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya; Karnani, Nisha; Connell, David W; Millington, Kerry A; Dosanjh, Davinder; Bakir, Mustafa; Soysal, Ahmet; Deeks, Jonathan; Lalvani, Ajit

    2014-12-01

    Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were investigated in a prospective cohort of household child tuberculosis contacts. A significantly increased risk of acquiring infection was associated with exposure to passive cigarette smoke, higher number of index cases, younger age and reduced household monthly income.

  20. Scientific Opinion on BSE risk in bovine intestines and mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine intestines and mesenteries in the European Union (EU have to be removed from the food and feed chain. The opinion provides a quantitative assessment of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE infectious load that might enter the food and feed chain yearly if bovine intestine and mesentery from animals born and raised in the EU would be re-allowed for consumption. Data on the evolution of the BSE infectious titre; and of the weight of histological structures accumulating BSE infectivity, were collected. The Cattle TSE Monitoring Model (C-TSEMM was used to estimate the number of BSE infected cattle entering undetected in the food and feed chain yearly. A model named TSEi was developed to estimates the BSE infectious load in tissues from infected animals at different ages and the total yearly infectious load that could enter the food and feed chain in the EU27. In BSE infected cattle, the infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery reaches its maximum in animals younger than 18 months and then progressively declines to a minimum value in animals older than 60 months. Due to the decline of the BSE prevalence in the EU, between 2007 and 2012, the yearly amount of BSE infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery (sent to destruction from animals entering the food and feed chain was reduced by a factor of 10. However, over this period, the maximum level of exposure to the BSE agent for individuals that would have consumed these tissues remained stable. Finally, the TSEi model indicated that the removal of the last four metres of the small intestine and of the caecum from the food and feed chain would result in a major reduction of the BSE exposure risk associated with intestine and mesentery in cattle.

  1. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  2. [Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Jalisco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyd, S; López, J L; Mercado, F J; Durning, J

    1991-11-01

    Using a modified cluster sample design, skin tests with two TU PPD were performed on 4,083 first-grade children (mean age 6,7 years) in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, to estimate the annual risk of infection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proportion of PPD reactions (a diameter of 10 mm or more of induration) was 7.6% in the Guadalajara metropolitan area and 5.5% in the rest of Jalisco. In the total sample, the proportion was 7.4% among children with scars attributed to BCG vaccine and 4.5% in children without BCG scars. The weighted proportion of children with PPD reactions of 10 mm or more was 6.8% statewide. The average annual risk of infection estimated from the group that had not received BCG vaccine was 0.82%. The results suggest that the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis is almost 10 times greater than the number of cases registered annually in Jalisco.

  3. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Donnelly, Christl A; Kao, Rowland R; Macdonald, David W; McDonald, Robbie A; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L N; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B; McLean, Angela R

    2013-10-07

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

  4. Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschopp Rea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. Results A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5% with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1% with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk. FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. Conclusions This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown.

  5. A preliminary study of genetic factors that influence susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in the British cattle herd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Driscoll

    Full Text Available Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test ('reactors'. Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling.

  6. The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Munyeme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38% and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6% had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6% and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7% of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9% and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r=0.59, P<0.0001. A significant association (χ2=76.2, df=1, and P<0.0001 was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0. This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

  7. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  8. Evaluation of the interferon-γ assay on blood collected at exsanguination of cattle under field conditions for surveillance of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C C; Grooms, D L; Bolin, S R; Averill, J J; Kaneene, J B

    2014-12-01

    Development of point of concentration (POC) surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would facilitate global efforts to eradicate bTB. The interferon-gamma (IFNγ) assay can detect IFNγ responses to Mycobacterium bovis in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination (COE) of experimentally challenged cattle but has not been evaluated under field conditions. The current study was aimed at determining (i) whether blood collected at COE of cattle at slaughter, under field conditions, is practical to obtain and useful for identifying cattle as IFNγ positive for bTB, (ii) whether the results of the IFNγ assay obtained at COE reliably compare with results obtained from live animals in the field, and (iii) whether the identified animal(s) originated from bTB-infected or bTB-exposed herds. Cattle from three risk groups were used: the highest risk group consisted of 49 cattle from 3 bTB-infected herds; the medium risk group consisted of 24 cattle from a potentially exposed herd; and the lowest risk group consisted of 60 cattle from herds with no known history of bTB exposure. The IFNγ assay was performed on blood collected both before stunning and at COE of cattle at slaughter. An enhanced slaughter inspection for gross lesions consistent with bTB was performed on all cattle. In addition, lymph nodes were cultured for M. bovis for cattle that tested positive for bTB via the IFNγ assay and for most cattle that tested negative for bTB. Cattle, both with and without lesions consistent with bTB, were identified as positive for bTB by the IFNγ assay using blood collected at COE, but none of the positive cattle originated from the lowest risk group. The current study demonstrates that blood collected at COE of cattle is both a practical and moderately reliable sample for accessing bTB infection using the IFNγ assay.

  9. Positive tuberculin test and risk of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis clinic settled in an upright building, in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Spíndola De Miranda,Silvana; Campos De Oliveira,Alice; Xavier Santos,Aline; Pereira Prado,Deborah; Leão Soares,Cláudia; Santos Nery,Rachel; Cunha Vieira,Henriquez; da Silva Carvalho, Wânia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Occupational Tuberculosis (TB) can lead to work absenteeism and a negative professional impact. Knowing the reactivity of the tuberculin test and the risk of M. tuberculosis infection among healthcare professionals is essential for the revision and reinforcement of control measures against TB transmission. Aim: To assess the reactivity of tuberculin test and risk of M. tuberculosis infection among healthcare professionals working in an upright building, in which a TB Reference Cli...

  10. Epidemiological tracing of bovine tuberculosis in Switzerland, multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Simone; Friedel, Ute; Frei, Daniel; Suter, Dominique; Perler, Lukas; Wittenbrink, Max M.

    2017-01-01

    Background After 15 years of absence, in 2013 bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis and M. caprae, reemerged in the Swiss dairy cattle population. In order to identify the sources of infection as well as the spread of the agents, molecular-epidemiologic tracing by MIRU-VNTR analysis in combination with spoligotyping was performed. A total of 17 M. bovis and 7 M. caprae isolates were cultured from tuberculous bovine lymph nodes and analyzed with a set of 49 genetic markers by using automated capillary electrophoresis. Results The outbreak in the western part of Switzerland was caused by M. bovis spoligotype SB0120. With the exception of four single-locus variations observed in MIRU 20, the MIRU-VNTR profiles of the 17 M. bovis isolates were identical, indicating a single source of infection. M. bovis detected in one archival bovine specimen from the outbreak region showed an identical MIRU-VNTR profile, suggesting persistence of the agent in a dairy herd for nearly fifteen years. The outbreak in the eastern part of Switzerland was caused by M. caprae spoligotype SB0418. All Swiss M. caprae isolates showed the Lechtal-type MIRU-VNTR profile, described as endemic in wild ruminants and in dairy cattle in Austrian bordering regions. This suggests the agent was most likely introduced by Swiss dairy cattle summering on Austrian pastures. Conclusions The present study is the first MIRU-VNTR analysis of Swiss bTB mycobacterial isolates. The genotyping assay was found to be highly discriminating and suitable for the epidemiological tracing of further outbreaks. These findings will contribute to the development of an international MIRU-VNTR database aiming to improve bTB surveillance. PMID:28222182

  11. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  12. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication.

  13. Polyfunctional cytokine responses by central memory CD4*T cells in response to bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB. Mycobacterium bovis in...

  14. Polyfunctional cytokine responses by central memory CD4+T cells in response to bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. Mycobacterium ...

  15. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka; Latiffah Hassan; Siti Khairani-Bejo; Mohamed Abidin Zainal; Ramlan Bin Mohamad; Annas Salleh; Azri Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-fiv...

  16. Display of Antigens on Polyester Inclusions Lowers the Antigen Concentration Required for a Bovine Tuberculosis Skin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlane, Natalie A; Chen, Shuxiong; Jones, Gareth J; Vordermeier, H Martin; Wedlock, D Neil; Rehm, Bernd H A; Buddle, Bryce M

    2015-10-28

    The tuberculin skin test is the primary screening test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB), and use of this test has been very valuable in the control of this disease in many countries. However, the test lacks specificity when cattle have been exposed to environmental mycobacteria or vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Recent studies showed that the use of three or four recombinant mycobacterial proteins, including 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6), 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP10), Rv3615c, and Rv3020c, or a peptide cocktail derived from those proteins, in the skin test greatly enhanced test specificity, with minimal loss of test sensitivity. The proteins are present in members of the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but are absent in or not expressed by the majority of environmental mycobacteria and the BCG vaccine strain. To produce a low-cost skin test reagent, the proteins were displayed at high density on polyester beads through translational fusion to a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase that mediates the formation of antigen-displaying inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. Display of the proteins on the polyester beads greatly increased their immunogenicity, allowing for the use of very low concentrations of proteins (0.1 to 3 μg of mycobacterial protein/inoculum) in the skin test. Polyester beads simultaneously displaying all four proteins were produced in a single fermentation process. The polyester beads displaying three or four mycobacterial proteins were shown to have high sensitivity for detection of M. bovis-infected cattle and induced minimal responses in animals exposed to environmental mycobacteria or vaccinated with BCG.

  17. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  18. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  19. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácido...

  20. Spatial Targeting for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Can the Locations of Infected Cattle Be Used to Find Infected Badgers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine M; Downs, Sara H; Mitchell, Andy; Hayward, Andrew C; Fry, Hannah; Le Comber, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of historical importance to human health in the UK that remains a major animal health and economic issue. Control of the disease in cattle is complicated by the presence of a reservoir species, the Eurasian badger. In spite of uncertainty in the degree to which cattle disease results from transmission from badgers, and opposition from environmental groups, culling of badgers has been licenced in two large areas in England. Methods to limit culls to smaller areas that target badgers infected with TB whilst minimising the number of uninfected badgers culled is therefore of considerable interest. Here, we use historical data from a large-scale field trial of badger culling to assess two alternative hypothetical methods of targeting TB-infected badgers based on the distribution of cattle TB incidents: (i) a simple circular 'ring cull'; and (ii) geographic profiling, a novel technique for spatial targeting of infectious disease control that predicts the locations of sources of infection based on the distribution of linked cases. Our results showed that both methods required coverage of very large areas to ensure a substantial proportion of infected badgers were removed, and would result in many uninfected badgers being culled. Geographic profiling, which accounts for clustering of infections in badger and cattle populations, produced a small but non-significant increase in the proportion of setts with TB-infected compared to uninfected badgers included in a cull. It also provided no overall improvement at targeting setts with infected badgers compared to the ring cull. Cattle TB incidents in this study were therefore insufficiently clustered around TB-infected badger setts to design an efficient spatially targeted cull; and this analysis provided no evidence to support a move towards spatially targeted badger culling policies for bovine TB control.

  1. Diabetes mellitus: an important risk factor for reactivation of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Solá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR, with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.

  2. Tuberculosis en terneros: resultados de un estudio prospectivo (Tuberculosis in calves: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garro, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUn estudio prospectivo fue realizado en un rodeo lechero con tuberculosis bovina (TB endémica para investigar el riesgo atribuido a la alimentación con leche cruda en terneros durante la crianza artificial.SummaryA prospective study was conducted in a dairy herd with endemic bovine tuberculosis (BT to assess the risk attributed to raw milk in feeding calves during the artificial rearing.

  3. Incorporating farmer observations in efforts to manage bovine tuberculosis using barrier fencing at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Ryan K

    2010-05-01

    A federal and provincial cost-shared program was initiated in 2001 around Riding Mountain National Park in southwestern Manitoba, Canada to provide free game wire barrier fences for baled hay storage areas to prevent transmission of TB among cattle (Bos taurus), wild elk (Cervus elaphus), and deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Farmer observations of cervids on their farms were evaluated by interviewing 50 farmers that owned a game wire fence for >1 year. Of those interviewed, 82% reported some type of elk or deer damage to hay bales in the field or in their yard prior to fencing. After fencing, 23% of respondents reported some annual damage to stored hay bales that were not inside the fence, but there was a 100% decrease in the estimated annual value of hay losses. Incursions of deer inside the barrier fence were reported by 18% of respondents and most of these were due to leaving gates open. No incursions of elk inside a barrier fence were reported. Despite the important successes achieved, barrier fencing of hay bales alone does not completely protect cattle from bovine tuberculosis.

  4. Preventing the Establishment of a Wildlife Disease Reservoir: A Case Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild Deer in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Carstensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16 km2 area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010.

  5. Assessing the histopathology to depict the different stages of bovine tuberculosis infection in a naturally infected herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Medeiros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard method for detection of bovine tuberculosis (TB is the single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT. Nevertheless, current studies suggest that a single test is not enough to detect all cattle infected by TB, particularly when animals present different stages of infection. A dairy herd comprised of 270 cows was studied and 15 were reactive to SITT plus nine inconclusive animals. Blood samples (for IFN and ELISA were collected from these 24 cows. At 30 days after injection of PPD, all the cows that were reactive to any of the employed tests were slaughtered, and tissues were processed by Bacteriology, Histopathology (HP and PCR. According to HP 33.4% of the animals were positive, 45.8% inconclusive and 20.8% were negative. The inconclusive samples came from IFN positive animals, signalizing recent infection. Regarding the animals that were negative to HP, all of them were identified by IFN while ELISA was negative. Immune responses are different in recent and advanced infections, what supports the identification between chronically or recently infected animals. This multidisciplinary approach is mandatory for the interpretation of the various tools that are frequently employed for the diagnosis of TB and mainly to identify all infected animals.

  6. Prevalência da tuberculose em bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais Prevalence of tuberculosis among bovines slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baptista

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da tuberculose em bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais, de 1993 a 1997, em 10 matadouros sujeitos à Inspeção Federal, foi de 0,7‰. Os bovinos procederam principalmente deste Estado (74% e de Goiás (25%. A prevalência variou, temporal e espacialmente, entre zero e 8,7‰ e é idêntica à de outros levantamentos parciais feitos no Brasil desde 1924. Contribuíram para ela o local de abate e o perfil dos bovinos abatidos. Em Minas Gerais foi de 0,8‰ e em Goiás 0,4‰. A tuberculose foi diagnosticada em 90 municípios de Minas Gerais e em 17 de Goiás, correspondendo a 16,8% e 12,7% dos municípios mineiros e goianos, respectivamente. A prevalência da tuberculose em Minas Gerais foi maior nos bovinos abatidos na Região Sudoeste (1,7‰.The prevalence of tuberculosis among bovines slaughtered in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997, in 10 slaughterhouses under Federal Inspection, was 0.7‰. The cattle was native mainly from Minas Gerais and Goiás states, respectively 74% and 25%. Prevalence of tuberculosis varied, temporal and spatially, from zero to 8.7‰. This variation was also observed in other partial studies in Brazil since 1924. Place of slaughter and the kind of bovines slaughtered contributed to this variation. The prevalence of tuberculosis in Minas Gerais cattle was 0.8‰ and that of Goiás was 0.4‰. Of investigated municipalities in Minas Gerais, 16.8% were affected by tuberculosis. The occurrence in cattle of municipalities of Goiás was 12.7%. In Minas Gerais, the Southwest Region presented the highest prevalence of tuberculosis (1.7‰.

  7. TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION MIGHT INCREASE THE RISK OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua CHEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Candida infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients. A rare case of a multiple deep organ infection with Candida albicans and spinal tuberculosis was reported in a healthy young man. The 19-year-old man complained of month-long fever and lower back pain. He also had a history of scalded mouth syndrome. Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans was diagnosed using the culture of aspirates from different regions. Symptoms improved considerably after antifungal and antituberculous therapy. This case illustrates that infection with tuberculosis might impair the host's immune system and increase the risk of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Karen R

    2017-02-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of tuberculosis, focusing on screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rampal Krishna; Rafiza Shaharudin; Tahir Aris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 ...

  10. HLA class II sequence variants influence tuberculosis risk in populations of European ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Gudmundsson, Larus J.; Blondal, Kai; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon Axel; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Karason, Ari; Kardum, Ljiljana Bulat; Knežević, Jelena; Kristjansson, Helgi; Kristjansson, Mar; Love, Arthur; Luo, Yang; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sulem, Patrick; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Dembic, Zlatko; Nejentsev, Sergey; Blondal, Thorsteinn; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections cause 9.0 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.5 million deaths annually1. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of TB we tested 28.3 million variants identified through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders for association with TB (8,162 cases and 277,643 controls), pulmonary TB (PTB), and M. tuberculosis infection. We found association of three sequence variants in the HLA class II region: rs557011[T] (MAF=40.2%) with M. tuberculosis infection (OR =1.14, P=3.1×10-13) and PTB (OR=1.25, P=5.8×10-12) and rs9271378[G] (MAF=32.5%) with PTB (OR=0.78, P=2.5×10-12), both located between HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1. Finally, a missense variant p.Ala210Thr in HLA-DQA1, (MAF=19.1%, rs9272785) shows association with M. tuberculosis infection (P=9.3×10-9, OR=1.14). The association of these variants with PTB was replicated in large samples of European ancestry from Russia and Croatia (Ptuberculosis, possibly through reduced presentation of protective M. tuberculosis antigens to T cells. PMID:26829749

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  12. Post-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño-Pérez, Freddy; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel; Coral, Marco; Ortiz, Julio; Ron, Lenin; Portaels, Françoise; Rigouts, Leen; Linden, Annick

    2011-08-01

    Veterinary inspection in slaughterhouses allows for the detection of macroscopic lesions reminiscent of bovine tuberculosis, but the presence of Mycobacterium bovis must be confirmed by laboratory methods. This study aimed at comparing the performances of the standard diagnostic tools used to identify M. bovis in tissue specimens sampled from suspicious animals. During a two years period, 1390 cattle were inspected at the Machachi abattoir in the Mejia canton - Ecuador. A total of 33 animals with granulomatous lesions were detected, representing 2.33% (16/687) and 2.42% (17/703) animals examined in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Ninety-four tissue specimens were sampled and screened for the presence of mycobacteria. Acid-fast bacilli were identified in one third of the suspicious cattle (11/33) and suggestive microscopic lesions in 27.3% (9/33) of the samples examined by direct microscopy and histopathology, respectively. Culturing on Stonebrink medium and 16S-rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yielded 36.4% (12/33) and 27.3% (9/33) of positives, respectively. Compared to culture, other diagnostic procedures displayed a lower sensitivity, with 56.5% for PCR, and 43.5% for direct microscopy and histopathology; however, the specificity was higher (94.4% for PCR and microscopy, and 97.2% for histopathology). We conclude that reliable post-mortem laboratory testing either requires the combination of a set of available diagnostic tools or necessitates the development of improved new-generation tools with better sensitivity and specificity characteristics.

  13. Culling-induced changes in badger (Meles meles behaviour, social organisation and the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Riordan

    Full Text Available In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles, have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the 'perturbation hypothesis', determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT. Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34-43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase

  14. Parameter estimation and use of gamma interferon assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Lopes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the interference of tuberculin test on the gamma-interferon (INFg assay, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay in Brazilian conditions, and to simulate multiple testing using the comparative tuberculin test and the INFg assay. Three hundred-fifty cattle from two TB-free and two TB-infected herds were submitted to the comparative tuberculin test and the INFg assay. The comparative tuberculin test was performed using avian and bovine PPD. The INFg assay was performed by the BovigamTM kit (CSL Veterinary, Australia, according to the manufacturer's specifications. Sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay were assessed by a Bayesian latent class model. These diagnostic parameters were also estimate for multiple testing. The results of INFg assay on D0 and D3 after the comparative tuberculin test were compared by the McNemar's test and kappa statistics. Results of mean optical density from INFg assay on both days were similar. Sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay showed results varying (95% confidence intervals from 72 to 100% and 74 to 100% respectively. Sensitivity of parallel testing was over 97.5%, while specificity of serial testing was over 99.7%. The INFg assay proved to be a very useful diagnostic method.

  15. Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi O. Desalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4% were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%, weight loss (38.0%, and haemoptysis (30.7% were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (, higher family income (, higher level of education (, and belonging to Christian faith (. Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0% and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%. Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%, alcohol consumption (42.5%, chronic kidney disease (40.4%, extremes of ages (39.4%, cancers (36.9%, and diabetes mellitus (27.5% as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.

  16. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovic, I; Sester, M; Gomez-Reino, J J

    2010-01-01

    risk of reactivating latent infections, especially tuberculosis (TB). Following TNF antagonist therapy, the relative risk for TB is increased up to 25 times, depending on the clinical setting and the TNF antagonist used. Interferon-¿ release assays or, as an alternative in individuals without a history...... of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, tuberculin skin testing is recommended to screen all adult candidates for TNF antagonist treatment for the presence of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, paediatric practice suggests concomitant use of both the tuberculin skin test...

  17. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes; Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos; Renata Magliano Marins; Aline Alves Barbosa; Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares; Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with ab...

  18. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George;

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent. Methods A case-control study was conducted in an urban...

  19. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardstaff Joanne L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles. The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to

  20. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2. The high proportion (78% of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area.

  1. Frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Fahad; Shaheen, Abida; Arshad, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to administration of standard anti tuberculosis therapy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases-DUHS. After approval from BASR and following written informed consent eighty newly diagnosed, as per WHO criteria, tuberculosis patients were enrolled. Prior to the initiation of anti tuberculosis therapy, the serum vitamin D level was determined by 25-OH Vitamin D kit using the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. A cut off value of >30 ng/mL of serum vitamin D was taken as normal whereas a range between 10-30 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL were considered insufficient and deficient respectively. Frequency of socio-demographic associated risk factors of hypovitaminosis D was also determined. Results: Out of eighty newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients 33 (41.25%) were males and 47(58.75%) were females with their ages ranging from 18-50 years. 54 patients (26 male and 28 female patients) were smokers. BMI of all the patients was found to be less than the normal ranges. Hypovitaminosis was present in all the cases. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 49 participants (20 male and 29 female) whereas 31 patients (13 male and 18 female) were found to be vitamin D deficient. Conclusion: Prevalence of serum vitamin D level derangement is very high in newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in our local setting which necessitates administration of adjuvant vitamin D along with standard anti tuberculosis therapy. PMID:27182266

  2. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Philana Ling; Maiello, Pauline; Gideon, Hannah P.; Cadena, Anthony M.; Rodgers, Mark A.; Gregg, Robert; O’Malley, Melanie; Fillmore, Daniel; Frye, L. James; Rutledge, Tara; DiFazio, Robert M.; Janssen, Christopher; Klein, Edwin; Andersen, Peter L.; Fortune, Sarah M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT) of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26) before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25). Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection. PMID:27379816

  3. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philana Ling Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26 before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25. Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  4. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Philana Ling; Maiello, Pauline; Gideon, Hannah P; Coleman, M Teresa; Cadena, Anthony M; Rodgers, Mark A; Gregg, Robert; O'Malley, Melanie; Tomko, Jaime; Fillmore, Daniel; Frye, L James; Rutledge, Tara; DiFazio, Robert M; Janssen, Christopher; Klein, Edwin; Andersen, Peter L; Fortune, Sarah M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT) of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26) before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25). Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  5. Carcinoma de células escamosas en linfonódulo mandibular diagnosticado a la inspección en matadero como tuberculosis bovina Squamous cell carcinoma in a mandibular lymph node diagnosed as bovine tuberculosis during slaughterhouse inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lecocq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo establece que el diagnóstico de tuberculosis (TBC bovina comprende múltiples técnicas que en conjunto llegan a un diagnóstico certero, no obstante, la inspección en matadero es quizás una de las más relevantes en la vigilancia de la TBC bovina, por cuanto ésta debe abocarse a lo que indica el manual de inspección del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Aún así, es posible encontrar interpretaciones erróneas de los hallazgos en matadero, que confunden al inspector y que instan a aumentar la rigurosidad de la inspección.The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TBC involves the combination of several techniques to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Among them, the inspection of the animal body at the slaughterhouse is, perhaps, one of the most important for the surveillance of bovine TBC. In Chile, the guidelines for this practice appear in the Official Inspection Manual of the Agricultural and Livestock Service (SAG. Nevertheless, there are wrong interpretations of findings at the slaughterhouse. This study describes a squamous cell carcinoma in the submandibular lymph node of a cow that was initially diagnosed as tuberculosis, based on the presence of caseous necrosis and mineralization detected during postmortem gross examination. Squamous cell carcinoma is a common tumor of white-faced cows such as Hereford, which tend to metastasize to regional lymph nodes like the mandibular lymph node.

  6. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central memory T cells (Tcm’s) and polyfunctional CD4 T responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB); however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by ...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampal Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests. Results The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%. Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points. Conclusion The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population

  8. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Willeberg, Preben; Alban, Lis

    2015-09-01

    We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance of two meat inspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Denmark. The systems were the current meat inspection methods (CMI) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation of the probability of freedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were: (a) to investigate the reasons why conclusions based on the two models differed, and (b) to create a hybrid model based on elements from both studies to evaluate the impact of a change from CMI to VOI. The hybrid model was based on the PFree approach to substantiate freedom from bTB and was parametrized with inputs according to the newest available information. The PFree was updated on an annual basis for each of 42 years of test-negative surveillance data (1995-2037), while assuming a low (cattle herds. The most important reasons for the difference between the study conclusions were: the approach chosen to substantiate the bTB free status (SSe vs. PFree) and the number of years of surveillance data considered. With the hybrid model, the PFree reached a level >95% after the first year of surveillance and remained ≥96% with both the CMI and VOI systems until the end of the analyzed period. It is appropriate to use the PFree of the surveillance system to substantiate confidence in bTB free status, when test-negative surveillance results can be documented over an

  9. Bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes: observations regarding Mycobacterium bovis shedding into water and exposure to environmental mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Helden Paul D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP. The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is not known whether shedding of M. bovis in nasal and oral excretions may lead to contamination of ground and surface water and facilitate the transmission to other animal species. A study to investigate the possibility of water contamination with M. bovis was conducted in association with a BCG vaccination trial in African buffalo. Groups of vaccinated and nonvaccinated buffaloes were kept together with known infected in-contact buffalo cows to allow natural M. bovis transmission under semi-free ranging conditions. In the absence of horizontal transmission vaccinated and control buffaloes were experimentally challenged with M. bovis. Hence, all study buffaloes in the vaccination trial could be considered potential shedders and provided a suitable setting for investigating questions relating to the tenacity of M. bovis shed in water. Results Serial water samples were collected from the drinking troughs of the buffaloes once per season over an eleven-month period and cultured for presence of mycobacteria. All water samples were found to be negative for M. bovis, but 16 non-tuberculous Mycobacterium spp. isolates were cultured. The non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species were further characterised using 5'-16S rDNA PCR-sequencing, resulting in the identification of M. terrae, M. vaccae (or vanbaalenii, M. engbaekii, M. thermoresistibile as well as at least two species which have not yet been classified. Conclusion The absence of detectable levels of Mycobacterium bovis in the trough water suggests that diseased buffalo do not commonly shed the organism in high quantities in nasal and oral discharges. Surface water may therefore not be likely to play an important role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis from buffalo

  10. The role of multiple wildlife hosts in the persistence and spread of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, MC; Tompkins, DM; Ramsey, DSL; Bosson, MAJ

    2015-01-01

    Abstract AIM: To explore how the inclusion of multi-host dynamics affects the predicted prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in possums and other host species following the current best practice for control of TB in large difficult and remote areas, to identify which host species are responsible for changes in predicted prevalence, and whether TB can persist in possum-free host communities. METHODS: Multi-host TB models were constructed, comprising three host species with density-dependent population growth, density-dependent disease transmission and susceptible and infected classes. Models were parameterised for two case studies of current concern in New Zealand, namely chronic TB persistence in a possum-deer-pig complex in extensive forest, and in a possum-pig-ferret complex in unforested semi-arid shrub and grasslands. Persistence of TB in the face of best practice possum control was evaluated from model simulations, and the contribution of different hosts to persistence of TB was assessed by removing each host species in turn from the simulations. A sensitivity test explored how different parameter values affected modelled persistence of TB. RESULTS: The forest multi-host model-predicted amplification of TB prevalence due to the presence of pigs. The presence of pigs and/or deer did not jeopardise the success of best practice possum control in eradicating TB from the system, as pigs and deer are effectively end-hosts for TB. Sensitivity analyses indicated these interpretations were robust to uncertainty in model parameter values. The grassland system model predicted that the multi-host species complex could potentially lead to failure of eradication of TB under possum-only control, due to TB persisting in ferret and pig populations in the absence of possum hosts through reciprocal scavenging, resulting in spillback transmission to possums once their populations had started to recover from control. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to management of TB, for modelled

  11. Characterization of effector and memory T cell subsets in the immune response to bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara F Maggioli

    Full Text Available Cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assays are primarily a measure of central memory T cell (Tcm responses with humans; however, this important subset of lymphocytes is poorly characterized in cattle. Vaccine-elicited cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT responses correlate with protection against bovine tuberculosis in cattle. However, whether this assay measures cattle Tcm responses or not is uncertain. The objective of the present study was to characterize the relative contribution of Tcm (CCR7+, CD62Lhi, CD45RO+, T effector memory (Tem, defined as: CCR7-, CD62Llow/int, CD45RO+, and T effector cells (CCR7-, CD62L-/low, CD45RO-, in the immune response to Mycobacterium bovis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from infected cattle were stimulated with a cocktail of M. bovis purified protein derivative, rTb10.4 and rAg85A for 13 days with periodic addition of fresh media and rIL-2. On day 13, cultured PBMC were re-stimulated with medium alone, rESAT-6:CFP10 or PPDb with fresh autologous adherent cells for antigen presentation. Cultured cells (13 days or fresh PBMCs (ex vivo response from the same calves were analyzed for IFN-γ production, proliferation, and CD4, CD45RO, CD62L, CD44, and CCR7 expression via flow cytometry after overnight stimulation. In response to mycobacterial antigens, ~75% of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells in long-term cultures expressed a Tcm phenotype while less than 10% of the ex vivo response consisted of Tcm cells. Upon re-exposure to antigen, long-term cultured cells were highly proliferative, a distinctive characteristic of Tcm, and the predominant phenotype within the long-term cultures switched from Tcm to Tem. These findings suggest that proliferative responses of Tcm cells to some extent occurs simultaneously with reversion to effector phenotypes (mostly Tem. The present study characterizes Tcm cells of cattle and their participation in the response to M. bovis infection.

  12. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Saleh Saidu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM, as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl- Neelsen staining (ZN and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%, followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30% while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2 of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10, then the lungs 29.23% (19/65; while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2, followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8, and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65. The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28 tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%, followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7% and then Misau with 13

  13. Stratification of Risk of Tuberculosis in People’s Councils of Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the process of epidemiologic stratification is used as a base to categorize methodologically and in integral manner groups of population according to risk factors. Objective: accomplishing the stratification of risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in People’s Councils of Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a descriptive study in 18 People’s Councils, from 2007 to 2011 was conducted. The information got from the departments of statistics of the areas of health and Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology units. To stratify the risks the criteria of the provincial commission of tuberculosis, the incidence of the disease in the last five years in the province and the measure of the prevalence of risk factors according to dispensarization of the year 2011 were taken into account. By means of program MapInfo 7, 5, the People’s Councils were classified as high, medium and low risk according to the moral values of the median of the incidence of cases and the average of contacts of patients white pulmonary tuberculosis, virus's prevalence of acquired been immunodeficiency, former imprisoned population, alcoholics, social cases, bigger population of 60 years and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Results: three People’s Councils were identified as high risk, 13 of medium risk and two of them as low risk. The People’s Councils classified as high risk were: Historic Center, Punta Gorda and San Lázaro that represented the 16.7 %. Conclusion: a space dispersion of risk of pulmonary tuberculosis at Cienfuegos Municipality was observed that represents an increment of the probability of the disease.

  14. Incidence, risk factors and mortality of tuberculosis in Danish HIV patients 1995-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Gry A; Engsig, Frederik N; Ravn, Pernille;

    2011-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and late Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (2000-2007) periods....

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Primary Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng Fen; ZHOU Yang; PANG Yu; ZHENG Hui Wen; ZHAO Yan Lin

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigatetheprevalence of primary drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and associated risk factors in China.We also explored factors contributing tothe transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MethodsA total of 2794 representative,Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from treatment-naive patients were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, and risk factors for drug-resistant TBwere analyzed. We also analyzed MDR-TB strain sublineages, drug-resistance-conferring mutations, and risk factors associated with clustered primary MDR strains. ResultsAmong 2794Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from treatment-naive patients, the prevalence of any resistance to first-line drugs was 33.2%andthe prevalence of MDR-TB was 5.7%. We did not find any risk factors significantly associated with resistance to first-line drugs.The93 primary MDR-TB isolates were classified into six sublineages, of which, 75 (80.6%) isolates were the RD105-deleted Beijing lineage.The largest sublineage included 65 (69.9%) isolates with concurrent deletions of RD105, RD207, and RD181.Twenty-nine (31.2%) primary MDR strains grouped in clusters;MDR isolates in clusters were more likely to have S531LrpoBmutation. ConclusionThis study indicates that primary drug-resistantTBand MDR-TBstrains are prevalent in China,and multiplemeasures should be taken toaddress drug-resistant TB.

  16. Risk of tuberculosis during infliximab therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and spondyloarthropathy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wen, Zhenzhen; Cao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Infliximab is a promising drug with good outcomes demonstrated for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA). However, treatment with this drug may increase the risk of tuberculosis infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate infliximab-associated tuberculosis infection. Literature searches in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were performed. Randomized controlled trials with >95% of the patients >18 years-old were included. Meta-analysis was performed to investigate the incidence of tuberculosis infection after infliximab infusion. A total of 24 RCTs were included in the present meta-analysis. In total, 21 (0.51%) tuberculosis infections were detected among 4,111 patients administered infliximab therapy, compared with 0 (0%) among 2,229 patients assigned to the placebo group. Pooled odds ratio (OR) of developing tuberculosis infection was significantly higher with infliximab therapy than with placebo [2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–7.52]. The OR of tuberculosis infection was 3.93 (95% CI, 0.91–16.91) in RA, 2.46 (95% CI, 0.38–15.92) in SpA and 1.66 (95% CI, 0.26–10.57) in IBD. Rates of tuberculosis infection with infliximab therapy in RA, SpA and IBD were 0.70, 0.22 and 0.52%, respectively. Compared with placebo, infliximab therapy may increase the risk of developing tuberculosis. However, the ORs for the risk of infliximab-associated tuberculosis were not demonstrated to be significant in IBD, RA and SpA; therefore, these findings should be interpreted with caution. The risk of developing tuberculosis demonstrates the importance of the prevention and management of tuberculosis infection with infliximab therapy. PMID:27588089

  17. Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... possible, and that people whose initial test is negative and who are at high risk for TB ...

  18. The risk of tuberculosis in transplant candidates and recipients: a TBNET consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacea, Dragos; Arend, Sandra M; Eyuboglu, Fusun; Fishman, Jay A; Goletti, Delia; Ison, Michael G; Jones, Christine E; Kampmann, Beate; Kotton, Camille N; Lange, Christoph; Ljungman, Per; Milburn, Heather; Morris, Michele I; Muller, Elmi; Muñoz, Patricia; Nellore, Anoma; Rieder, Hans L; Sester, Urban; Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Wagner, Dirk; Sester, Martina

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a possible complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The identification of candidates for preventive chemotherapy is an effective intervention to protect transplant recipients with latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis from progressing to active disease. The best available proxy for diagnosing latent infection with M. tuberculosis is the identification of an adaptive immune response by the tuberculin skin test or an interferon-γ based ex vivo assay. Risk assessment in transplant recipients for the development of TB depends on, among other factors, the locally expected underlying prevalence of infection with M. tuberculosis in the target population. In areas of high prevalence, preventive chemotherapy for all transplant recipients may be justified without immunodiagnostic testing while in areas of medium and low prevalence, preventive chemotherapy should only be offered to candidates with positive M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses. The diagnosis of TB in transplant recipients can be challenging. Treatment of TB is often difficult due to substantial interactions between anti-TB drugs and immunosuppressive medications. This management guideline summarises current knowledge on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB related to solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and provides an expert consensus on questions where scientific evidence is still lacking.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  20. Incidence and risk factors for tuberculosis in people living with HIV: cohort from HIV referral health centers in Recife, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna d'Arc Lyra Batista

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence of and risk factors for tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV. DESIGN: Observational, prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 2069 HIV-infected patients was observed between July 2007 and December 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of survival free of tuberculosis, and Cox regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with the development of tuberculosis. RESULTS: Survival free of tuberculosis (TB was 91%. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 2.8 per 100 persons/years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher when subjects had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm(3; were not on antiretroviral therapy; in those who had, a body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2, anemia (or were not tested for it, were illiterate or referred previous tuberculosis treatment at entry into the cohort. Those not treated for latent TB infection had a much higher risk (HR = 7.9 of tuberculosis than those with a negative tuberculin skin test (TST. Having a TST≥5 mm but not being treated for latent TB infection increased the risk of incident tuberculosis even in those with a history of previous tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive actions to reduce the risk of TB in people living with HIV should include an appropriate HAART and treatment for latent TB infection in those with TST≥5 mm. The actions towards enabling rigorous implementation of treatment of latent TB infection and targeting of PLHIV drug users both at the individual and in public health level can reduce substantially the incidence of TB in PLHIV.

  1. Risk factors for nosocomial tuberculosis transmission among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yutaka; Nagao, Miki; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Takakura, Shunji; Igawa, Junko; Yamanaka, Hiroe; Hashimoto, Akiko; Hirai, Toyohiro; Niimi, Akio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    We conducted hospital-based contact investigations of 55 serial sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients and 771 health care workers (HCWs) from 2006-2013. HCWs who made contact with TB patients in the absence of appropriate airborne precautions were evaluated using interferon gamma release assays to identify TB infection. Twenty-nine HCWs (3.8%) were newly diagnosed with TB infection. The 10 TB patients responsible for transmission had a duration of contact of >7 days by multivariate analysis.

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  3. Parallel Detection of Bovine Tuberculosis with Different Assays%对奶牛结核病平行检测的不同方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路广计; 曹瑞; 张军; 刘乃强; 陶茂晖; 韩庆安; 董维亚; 刘志勇; 轩秋燕

    2014-01-01

    115 cattle in a dairy cattle farm in Tangshan,Hebei province were detected with pure bovine tuberculin (PPD)skin allergy test(TST,using domestic PPD as domestic TST,with imported PPD as imported TST), single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test(SICCT)and gamma interferon enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay(IFN-γ-ELISA)at the same time to analyze the cattle health status,evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different assays and put forward applicable suggestions. The results showed there were 15 TB positive cattle(including 5 mixed infected with bovine and avian tuberculosis),100 negative cattle(including 1 avian tuberculosis positive). The TB positive rate was 13.04%,the avian tuberculosis positive rate was 5.22%,mixed infection rate was 4.35%. Tests showed that for cattle herd with non-mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ,it was dififcult to conifrm the bovine tuberculosis infection only by one test. Therefore,it was recommend ifrst to use the imported TST and then to retest the positive and suspicious ones by IFN-γ-ELISA to eliminate the false positives. For early infected herds,IFN-γ-ELISA test can be directly used for detection.%[目的]综合分析奶牛的健康状况,评价不同检测方法的优缺点,提出实际应用建议。[方法]同时采用单纯牛结核菌素(PPD)皮内变态反应试验(TST,使用国产PPD简称国产TST、使用进口PPD简称进口TST)、欧盟比较变态反应试验(SICTT)和牛结核γ-干扰素酶联免疫吸附试验(IFN-γ-ELISA),对河北省唐山市某奶牛场存栏的115头牛进行结核病平行检测。[结果]经综合判定牛型结核阳性15头(其中5头为牛型、禽型双阳性)、阴性100头(其中1头为禽型阳性),牛型结核阳性率13.04%、禽型结核阳性率5.22%、二者混合感染率为4.35%。试验表明,对于伴有非结核分枝杆菌感染的牛群,仅靠一种活体检测方法难以做出牛结核病准确诊断。[结论

  4. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-06-08

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Gervais; Rukelibuga, Joseph; Nanyingi, Mark O; Mushonga, Borden

    2014-11-05

    Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN)-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein-Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753), with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753). The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  7. The use of PCR technique in the identification of Mycobacterium species responsible for bovine tuberculosis in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Akhtar, Pervez; Hussain, Sayed Misdaq; Aslam, Muhammad Sohaib; Kausar, Razia; Qamar, Mehwish; Cagiola, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is one of the important diseases of dairy and wild animals. The disease is prevalent all over the world, though developed countries have tremendously reduced the prevalence through eradication campaigns. The prevalence of disease in Pakistan on the basis of tuberculin testing or culture isolation of the organism has been reported previously. It is, however, important to use the latest diagnostic tools, i.e. PCR to confirm the type of Mycobacterium infecting the animals in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the utility of direct PCR on milk samples and nasal swabs to confirm the type of Mycobacterium infecting the animals. This study was carried out on 215 cattle and buffaloes of more than 2 years of age present at two livestock farms. The tuberculin results showed 22.5% prevalence at one farm and 25.9% at the other with an overall prevalence of 24.7%. The 92.5% of milk samples and/or nasal swabs showed positive PCR for Mycobacterium genus, 86.8% for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and 77.4% for Mycobacterium bovis. The M. bovis by PCR was detected in 13.2% of milk samples, 24.5% of nasal swabs and 39.6% of both milk samples + nasal swabs. The results suggested that there are 60% higher chance for a nasal swab to yield a positive PCR for M. bovis than the milk sample. It can be concluded from the present study that tuberculin testing is a useful method in studying the prevalence of disease as the PCR for Mycobacterium genus was positive in 92.5%, M. tuberculosis complex in 86.8% and Mycobacterium bovis in 77.4% cases.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Frankena, K; Metz, J H M; Gallo, B; Kemp, B

    2010-11-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade 1 (mild) was most frequently recorded. The type of the animal, source of animal, the level of fat cover and lairage time were associated with the presence of bruises. Older categories of animals and animals that pass through a market before being moved to the slaughterhouse are more prone to show bruises. The results also indicate that under the reported Chilean circumstances animals that have longer lairage times (over 12 h) have a significantly reduced risk for bruises, except for oxen. Presence of bruises is also significantly associated with increased carcass pH values.

  9. Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless Population of Rome: An Integrated Model of Recruitment for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors show the results of an integrated model for risk management of tuberculosis in a sample of sheltered homeless in Rome. Tuberculin skin test (TST was used for evaluating the prevalence of latent infection (LTBI. In TST positives, expectorate was collected and chest X-ray was achieved. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate determinants of infection. Out of 288 recruited subjects, 259 returned for the TST reading; 45.56% were positive and referred to a specialized center; 70 accessed the health facility and completed the clinical pathway. The risk factors associated to LTBI were male gender (OR=3.72, age over 60 years (OR=3.59, immigrant status (OR=3.73, and obesity (OR=2.19. This approach, based on an integrated social network, guarantees high adherence to screening (89.93%, allowing patients testing positive for latent tuberculosis infection to be diagnosed and rapidly referred to a specialized center.

  10. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovic, I.; Sester, M.; Gomez-Reino, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies or soluble TNF receptors have become an invaluable treatment against chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. Individuals who are treated with TNF antagonists are at an increased...... and an interferon-gamma release assay, as there are insufficient data in children to recommend one test over the other. Consequently, targeted preventive chemotherapy is highly recommended for all individuals with persistent M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses undergoing TNF antagonist therapy...... risk of reactivating latent infections, especially tuberculosis (TB). Following TNF antagonist therapy, the relative risk for TB is increased up to 25 times, depending on the clinical setting and the TNF antagonist used. Interferon-gamma release assays or, as an alternative in individuals without...

  11. The gamma-interferon test: its usefulness in a bovine tuberculosis survey in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, D G; Michel, Anita L; De Klerk, Lin-Mari; Bengis, R G

    2002-09-01

    A survey to determine the bovine tuberculosis status of buffalo herds north of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park was conducted, using a new diagnostic approach. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection was accomplished using the gamma-interferon assay technique in 608 adult buffaloes out of a total of 29 discreet herds. The animals were immobilized in groups of 10-15, bled, individually marked and then revived and released on site. As soon as test results were available (after 26-36 h), the same buffalo herd was relocated by tracking the frequency of a radio-collar previously fitted to one adult cow per group during the initial operation. Bovine reactors were identified, darted and euthanased from the helicopter. Necropsy and culture findings of all culled buffaloes showed excellent correlation with the results of the ante-mortem gamma-interferon test. The survey revealed that over and above the two positive herds that had been identified during a previous survey carried out in 1996, there were three additional, but previously unidentified, infected herds in the region north of the Olifants River.

  12. Development of a test for bovine tuberculosis in cattle based on measurement of gamma interferon mRNA by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W; Zhou, X; Yang, H; Chen, H; Qiao, J; Khan, S H; Yang, L; Yin, X; Zhao, D

    2013-08-01

    The infection status of cattle for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was determined by real-time PCR, comparing the levels of IFN-γ mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin with non-stimulated control (phosphate buffer saline, PBS) blood culture. Totally, 137 cattle were tested to validate the assay, in which 54 were IFN-γ real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive, while the remaining 83 were found negative. Meanwhile, the IFN-γ ELISA test was carried out using the Bovigam IFN-γ detection ELISA kit and these results were used as a standard. The results of the single intradermal tuberculin tests (SIDT) and IFN-γ RT-qPCR tests were compared and revealed that the RT-qPCR correlated better with the ELISA and its accuracy was higher than SIDT. This indicates the RT-qPCR is a useful diagnostic method for bTB in cattle. However, several limitations remain for our approach, such as lack of a TB lesions or postmortem test results as a gold standard. Further improvements should be made in the future to increase accuracy of diagnosis of bTB in cattle.

  13. Co-infection and risk factors of tuberculosis in a Mexican HIV+ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The situation of tuberculosis (TB is being modified by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is increasing the occurrence of new cases and the generation of drug resistant strains, affecting not only the people infected with HIV, but also their close contacts and the general population, conforming a serious public health concern. However, the magnitudes of the factors associated to this co-infection differ considerably in relation to the population groups and geographical areas. METHODS: In order to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for the co-infection of tuberculosis (TB in a population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ in the Southeast of Mexico, we made the analysis of clinical and epidemiological variables and the diagnosis of tuberculosis by isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory samples. RESULTS: From the 147 HIV+ individuals analyzed, 12 were culture positive; this shows a prevalence of 8% for the co-infection. The only variable found with statistical significance for the co-infection was the number of CD4-T < 200 cells/mm³, OR 13 (95%, CI 2-106 vs 12-109. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report describing the factors associated with tuberculosis co -infection with HIV in a population from Southern Mexico. The low number of CD4 T-cells was the only variable associated with the TB co-infection and the rest of the variables provide scenarios that require specific and particular interventions for this population group.

  14. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  15. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  16. Globalization of pediatric transplantation: The risk of tuberculosis or not tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Mignon; Lin, Philana Ling

    2017-02-03

    The risk of TB among pediatric SOT recipients increases as the globalization of medical care continues to broaden. Unlike adults, children and especially infants are more susceptible to TB as a complication after transplantation. Little data exist regarding the true incidence of TB and the optimal risk-based management of this very vulnerable population. Here, we highlight the theoretical and practical issues that complicate the management of these patients and pose some questions that should be addressed when managing these patients. More data are needed to provide optimal guidance of the best diagnostic and management practices to this unique population.

  17. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems.

  19. A Prediction Rule to Stratify Mortality Risk of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Helder Novais; Osório, Nuno S; Castro, António Gil; Ramos, Angélica; Carvalho, Teresa; Meira, Leonor; Araújo, David; Almeida, Leonor; Boaventura, Rita; Fragata, Patrícia; Chaves, Catarina; Costa, Patrício; Portela, Miguel; Ferreira, Ivo; Magalhães, Sara Pinto; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Duarte, Raquel; Guimarães, João Tiago; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis imposes high human and economic tolls, including in Europe. This study was conducted to develop a severity assessment tool for stratifying mortality risk in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A derivation cohort of 681 PTB cases was retrospectively reviewed to generate a model based on multiple logistic regression analysis of prognostic variables with 6-month mortality as the outcome measure. A clinical scoring system was developed and tested against a validation cohort of 103 patients. Five risk features were selected for the prediction model: hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.8-7.9), age ≥50 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.8), bilateral lung involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), ≥1 significant comorbidity-HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure or cirrhosis, congestive heart failure and chronic respiratory disease-(OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). A tuberculosis risk assessment tool (TReAT) was developed, stratifying patients with low (score ≤2), moderate (score 3-5) and high (score ≥6) mortality risk. The mortality associated with each group was 2.9%, 22.9% and 53.9%, respectively. The model performed equally well in the validation cohort. We provide a new, easy-to-use clinical scoring system to identify PTB patients with high-mortality risk in settings with good healthcare access, helping clinicians to decide which patients are in need of closer medical care during treatment.

  20. A Prediction Rule to Stratify Mortality Risk of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Nuno S.; Castro, António Gil; Ramos, Angélica; Carvalho, Teresa; Meira, Leonor; Araújo, David; Almeida, Leonor; Boaventura, Rita; Fragata, Patrícia; Chaves, Catarina; Costa, Patrício; Portela, Miguel; Ferreira, Ivo; Magalhães, Sara Pinto; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Duarte, Raquel; Guimarães, João Tiago; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis imposes high human and economic tolls, including in Europe. This study was conducted to develop a severity assessment tool for stratifying mortality risk in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A derivation cohort of 681 PTB cases was retrospectively reviewed to generate a model based on multiple logistic regression analysis of prognostic variables with 6-month mortality as the outcome measure. A clinical scoring system was developed and tested against a validation cohort of 103 patients. Five risk features were selected for the prediction model: hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.8–7.9), age ≥50 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.8), bilateral lung involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.4), ≥1 significant comorbidity—HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure or cirrhosis, congestive heart failure and chronic respiratory disease–(OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–3.8), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1). A tuberculosis risk assessment tool (TReAT) was developed, stratifying patients with low (score ≤2), moderate (score 3–5) and high (score ≥6) mortality risk. The mortality associated with each group was 2.9%, 22.9% and 53.9%, respectively. The model performed equally well in the validation cohort. We provide a new, easy-to-use clinical scoring system to identify PTB patients with high-mortality risk in settings with good healthcare access, helping clinicians to decide which patients are in need of closer medical care during treatment. PMID:27636095

  1. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  2. Influence of diabetes mellitus and risk factors in activating latent tuberculosis infection: a case for targeted screening in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna Nantha, Y

    2012-10-01

    A review of the epidemiology of tuberculosis, its contributing risk factors (excluding HIV) and the role of screening latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was done. Despite the global and domestic decrease in prevalence rates of tuberculosis in the past decade, there is an alarming increase in the trend of non communicable diseases in the country. High prevalence rates of major risk factors leading to reactivation of tuberculosis were seen within the population, with diabetes mellitus being in the forefront. The rising numbers in the ageing population of Malaysia poses a further threat of re-emergence of tuberculosis in the years to come. Economically, screening of diabetic patients with comorbidities for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using two major techniques, namely tuberculin sensitivity (TST) and Interferon gamma release assay tests (IGRA) could be a viable option. The role of future research in the detection of LTBI in the Malaysian setting might be necessary to gauge the disease reservoir before implementing prophylactic measures for high risk groups involved.

  3. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  4. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  5. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Qiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were interviewed before start of treatment and during the fifth month of treatment using structured questionnaires. Information on treatment outcome was extracted from patient records. Patients cured at the end of treatment were compared to patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (failure, default, and death. Results A total of 841 patients were registered between January-June 2007 of which 792 (94% were cured. Independent risk factors for non-cure were having a low income (30 days, a positive smear test result two months after start of treatment, not being aware of the need to go to the CDC for medical follow up during treatment, and not seeing the need for treatment observation. Conclusion Reducing the financial burden of TB disease and providing health education to improve compliance with treatment could increase the proportion of patients with successful treatment outcomes.

  6. The role of neighboring infected cattle in bovine leukemia virus transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sota; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmission to uninfected cattle by adjacent infected cattle in 6 dairy farms. Animals were initially tested in 2010-2011 using a commercial ELISA kit. Uninfected cattle were repeatedly tested every 4 to 6 months until fall of 2012. The Cox proportional hazard model with frailty showed that uninfected cattle neighboring to infected cattle (n=53) had a significant higher risk of seroconversion than those without any infected neighbors (n=81) (hazard ratio: 12.4, P=0.001), implying that neighboring infected cattle were a significant risk factor for BLV transmission. This finding provides scientific support for animal health authorities and farmers to segregate infected cattle on farms to prevent spread of BLV.

  7. Mathematical Models for Estimating the Risks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Cottrell, David; Elsaadany, Susie; Murray, Noel; Oraby, Tamer; Smith, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic first emerged in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s, the etiology of animal prion diseases was largely unknown. Risk management efforts to control the disease were also subject to uncertainties regarding the extent of BSE infections and future course of the epidemic. As understanding of BSE increased, mathematical models were developed to estimate risk of BSE infection and to predict reductions in risk in response to BSE control measures. Risk models of BSE-transmission dynamics determined disease persistence in cattle herds and relative infectivity of cattle prior to onset of clinical disease. These BSE models helped in understanding key epidemiological features of BSE transmission and dynamics, such as incubation period distribution and age-dependent infection susceptibility to infection with the BSE agent. This review summarizes different mathematical models and methods that have been used to estimate risk of BSE, and discusses how such risk projection models have informed risk assessment and management of BSE. This review also provides some general insights on how mathematical models of the type discussed here may be used to estimate risks of emerging zoonotic diseases when biological data on transmission of the etiological agent are limited.

  8. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR for the confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Courcoul

    Full Text Available Bacteriology and histopathology are the most commonly used tests used for official confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle in most countries. PCR is also being used increasingly because it allows a fast diagnosis. This test could be applied as a supplement to or replacement for current bTB confirmatory diagnostic tests but its characteristics have first to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare sensitivities and specificities of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR under French field conditions, in the absence of a gold standard using latent class analysis. The studied population consisted of 5,211 animals from which samples were subjected to bacteriology and PCR (LSI VetMAX™ Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex PCR Kit, Life Technologies as their herd of origin was either suspected or confirmed infected with bTB or because bTB-like lesions were detected during slaughterhouse inspection. Samples from 697 of these animals (all with bTB-like lesions were subjected to histopathology. Bayesian models were developed, allowing for dependence between bacteriology and PCR, while assuming independence from histopathology. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than that of bacteriology (on average 87.7% [82.5-92.3%] versus 78.1% [72.9-82.8%] while specificity of both tests was very good (on average 97.0% for PCR [94.3-99.0%] and 99.1% for bacteriology [97.1-100.0%]. Histopathology was at least as sensitive as PCR (on average 93.6% [89.9-96.9%] but less specific than the two other tests (on average 83.3% [78.7-87.6%]. These results suggest that PCR has the potential to replace bacteriology to confirm bTB in samples submitted from suspect cattle.

  9. Mode of binding of the tuberculosis prodrug isoniazid to heme peroxidases: binding studies and crystal structure of bovine lactoperoxidase with isoniazid at 2.7 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K; Kumar, Ramasamy P; Pandey, Nisha; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2010-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an anti-tuberculosis prodrug that is activated by mammalian lactoperoxidase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase peroxidase (MtCP). We report here binding studies, an enzyme assay involving INH, and the crystal structure of the complex of bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) with INH to illuminate binding properties and INH activation as well as the mode of diffusion and interactions together with a detailed structural and functional comparison with MtCP. The structure determination shows that isoniazid binds to LPO at the substrate binding site on the distal heme side. The substrate binding site is connected to the protein surface through a long hydrophobic channel. The acyl hydrazide moiety of isoniazid interacts with Phe(422) O, Gln(423) O(epsilon1), and Phe(254) O. In this arrangement, pyridinyl nitrogen forms a hydrogen bond with a water molecule, W-1, which in turn forms three hydrogen bonds with Fe(3+), His(109) N(epsilon2), and Gln(105) N(epsilon2). The remaining two sides of isoniazid form hydrophobic interactions with the atoms of heme pyrrole ring A, C(beta) and C(gamma) atoms of Glu(258), and C(gamma) and C(delta) atoms of Arg(255). The binding studies indicate that INH binds to LPO with a value of 0.9 x 10(-6) m for the dissociation constant. The nitro blue tetrazolium reduction assay shows that INH is activated by the reaction of LPO-H(2)O(2) with INH. This suggests that LPO can be used for INH activation. It also indicates that the conversion of INH into isonicotinoyl radical by LPO may be the cause of INH toxicity.

  10. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervais Habarugira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein–Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753, with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753. The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05 and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05. Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2% were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7% cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  11. A Bayesian approach to study the risk variables for tuberculosis occurrence in domestic and wild ungulates in South Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Prieto Víctor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Although eradication is a priority for the European authorities, bTB remains active or even increasing in many countries, causing significant economic losses. The integral consideration of epidemiological factors is crucial to more cost-effectively allocate control measures. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the association between TB distribution and a list of potential risk factors regarding cattle, wild ungulates and environmental aspects in Ciudad Real, a Spanish province with one of the highest TB herd prevalences. Results We used a Bayesian mixed effects multivariable logistic regression model to predict TB occurrence in either domestic or wild mammals per municipality in 2007 by using information from the previous year. The municipal TB distribution and endemicity was clustered in the western part of the region and clearly overlapped with the explanatory variables identified in the final model: (1 incident cattle farms, (2 number of years of veterinary inspection of big game hunting events, (3 prevalence in wild boar, (4 number of sampled cattle, (5 persistent bTB-infected cattle farms, (6 prevalence in red deer, (7 proportion of beef farms, and (8 farms devoted to bullfighting cattle. Conclusions The combination of these eight variables in the final model highlights the importance of the persistence of the infection in the hosts, surveillance efforts and some cattle management choices in the circulation of M. bovis in the region. The spatial distribution of these variables, together with particular Mediterranean features that favour the wildlife-livestock interface may explain the M. bovis persistence in this region. Sanitary authorities should allocate efforts towards specific areas and epidemiological situations where the wildlife-livestock interface seems to critically hamper the definitive b

  12. Responses to diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in dairy and non-dairy cattle naturally exposed to Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S H; Broughan, J M; Goodchild, A V; Upton, P A; Durr, P A

    2016-10-01

    Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds. Interferon (IFN)-γ responses in blood to bovine and avian purified protein derivative (PPD), and early secretory antigen target 6 kDa and culture filtrate protein 10 (ESAT-6/CFP10), were measured. The post-mortem examination included gross pathological examination, mycobacterial culture and histopathology. The proportions of cattle positive to ESAT6/CFP10 were 26% (95% confidence interval, CI, 15-39%) in dairy reactors and 62% (95% CI 51-72%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors and 69% (95% CI 60-78%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors compared to non-dairy reactors, after controlling for bTB prevalence, herd size and SICCT test response, was 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.53; P dairy reactors than for beef reactors aged >2 years (P <0.001).

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  14. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  15. Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugra Mohan Jha

    Full Text Available SETTING: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, >15% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. METHODOLOGY: For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases, with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. RESULTS: 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25%-75% interquartile range 44-117 days and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7, have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.

  16. Updates on the risk factors for latent tuberculosis reactivation and their managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jing-Wen; Ruan, Qiao-Ling; Liu, Qi-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of great importance for the elimination and control of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, but existing screening methods for LTBI are still limited in predicting the onset of TB. Previous studies have found that some high-risk factors (including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), organ transplantation, silicosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, close contacts and kidney dialysis) contribute to a significantly increased TB reactivation rate. This article reviews each risk factor's association with TB and approaches to address those factors. Five regimens are currently recommended by the World Health Organization, and no regimen has shown superiority over others. In recent years, studies have gradually narrowed down to the preventive treatment of LTBI for high-risk target groups, such as silicosis patients, organ-transplantation recipients and HIV-infected patients. This review discusses regimens for each target group and compares the efficacy of different regimens. For HIV patients and transplant recipients, isoniazid monotherapy is effective in treating LTBI, but for others, little evidence is available at present.

  17. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  18. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  19. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  20. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  2. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases.

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amitesh; Mrigpuri, Parul; Faye, Abhishek; Bandyopadhyay, Debdutta; Singla, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB) is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases. PMID:28144063

  4. Quantitative risk assessment for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in low or zero prevalence countries: the example of Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model is applied to Norwegian data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the period 1980¿2010. For each year, the BSE risk in cattle is estimated as the expected number of cases. The age distribut

  5. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Ito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB: those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM, contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW and the elderly. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese TB surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (N = 96 689. Results: The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigner and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%, respectively. HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2% yet highest in foreigners (1.3%. HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0%–0.9% except foreigner, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females was 3.6–24 times higher than the general population. Discussion: Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programmes to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit TB prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW.

  6. Risk factors for tuberculosis in dialysis patients: a prospective multi-center clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goumenos Demetrios S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uraemia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB in chronic haemodialysis patients (HDPs. In the current study, was determined the impact of various risk factors on TB development. Our aim was to identify which HDPs need anti-TB preventive therapy. Methods Prospective study of 272 HDPs admitted, through a 36-month period, to our institutions. Specific Relative Risk (RR for TB was estimated, considering age matched subjects from the general population as reference group. Entering the study all patients were tested with tuberculin (TST. Using Cox's proportional hazard model the independent effect of various risk factors associated with TB development was estimated. Results History of TB, dialysis efficiency, use of Vitamin D supplements, serum albumin and zinc levels were not proved to influence significantly the risk for TB, in contrast to: advanced age (>65 years, BMI, diabetes mellitus, tuberculin reactivity, healed TB lesions on chest X-ray and time on dialysis. Elderly (>70 years old HDPs (Adjusted RR 25.3, 95%CI 20.4-28.4, P Conclusion The above mentioned factors have to be considered by the clinicians, evaluating for TB in HDPs. Positive TST, the existence of predisposing risk factors and/or old TB lesions on chest X-ray, will guide the diagnosis of latent TB infection and the selection of those HDPs who need preventive chemoprophylaxis.

  7. Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2011-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral

  8. Fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose Risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dornelles Picon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma coorte de 610 pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera inscritos para tratamento entre 1989 e 1994 e curados com o esquema contendo rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida (RHZ. Avaliaram-se os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, sexo, cor, duração dos sintomas, cavitação das lesões, extensão da doença, diabetes melito, alcoolismo, infecção pelo HIV, negativação tardia do escarro, adesão ao tratamento e doses dos fármacos. Para detecção das recidivas, os pacientes foram seguidos por 7,7 ± 2,0 anos, após a cura, pelo sistema de informação da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul. Nas análises utilizaram-se os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e a regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 26 recidivas (4,3%, correspondendo a 0,55/100 pessoas-ano. A taxa de recidiva foi de 5,95 e 0,48/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente, nos pacientes HIV-positivos e nos HIV-negativos (p OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 610 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled for treatment between 1989 and 1994 and cured using a three-drug treatment regimen of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (RHZ. The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and medication doses. In order to detect recurrence, the patients were monitored through the Rio Grande do Sul State Healt Department Information System for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Cox regression models. RESULTS: There were 26 cases of recurrence (4.3%, which corresponds to 0.55/100 patients-year. The recurrence rate was 5.95 and 0

  9. Tuberculosis and the risk of infection with other intracellular bacteria: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, M A; Fiske, C T; Jones, T F; Warkentin, J; Shepherd, B E; Ingram, L A; Maruri, F; Sterling, T R

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Persons who develop tuberculosis (TB) may have subtle immune defects that could predispose to other intracellular bacterial infections (ICBIs). We obtained data on TB and five ICBIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria monocytogenes) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health, USA, 2000-2011. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing ICBIs in persons who developed TB and ICBIs in the Tennessee population, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity were estimated. IRRs were not significantly elevated for all ICBIs combined [IRR 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.06]. C. trachomatis rate was lowest in the year post-TB diagnosis (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.70). More Salmonella infections occurred in extrapulmonary TB compared to pulmonary TB patients (IRR 14.3, 95% CI 1.67-122); however, this appeared to be related to HIV co-infection. TB was not associated with an increased risk of other ICBIs. In fact, fewer C. trachomatis infections occurred after recent TB diagnosis. Reasons for this association, including reduced exposure, protection conferred by anti-TB drugs or macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection warrant further investigation.

  10. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on BSE risk in bovine intestines and mesentery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Bovine intestines and mesenteries in the European Union (EU) have to be removed from the food and feed chain. The opinion provides a quantitative assessment of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) infectious load that might enter the food and feed chain yearly if bovine intestine...... indicated that the removal of the last four metres of the small intestine and of the caecum from the food and feed chain would result in a major reduction of the BSE exposure risk associated with intestine and mesentery in cattle....... infected cattle entering undetected in the food and feed chain yearly. A model named TSEi was developed to estimates the BSE infectious load in tissues from infected animals at different ages and the total yearly infectious load that could enter the food and feed chain in the EU27. In BSE infected cattle...

  11. Identification and evaluation of new Mycobacterium bovis antigens in the in vitro interferon gamma release assay for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, María E; Macias, Analia; Magnano, Gabriel; Morsella, Claudia; Mendez, Laura; Blanco, Federico C; Bianco, María V; Severina, Walter; Alito, Alicia; Pando, Maria de Los Angeles; Singh, Mahavir; Spallek, Ralph; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Bigi, Fabiana; Cataldi, Angel A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common zoonotic disease, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), responsible for significant economic losses worldwide. Its diagnosis is based on the detection of cell mediated immunity under the exposure to protein purified derivative tuberculin (PPD), a complex and poorly characterized reagent. The cross-reactivity to non-tuberculous mycobacterium species (false-positive results) has been crucial to develop a more proper antigen. In the present study, we selected six M. bovis Open Reading Frames (Mb1992, Mb2031c, Mb2319, Mb2843c, Mb2845c and Mb3212c) by in-silico analysis and evaluated them in experimental and natural infection; none of these antigens had been previously assessed as diagnostic antigens for bTB. The reactivity performance was tested in animals with both positive and negative Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) results as well as in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subesp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The six recombinant antigens individually induced an IFN-γ response, with overall responder frequency ranging from 18.3 to 31%. Mb2845c was the most valuable antigen with the potential to discriminate TST-positive cattle from either TST-negative or MAP infected animals. Mb2845c showed similar performance to that observed with ESAT-6 and PPD-B among TST and MTC specific-PCR positive animals, although this result needs to be proven in further studies with a higher sample size. Our data confirm the feacibility to implement bioinformatic screening tools and suggest Mb2845c as a potential diagnostic antigen to be tested in protein cocktails to evaluate their contribution to bTB diagnosis.

  12. Interleukin-18 promoter gene-607C/A polymorphism and tuberculosis risk: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dian-dian; JIA Liu-qun; GUO Shu-jin; SHEN Yong-chun; WEN Fu-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have evaluated the association between interleukin-18 (IL-18) promoter gene-607C/A (rs1946518) polymorphism and tuberculosis (TB) risk.However,the results remain apparently conflicting.The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-18-607C/A polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to TB.Methods Publications addressing the association between the IL-18-607C/A polymorphism and TB risk were selected from the Pubmed,Cochrane Library,Embase,CNKI and Wanfang databases.Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers.Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0.25 and STATA 11.0 software.Results Eight case-control studies with a total of 1166 TB patients and 1734 controls were retrieved.Meta-analysis results showed significant association between IL-18-607C/A polymorphism and TB risk in all comparisons of the A allele versus C allele (OR=1.17,95% Cl 1.05-1.30,P=0.004),AA versus CC (OR=1.43,95% CI 1.14-1.81,P=0.002),CA+AA versus CC (OR=1.20,95% C/ 1.01-1.42,P=0.04) and AA versus CA+CC (OR=1.30,95% C/ 1.07-1.58,P=0.007).In subgroup analysis by nationality,a significant association between IL-18-607C/A polymorphism and TB risk in the comparisons of A versus C,CA+AA versus CC and AA versus CA+CC (OR=1.22,95% C/ 1.07-1.38,P=0.002;OR=1.31,95% C/ 1.06-1.61,P=0.01; OR=1.32,95% C/ 1.07-1.63,P=0.01,respectively) were found in Chinese population but not in Indian and Iranian populations.Conclusion This study suggests that the-607C/A polymorphism of IL-18 gene would be a risk factor for TB,especially in Chinese population.To further evaluate gene-to-gene and gene-to-environment interactions on-607C/A polymorphism and tuberculosis risk,more studies with thousands of patients are required.

  13. Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Somalia: national tuberculin survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munim, A; Rajab, Y; Barker, A; Daniel, M; Williams, B

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the annual risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection (ARTI) in Somalia a tuberculin survey was conducted in February/March 2006. Stratified cluster sampling was carried out within the 18 regions and 101 randomly selected primary schools. Tuberculin testing was done in 10 680 grade 1 schoolchildren. Transverse tuberculin reaction size was measured 72 hours later. The number of children with a satisfactory test read was 10 364. The overall BCG coverage was 54%. Based on frequency distribution of tuberculin reaction sizes, the ARTI in Somalia was estimated at 2.2% (confidence interval: 1.5%-3.2%). There was an annual decline of 2.6% comparing with a previous study in 1956.

  14. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB. The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27-4.26. Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. CONCLUSION: DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.

  15. High annual risk of tuberculosis infection among nursing students in South India: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasahayam J Christopher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nurses in developing countries are frequently exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB patients, and have a high prevalence of TB infection. To estimate the incidence of new TB infection, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at the Christian Medical College in Southern India. Annual tuberculin skin testing (TST was conducted to assess the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI in this cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 436 nursing students completed baseline two-step TST testing in 2007 and 217 were TST-negative and therefore eligible for repeat testing in 2008. 181 subjects completed a detailed questionnaire on exposure to tuberculosis from workplace and social contacts. A physician verified the questionnaire and clinical log book and screened the subjects for symptoms of active TB. The majority of nursing students (96.7% were females, almost 84% were under 22 years of age, and 80% had BCG scars. Among those students who underwent repeat testing in 2008, 14 had TST conversions using the ATS/CDC/IDSA conversion definition of 10 mm or greater increase over baseline. The ARTI was therefore estimated as 7.8% (95%CI: 4.3-12.8%. This was significantly higher than the national average ARTI of 1.5%. Sputum collection and caring for pulmonary TB patients were both high risk activities that were associated with TST conversions in this young nursing cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a high ARTI among young nursing trainees, substantially higher than that seen in the general Indian population. Indian healthcare providers and the Indian Revised National TB Control Programme will need to implement internationally recommended TB infection control interventions to protect its health care workforce.

  16. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  17. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  18. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  19. Nutritional Status and Tuberculosis Risk in Adult and Pediatric Household Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Xeno; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Galea, Jerome T.; Chiang, Silvia S.; Contreras, Carmen; Calderon, Roger; Yataco, Rosa; Velásquez, Gustavo E.; Tintaya, Karen; Jimenez, Judith; Lecca, Leonid; Murray, Megan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; or whether nutritional status predicts this risk in children. We assessed the impact of body mass index on incident TB infection and disease among adults and children. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective cohort study among household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We determined body mass index at baseline and followed participants for one year for TB infection and disease. We used Cox proportional regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for incident TB infection and disease. We enrolled 14,044 household contacts, and among 6853 negative for TB infection and disease at baseline, 1787 (26.1%) became infected. A total of 406 contacts developed secondary TB disease during follow-up. Body mass index did not predict risk of TB infection but overweight household contacts had significantly decreased risk of TB disease (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.37–0.64; p <0.001) compared to those with normal weight. Among adults, body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 continued to predict a lower risk of TB disease (HR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12–0.74; p 0.009). We found no association between high body mass index and TB infection or disease among children under 12 years of age. Conclusions High body mass index protects adults against TB disease even at levels ≥ 35 kg/m2. This protective effect does not extend to TB infection and is not seen in children. PMID:27835678

  20. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Oxlade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB. METHODS: Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the 2006 Demographic Health Survey (DHS for India, we assessed self-reported TB status, TB determinants and household socioeconomic status. We used these data to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF for each key TB risk factor based on the prevalence of determinants and estimates of the effect of these risk factors derived from published sources. We conducted a mediation analysis using principal components analysis (PCA and regression to demonstrate how the association between poverty and TB prevalence is mediated. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported TB in the 2006 DHS for India was 545 per 100,000 and ranged from 201 in the highest quintile to 1100 in the lowest quintile. Among those in the poorest population, the PAFs for low body mass index (BMI and indoor air pollution were 34.2% and 28.5% respectively. The PCA analysis also showed that low BMI had the strongest mediating effect on the association between poverty and prevalent TB (12%, p = 0.019. CONCLUSION: TB control strategies should be targeted to the poorest populations that are most at risk, and should address the most important determinants of disease--specifically low BMI and indoor air pollution.

  1. Effect of Diagnostic and Treatment Delay on the Risk of Tuberculosis Transmission in Shenzhen, China: An Observational Cohort Study, 1993-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Cheng

    Full Text Available To understand better the risk of tuberculosis transmission with increasing delay in tuberculosis treatment, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in Shenzhen, China.All pulmonary tuberculosis cases in the Shenzhen tuberculosis surveillance database from 1993-2010 were included. Sputum smear positivity and presence of pulmonary cavity were used as proxies for risk of tuberculosis transmission.Among 48,441pulmonary tuberculosis cases, 70% presented with symptoms of pulmonary TB, 62% were sputum smear positive, and 21% had a pulmonary cavity on chest x-ray. 95.3% of patients self-presented for evaluation of illness after a median 58 days of delay after symptoms began. The proportion presenting sputum smear positive (p<0.001 and with a pulmonary cavity (p<0.001 increased significantly with increasing duration of delay.Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is associated with a significantly increased risk of pulmonary sputum smear positivity and pulmonary cavity. To decrease risk of transmission, treatment delay needs to be reduced further.

  2. Inadequate hospital ventilation system increases the risk of nosocomial Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubad, B; Lapanje, A

    2012-01-01

    The ambient air in nine locations in a pulmonary hospital and a tuberculosis diagnostic laboratory was analysed to determine the hazard posed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In four locations, between 6 and 20 M. tuberculosis cell equivalents/m(3) were detected. The results indicated that inadequately ventilated corridors had the highest cell equivalents. In these areas healthcare workers were less aware of infection hazard compared to areas with known sources of M. tuberculosis and the wearing of protective masks and passive ventilation were not in place. Based on these results, further infection prevention and control measures need to be implemented.

  3. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with

  4. Tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba: estudo retrospectivo Bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba: retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão M. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais positivos para a tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado, coletados de suas 23 microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 10.963 propriedades e 54.472 bovinos foram submetidos ao teste de tuberculinização. Para o diagnóstico foi utilizada, como prova de triagem, a tuberculinização cervical simples para gado de leite e a tuberculinização na prega caudal para gado de corte; como prova confirmatória foi utilizada a tuberculinização cervical comparativa. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 62 (0,57% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e dos animais analisados, 136 (0,25% foram positivos. Houve diferença significativa (pThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci and positive animals for bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its 23 microregions, during the January 2008 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 10,963 herds were examined and 54,472 cattle were submitted to the tuberculin test. For diagnosis the cervical and caudal-fold tuberculin tests were used as screening tests in dairy and beef cattle, respectively; as confirmatory test, comparative cervical test was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one positive animal. Of the herds investigated, 62 (0.57% had at least one positive animal, and of the animals examined, 136 (0.25% were positive. There was significant difference (p<0.001 in the proportion of positivity for females (0.32% and males (0.04%. Despite low frequency of foci of brucellosis and seropositive animals, it is

  5. Survival analysis and risk factors for death in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment-short course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tuberculosis is a disease with a high case fatality of 4.65%. Objectives : To describe the survival pattern of patients on Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS according to categories, age and sex of patients. Settings : Tuberculosis unit (TU at District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC, Yavatmal, India Design : Retrospective cohort study. Materails and Methods : Data of patients registered for DOTS in the year 2004 were collected from the tuberculosis register. Statistical Analysis : Kaplan Meier plots and log rank tests to assess the survival pattern. Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. Results : A total of 716 patients were registered at the TU. The survival rates by the end of the intensive phase were 96%, 93% and 99% in categories I, II and III of DOTS, respectively. The cumulative survival rates were 93%, 88% and 96% in the three DOTS categories, respectively. There was a significant difference in the survival curves amongst the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 7.26, d.f..= 2, P=0 0.02 and amongst the different age groups [log rank statistic= 8.78, d.f.= 3, P= 0.012. There was no difference in the survival curves of male and female patients (log rank statistic= 0.05, d.f.= 1, P= 0.80 and according to type of disease (log rank statistic= 5.63, d.f.= 2, P= 0.05. On Cox proportional hazard analysis, age groups of 40 to 60 years [adjusted hazard ratio= 7.81 (1.002-60.87] and above 60 years [adjusted hazard ratio= 21.54 (2.57-180.32] were identified as significant risk factors for death. Conclusions : Age above 40 years is a significant risk factor for death in patients of tuberculosis. There was a significant difference in survival curves of the three DOTS categories and age groups.

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in Donana Biosphere Reserve: the role of wild ungulates as disease reservoirs in the last Iberian lynx strongholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gortázar

    Full Text Available Doñana National Park (DNP in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4% wild boar, 26 (27.4% red deer and 18 (18.5% fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001. Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001 and red deer (p<0.01, whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01. The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to

  7. High risk and rapid appearance of multidrug resistance during tuberculosis treatment in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Helen E; Crudu, Valeriu; Soltan, Viorel; Ciobanu, Ana; Domente, Liliana; Cohen, Ted

    2014-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious problem in the former Soviet Union and may appear during TB treatment. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, timing of and factors associated with MDR-TB diagnosis during TB treatment in Moldova, which was part of the former Soviet Union. We analysed data on 3 754 confirmed non-MDR-TB cases (between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010) in the Moldovan TB surveillance database, where patients provided sputum specimens for drug-susceptibility testing, multiple times, during treatment. We estimated the percentage of individuals with confirmed baseline non-MDR-TB that were diagnosed with MDR-TB during treatment, documented the time at which MDR-TB was diagnosed, and used a failure-time model to identify factors associated with MDR-TB diagnosis. Between 7.2% and 9.2% of initially non-MDR-TB cases were diagnosed with MDR-TB during treatment. Half of these MDR-TB diagnoses occurred with 3 months of the initial diagnosis. An increased MDR-TB risk during treatment was associated with baseline resistance to first-line TB drugs (linear increase in risk per additional drug), previous incarceration and HIV co-infection. MDR can appear rapidly during TB treatment. Policy considerations should emphasise management during early treatment by increasing ambulatory TB treatment to prevent nosocomial transmission, and ensuring universal rapid diagnostics access to prevent acquisition and transmission of drug resistance.

  8. Retrospective cohort evaluation on risk of pneumonia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsui-Ming; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Shen, Te-Chun; Yang, Chien-Lung; Yang, Min-Hui; Wu, Fang-Yang; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTb) and pneumonia are diseases that may exist concomitantly. Population study investigating the subsequent pneumonia development in PTb patients is limited. This study compares the risk of pneumonia between cohorts with and without PTb.We used the claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance to identify a cohort with PTb (N = 3417) newly diagnosed in 2000-2006 without pneumonia history, and a randomly selected comparison cohort (N = 6834) free of PTb and pneumonia, frequency matched by propensity score. Incidence rates and hazard ratios of pneumonia were calculated by sex, age, and comorbidity starting in the 7th month after the cohorts being established until the end of 2011.We found the incidence of pneumonia to be 1.9-fold higher in the PTb cohort than in the PTb free cohort (51.6 vs 27.0 per 1000 person-years). The PTb cohort had a Cox method estimated adjusted hazard ratio of 2.14 (95% confidence interval = 1.96-2.32). We also found that the risk was greater for men than for women, but lower for young adults aged 20-39 years. Comorbidity interacted with PTb by aggravating the pneumonia risk, particularly for those with asthma. For PTb patients comorbid with asthma, the pneumonia incidence was 2.5-fold higher than for PTb patients free of comorbidities (75.9 vs 29.3 per 1000 person-years).Our results display that PTb patients have an elevated risk of developing pneumonia. Adequate follow-up should be provided to the PTb patients, especially those with comorbidity.

  9. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  10. Prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected Nigerian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Oguche, Stephen; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Agbaji, Oche O.; Shehu, Nathan Y.; Abah, Isaac O.; Sagay, Atiene S.; Ugoagwu, Placid O.; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Idoko, John A.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection. Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007). Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27019829

  11. Analysis of CTLA-4 (+49A/G Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Tuberculosis in Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis (TB is an acute or chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but may spread to other organs (extra-pulmonary TB. Objectives Studies have shown that genetic predisposition can decrease the persistence and growth of M. tuberculosis. The current study highlights the effect of CTLA-4 (+49A/G gene polymorphism on the risk of TB. Patients and Methods This case-controlled study used tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR to analyze theCTLA-4 (+49A/G gene polymorphism in 100 patients with TB and 91 healthy individuals. Results Data analysis indicated that the frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotypes were 42%, 38%, and 20% in patients with TB and 43%, 47%, 1% in the control subjects, respectively. The GG genotype of CTLA-4 (+49A/G showed a significantly increased risk of disease (OR = 20.48; 2.63-159.60 Conclusions The results revealed a significant relationship between the GG genotype of CTLA-4 and the increased risk of TB.

  12. Erythema nodosum and the risk of tuberculosis in a high incidence setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Simonsen, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the erythema nodosum (EN) incidence in a tuberculosis (TB) endemic setting and evaluates the likelihood of a subsequent TB diagnosis among individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) with or without EN. DESIGN: We estimated EN incidence rates (IRs...

  13. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  14. Risk factors of tuberculosis among health care workers in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelip, Jenarun; Mathew, George G; Yusin, Tanrang; Dony, Jiloris F; Singh, Nirmal; Ashaari, Musa; Lajanin, Noitie; Shanmuga Ratnam, C; Yusof Ibrahim, Mohd; Gopinath, Deyer

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main public health problems in Sabah; 30% of the total number of TB cases reported in Malaysia every year occur in Sabah. The average incidence of TB among health care workers over the past 5 years is 280.4 per 100,000 population (1, Annual Report of Sabah State TB Control Programme, 1998). At present, there are no specific measures for the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities. A case-control study was conducted among health care workers in Sabah in 2000-2001. Cases were health care workers with TB diagnosed between January 1990 and June 2000. Controls were health care workers without TB and working in the same facility as cases during the disease episode. The study attempted to identify risk factors for TB among the study population. Data were collected through structured interviews and review of patients' records. The notification rate of TB among health care workers was significantly higher than that to the general population (Z=4.893, p<0.01). The average notification rate of TB among health care workers over the last 5 years was two times higher than in the general population (280.4/100,000 compared to 153.9/100,000). Regression results showed that ethnicity, designation, family contact and TB related knowledge did not significantly contribute to the risk of contracting TB in this study. However, after controlling for the above factors, age, gender, history of TB contact outside the workplace (other than family contact), duration of service and failure to use respiratory protection when performing high-risk procedures, were the main risk factors of TB among health care workers. This study succeeded in identifying some of the risk factors of TB among health care workers. We managed to include the large ratio of controls to case (3:1) and those cases spanned over a period of 10 years. However, the findings from the study have to be applied with caution due to the limitations of this study, which include recall

  15. Tuberculosis in African lions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been descri

  16. Predictors of bovine TB risk behaviour amongst meat handlers in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study guided by the health belief model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupe Hambolu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. RESULTS: Just over a quarter (28.1% of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p = 0.03, not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p = 0.001, and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p = 0.001. Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value = 0.021. Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM.

  17. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  18. Evidence and potential risk factors of tuberculosis among captive Asian elephants and wildlife staff in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Yusuf; Ong, Bee Lee; Zakaria, Zunita; Hassan, Latiffah; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Verasahib, Khebir; Razak, Mohd Firdaus Ariff Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Elephant tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with considerable conservation and public health risk. We conducted prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies in elephants and wildlife staff respectively in order to identify potential risk factors associated with TB in captive Asian elephants and their handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. Sixty elephants in six different facilities were screened for TB longitudinally using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK and DPP VetTB assays from February 2012 to May 2014, and 149 wildlife staff were examined for tuberculosis infection using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT) assay from January to April, 2012. Information on potential risk factors associated with infection in both elephants and staff were collected using questionnaires and facility records. The overall seroprevalence of TB amongst the elephants was 23.3% (95% CI: 13.8-36.3) and the risk of seroconversion was significantly higher among elephants with assigned mahouts [p=0.022, OR=4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-18.2)]. The percentage of QFT responders among wildlife staff was 24.8% (95% CI: 18.3-32.7) and the risk of infection was observed to be significantly associated with being a zoo employee [p=0.018, OR=2.7 (95% CI: 1.2-6.3)] or elephant handler [p=0.035, OR=4.1 (95% CI: 1.1-15.5)]. These findings revealed a potential risk of TB infection in captive elephants and handlers in Malaysia, and emphasize the need for TB screening of newly acquired elephants, isolating sero-positive elephants and performing further diagnostic tests to determine their infection status, and screening elephant handlers for TB, pre- and post-employment.

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and social context of active pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.

  20. Mechanism of action of the tuberculosis and Crohn disease risk factor IRGM in autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Santosh; Mandell, Michael A.; Deretic, Vojo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polymorphisms in the IRGM gene, associated with Crohn disease (CD) and tuberculosis, are among the earliest identified examples documenting the role of autophagy in human disease. Functional studies have shown that IRGM protects against these diseases by modulating autophagy, yet the exact molecular mechanism of IRGM's activity has remained unknown. We have recently elucidated IRGM's mechanism of action. IRGM functions as a platform for assembling, stabilizing, and activating the core autophagic machinery, while at the same time physically coupling it to conventional innate immunity receptors. Exposure to microbial products or bacterial invasion increases IRGM expression, which leads to stabilization of AMPK. Specific protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination of IRGM, lead to a co-assembly with IRGM of the key autophagy regulators ULK1 and BECN1 in their activated forms. IRGM physically interacts with 2 other CD risk factors, ATG16L1 and NOD2, placing these 3 principal players in CD within the same molecular complex. This explains how polymorphisms altering expression or function of any of the 3 factors individually can affect the same process—autophagy. Furthermore, IRGM's interaction with NOD2, and additional pattern recognition receptors such as NOD1, RIG-I, and select TLRs, transduces microbial signals to the core autophagy apparatus. This work solves the long-standing enigma of how IRGM controls autophagy. PMID:26313894

  1. 76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and...- 7221. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Background Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious and...

  2. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays....... Other biomarkers such as interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10 (IP-10) may have potential for the diagnosis of latent TB infections. OBJECTIVES: To describe IP-10 concentrations and their association to TST and INF-gamma responses in children recently exposed to adults with smear-positive TB in Brazil...

  3. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Contacts by Interferon-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). A TBNET Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Block, Michael

    2015-01-01

    contacts in low incidence countries of tuberculosis. We analyzed IGRA results and the effect of preventive chemotherapy on tuberculosis progression rates among recent contacts. METHODS: Results from contact investigations at 26 centers in 10 European countries including testing for latent infection...... with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the QuantiFERON-Gold in-Tube (QFT) test or the T-SPOT.TB (TSPOT) were prospectively collected and analyzed. MAIN RESULTS: Among 5020 contacts of 1023 index cases, 25 prevalent secondary cases were identified at screening. Twenty-four incident cases occurred among 4513 contacts...

  4. Chronobiology: relevance for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Azeredo Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2012-07-01

    Despite the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this disease remains one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several risk factors are well-known, such poverty, HIV infection, and poor nutrition, among others. However, some issues that may influence tuberculosis warrant further investigation. In particular, the chronobiological aspects related to tuberculosis have garnered limited attention. In general, the interface between tuberculosis and chronobiology is manifested in four ways: variations in vitamin D bioavailability, winter conditions, associated infections, and circannual oscillations of lymphocytes activity. Moreover, tuberculosis is related to the following chronobiological factors: seasonality, latitude, photoperiod and radiation. Despite the relevance of these topics, the relationship between them has been weakly reviewed. This review aims to synthesize the studies regarding the association between tuberculosis and chronobiology, as well as urge critical discussion and highlight its applicability to health policies for tuberculosis.

  5. Tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is an endemic disease with a low prevalence in South African cattle. This is mostly the result of a national bovine tuberculosis control scheme which has been in place for nearly 40 years and has prevented outbreaks from spreading and causing large-scale losses, thereby also mini

  6. Use of Corticosteroids for Urinary Tuberculosis Patients at Risk of Developing Ureteral Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kosuke; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Ohba, Kojiro; Mochizuki, Kota; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with urinary tuberculosis developed post renal anuria two days after starting an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. He had bilateral hydronephrosis, and his right kidney was radiologically diagnosed to be non-functioning. A transurethral catheter was placed in the left ureter. No improvement in the ureteral stricture was noted during the initial three weeks of treatment; however, the stricture did thereafter improve after the commencement of oral prednisolone. In cases of urinary tuberculosis, ureteral stricture can deteriorate and result in ureteral obstruction during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pre-emptive administration of corticosteroids may be beneficial for preventing such stricture in patients with a pre-existing ureteral lesion. PMID:27904125

  7. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study from mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Praygod, George Amani;

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent.......Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent....

  8. Use of Corticosteroids for Urinary Tuberculosis Patients at Risk of Developing Ureteral Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Kosuke; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Ohba, Kojiro; Mochizuki, Kota; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with urinary tuberculosis developed post renal anuria two days after starting an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. He had bilateral hydronephrosis, and his right kidney was radiologically diagnosed to be non-functioning. A transurethral catheter was placed in the left ureter. No improvement in the ureteral stricture was noted during the initial three weeks of treatment; however, the stricture did thereafter improve after the commencement of oral prednisolone. In cases of urina...

  9. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  10. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Maria Rosaria; Westermann, Claudia; Nienhaus, Albert; Arnese, Antonio; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Crispino, Vincenzo; Coppola, Nicola; De Rosa, Alfredo

    2017-03-04

    To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Italian dental students exposed to the same occupational risks as dental health care personnel and to evaluate potential risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students. After clinical evaluation, students were given a tuberculin skin test; in those found positive, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was conducted. Of the 281 students enrolled, 10 were only TST positive; 8 were TST or/and IGRA positive. We found that participants testing positive at TST and/or IGRA, a group in which the risk of false LTBI positives is minimal, were older and had been studying longer. Although the prevalence of LTBI among dental students in our study was low, a risk of acquiring a work-related infection exists even in a country with a low incidence of TB. Thus, dental students should be screened to catch LTBI early on.

  11. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study from Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in an urban population in Tanzania among culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients and non-TB neighbourhood controls. Participants were tested for diabetes according to WHO guidelines and serum concentrations of acute phase reactants were measured. The association between diabetes and TB, and the role of HIV as an effect modifier, were examined using logistic regression. Since blood glucose levels increase during the acute phase response, we adjusted for elevated serum acute phase reactants. RESULTS: Among 803 cases and 350 controls the mean (SD age was 34.8 (11.9 and 33.8 (12.0 years, and the prevalence of diabetes was 16.7% (95% CI: 14.2; 19.4 and 9.4% (6.6; 13.0, respectively. Diabetes was associated with TB (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5; 3.4, p<0.001. However, the association depended on HIV status (interaction, p = 0.01 due to a stronger association among HIV uninfected (OR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.5; 11.6, p = 0.01 compared to HIV infected (OR 0.1, 95% CI: 0.01; 1.8, p = 0.13 after adjusting for age, sex, demographic factors and elevated serum acute phase reactants. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a risk factor for TB in HIV uninfected, whereas the association in HIV infected patients needs further study. The increasing diabetes prevalence may be a threat to TB control.

  12. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Fernanda Maggioli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.

  13. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  14. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  15. Tuberculosis immunity: Opportunities from studies with cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including s...

  16. Association between Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Risk Factors in China: Applying Partial Least Squares Path Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB resulting from various factors has raised serious public health concerns worldwide. Identifying the ecological risk factors associated with MDR-TB is critical to its prevention and control. This study aimed to explore the association between the development of MDR-TB and the risk factors at the group-level (ecological risk factors in China.Data on MDR-TB in 120 counties were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Information Management System, and data on risk-factor variables were extracted from the Health Statistical Yearbook, provincial databases, and the meteorological bureau of each province (municipality. Partial Least Square Path Modeling was used to detect the associations.The median proportion of MDR-TB in new TB cases was 3.96% (range, 0-39.39%. Six latent factors were extracted from the ecological risk factors, which explained 27.60% of the total variance overall in the prevalence of MDR-TB. Based on the results of PLS-PM, TB prevention, health resources, health services, TB treatment, TB detection, geography and climate factors were all associated with the risk of MDR-TB, but socioeconomic factors were not significant.The development of MDR-TB was influenced by TB prevention, health resources, health services, TB treatment, TB detection, geography and climate factors. Such information may help us to establish appropriate public health intervention strategies to prevent and control MDR-TB and yield benefits to the entire public health system in China.

  17. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM... tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. William Hench, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Tuberculosis...

  18. Risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes on performance of dairy bovines reared under subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Susavi; Prasad, Shiv; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Pathak, Rupal; Boro, Prasanta; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Ravi, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes (RFM) on productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were evaluated using data spread over 12 years. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors and to quantify their odds ratio (OR). Overall incidence of RFM in crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were 26, 16, and 13 %, respectively; and significant risk factors for RFM in crossbred cattle were abortion (OR = 3.9), dead calf (OR = 4.1), dystocia (OR = 4.3), pluriparity (OR = 1.5), and shorter gestation length (OR = 4.3). In Zebu cattle, abortion (OR = 4.0), dead calf (OR = 3.7), dystocia (OR = 3.9), lower birth weight of calf (OR = 1.6), and shorter gestation length (OR = 6.4) were significant risk factors for RFM. In Murrah buffalos, abortion (OR = 19.2), dead calf (OR = 4.4), dystocia (OR = 4.7), pluriparity (OR = 1.7), shorter gestation length (OR = 12.7), and calving during summer season (OR = 1.8) were the risk factors for RFM. Although the occurrence of RFM did not affect fertility parameters, a significant (P gestation length were the main risk factors for RFM in dairy bovine.

  19. Latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric; Bishai, William R; Grosset, Jacques H

    2004-06-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a clinical condition characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of active tuberculosis disease. It has been estimated that one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and serves as an enormous reservoir for future cases of active tuberculosis. The detection and treatment of individuals with LTBI and a high risk of progression to active tuberculosis are effective means to control the spread of tuberculosis. Furthermore, a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions that result in latent infection could provide important insights for future drug or vaccine development. This chapter reviews recent developments in the molecular genetics, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of LTBI within its historical context, including the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Current treatment recommendations are also summarized.

  20. Purification in antigen and application in diagnosis of IFN-γ-ELISA detection of bovine tuberculosis%诊断抗原的纯化在牛γ-干扰素ELISA法中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱美珍; 周望平; 肖兵南; 杜丽飞; 胡述光; 刘毅; 陈江

    2011-01-01

    比较皮内变态反应(TST)、抗酸染色、牛结核ELISA(PPD-ELISA)和γ-干扰素ELISA法(IFN-γ-ELISA)对牛结核的检测结果,并通过比较牛PPD、禽PPD、亲和层析牛PPD(牛PPD')的IFN-γ-ELISA检测结果,探索诊断抗原的纯化在牛IFN-γ-ELISA法中的应用.结果表明,与抗酸染色相比,IFN-γ-ELISA的敏感性、特异性和符合率都比较高,分别为83.33%(5/6),98.14%(53/54),98.33%(58/60);牛PPD、禽PPD、牛PPD'3种特异性抗原刺激产生IFN-γ释放反应的结果表明,1例抗酸染色阳性的牛,未经亲和层析处理牛PPD的IFN-γ-ELISA检测OD值偏高,判为牛结核阳性,亲和层析纯化牛PPD的IFN-γ-ELISA检测OD值较低,判为牛结核阴性,表明亲和层析处理能排除环境分支杆菌对试验的干扰,IFN-γ-ELISA法有望替代TST法在中国推广使用.%The test results of the bovine tuberculin skin test (TST), acid-fast stain test, ELISA test and bovine IFN-γELISA diagnosis test respectively were compared for detection of tuberculosis of them, three stimulators, detected by IFN-γ-ELISA including bovine PPD, avian PPD and bovine PPD at affinity chromatography were compared in exploration for application of purification of diagnostic antigen in the IFN-Υ-ELISA method.Using acid-fast staining as the standard, the sensitivity of IFN-Υ-ELISA detection reached 83.33%(5/6), and its specificity reached 98.14%(53/54), the consistency reached 98.33% (58/60).As the other result, acid-fast stain detected a positive sera with high OD value and produced a positive result using bovine IFN-γ-ELISA in which the antigen was not purified at affinity chromatography, but the result was negative with low OD value using bovine IFN-γ-ELIS in which the antigen was purified at affinity chromatography.In conclusion, the miscarriage of justice caused by infected with Mycobacterium bovis and environmental Mycobacterium simultaneouly could be prevented using bovine IFN-γ-ELISA in which the antigen was

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of nontuberculosis mycobacterial disease and active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jun Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA with nontuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM disease and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. METHODS: We identified 29 131 patients with RA from the catastrophic illness registry who were diagnosed from 1998-2008; 116 524 patients without RA from inpatient data files were randomly frequency matched according to sex, age, and index year and used as a comparison group. Both groups were followed-up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of NTM disease and active PTB. We analyzed the risk of NTM disease and active PTB using the Cox proportional hazards regression models, controlling for sex, age, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI. RESULTS: The incidence of NTM disease was 4.22 times greater in the RA group than in the non-RA group (1.91 vs 0.45 per 10,000 person-years. The incidence of PTB was 2.99 times greater in the RA group than in the non-RA group (25.3 vs 8.46 per 10,000 person-years. After adjusting for age, sex, and CCI, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of NTM disease and active PTB for the RA group were 4.17 (95% CI = 2.61-6.65 and 2.87 (95% CI = 2.55-3.23, respectively, compared with the non-RA group. In the first 2 years of follow-up, the RA group yielded corresponding adjusted HRs of 4.98 and 3.39 compared with the non-RA group. The follow-up time-specific RA group to the non-RA group HR of both the NTM disease and active PTB varied. CONCLUSION: This study can serve as a reference for clinical physicians to increase awareness regarding the detection of NTM disease and active PTB in RA patients among the any stage of the clinical course even without CCI.

  2. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  3. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konishi Misako

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several attempts have been made to control enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL at the local level, a nationwide control program has not been implemented in Japan, except for passive surveillance. Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of BLV on infected dairy farms in Japan. Blood samples taken from 30 randomly selected adult cows at each of 139 dairy farms were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Information on herd management was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Infected farms were defined as those with more than one ELISA-positive animal and accounted for 110 (79.1% of the 139 farms in the study. Completed questionnaires obtained from 90 of these 110 farms were used for statistical analysis. Seroprevalence, which was defined as the proportions of animals that tested positive out of all animals tested on the farm, was 17.1%, 48.1%, and 68.5% for the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, respectively. A mixed logistic regression analysis implicated a loose housing system, dehorning, and a large number of horseflies in summer as risk factors (coefficient = 0.71, 1.11, and 0.82; p = 0.03, Conclusion Control of EBL in infected dairy farms in Japan will be improved by focusing particularly on these risk and protective factors.

  4. IDENTIFYING HIGH-RISK POPULATIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS USING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND GIS BASED MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abdul Rasam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1 to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  5. Identifying High-Risk Populations of Tuberculosis Using Environmental Factors and GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. Abdul; Shariff, N. M.; Dony, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS) based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1) to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  6. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  7. Tuberculosis, before and after Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Children in Nigeria: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Anígilájé

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, there is a dearth of pediatric data on the risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB, before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART.A retrospective observational cohort study, between October 2010 and December 2013, at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. TB was noted among children less than 15 years of age at ART enrolment (prevalent TB-PrevTB, within 6 months (early incident tuberculosis-EITB and after 6 months (late incident tuberculosis-LITB of a 12-month follow-up on ART. Potential risk factors for PrevTB and incident TB were assessed using the multivariate logistic and Cox regression models respectively.Among 368 HIV-1 infected children, PrevTB was diagnosed in 73 children (19.8%. Twenty-eight EITB cases were diagnosed among 278 children over 132 person-years (py with an EITB rate of 21.2/100 py. Twelve LITB cases were seen among 224 children over 221.9 py with a LITB rate of 5.4/100 py. A significant reduction in the incidence rates of TB was found over time (75%, p˂ 0.001. Young age of children (12-35 months, aOR; 24, 95% CI; 4.1-146.6, p ˂ 0.001; 36-59 months, aOR;21, 95%CI;4.0-114.3, p ˂ 0.001; history of TB in children (aOR; 29, 95% CI; 7.3-119.4, P˂ 0.001; severe immunosuppression (aOR;38, 95% CI;12-123.2,p ˂ 0.001; oropharyngeal candidiasis (aOR;3.3, 95% CI; 1.4-8.0, p = 0.009 and sepsis (aOR; 3.2, 95% CI;1.0-9.6, p = 0.043 increased the risk of PrevTB. Urban residency was protective against EITB (aHR; 0.1, 95% CI; 0.0-0.4, p = 0.001. Virological failure (aHR; 4.7, 95% CI; 1.3-16.5, p ˂ 0.001 and sepsis (aHR; 26, 95% CI; 5.3-131.9, p ˂ 0.001 increased the risk of LITB.In our cohort of HIV-infected children, a significant reduction in cases of incident TB was seen following a 12-month use of ART. After ART initiation, TB screening should be optimized among children of rural residency, children with sepsis, and those with poor virological response to ART.

  8. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohans; Tsegaye, Wondeson; Chanie, Mersha; Abinet, Fisseha

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms from November 2003 to April 2004. A total of 1,202 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated, cross-bred dairy cattle. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used as a screening test. Those serum samples reacting positively to RBPT were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The RBPT detected 30 of 1,202 (2.5%) of the samples as brucellosis positive. The positive sera when further retested using CFT, 18 out of the 30 RBPT positive sera were confirmed to be positive. The prevalence of brucellosis based on CFT in the study area was 1.5%, and all positive sera were from female cattle. Result of the questionnaire survey revealed that percentage of 4.4% abortion and 9.5% retained fetal membranes. Abortion and retained fetal membranes were associated with Brucella antibodies (P < 0.05). A total of 153 cattle attendants and owners in the farms were interviewed, and 73.5% were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis, only 20.8% wear protective gloves during handling aborted material and 39.6% responded that they consume raw milk. Results of this study showed that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area is low and a test-and-slaughter policy can be used in order to control the diseases in dairy farms of Addis Ababa.

  9. Evaluation of the human transmission risk of an atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhong; Zheng, Mengjie; Casalone, Cristina; Qing, Liuting; Huang, Shenghai; Chakraborty, Bikram; Wang, Ping; Chen, Fusong; Cali, Ignazio; Corona, Cristiano; Martucci, Francesca; Iulini, Barbara; Acutis, Pierluigi; Wang, Lan; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Meiling; Li, Xinyi; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan; Caramelli, Maria; Gambetti, Pierluigi

    2008-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the prion disease in cattle, was widely believed to be caused by only one strain, BSE-C. BSE-C causes the fatal prion disease named new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans. Two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H, have been discovered in several countries since 2004; their transmissibility and phenotypes in humans are unknown. We investigated the infectivity and human phenotype of BASE strains by inoculating transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein with brain homogenates from two BASE strain-infected cattle. Sixty percent of the inoculated Tg mice became infected after 20 to 22 months of incubation, a transmission rate higher than those reported for BSE-C. A quarter of BASE strain-infected Tg mice, but none of the Tg mice infected with prions causing a sporadic human prion disease, showed the presence of pathogenic prion protein isoforms in the spleen, indicating that the BASE prion is intrinsically lymphotropic. The pathological prion protein isoforms in BASE strain-infected humanized Tg mouse brains are different from those from the original cattle BASE or sporadic human prion disease. Minimal brain spongiosis and long incubation times are observed for the BASE strain-infected Tg mice. These results suggest that in humans, the BASE strain is a more virulent BSE strain and likely lymphotropic.

  10. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle.

  11. Survival analysis and risk factors for death in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment-short course

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2009-01-01

    Background : Tuberculosis is a disease with a high case fatality of 4.65%. Objectives : To describe the survival pattern of patients on Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) according to categories, age and sex of patients. Settings : Tuberculosis unit (TU) at District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC), Yavatmal, India Design : Retrospective cohort study. Materails and Methods : Data of patients registered for DOTS in the year 2004 were collected from the tuberculosis register. Stati...

  12. A study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in risk groups in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Andréa Gobetti Vieira; Zamarioli, Liliana Aparecida; Telles, Maria Alice; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring the extent of and trends in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a priority of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The current study aimed to estimate the incidence of MDR-TB, describe the profile of TB drug resistance in risk groups and examine whether screening for MDR-TB adhered to the recommended guidelines. A descriptive study that examined diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil, between 2000-2004. Of the 2,176 pulmonary TB cases studied, 671 (30.8%) met the criteria for drug sensitivity testing and, of these cases, 31.7% (213/671) were tested. Among the tested cases, 9.4% were resistant to one anti-TB drug and 15% were MDR. MDR was observed in 11.6% of 86 new TB cases and 17.3% of 127 previously treated cases. The average annual incidence of MDR-TB was 1.9 per 100,000 inhabitants-years. The extent of known MDR-TB in the city of Santos is high, though likely to be underestimated. Our study therefore indicates an inadequate adherence to the guidelines for MDR-TB screening and suggests the necessity of alternative strategies of MDR-TB surveillance.

  13. Consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated beef and the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Yin-Han; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-11-01

    To date, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) risk assessments that have been performed have primarily focused on predicting future vCJD cases in the United Kingdom, which underwent a bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic between 1980 and 1996. Surveillance of potential BSE cases was also used to assess vCJD risk, especially in other BSE-prevalent EU countries. However, little is known about the vCJD risk for uninfected individuals who accidentally consume BSE-contaminated meat products in or imported from a country with prevalent BSE. In this article, taking into account the biological mechanism of abnormal prion PrP(res) aggregation in the brain, the probability of exposure, and the expected amount of ingested infectivity, we establish a stochastic mean exponential growth model of lifetime exposure through dietary intake. Given the findings that BSE agents behave similarly in humans and macaques, we obtained parameter estimates from experimental macaque data. We then estimated the accumulation of abnormal prions to assess lifetime risk of developing clinical signs of vCJD. Based on the observed number of vCJD cases and the estimated number of exposed individuals during the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 in the United Kingdom, an exposure threshold hypothesis is proposed. Given the age-specific risk of infection, the hypothesis explains the observations very well from an extreme-value distribution fitting of the estimated BSE infectivity exposure. The current BSE statistics in the United Kingdom are provided as an example.

  14. Insight to the Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Tianjin, China during 2006-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wang

    Full Text Available The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB among all the reported tuberculosis (TB cases has increased in different populations. Despite the large burden of TB in China, the epidemiology of EPTB in China remains largely understudied and the risk factors for having EPTB diagnosis in China have not been identified.To gain insight to EPTB epidemiology in China, we analyzed TB surveillance data collected in Tianjin, China, during 2006 to 2011. The frequency of EPTB among all TB cases and within different socio-demographic groups of the study patients aged 15 years and older was determined for EPTB in general and by specific types. The distribution of socio-demographic characteristics was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB group and EPTB group by chi-square test. Crude and multiple logistic regression-derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were determined to assess the associations between having EPTB diagnosis and each individual explanatory variable in question.About one-tenth (1,512/14,561 of the patients investigated in this study had EPTB. Of these 1,512 EPTB cases, about two thirds were pleural TB. Significant difference in age, occupation, and urbanity of residence were found between PTB and EPTB groups (p<0.05. Patients with EPTB diagnosis were more likely to be 65 years or older (aOR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46, to be retired (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.75, and to live in urban areas (aOR = 1 38, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.55.The findings of this study extends the knowledgebase of EPTB epidemiology in developing countries and highlight the need for improved EPTB detection in China, especially in subpopulations with high risk for EPTB or having limited access to medical facilities with adequate capacity for EPTB diagnosis.

  15. Insight to the Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Tianjin, China during 2006-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Zhenhua; Fu, Yanyong; Zhang, Guoqin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiexiu

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among all the reported tuberculosis (TB) cases has increased in different populations. Despite the large burden of TB in China, the epidemiology of EPTB in China remains largely understudied and the risk factors for having EPTB diagnosis in China have not been identified. Methods To gain insight to EPTB epidemiology in China, we analyzed TB surveillance data collected in Tianjin, China, during 2006 to 2011. The frequency of EPTB among all TB cases and within different socio-demographic groups of the study patients aged 15 years and older was determined for EPTB in general and by specific types. The distribution of socio-demographic characteristics was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB) group and EPTB group by chi-square test. Crude and multiple logistic regression-derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined to assess the associations between having EPTB diagnosis and each individual explanatory variable in question. Results About one-tenth (1,512/14,561) of the patients investigated in this study had EPTB. Of these 1,512 EPTB cases, about two thirds were pleural TB. Significant difference in age, occupation, and urbanity of residence were found between PTB and EPTB groups (p<0.05). Patients with EPTB diagnosis were more likely to be 65 years or older (aOR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46), to be retired (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.75), and to live in urban areas (aOR = 1 38, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.55). Conclusions The findings of this study extends the knowledgebase of EPTB epidemiology in developing countries and highlight the need for improved EPTB detection in China, especially in subpopulations with high risk for EPTB or having limited access to medical facilities with adequate capacity for EPTB diagnosis. PMID:25494360

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  17. Human health risk of dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine meat and tissues from Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta; Martínez, David; Flores, Argel; Romero, Dora; Suárez, Víctor; López, Karla; Uscanga, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    Tissue distribution patterns of organochlorine pesticides in bovine carcasses varied significantly among seasons, geographic locations and tissues. The highest concentrations of Σ-DDT during the dry season were detected in lungs from Paso de Ovejas (2,834.90μg/kg lipid) and, during the rainy season, Lindane and Σ-HCH in muscle and lung samples from Paso de Ovejas (995.80 and 1,690.10μg/kg lipid). Estimated daily intakes of γ-HCH and Σ-DDT (3.35 and 1.22μg/kg bw/day) through consumption of muscle tissues from Paso de Ovejas and Puente Nacional during the rainy season showed the highest contribution. During the rainy season the highest non-cancer Hazard Ratios estimated corresponded to γ-HCH (3.97) and Σ-DDT (4.39) detected in muscle samples from Puente Nacional. The highest Hazard Ratios of cancer risk to the 95th centile daily consumption through meat corresponded to p,p'-DDT from Alvarado (7.76E+06) and from Paso de Ovejas for γ-HCH (1.50E+05) during rainy season. The results indicate potential non- and carcinogenic risks to consumer health through meat consumption.

  18. Tuberculosis in Laos, who is at risk: the mahouts or their elephants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassausaie, J; Bret, A; Bouapao, X; Chanthavong, V; Castonguay-Vanier, J; Quet, F; Mikota, S K; Théorêt, C; Buisson, Y; Bouchard, B

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has the potential to infect humans and is an increasing public health concern. Lao PDR is one of the last countries where elephants are still used for timber extraction and where they live in close contact with their mahouts. There are 500 animals at work in the country, some interacting with wild herds. Although human TB prevalence is known to be high in Laos, studies on elephant TB had yet to be undertaken. From January to July 2012, screening was performed using the ElephantTB Stat-Pak assay on 80 elephants working around the Nam Pouy National Park in Sayaboury Province. This represents more than 18% of the total registered national working elephant population. Here we report that 36% of the elephants were seroreactive to the test. Of these, 31% had contacts with wild individuals, which suggests potential transmission of mycobacteria to the local wild herds. Clinical examination, chest X-rays, sputum microscopy and culture were performed on their 142 mahouts or owners. Despite high TB seroreactivity in elephants, no participant was smear- or culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis, although atypical mycobacteria were isolated from 4% of participants.

  19. Erythema nodosum and the risk of tuberculosis in a high incidence setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bjorn-Mortensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study estimates the erythema nodosum (EN incidence in a tuberculosis (TB endemic setting and evaluates the likelihood of a subsequent TB diagnosis among individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI with or without EN. Design: We estimated EN incidence rates (IRs in East Greenland in 2010–2011 and conducted a cohort study following all individuals who tested positive for MTI from 1 January 2010 until 31 December 2012. A personal identifier allowed individual follow-up in the mandatory TB register. MTI was defined by a positive interferon-gamma release assay. TB incidence rate ratios (IRRs among participants with or without EN were estimated with the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: We identified 38 EN cases corresponding to an IR of 500/100,000 inhabitants/year. All cases were among individuals with MTI. The EN IR was 11.79 (95% CI 5.73–24.27 times higher for BCG-unvaccinated compared with BCG-vaccinated individuals. The TB IRR was 25 (95% CI 11–60 within 1 month of EN compared to individuals without EN. Conclusion: This study documents a high EN incidence in a TB endemic region. EN occurred only in individuals with MTI, and predominantly among BCG-unvaccinated individuals. EN was significantly associated with a TB diagnosis within 1 month of diagnosis.

  20. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in fenced wild boar and red deer in south central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades the management of large game mammals has become increasingly intensive in south central Spain (SCS), resulting in complex epidemiological scenarios for disease maintenance, and has probably impeded schemes to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in domestic livestock. We conducted an analysis of risk factors which investigated associations between the pattern of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) across 19 hunting estates from SCS and an extensive set of variables related to game management, land use and habitat structure. The aggregation of wild boar at artificial watering sites was significantly associated with an increasing risk of detecting TBL in both species, which probably relates to enhanced opportunities for transmission. Aggregation of wild boar at feeding sites was also associated with increased risks of TBL in red deer. Hardwood Quercus spp. forest availability was marginally associated with an increased risk of TB in both species, whereas scrubland cover was associated with a reduced individual risk of TBL in the wild boar. It is concluded that management practices that encourage the aggregation of hosts, and some characteristics of Mediterranean habitats could increase the frequency and probability of both direct and indirect transmission of TB. These findings are of concern for both veterinary and public health authorities, and reveal tuberculosis itself as a potential limiting factor for the development and sustainability of such intensive game management systems in Spanish Mediterranean habitats.

  1. New skin test for detection of bovine tuberculosis on the basis of antigen-displaying polyester inclusions produced by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxiong; Parlane, Natalie A; Lee, Jason; Wedlock, D Neil; Buddle, Bryce M; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2014-04-01

    The tuberculin skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in cattle lacks specificity if animals are sensitized to environmental mycobacteria, as some antigens in purified protein derivative (PPD) prepared from Mycobacterium bovis are present in nonpathogenic mycobacteria. Three immunodominant TB antigens, ESAT6, CFP10, and Rv3615c, are present in members of the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but absent from the majority of environmental mycobacteria. These TB antigens have the potential to enhance skin test specificity. To increase their immunogenicity, these antigens were displayed on polyester beads by translationally fusing them to a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase which mediated formation of antigen-displaying inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. The most common form of these inclusions is poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB). The respective fusion proteins displayed on these PHB inclusions (beads) were identified using tryptic peptide fingerprinting analysis in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The surface exposure and accessibility of antigens were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyester beads displaying all three TB antigens showed greater reactivity with TB antigen-specific antibody than did beads displaying only one TB antigen. This was neither due to cross-reactivity of antibodies with the other two antigens nor due to differences in protein expression levels between beads displaying single or three TB antigens. The triple-antigen-displaying polyester beads were used for skin testing of cattle and detected all cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis with no false-positive reactions observed in those sensitized to environmental mycobacteria. The results suggested applicability of TB antigen-displaying polyester inclusions as diagnostic reagents for distinguishing TB-infected from noninfected animals.

  2. A Tuberculin Skin Test Survey and the Annual Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Gambian School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifedayo M O Adetifa

    Full Text Available A Tuberculin skin test (TST survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of latent TB Infection (LTBI and to estimate the annual risk of M. tuberculosis infection (ARTI in Gambian school children. The results are expected to contribute to understanding of Tuberculosis epidemiology in The Gambia.This was a nationwide, multi-cluster survey in children aged 6-11 years. Districts, 20 of 37, were selected by probability proportional to size and schools by simple random sampling. All TST were performed using the Mantoux method. Height and weight measurements were obtained for all participants. We calculated prevalence of LTBI using cut-off points of 10mm, the mirror and mixture modelling methods.TST readings were completed 13,386 children with median age of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8-10 years. Mixture analysis yielded a cut-off point of 12 mm, and LTBI prevalence of 6.9% [95%CI 6.47-7.37] and the ARTI was 0.75% [95%CI 0.60-0.91]. LTBI was associated gender and urban residence (p <0.01. Nutritional status was not associated with non-reactive TST or sizes of TST indurations. ARTI did not differ significantly by age, gender, BCG vaccination or residence.This estimates for LTBI prevalence and ARTI were low but this survey provides updated data. Malnutrition did not affect estimates of LTBI and ARTI. Given the low ARTI in this survey and the overlapping distribution of indurations with mixture modelling, further surveys may require complementary tests such as interferon gamma release assays or novel diagnostic tools.

  3. Peritoneal tuberculosis: radiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ospina-Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB is an extrapulmonary form of presentation of tuberculosis. HIV infection is a primary risk factor for this condition. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathological confirmation in addition to supporting radiological imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT are useful to obtain a radiographic diagnosis, with typical findings including diffuse peritoneal thickening, presence of ascites in varying volumes, adenopathies, and caseating nodes. We report 2 cases of patients with ascites and nodular peritoneal thickening on diagnostic images, as well as high CA-125 levels in laboratory tests. In both patients, a diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was reached following a US-guided peritoneal biopsy.

  4. Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hulusi DİNÇOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%. 6 (4.14% of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance, 10 (6.90% gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance and 5 (3.45% gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance. As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.

  5. Non-communicable disease comorbidities and risk factors among tuberculosis patients, Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Bibha; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Rao, Sudha R; Selvaraju, Sriram

    2016-04-01

    We did cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol use, hypertension and diabetes among tuberculosis (TB) patients in comparison to the non-TB patients in East Garo Hills District, Meghalaya, India. We surveyed 110 TB patients attending outpatient TB clinic and 110 age/sex matched non-TB subjects from the general outpatient department as comparison group. Prevalence of ever smoking was 74.5% and 55.4%; alcohol consumption 31.0% and 22.3%; hypertension 24.5% and 17.3%; diabetes 7.5%, 4.5% among TB patients and non-TB subjects, respectively. NCD and TB programmes need integration in the primary care for screening, counselling and treatment of NCD comorbidities.

  6. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  7. Tuberculosis extrapulmonar Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fanlo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el pulmón es el órgano diana por excelencia de la tuberculosis, cualquier otro órgano y sistema puede verse afectado. En este trabajo se revisan las formas de tuberculosis extrapulmonar a excepción de la pleural que requieren del facultativo, en ocasiones, su más valiosa pericia diagnóstica. Desde la temida meningitis tuberculosa, pasando por la afectación insidiosa de la espondilodiscitis, la llamativa afectación ganglionar, la afectación genitourinaria, la pericarditis, para terminar las formas menos frecuentes como la ocular o la cutánea. En cada apartado indicaremos lo más característico con la finalidad de que pueda servir de orientación diagnóstica y terapéutica.In spite of the lung being the target organ par excellence of tuberculosis, any other organ and system can be affected. In this article we review the forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with the exception of the pleural form that requires the use of good diagnostic skills. From the dreaded tuberculous meningitis, by way of the insidious affectation of the spondylodiscitis, the so-called ganglionary affectation , the genitourinary affectation, pericarditis, and ending with less frequent forms such as ocular and cutaneous tuberculosis. In each section we will indicate what is most characteristic with the aim of providing a diagnostic and therapeutic orientation.

  8. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin-Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Villegas

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes.A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment.Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80% were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8% patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2% patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-4.1, and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9-47.8. Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01 and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02. Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01.A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes.

  9. Self-reported risks for multiple-drug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: implications for drug susceptibility screening and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Brewer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple drug-resistance in new tuberculosis (TB cases accounts for the majority of all multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB worldwide. Effective control requires determining which new TB patients should be tested for MDR disease, yet the effectiveness of global screening recommendations of high-risk groups is unknown. METHODS: Sixty MDR-TB cases with no history of previous TB treatment, 80 drug-sensitive TB and 80 community-based controls were recruited in Lima, Peru between August and December, 2008 to investigate whether recommended screening practices identify individuals presenting with MDR-TB. Odd ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression to study the association of potential risk factors with case/control variables. RESULTS: MDR-TB cases did not differ from drug-sensitive TB and community controls in rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection, reported hospital or prison visits in the 3 years prior to diagnosis. MDR-TB cases were more likely than drug-sensitive TB controls to have had a recent MDR-TB household contact (OR 4.66, (95% CI 1.56-13.87; however, only 15 cases (28.3% reported this exposure. In multivariate modeling, recent TB household contact, but not contact with an MDR-TB case, remained predictive of MDR-TB, OR 7.47, (95% CI 1.91-29.3. Living with a partner rather than parents was associated with a lower risk of MDR-TB, OR 0.15, (95% CI 0.04-0.51. CONCLUSION: Targeted drug susceptibility testing (DST linked to reported MDR-TB contact or other high-risk exposures does not identify the majority of new TB cases with MDR disease in Lima where it is endemic. All new TB cases should be screened with DST to identify MDR patients. These findings are likely applicable to other regions with endemic MDR-TB.

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;

    2013-01-01

    a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  11. Risk Factors for tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. A case-control study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil (1985-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Castro Toledo Jr.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify tuberculosis risk factors and possible surrogate markers among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at the HIV outpatient clinic of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte. We reviewed the demographic, social-economical and medical data of 477 HIV-infected individuals evaluated from 1985 to 1996. The variables were submitted to an univariate and stratified analysis. Aids related complex (ARC, past history of pneumonia, past history of hospitalization, CD4 count and no antiretroviral use were identified as possible effect modifiers and confounding variables, and were submitted to logistic regression analysis by the stepwise method. ARC had an odds ratio (OR of 3.5 (CI 95% - 1.2-10.8 for tuberculosis development. Past history of pneumonia (OR 1.7 - CI 95% 0.6-5.2 and the CD4 count (OR 0.4 - CI 0.2-1.2 had no statistical significance. These results show that ARC is an important clinical surrogate for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Despite the need of confirmation in future studies, these results suggest that the ideal moment for tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis could be previous to the introduction of antiretroviral treatment or even just after the diagnosis of HIV infection.

  12. 牛结核γ-干扰素ELISA检测方法在检疫工作中的应用%The Application of Gamma Interferon ELISA in Bovine Tuberculosis Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培校; 李静; 张鲁安; 李杰; 曹瑞; 张喜悦; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    为评价牛γ-干扰素ELISA检测方法检测牛结核的效果及国产试剂盒的检测效果,本试验首先将国产试剂盒与Prionics试剂盒对42份相对阳性的样品和105份相对阴性的样品进行对比研究。然后对5个规模化牛场的3000头奶牛首先进行国产单纯结核菌素颈部皮内变态反应试验,3天后选取皮内变态反应阳性和可疑及部分阴性牛共418头,进行牛γ-干扰素试验。结果国产试剂盒对阳性和阴性样品的检测敏感性和特异性分别为95.2%和100%,与Priobics试剂盒的符合率为99.3%。表明国产试剂盒与进口试剂盒的检测能力一致,牛γ-干扰素检测方法准确可靠。5个牛场的3000头奶牛单纯结核菌素颈部皮内变态反应试验阳性为138头,可疑105头。γ-干扰素试验对418头奶牛的检测,其中阳性74头,与颈部皮内变态反应(可疑牛暂时视为阴性)的符合率为60.5%。%In order to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma interferon test to detect bovine tuberculosis and the detection effect of a domestic kit, a comparative study was done between Prionics kits and the domestic kits using 42 positive samples and 105 negative samples. Then 3000 cattle from five intensive farms were first tested with single skin test, and 3 days later, 418 cattle including skin test positive and suspicious ones and some negative ones were tested with gamma interferon test. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the domestic kit were 95.2%and 100%respectively. and the coincidence was 99.3%with the Prionics kit,suggesting that the gamma interferon test was accurate and reli-able for detection of bovine tuberculosis, and the domestic kit was as good as the Prionics kit. There were 138 skin test positive cattle and 105 suspicious cattle from 3000 tested cattle. In gamma interferon test, 74/418 cattle were detected positive, and the coincidence rate was 60.5%with skin test (suspicious cattle considered as

  13. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle.

  14. Comparative genomics of archived pyrazinamide resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...

  15. 76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and... as modified accredited advanced for tuberculosis. DATES: This interim rule is effective October...

  16. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers.

  17. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P cattle into herd (P cattle gifts and dowry payment (P cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  18. Prevalent and incident tuberculosis are independent risk factors for mortality among patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with prevalent or incident tuberculosis (TB in antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have high mortality risk. However, published data are contradictory as to whether TB is a risk factor for mortality that is independent of CD4 cell counts and other patient characteristics. METHODS/FINDINGS: This observational ART cohort study was based in Cape Town, South Africa. Deaths from all causes were ascertained among patients receiving ART for up to 8 years. TB diagnoses and 4-monthly CD4 cell counts were recorded. Mortality rates were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR and identify risk factors for mortality. Of 1544 patients starting ART, 464 patients had prevalent TB at baseline and 424 developed incident TB during a median of 5.0 years follow-up. Most TB diagnoses (73.6% were culture-confirmed. A total of 208 (13.5% patients died during ART and mortality rates were 8.84 deaths/100 person-years during the first year of ART and decreased to 1.14 deaths/100 person-years after 5 years. In multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline and time-updated risk factors, both prevalent and incident TB were independent risk factors for mortality (IRR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and 2.7 [95% CI, 1.9-3.8], respectively. Adjusted mortality risks were higher in the first 6 months of ART for those with prevalent TB at baseline (IRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5 and within the 6 months following diagnoses of incident TB (IRR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6-5.7. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalent TB at baseline and incident TB during ART were strongly associated with increased mortality risk. This effect was time-dependent, suggesting that TB and mortality are likely to be causally related and that TB is not simply an epiphenomenon among highly immunocompromised patients. Strategies to rapidly diagnose, treat and prevent TB prior to and during ART urgently need to be implemented.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Alan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.

  20. Use of Antimicrobial Metaphylaxis for the Control of Bovine Respiratory Disease in High-Risk Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Samuel E; Richeson, John T

    2015-11-01

    Despite research and increased availability of antimicrobials, the prevalence and challenges associated with BRD in stocker and feedlot operations remain. Preconditioned calves can better handle the transition from the origin ranch to the feedlot, yet there is incentive for buyers to purchase high-risk cattle at a reduced cost, and this is influenced by the proven efficacy and availability of antimicrobial metaphylaxis. The poor sensitivity of current BRD field diagnostic methods, typical pathogenesis of BRD, and labor issues are additional reasons to use metaphylaxis. Nevertheless, practitioners should consider comprehensive and novel approaches to judiciously guide decisions on metaphylactic use of antimicrobials.

  1. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, L.

    2013-01-01

    system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter...... line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both...

  2. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis from milk samples from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Wilson, Tania; Luo, Dongwen; Voges, Hinrich; Linscott, Richard; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John C; Neill, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from dairy cows provide a ready source of material for measuring antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens. In this study, we evaluated the IDEXX enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antibody responses to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 in milk samples from New Zealand cattle. Test sensitivities for individual milk and serum samples were assessed in samples collected from 44 M. bovis-infected cows, and test specificities were assessed in milk samples collected from 356 cows from tuberculosis (TB)-free herds. Milk vat samples were collected from 505 herds from regions with relatively high or low prevalences of infection. The ELISA had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 97.5% for milk samples, and the test sensitivities for milk and serum samples were the same. Dilution of the positive test milk samples in milk from noninfected cows at 1/10, 1/20, and 1/50 dilutions reduced the proportions of positive responses to 13/21, 9/21, and 4/21, respectively. Small differences were observed in the ELISA responses of milk samples from individual TB-free cows collected at different times during lactation. No significant differences were detected in the ELISA responses of milk vat samples collected from infected and noninfected herds. This study shows that milk samples can be substituted for serum samples for screening individual cows for M. bovis infection, and pooling of milk samples from 10 to 20 animals can result in a reduction in the sensitivity by approximately 50%. However, screening of milk vat samples is unlikely to be useful in countries with low prevalences of M. bovis in cattle and large herd sizes.

  3. Genitourinary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Joao [Department of Radiology, Instituto Portugue-circumflex s de Oncologia, Porto (Portugal); Bacelar, Maria Teresa [Department of Radiology, Instituto Portugue-circumflex s de Oncologia, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: tbacelar@yahoo.com; Pinto, Pedro [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Although uncommon, genitourinary tuberculosis is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection. Its diagnosis is often difficult. This article provides an overview of the pathologic and radiologic findings of this disease process.

  4. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  5. 中国人群肺结核发病危险因素的荟萃分析%Meta-analysis of risk factors of tuberculosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳成娟; 杜建; 杨怀盛; 杨冬芳; 黄玉婷; 于旭亚; 申振伟; 李秀君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the main risk factors related to the incidence of tuberculosis in China and to provide di -rections and basis for the protection of tuberculosis .Methods The results of 25 studies on the main risk factors of tubercu-losis of Chinese people from 2000 to 2012 were analyzed by meta-analysis method .Results The pooled odds radio values and 95%CI of history of exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis , smoking, marriage, contact with people, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)vaccination scar, BCG vaccination, low body mass index(BMI) , family history of tuberculosis, exposure to dust and to chemical fumes under working conditions were as follows:3.14(2.74-3.59),1.23(1.14 -1.33),3.05 (2.10-4.45),2.08(1.76-2.26),0.39(0.32 -0.47),0.58(0.46 -0.73),2.95(2.40 -3.64),2.56(1.82 -3.59),2.58(2.04-3.26),and 4.81(1.99-11.60).Conclusion Then History of exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis , smoking, marriage, contact with people , low BMI, family history of tuberculosis , exposure to dust and to chemical fumes under working conditions are considered to be the risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis .While BCG vaccination scar and BCG vaccination are considered to be the protective factors of pulmonary tuberculosis .%目的:研究我国肺结核发病的主要危险因素,为今后肺结核的防治工作提供方向和依据。方法利用荟萃( Meta)分析的方法对2000~2012年国内外关于中国人群肺结核发病危险因素的25篇研究文献进行定量综合分析。结果肺结核接触史、吸烟、婚姻状况、人际交往、卡痕、卡介苗接种史、低体质量指数( BMI )、结核病家族史、工作暴露于粉尘环境和接触化学气雾的合并OR值(95%CI)分别为3.14(2.74~3.59),1.23(1.14~1.33),3.05(2.10~4.45),2.08(1.76~2.26),0.39(0.32~0.47),0.58(0.46~0.73),2.95(2.40~3.64),2.56(1.82~3.59),2.58(2.04~3.26

  6. Sociodemographic, Epidemiological, and Clinical Risk Factors for Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely Malnourished Children Presenting With Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti MBBS, MMed, PhD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF (cases = 27 and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P < .01 and exposure to cigarette smoke (P = .04 compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05 and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02. Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.

  7. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms.

  8. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  9. Mapping risk of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Brazil using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, L H; Molento, M B; Naumann, C R C; Biondo, A W; Fortes, F S; Savio, D; Malone, J B

    2010-04-19

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is an endemic disease of ruminants that occurs in several countries of South America where it can lead to decreased production and fertility and, in severe cases, animal death. Although very prevalent, information on the epidemiology of the disease is incomplete in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to define the prevalence of F. hepatica in the livers of cattle from slaughterhouses and correlate the data with the animal's origin (climate and altitude) using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The data was used to create an epidemiological map of fasciolosis by state (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná), by municipality (n=530) and by year (2003-2008). Information was analyzed using a databank from slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Services of the Ministry of Agriculture. The highest cattle infection rate was found in the two most Southern states of Rio Grande do Sul (18.7%) and Santa Catarina (10.1%). Animals from the Campanha region of Rio Grande do Sul and from the central coast area of Santa Catarina had prevalences of greater than 40%. Cattle from low altitudes municipalities were significantly more likely to have the disease (pepidemiology and transmission of F. hepatica in Southern Brazil needed for design of appropriate control measures to control economic impacts. F. hepatica may represent an important source of zoonotic infection of humans as well; therefore these findings may be complemented by future studies on human infections in high risk areas.

  10. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: the size of the problem and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Dara, Masoud; van Gemert, Wayne; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Évaluer le problème de la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR) sur le territoire biélorusse et explorer les facteurs de risque associés. MÉTHODES: Au cours d'une enquête nationale menée en 2010-2011, 1420 cas de tuberculose (TB) ont été dépistés et 934 cas nouveaux ainsi que 410 cas précédemment traités ont été jugés conformes aux critères d'inclusion. Des isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenant de chaque patient admissible ont été testés pour leur sensibilité envers les médicaments antituberculeux. Des informations sociocomportementales ont été recueillies lors d'entretiens basés sur un questionnaire structuré. RÉSULTATS: La TB-MR a été détectée dans respectivement 32,3% et 75,6% des cas nouveaux et des cas traités antérieurement, et 11,9% des 612 patients porteurs de la TB-MR présentaient une forme de tuberculose ultrarésistante (TB-UR). Un historique de traitement antérieur pour la TB représentait le principal facteur de risque indépendant pour la TB-MR (rapport des cotes, RC: 6,1; intervalle de confiance à 95%, IC: 4,8 à 7,7). Les autres facteurs de risque indépendants comprenaient l'infection par le virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) (RC: 2,2; IC à 95%: 1,4 à 3,5), l’âge tuberculose en Bélarus. Les nombreux facteurs de risque identifiés pour la TB-MR et la convergence entre l’épidémie de TB-MR et l'infection par le VIH exigent non seulement de renforcer la collaboration entre les programmes antituberculeux et de lutte contre le VIH, mais aussi la mise en œuvre de mesures innovantes pour accélérer la détection de la résistance à la tuberculose et améliorer l'observance du traitement.

  11. Comparing risk factors for primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and primary drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Jiangsu province, China: a matched-pairs case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Lu, Wei; Zu, Rong-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Mei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Cheng; Shen, Tao; Zeng, Guang; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2015-02-01

    To find out the reason why some people get infected directly with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), whereas some get infected with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), a 1:1:1 matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to identify predictors associated with primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB against the control in Jiangsu Province, China. All three groups were geographically matched (by neighborhood) and matched on sex and age (±5 years). In total, 110 participants were enrolled in each of three matched groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that predictors independently associated with primary MDR-TB were illiteracy or primary school education, annual per capita income ≤ US$2,000, per capita living space < 40 m(2), and interval ≥ 7 days of eating fruits; predictors with primary DS-TB were body mass index ≤ 20 and feeling higher life pressure. This indicates that there are different predictors impacting the transmission range of primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB in the general population.

  12. The benefits and risks of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination among infants at high risk for both tuberculosis and severe combined immunodeficiency: assessment by Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is given to Canadian Aboriginal neonates in selected communities. Severe reactions and deaths associated with BCG have been reported among infants born with immunodeficiency syndromes. The main objective of this study was to estimate threshold values for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID incidence, above which BCG is associated with greater risk than benefit. Methods A Markov model was developed to simulate the natural histories of tuberculosis (TB and SCID in children from birth to 14 years. The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARI and SCID incidence were varied in analyses. The model compared a scenario of no vaccination to intervention with BCG. Appropriate variability and uncertainty analyses were conducted. Outcomes included TB incidence and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Results In sensitivity analyses, QALYs were lower among vaccinated infants if the ARI was 0.1% and the rate of SCID was higher than 4.2 per 100,000. Assuming an ARI of 1%, this threshold increased to 41 per 100,000. In uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo simulations which assumed an ARI of 0.1%, QALYs were not significantly increased by BCG unless SCID incidence is 0. With this ARI, QALYs were significantly decreased among vaccinated children if SCID incidence exceeds 23 per 100,000. BCG is associated with a significant increase in QALYs if the ARI is 1%, and SCID incidence is below 5 per 100,000. Conclusion The possibility that Canadian Aboriginal children are at increased risk for SCID has serious implications for continued BCG use in this population. In this context, enhanced TB Control – including early detection and treatment of infection – may be a safer, more effective alternative.

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin- Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684

  14. Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22 respondent (5% amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2% had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (≥0.05 was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle were found to be statistically significant.

  15. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Mohammed; Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Fasil; Assegid, Sahilu; Duchateau, Luc; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest Ethiopia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from January to March, 2009 in South West Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 162 cases and 647 controls. Cases were adult people living with...

  16. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Clinical Trials Tuberculosis (TB) Causes ...

  17. Thymopentin Combined with Anti -tuberculosis Drugs Therapy and Different Risk Factors for Recur-rence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Parient%胸腺五肽联合化疗与肺结核复发的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奎; 江自成; 杨才勇; 刘胜昔; 方坚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate thymopentin combined with anti -tuberculosis drugs therapy and the risk factors for recurrence of pulmo-nary tuberculosis parient.Methods A total of 428 patients receiving anti -tuberculosis therapy in our hospital from January 2004 to December 2011 were enrol ed in this study to review the clinical characteristics,radiology features and treatment,ten parameters contributing to the recurrence were ana-lyzed.Results Nineteen patients (4.43%)had recurrence.Of the 19 patients,12 patients had early recurrence and 7 patients had the late one.High bacterial loads and cavitations disease were risk factors for early recurrence while higher age and diabetes mel itus were risk factor for the late recur-rence.Conclusions The identification of significant risk factors for recurrence may enable bet er selection of treatment options.%目的:探讨胸腺五肽联合抗结核治疗与肺结核复发的相关性及危险因素。方法分析2004年1月至2011年12月收治的428例经细菌学证实为肺结核的病例,经随访2年以上,选择10项临床、放射及治疗等指标分析对早/晚复发的影响。结果全组有19例复发,复发率为4.43%,早期复发(小于等于1年)12例,晚期复发(大于1年)7例。胸肽腺联合标准一线抗结核药物的早期复发率为1.77%,晚期复发率为1.18%。高细菌学含量和空洞是早期复发的危险因素,而年龄和糖尿病则是晚期复发的危险因素。结论辨别肺结核复发的危险因素对于选择治疗方案有积极的意义。

  18. The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Hans L

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future.

  19. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shin-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is routinely provided.A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL. Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was calculated.Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49-15.90, P = 0.009. A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52-24.40, P = 0.01. Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6% from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587-0.798 for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776-0.808 and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts.A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The implementation of this algorithm will avoid unnecessary

  20. Risk of Disease After Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exposure in Young HIV-uninfected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameris, Michele D.; Geldenhuys, Hennie D.; Mulenga, Humphrey; Van Schalkwyk, Amaryl; Hughes, Elizabeth J.; Toefey, Asma; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hussey, Gregory; Mahomed, Hassan; McShane, Helen; Landry, Bernard; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hatherill, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease in HIV-uninfected children after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk of TB disease after IPT in young HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result, or household TB contact. Methods: HIV-uninfected South African infants aged 4–6 months were screened for enrolment in a TB vaccine trial. Baseline household TB contact and positive QFT-GIT result were exclusion criteria, and these infants were referred for IPT. Outcome data are reported for 36 months after IPT referral. Results: Four thousand seven hundred forty-nine infants were screened. Household TB contact was reported in 131 (2.8%) infants; 279 (6.0%) were QFT-GIT positive, and 138 of these 410 infants (34.0%) started IPT. Forty-four cases of TB disease (11.0%) were recorded within 991 child years of observation. TB disease incidence was 4.8 versus 3.6 per 100 child years in household exposed versus QFT-GIT-positive children [incidence rate ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–2.88] and 2.4 versus 5.5 per 100 child years in children who received versus did not receive IPT, respectively (incidence rate ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17–0.96). Adjusted hazard ratio (Cox regression) for TB disease was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.21–1.05) for those who received IPT. Conclusion: In young HIV-uninfected children, the effect of IPT on risk of TB disease is similar, whether TB exposure was defined by household contact history or by positive QFT-GIT result. International IPT guidelines for HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result should be updated. PMID:26252568

  1. A model to assess the risk of the introduction into Japan of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent through imported animals, meat and meat-and-bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Ito, K; Yokoyama, R; Kumagai, S; Onodera, T

    2003-12-01

    The authors developed a mathematical model to assess the release risk of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent into a country through the importation of live cattle, bone-in bovine meat and meat-and-bone meal (MBM) from the United Kingdom and other countries with BSE. Monte Carlo simulation was attempted using this model and input variables. The release risk in Japan, expressed as the weight of infected MBM released in Japan between 1993 and 2000, was estimated to be 23.4 kg to 53.8 kg. The simulation also indicated that imported MBM represented the most important risk factor for releasing the BSE agent into Japan. This paper also provides details of the first five cases of BSE detected in Japan between September 2001 and the end of 2002. In addition, the results of the investigation conducted to determine the source of infection and the measures taken by the Government of Japan to prevent the BSE agent from entering the food and feed chains are also outlined.

  2. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin Koshy

    2016-09-01

    Results: 18 patients had evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. 5 patients had active disease and 13 patients had evidence of healed pulmonary tuberculosis. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 8.3%. This is much higher than the prevalence in the Indian population which is 13-25 per thousand. Of the 5 patients who had active disease 3 patients were on leflunamide for 1 year or more. On analysis it was found that patients on leflunamide were at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (p <0.001 and the risk estimate showed an odds ratio of 14.2. Conclusions: Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the study population was found to be 8.3%. In countries with high prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis patients should be carefully monitored for pulmonary tuberculosis before and during the treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3729-3732

  3. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (bovine animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Salmonella spp. and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as current high-priority biological hazards for meat inspection of bovine animals. As these hazards are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system for the farm-to-chilled carcass continuum using a risk-based approach was proposed. Key elements of the system are risk-categorisation of slaughter animals for high-priority biological hazards based on improved food chain information, as well as risk-categorisation of slaughterhouses according to their capability to control those hazards. Omission of palpation and incision during post-mortem inspection for animals subjected to routine slaughter may decrease spreading and cross-contamination with the high-priority biological hazards. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern; all other substances were ranked as of medium or lower concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account the completeness and quality of the food chain information supplied and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated to include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control programmes, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for bovine tuberculosis and would have a negative impact on the overall surveillance system especially in officially tuberculosis free countries. The detection effectiveness for bovine cysticercosis, already low with the current meat inspection system, would result in a further decrease, if palpation and incision are removed

  4. The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Frederick L; Azbel, Lyuba; Stone, Jack; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Dvoriak, Sergii; Taxman, Faye S; El-Bassel, Nabila; Martin, Natasha K; Booth, Robert; Stöver, Heino; Dolan, Kate; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-09-17

    Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention of HIV using opioid agonist therapies such as methadone and buprenorphine is available in prisons in only a handful of EECA countries (methadone or buprenorphine in five countries and needle and syringe programmes in three countries), with none of them meeting recommended coverage levels. Similarly, antiretroviral therapy coverage, especially among people who inject drugs, is markedly under-scaled. Russia completely bans opioid agonist therapies and does not support needle and syringe programmes-with neither available in prisons-despite the country's high incarceration rate and having the largest burden of people with HIV who inject drugs in the region. Mathematical modelling for Ukraine suggests that high levels of incarceration in EECA countries facilitate HIV transmission among people who inject drugs, with 28-55% of all new HIV infections over the next 15 years predicted to be attributable to heightened HIV transmission risk among currently or previously incarcerated people who inject drugs. Scaling up of opioid agonist therapies within prisons and maintaining treatment after release would yield the greatest HIV transmission reduction in people who inject drugs. Additional analyses also suggest that at least 6% of all incident tuberculosis cases, and 75% of incident tuberculosis cases in people who inject drugs are due to incarceration. Interventions that reduce

  5. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Good

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress.

  6. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  7. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6–41.7 and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2–33.0. More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3–78.8 than females 81% (95% CI 21.1–30.7. 30% (95% CI 25.3–35.3 had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0–75.7 showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb 91.7% (95% CI 78.2–97.1, low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8–44.0, high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1–23.3, ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4–56.7, and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3–83.3 among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk 2.2 (95% CI 0.48–12.3, smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.19, and gender (male RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61–2.26 were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters.

  8. Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Saara M; Payne Hallström, Lara; Jansen, Niesje; Helbling, Peter; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    As a setting for potential tuberculosis (TB) transmission and contact tracing, aircraft pose specific challenges. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to support the related-risk assessment and contact-tracing efforts. In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA guidelines (2009) and World Health Organization guidelines on TB and air travel (2008) were published. Seven of the 21 records presented some evidence of possible in-flight transmission, but only one record provided substantial evidence of TB transmission on an aircraft. The data indicate that overall risk of TB transmission on aircraft is very low. The updated ECDC guidelines for TB transmission on aircraft have global implications due to inevitable need for international collaboration in contract tracing and risk assessment.

  9. Relative effectiveness of irish factories in the surveillance of slaughtered cattle for visible lesions of tuberculosis, 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Popelka Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ireland, every animal is examined at slaughter for its fitness for human consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of factories in submitting and subsequently in having suspect lesions confirmed as bovine tuberculosis (TB lesions during the years 2005-2007. This work provides an update from previously published data for years 2003-2004. During 2005-2007 data were available on 4,401,813 cattle from attested herds (i.e. herds classified free of bovine TB, from which data for potential confounding factors were available for 3,344,057 slaughtered animals at one of the 37 export-licensed factories. Findings From these animals, 8,178 suspect lesions were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Lesions from 5,456 (66.7% animals tested as positive, and 269 (3.2% were inconclusive for bovine TB. Logistic regression was used to determine adjusted submission and confirmation risks for each factory while controlling for confounding factors. Factory rankings based on adjusted and crude risks were similar. The average crude submission risk for all the factories was 25 lesions per 10,000 animals slaughtered, ranging from 0 to 52. The crude confirmation risk varied between 30.3% and 91.3%. Conclusions Substantial variation in the effectiveness of lesion submission and subsequent confirmation as bovine TB was found among the 37 factories. Compared to previous years (2003-2004, there was an increased bovine TB lesion submission and confirmation risk. Continued monitoring of the effectiveness of slaughter surveillance in Ireland is recommended; emphasis should be placed on efforts to improve bovine TB surveillance in factories with lower rankings.

  10. Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenu, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.

  11. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  12. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  13. Tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza-Ticona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.

  14. Meta-analysis of the Risk Factor of Tuberculosis in China%中国人群肺结核发病危险因素的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 王兆芬; 刘寿; 杜文琪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the main risk factors related to the incidence of tuberculosis in China and to provide evidence for prevention. Methods The results of 19 studies on the main risk factors of tuberculosis were analyzed by Meta-analysis method. Results The pooled odds radio values and 95% CI of history of exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis,Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination,indoor conditions, work environment,Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination scar and body mass index (BMI) were 2.87 (95% CI, 2.37 -3.49), 0.41 (95%CI:0.34 ~ 0.51),2.62(95% CI: 1.96 -3.50) ,3.20(95%CI:2.44 -4.20),2.86 (95%CI:1.94 -4.20) ,2.32(95% CI-1. 15 ~4.70). Conclusion The main risk factors of were the history of exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis, indoor conditions,work environment,Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination scar and body mass index(BMI) .while Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination was a protect factor.%目的 探讨我国人群肺结核病发病的主要危险因素,为今后防治工作提供依据.方法 利用meta分析方法分析国内19篇关于肺结核病发病危险因素的研究文献.结果结核病人接触史、卡介苗接种史、室内环境、工作环境、卡痕和BMI的合并OR值(95%CI)分别为:2.87(2.37 ~ 3.49),0.41(0.34 ~0.51),2.62(1.96 ~3.50),3.20(2.44~4.20),2.86( 1.94 ~4.20),2.32(1.15 ~4.70).结 论结核病人接触史、室内环境、工作环境、卡痕和BMI是我国肺结核病发病的主要危险因素,卡介苗接种为保护性因素.

  15. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country.

  16. Prevalência de tuberculose e brucelose bovina no município de Ilhéus Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in Ilhéus, Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.P. Ribeiro

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determining the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, 916 cows aged 24 months or above and allocated in 85 farms were tested. The compared cervical intradermic tuberculosis and serological buffered acidified antigen (BAA, slow tube serum agglutination (STSA and 2-mercapto ethanol (2-ME tests were used. The prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis was 2.8 and 1.9%, respectively. The distribution of positive farms (10.6% is in agreement with the notion that these diseases are widespread in the country.

  17. Riesgo nutricional en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar: ¿cuestión del paciente o de los servicios de salud? Nutritional risk in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A patient or a health services issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores de riesgo nutricional en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron al azar 185 pacientes con TBP atendidos en dos instituciones de salud de Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, durante 1997. Se identificaron variables antropométricas, socioeconómicas, utilización del servicio de nutrición, accesibilidad a los alimentos, efectos secundarios de drogas antifímicas, y atribución de la enfermedad a la alimentación. El plan de análisis incluyó estadística descriptiva, análisis bivariado y multivariado de regresión logística múltiple, además se estimó razón de prevalencia e intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad fue de 42.4±19.9 años. La media de índice de masa corporal fue de 19.8±3.2 y se encontraban desnutridos 56.8% del total de los pacientes. El 26.4% de éstos fue enviado al servicio de nutrición y, únicamente, 24.3% lo utilizó. El análisis multivariado mostró como factores de riesgo para desnutrición a los efectos secundarios de las drogas antifímicas, independientemente de la edad, sexo, escolaridad, ocupación, tiempo de evolución, accesibilidad a los alimentos, atribución de la enfermedad al tipo de alimentación y utilización del servicio de nutrición (ji²=10.58; p=0.0515, r²=0.42. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo nutricional al que se enfrenta el paciente es responsabilidad tanto de éste, por la escasa utilización que hace del servicio de nutrición, como de los servicios de salud, debido a la existencia de barreras de tipo organizacional que dificultan el acceso al servicio de nutrición. Además, la falta de accesibilidad a los alimentos y el impacto de los efectos secundarios de las drogas antifímicas justifican la necesidad de focalizar la atención en este grupo de riesgo.OBJECTIVE: To determine nutritional risk factors in a population of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1997, one

  18. [Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection following organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Charles; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2006-11-01

    In transplant recipients, immunosuppressive treatment affects cell-mediated immunity and increases the risk of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis may be transmitted by the donor organ or occur de novo, but such cases are rare. The vast majority of cases of active tuberculosis in transplant recipients result from reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The incidence varies from one region of the globe to another, from 0.5-1.0% in North America, to 0.36-5.5% in Europe and 7.0-11.8% in India. The incidence of tuberculosis among transplant recipients is much higher than in the general population. Diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic liver disease and AIDS all increase the risk of post-transplant tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary and disseminated forms are frequent in this setting. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in transplant recipients is often difficult, and treatment is frequently delayed. Tuberculosis can be life-threatening in such cases. Treatment is difficult because rifampicin is a cytochrome P450 inducer (leading to reduced levels of cyclosporine), and because the hepatotoxicity of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide is frequently increased in transplant recipients. Treatment of latent tuberculosis before transplantation markedly reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis after transplantation.

  19. Estudos de prevalência da brucelose bovina no âmbito do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação de Brucelose e Tuberculose: Introdução Prevalence studies on bovine brucelosis according to Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poester

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de combate à brucelose bovina são bastante conhecidas e, até o momento, os resultados são divergentes. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA implementou, em 2001, o Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose. Conhecer a situação epidemiológica da brucelose no início de um programa de controle permite: 1 - escolher as melhores estratégias de controle em função da frequência e padrão de distribuição da doença na população e 2 - acompanhar o programa com a finalidade de promover correções e evitar o desperdício de tempo e de recursos. Em razão disso, é necessário realizar estudos para dar suporte à escolha das melhores estratégias para os vários estados e regiões brasileiras e criar um mecanismo racional de verificação da efetividade das ações implementadas. Para tanto, o MAPA estabeleceu um Termo de Cooperação Técnica com a Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de São Paulo e envolveu também a Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília. Até o momento, foram concluídos os estudos de 15 unidades federativas, cujos resultados são apresentados nos artigos subsequentes. Além disso, há um 16º artigo que explora o impacto da vacinação de bezerras com a B19 na redução da prevalência da brucelose.Although strategies for controlling and eradicating of bovine brucellosis are well known, the achievements vary widely. In 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA started a new National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (NPCEBT. In the beginning of a brucellosis control program, it is of utmost importance to gain insights into the epidemiological status of the disease in order to: (1 determine the sanitary measures according to the frequency and distribution patterns of the disease in the population; (2 monitor the development

  20. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current genotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2014-09-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  1. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Peñuelas-Urquides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates (120 were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R, spacer oligotyping (S and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%, SM (12.5%, SR (1.67%, MR (0%, S (46.67%, M (5% and R (0%. The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus. S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  2. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández/, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB. PMID:25317710

  3. Sero prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV1) infection in non-vaccinated cattle herds in Andalusia (South of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. A.; Arenas-Casas, A.; Carbonero-Martinez, A.; Borge-Rodriguez, C.; Garcia-Bocanegra, I.; Maldonado, J. L.; Gomez-Pacheco, J. M.; Perea-Remujo, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    An epidemiological and serological survey of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) infection was conducted in Andalusia from January to April of 2000. A total of 4,035 blood samples were collected from 164 herds. A questionnaire, which included variables potentially associated with infection, was filled out for each herd. Serum samples were obtained to identify specific BHV1 antibodies and were tested using a blocking ELISA test. The observed crude odds ratio (OR) (estimate of the chance of a particular event occurring in an exposed group in relation to its rate of occurrence in a nonexposed group) for vaccination is 9.8 (95 % confidence interval: 8.3-11.7). The vaccinated group comprised large dairy farms. This study can only be considered as representative of unvaccinated, small to medium size dairy farms and beef farms in Andalusia. True sero prevalence of the BHV1 virus in non vaccinated bovine populations in Andalusia reached 45.7% of individuals and 70.4% of herds. Risk factors for BHV1 infection in bovine Andalusian non vaccinated herds are nonexistence of specific cattle infrastructure (OR: 3.07), beef crossbreeding (OR: 7.90), affiliation with Livestock Health Defence Associations (OR: 2.57), a history of reproductive disorders (OR: 8.39), external replacement (OR: 2.74), proximity to an urban area (OR: 6.11) and herd size (41.98). To control for confounding effects, a binomial logistic regression model was developed. From this regression, BHV1 infections are concentrated in large herds, with external replacement, located close to urban areas. This is the first published report on BHV1 prevalence in the South of Spain. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Study on risks of tuberculosis infections among health care workers in tuberculosis special hospitals%结核病专科医院医务人员结核感染风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤田; 邓云峰; 李燕; 张延安; 郑建礼; 刘志敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors for exposure to tuberculosis infections among health care workers (HCWs) in tuberculosis special hospitals so as to take effective prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of tuberculosis infections.METHODS Cluster sampling method was used, and the participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire.PPD and T-SPOT.TB test were used simultaneously.RESULTS A total of 497 participants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study, 98.59% of the subjects considered that they had intimate contact with tuberculosis patients in routine works.81.89% of the subjects wore masks at work, and 82.70% of the subjects recognized they had been vaccinated with BCGs the positive rate of PPD test was 66.0%, and the positive rate of T-SPOT.TB test was 10.87%, the difference in the test results among the staff with various occupations was not statistically significant, the positive rate of PPD test was found to be significantly associated with working lifetime(x2 = 11.1936,P=0.0107).while the result of T-SPOT.TB test was not significantly associated with working lifetime.CONCLUSION To reinforce the personal protection and healthcare education for the medical faculty, the administrative personnel and the fresh health care worker in particular, has great significance.%目的 探讨结核病专科医院医务人员职业暴露危险因素,以采取有效地预防控制措施降低结核感染风险.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,进行问卷调查,采集基本信息,对受试人群进行结核菌素试验(PPD)和T细胞斑点试验(T-SPOT.TB)检测.结果 共有符合条件的497人纳入本研究,98.59%认为自己在工作中有机会接触结核病患者,81.89%工作时佩戴口罩,82.70%接种过卡介苗;受试者中,PPD试验阳性率为66.60%,T-SPOT.TB试验阳性率较低,为10.87%,两种试验结果在医院内不同职业人群间差异无统计学意义,PPD试验

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to diagnose naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in Brazil Uma abordagem multidisciplinar para o diagnóstico de tuberculose bovina em um rebanho naturalmente infectado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D. Marassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A herd infected naturally with tuberculosis was investigated by different diagnostic methods. Ninety days after a screening test that identified 21 cows as skin test positive, a Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (CITT was performed in those 21 cows and in 29 other randomly selected skin test negative cows. Milk samples and nasal swabs were collected prior to the CITT for bacteriological culture and PCR, while blood samples were collected for IFN release and antibody responses to MPB70 and MPB83, at three time points post tuberculin injection. Animals positive by CITT were slaughtered and disease confirmation undertaken. Based on the Kappa test, IFN was comparable to the standard tests (culture, PCR and CITT at all three sampling points. Results from both antibody ELISAs were similar but were not comparable to the standard tests. T-test analysis of the CITT, IFN and ELISAs demonstrated that their performances were not correlated. There is increasing recognition that individually, available diagnostic tests do not detect all infected cattle. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for the diagnosis of bovine TB should include test results for the detection of both cellular and humoral immune responses where there may be animals at different stages of infection.Um rebanho bovino naturalmente infectado por tuberculose foi analisado através de diferentes métodos diagnósticos. Um teste intradérmico simples (TIC identificou 21 animais como positivos. Após 90 dias deste resultado, um teste intradérmico comparativo (TIC foi aplicado nos 21 animais positivos ao TIS, além de outros 29 animais com resultados prévios negativos escolhidos aleatoriamente. De todos estes animais (50, foram coletadas amostras de leite e secreção nasal para isolamento e identificação de microrganismos por cultura e PCR; amostras de sangue de cada um dos animais foram coletadas para exames de ELISA: produção de Interferon-gama (IFN e pesquisa de anticorpos frente

  6. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  7. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds as a screening tool for detection of Tuberculosis in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; breath analysis; volatile organic compound; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; NaNose • Introduction: This presentation describes two studies exploring the use of breath VOCs to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. • Methods: ...

  8. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is treated with a combination of several antibiotics. Latent infection without disease is not treated with pyrazinamide. Are all cattle infected with M. bovis? No. The Cooperative State- ...

  9. 肺结核大咯血患者临床危险因素分析%Risk factors of massive hemoptysis in tuberculosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬丽娟; 刘志辉; 苏铎华; 李天义; 汤春梅; 梁国添; 张言斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:预测肺结核患者发生大咯血的危险因素,为临床救治策略提供参考。方法:应用单因素卡方检验及多因素二元Logistic回归分析对241例肺结核咯血患者的病历资料进行统计分析。结果:单因素显示病程≥3个月、年龄≥45岁、肺结核病灶累及肺野数≥3个、有肺结核空洞、吸烟指数≥400年支、并发支气管扩张、并发支气管结核、并发肺真菌感染、并发糖尿病、并发肝病、治疗情况等11项指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素显示肺结核病灶累及肺野数≥3个(OR=2.447,P=0.015)、有肺结核空洞(OR=2.486, P =0.004)、并发支气管结核(OR =3.192,P =0.002)、并发肺真菌感染(OR =3.896,P =0.005)、并发肝病(OR=3.101,P=0.006)等5项指标进入方程模式。结论:肺结核患者发生大咯血受多因素影响,肺结核病灶累及肺野数≥3个、有肺结核空洞、并发支气管结核、并发肺真菌感染、并发肝病可能是独立危险因素。%Objective To explore the risk factors for patients with massive hemoptysis in tuberculosis and to provide a strategy for clinical treatment for tuberculosis massive hemoptysis (TMH). Methods Chi-square test and multivariate logistics analysis were applied to analyze the medical data of 241 cases of TMH. Results Chi-squared test showed that eleven factors were found to be significantly correlated with TMH. Longer disease course (≥3 months), lung lesions range ≥ 3 lung fields, pulmonary tuberculosis cavity, a higher smoking index (≥400 cigarettes per year) and clinical treatment were risk factors for TMH. Patients aged 45 years or older accompanied with bronchiectasia, pulmonary fungal infection, diabetes or hepatopathy had higher probabilities of developing massive hemoptysis. Multivariate analysis showed lung lesions range over 3 lung fields (OR = 2.447,P = 0

  10. Migrant tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jorgensen, Zaza; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Kok-Jensen, Axel;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Human migration caused by political unrest, wars and poverty is a major topic in international health. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis follow their host, with potential impact on both the migrants and the population in the recipient countries. In this study, we evaluate...... Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between the national population and migrants in Denmark. METHODS: Register study based on IS6110-RFLP results from nationwide genotyping of tuberculosis cases during 1992 through 2004. Cases with 100% identical genotypes were defined as clustered and part...

  11. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.

  13. Risco anual da infecção tuberculosa no Distrito Federal (Brasil The annual risk of tuberculosis infection in the Federal District (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Evangelista Kusano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o risco anual da infecção tuberculosa na população escolar e residente no Distrito Federal, em 1997. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com escolares das cidades de Ceilândia e Guará, no Distrito Federal. Foram estudadas 1.328 crianças. Para levantar a prevalência foi aplicado o modelo de ten Dam & Ritze e o risco anual, o método sugerido por Ruffino-Netto. O banco e a apuração dos dados foram executados utilizando-se o software Excel and SPSS 9.0. Na análise estatística, foram aplicados o teste do Qui-quadrado e o Intervalo de Confiança. Houve aprovação do estudo pela Comissão de Ética em Pesquisa e, foi solicitada dos responsáveis pelas crianças a assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. RESULTADOS: As proporções dos infectados e dos não-infectados pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis nas duas cidades não diferiam estatisticamente (chi2=3,8416. Verificou-se que as crianças residentes, com idade de oito anos, apresentavam uma prevalência de tuberculose de 3,3% e, um risco anual de 0,42%, em 1997. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontaram uma redução do RI no Distrito Federal. A partir dessas informações, a área pode ser caracterizada como sendo de média intensidade para a infecção tuberculosa e com tendência de melhora na situação.OBJECTIVE: To study the annual risk of tuberculosis infection among school age children resident in the Federal District, during 1997. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,328 eight-year-old students, living in the cities of Ceilândia and Guará, in the Federal District, utilizing the Dam & Ritze model to determine prevalence rates and the method suggested by Ruffino-Netto for the annual risk. The data collected was processed using Excel and SPSS 9.0 software. Statistical analysis included Confidence Intervals and Chi-squares. The study was approved by the Ethics Research Committee, which requested that the

  14. Risk of Unexpected Adverse Effects Resulting from the Use of a Skin Test with Recombinant Tuberculosis Allergen in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kryvohizh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews clinical cases, and their possible causes of unexpected local and systemic adverse effects associated with a novel skin test using recombinant tuberculosis allergen (RTA, Diaskintest in 2—11 years old children. This preparation consists of a M. tuberculosis ESAT6/CFP10 fusion protein produced in E. coli, and, in Russia, it has been used as a tool for preventive screening for tuberculosis since 2009. The most common side effects developed within 1 to 12 h after injection and were represented as local or non-life threatening systemic symptoms: fever up to 39°C lasting up to 24 h, painful excessive edema with reddening on the forearm, and, sometimes herpes-like blisters on the skin. In 72 h, the papula at the injection site was moderate, but the hyperemia around it was considerable. We argue that the most likely reason for this type of response could be the development of Type III hypersensitivity (associated with immune complexes, and/or antibody-independent anaphylactoid response to the ESAT6/CFP10 protein or contaminating bacterial culture components. To prevent possible side effects, we recommend to observe the patients for not less than 15 min after the injection of RTA, and to be ready to respond in case of anaphylaxis development.

  15. [Animal-derived feedstuffs as possible vectors for bovine encephalopathy (BSE) in Germany. Part 2: Assessment of vector risk for compounded feed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, J; Oberthür, R C; Kamphues, J; Kreienbrock, L; Flachowsky, G; Coenen, M

    2002-02-01

    Specific conditions and practices of cattle feeding in Germany have to be taken into account for assessing the risk of feed born transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, especially regarding the situation before the year 2000 when specific directives were introduced for feed production. The present retrospective epidemiological study includes data on feed production and the estimated amount of animal derived feedstuffs for the production of compounded feed for cattle. Risk assessment was performed based on the 'reproduction rate' (R0), that is defined as the estimated number of infections resulting from the processing of brain and spinal cord of BSE affected cattle that is recycled to bovines via feed. Under the conditions as given in Germany until the year 2000 the reproduction rate of BSE via the inclusion of animal derived feedstuffs in compounded feed production for cattle was estimated to be 1.1. Thus, it can be expected that BSE could be reproduced in the system, but with comparatively low efficiency. The expected incidence of BSE should be considerably lower compared to the situation during the 90th in the UK, due to the markedly lower recycling rate of animal protein in cattle feeding. Animal fat could have been a significant factor for BSE transmission due to contamination by proteinaceous brain and spinal cord material during the production process. The relative significance of fat containing feedstuffs for BSE transmission could have been higher in Germany compared to the situation in the UK where meat and bone meal was produced under different conditions and frequently used in higher proportions as an ingredient for compounded feed for ruminants.

  16. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther, G.; Leth, F. van; Alexandru, S.; Altet, N.; Avsar, K.; Bang, D.; Barbuta, R.; Bothamley, G.; Ciobanu, A.; Crudu, V.; Davilovits, M.; Dedicoat, M.; Duarte, R.; Gualano, G.; Kunst, H.; Lange, W. de; Leimane, V.; Magis-Escurra Ibanez, C.; McLaughlin, A.M.; Muylle, I.; Polcova, V.; Pontali, E.; Popa, C; Rumetshofer, R.; Skrahina, A.; Solodovnikova, V.; Spinu, V.; Tiberi, S.; Viiklepp, P.; Lange, C.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients with

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guenther, Gunar; van Leth, Frank; Alexandru, Sofia; Altet, Neus; Avsar, Korkut; Bang, Didi; Barbuta, Raisa; Bothamley, Graham; Ciobanu, Ana; Crudu, Valeriu; Danilovits, Manfred; Dedicoat, Martin; Duarte, Raquel; Gualano, Gina; Kunst, Heinke; de Lange, Wiel; Leimane, Vaira; Magis-Escurra, Cecile; McLaughlin, Anne-Marie; Muylle, Inge; Polcova, Veronika; Pontalli, Emanuele; Popa, Christina; Rumetshofer, Rudolf; Skrahina, Alena; Solodovnikova, Varvara; Spinu, Victor; Tiberi, Simon; Viiklepp, Piret; Lange, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients with

  18. Duration of anti-tuberculosis therapy and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation: association with mortality in HIV-related tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P Cortes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART decreases mortality risk in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, but the effect of the duration of anti-tuberculosis therapy and timing of anti-tuberculosis therapy initiation in relation to ART initiation on mortality, is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational multi-center cohort study among HIV-infected persons concomitantly treated with Rifamycin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy and ART in Latin America. The study population included persons for whom 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy is recommended. RESULTS: Of 253 patients who met inclusion criteria, median CD4+ lymphocyte count at ART initiation was 64 cells/mm(3, 171 (68% received >180 days of anti-tuberculosis therapy, 168 (66% initiated anti-tuberculosis therapy before ART, and 43 (17% died. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for CD4+ lymphocytes and HIV-1 RNA, tuberculosis diagnosed after ART initiation was associated with an increased risk of death compared to tuberculosis diagnosis before ART initiation (HR 2.40; 95% CI 1.15, 5.02; P = 0.02. In a separate model among patients surviving >6 months after tuberculosis diagnosis, after adjusting for CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV-1 RNA, and timing of ART initiation relative to tuberculosis diagnosis, receipt of >6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08, 0.66; P=0.007. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of death among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis after ART initiation highlights the importance of screening for tuberculosis before ART initiation. The decreased risk of death among persons receiving > 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy suggests that current anti-tuberculosis treatment duration guidelines should be re-evaluated.

  19. 75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and....aphis.usda.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alecia Naugle, Coordinator, National...

  20. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production.

  1. Double trouble: Prevalence and factors associated with tuberculosis and diabetes comorbidity in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Barua, M.; Guerra, F.; Saha, A.; Aftab, A.; Latif, A.H.M.; Islam, S.; Islam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes among tuberculosis patients increases the risk of tuberculosis treatment failure, death, and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Yet, there is no data is available in Bangladesh on the prevalence of diabetes among tuberculosis patients. The objective of the current

  2. Multifocal tuberculosis presenting with osteoarticular and breast involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ozlem

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyarticular involvement, wrist and ankle arthritis are uncommon presentation of skeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the breast is also extremely rare. Case Presentation Wrist, ankle and breast involvement were detected in the same patient. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from both synovial and breast biopsy specimen cultures. Conclusions In general, tuberculosis arthritis is a frequently missed diagnosis, especially in different clinical patterns. A high level of suspicion is required particularly in high-risk populations and endemic areas.

  3. Tuberculosis and Cardiovascular Disease: Linking the Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Henson, David; Ticona, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Garvy, Beth A

    The burden of tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is enormous worldwide. CVD rates are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Public health programs have been challenged with the overlapping tuberculosis and CVD epidemics. Monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes and cytokines involved in cellular mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also main drivers of atherogenesis, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of tuberculosis in CVD via mechanisms that have been described for other pathogens that establish chronic infection and latency. Studies have shown a pro-atherogenic effect of antibody-mediated responses against mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 through cross reaction with self-antigens in human vessels. Furthermore, subsets of mycobacteria actively replicate during latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and recent studies suggest that LTBI is associated with persistent chronic inflammation that may lead to CVD. Recent epidemiologic work has shown that the risk of CVD in persons who develop tuberculosis is higher than in persons without a history of tuberculosis, even several years after recovery from tuberculosis. Together, these data suggest that tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Further research to investigate a potential link between tuberculosis and CVD is warranted.

  4. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  5. Analsysis of frequency of tuberculosis in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škodrić-Trifunović Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smoking and tuberculosis are among the most important problems of public health. Smoking and tuberculosis are responsible for 5 million and 2 million deaths per year, respectively, whereas smoking is responsible for half a million deaths in patients with tuberculosis. Discussion and Review of Literature. Nicotine is a significant suppressor of function of macrophages, dendritic cells and T-cells, which explains the immunosuppressive features of smoking that help develop the infection. Tobacco smoke contains many substances with immunomodulatory effects, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, peroxynitrite and many others. The dominant immune and pathophysiological mechanism is the reduction of synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in lung macrophages, leading to increased susceptibility of persons who are exposed to tobacco smoke for developing active tuberculosis after infection and increased susceptibility to the development of other infections, such as infections of Gram-negative bacteria. Based on epidemiological studies and studies on this problem in the past 50 years, the World Health Organization has published the finding that smoking increases the risk of infection with M. tuberculosis, increases the risk of progression of infection to active disease and the risk of death. The prevalence of tuberculosis is higher in smokers and former smokers than in nonsmokers. The risk of tuberculosis depends on the number of cigarettes smoked and length of period the person has been a smoker. Passive smoking accelerates the development of active tuberculosis. in children who live with persons suffering from active tuberculosis, Conclusion. Given the multiple consequences of the association between smoking and tuberculosis, prevention of smoking may be an important measure in the control of tuberculosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046 i br. 175081

  6. Different Risk of Tuberculosis and Efficacy of Isoniazid Prophylaxis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Biologic Therapy: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Ling Liao

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients receiving biologic therapy, and the effectiveness of isoniazid prophylaxis (INHP in TB prevention. We aimed to examine 1 the incidence rate (IR and risk factors for TB among RA patients receiving different therapies; 2 INHP effectiveness for TB prevention; 3 mortality rates after TB diagnosis in patients receiving different therapies. This retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database: 168,720 non-RA subjects and a total of 42,180 RA patients including 36,162 csDMARDs-exposed, 3,577 etanercept-exposed, 1,678 adalimumab-exposed and 763 rituximab-exposed patients. TB risk was 2.7-fold higher in RA cohort compared with non-RA group, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of 2.58. Advanced age, male, the use of corticosteroids ≧ 5 mg/day, and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease were risk factors for developing TB. Using csDMARDs-exposed group as reference, aHR of TB was the highest with adalimumab treatment (1.52, followed by etanercept (1.16, and the lowest with rituximab (0.08. INHP could effectively reduce TB risk in biologics-exposed patients. Mortality rates after TB diagnosis were higher in RA patients, particularly the elderly and those with DM, with lower rates in adalimumab-exposed patients compared with csDMARDs-exposed patients. In conclusion, TB risk was increased in patients receiving TNF-α inhibitors, but the risk associated with rituximab therapy was relatively low. With the effectiveness of INHP shown in the prevention of biologics-associated TB, stricter implementation of INHP should be beneficial. The mortality from biologics-associated TB may be efficiently reduced through increased awareness.

  7. The Risk of Tuberculosis Reinfection Soon after Cure of a First Disease Episode Is Extremely High in a Hyperendemic Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Uys

    Full Text Available Elevated rates of reinfection tuberculosis in various hyperendemic regions have been reported and, in particular, it has been shown that in a high-incidence setting near Cape Town, South Africa, the rate of reinfection tuberculosis (TB disease after cure of a previous TB disease episode is about four times greater than the rate of first-time TB disease. It is not known whether this elevated rate is caused by a high reinfection rate due, for instance, to living circumstances, or a high rate of progress to disease specific to the patients, or both. In order to address that question we analysed an extensive data set from clinics attended by TB patients in the high-incidence setting near Cape Town, South Africa and found that, in fact, the (average rate of reinfection (as opposed to the rate of reinfection disease after cure of a previous TB disease episode is initially about 0.85 per annum. This rate diminishes rapidly over time and after about ten years this rate is similar to the rate of infection in the general population. Also, the rate of progress to disease after reinfection is initially high but declines in subsequent years down to the figure typical for the general population. These findings suggest that the first few months after cure of a TB disease episode form a critical period for controlling reinfection disease in a hyperendemic setting and that monitoring such cured patients could pre-empt a reinfection progressing to active disease.

  8. Association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with risk of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis of 15 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jiao Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in vitamin D receptor (VDR may contribute to tuberculosis (TB risk. Many studies have investigated the association between VDR BsmI gene polymorphism and TB risk, but yielded inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 15 publications with a total of 2309 cases and 3568 controls. We assessed the strength of the association between VDR BsmI gene polymorphism and TB risk and performed sub-group analyses by ethnicity, sample size and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE. We found a statistically significant correlation between VDR BsmI gene polymorphism and decreased TB risk in four comparison models: allele model (b vs. B: OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67, 0.89; Pheterogeneity = 0.004, homozygote model (bb vs. BB: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.87; Pheterogeneity = 0.001, recessive model (bb vs. Bb+BB: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.88; Pheterogeneity = 0.005 and dominant model (bb+Bb vs. BB: OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.97; Pheterogeneity = 0.010, especially in studies based on Asian population. Sub-group analyses also revealed that there was a statistically decreased TB risk in "small" studies (0.5. Meta-regression and stratification analysis both showed that the ethnicity and sample size contributed to heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that VDR BsmI gene polymorphism is associated with a significant decreased TB risk, especially in Asian population.

  9. The association between smoking and tuberculosis La asociación entre tabaquismo y tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Hassmiller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological evidence on the association between smoking and tuberculosis. METHODS: Reviewed articles were identified by searching Pubmed for the terms "smoking" or "tobacco" and "tuberculosis". Additional articles were obtained from the bibliographies of identified papers. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were reviewed: five investigate the association between smoking and mortality from tuberculosis, 13 investigate the association between smoking and development of tuberculosis, eigth investigate the association between smoking and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nine estimate the impact of smoking on characteristics of tuberculosis and disease outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, evidence suggests that smoking (both current and former is associated with: risk of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk of developing tuberculosis, development of more severe forms of tuberculosis, and risk of dying of tuberculosis. In many cases, there is a strong dose-response relationship -both in terms of quantity and duration of smoking. These relationships are not explained away by controlling for potentially confounding variables such as age, gender, alcohol consumption, and HIV status.OBJETIVO: Revisar evidencia epidemiológica relativa a la asociación entre el tabaquismo y la tuberculosis. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se identificaron artículos de revisión mediante la búsqueda en Pubmed de los términos "tabaquismo", "tabaco" y "tuberculosis". Se obtuvieron artículos adicionales de las bibliografías de los trabajos identificados. RESULTADOS: Se revisaron 34 estudios: cinco investigan la asociación entre tabaquismo y mortalidad a partir de la tuberculosis; 13, la asociación entre tabaquismo y el desarrollo de tuberculosis; ocho, la asociación entre tabaquismo y la infección con Mycobacterium tuberculosis; y nueve estiman el impacto del tabaquismo en las características de la tuberculosis y las

  10. [Extrapulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza-Stalder, J; Nicod, L; Janssens, J-P

    2012-04-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis represents an increasing proportion of all cases of tuberculosis reaching 20 to 40% according to published reports. Extrapulmonary TB is found in a higher proportion of women, black people and immunosuppressed individuals. A significant proportion of cases have a normal chest X-Ray at the time of diagnosis. The most frequent clinical presentations are lymphadenitis, pleuritis and osteoarticular TB. Peritoneal, urogenital or meningeal tuberculosis are less frequent, and their diagnosis is often difficult due to the often wide differential diagnosis and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests including cultures and genetic amplification tests. The key clinical elements are reported and for each form the diagnostic yield of available tests. International therapeutic recommendations and practical issues are reviewed according to clinical presentation.

  11. 安徽省耐多药肺结核危险因素病例对照研究%Risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Anhui Province: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余述凤; 梅晓冬; 阚晓宏; 方雪晖; 包训迪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Anhui Province.Methods 83 patients with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and 98 cured patients with non drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were collected and analyzed with case-control study.Results Rural residence,junior high school education level and below,less family month income,migrant work,smoking,experience of adverse reactions of anti-tuberculosis drugs,history of repeated tuberculosis treatment,history of discontinuation or temporary interruption of anti-tuberculosis therapy,lung X ray image with multiple lesions or cavities when tuberculosis was diagnosed,and once first treatment failure were risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (all P < 0.05);equipped with tuberculosis knowledge or related medication taking principle popularization and sleeping time > 7 hours were protective factors (all P < 0.05).Conclusions The risk factors of multidrug-resistance tuberculosis in Anhui Province are various.Adequate tuberculosis education and sufficient sleep might be beneficial to the disease.%目的 探讨安徽省耐多药肺结核的危险因素.方法 采用病例对照研究方法,病例组为83名耐多药肺结核病人,对照组为98名已治愈的非耐药肺结核病人,以问卷调查形式收集资料.结果 居住地为农村、文化程度为初中及以下、家庭人均月收入少、外出务工、吸烟、服用抗结核药物产生不良反应、既往抗肺结核治疗次数多、既往有某个疗程中暂时停药或暂时中断治疗、首次确诊时X线检查肺内病灶多、空洞多、首次抗结核治疗效果未治愈都是耐多药肺结核的危险因素(均有P<0.05);病人接受过结核病知识以及治疗过程中有关服药原则的宣传和教育、>7h的睡眠时间是耐多药肺结核的保护因素(均有P<0.05).结论 导致安徽省耐多药肺结核发生的危险因素较多,适当的宣传教育和充

  12. Psoriatic Disease and Tuberculosis Nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Balato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin and joint disease that has a prevalence of 2-3% in the world’s population, whereas of 1–2% in Europe. The traditional concept of psoriasis as the “healthy people’s” disease has been recently revised because of ever-increasing reports of associations with various pathological conditions (hypertension, Crohn’s disease, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infectious conditions. Particularly, advances in psoriasis therapies have introduced biologic agents. All the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of developing active disease in patients with latent tuberculosis infection, because of TNF-α key role against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For this reason, exclusion of active tuberculosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection are clinical imperatives prior to starting this therapy. Moreover active surveillance for a history of untreated or partially treated tuberculosis or latent form has already been shown to be effective in reducing the number of incident tuberculosis cases.

  13. Psoriatic disease and tuberculosis nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin and joint disease that has a prevalence of 2-3% in the world's population, whereas of 1-2% in Europe. The traditional concept of psoriasis as the "healthy people's" disease has been recently revised because of ever-increasing reports of associations with various pathological conditions (hypertension, Crohn's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infectious conditions). Particularly, advances in psoriasis therapies have introduced biologic agents. All the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of developing active disease in patients with latent tuberculosis infection, because of TNF-α key role against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For this reason, exclusion of active tuberculosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection are clinical imperatives prior to starting this therapy. Moreover active surveillance for a history of untreated or partially treated tuberculosis or latent form has already been shown to be effective in reducing the number of incident tuberculosis cases.

  14. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services

    OpenAIRE

    Riza, Anca Lelia; Pearson, Fiona; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van de Vijver, Steven; Panduru, Nicolae M; Hill, Philip C; Ruslami, Rovina; Moore, David; Aarnoutse, Rob; Critchley, Julia A.; van Crevel, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management o...

  15. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...

  16. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  17. Bovine and Caprine Brucellosis in Bangladesh: Bayesian evaluation of four serological tests, true prevalence, and associated risk factors in household animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Md Shamim; Rahman, Md Siddiqur; Rahman, A K M Anisur; Berkvens, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the true prevalence of Brucella spp. and identify allied risk factors/indicators associated with brucellosis in the Dinajpur and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh. A total 320 stratified random blood samples were collected and tested in parallel for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal (RBT), slow agglutination (SAT), and indirect and competitive ELISA. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to each household herd owner to gather information regarding potential risk factors. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential risk factors or indicators at animal level. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of brucellosis along with the test performances (Se and Sp). The estimated animal level true prevalence in cattle was 9.70 % (95 % CPI 5.0-16 %) and in goat 6.3 % (95 % CPI 2.8-11.0 %). The highest sensitivity was achieved by SAT ranges from 69.6 to 78.9 %, and iELISA was found to be more specific (97.4 to 98.8 %) in comparison with other tests. On the other hand, a significant level of (P Brucella seropositivity was found in cattle that breed naturally compared with those that undergo artificial insemination. In goats, exotic breeds were significantly associated (P Brucella seroprevalence compared with indigenous breeds. Goats with a previous records of abortion and/or retained placenta were also found to have significant levels (P < 0.05). Cows with previous abortion records showed higher odds (18 times) of being seropositive. None of the evaluated tests can be recommended to apply alone for the diagnosis of bovine and caprine brucellosis.

  18. Mycobacterial factors relevant for transmission of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hof, S. van den; Deutekom, H. van; Hermans, P.W.M.; Kremer, K.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Soolingen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is associated with patient-related risk factors. However, DNA fingerprint analysis has provided anecdotal evidence suggesting a role for bacteriological factors. METHODS: To examine the importance of the bacteriological component in TB transmission, we inve

  19. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Spinal Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Han-Lim; Kim, Dong-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Even in an era of remarkable medical advances, there is an issue of why tuberculosis remains in the list of disastrous diseases, afflicting humans and causing suffering. There has not been a plausible answer to this, and it has been suggested that clinicians and medical scientists could presently not win the war against the tubercle bacilli. With regards to this issue, based on the authors' own clinical and research experiences, in this review, the available literature was revisited in order to address the raised questions and to provide recent information on characteristics of tubercle bacilli and possible ways to more effectively treat tuberculosis. PMID:28243382

  20. Perfil de sensibilidade e fatores de risco associados à resistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis, em centro de referência de doenças infecto-contagiosas de Minas Gerais Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a referral center for infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: sensitivity profile and related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz de Souza

    2006-10-01

    . tuberculosis, corresponding to 313 patients, were submitted to susceptibility tests at the Central Laboratory of Minas Gerais. Cases presenting resistance to at least rifampin and isoniazid were classified as cases of multidrug resistance and were selected for study. These cases were paired to control group cases of drug-susceptible tuberculosis at a ratio of 1:3. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: During the study period, 12 (3.83% cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were identified. In the univariate analysis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was found to be more common among male patients, as well as among those testing positive in the sputum smear microscopy, those with cavitations larger than 4 cm in diameter and those having been previously treated for tuberculosis (p = 0.10 for all. After the multivariate analysis, only previous treatment for tuberculosis remained statistically significant (p = 0.0374, with an odds ratio of 14.36 (1.96-176.46. CONCLUSION: In the present study, previous treatment for tuberculosis was found to be an independent risk factor for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  1. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charlotte A.; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods. This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results. Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7–27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4+ cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions. The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  2. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Larry G; Hostrup-Pedersen, Julie

    2004-04-30

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used three different levels of impurities, six different distributions of the BSE infectivity titers of CNS tissues and with and without inclusion of specified risk material (SRM). Our results suggest that tallow-based CMR could have been responsible for some BSE infections in nearly all simulations. The reduction in the allowable impurities in tallow and the exclusion of SRM have greatly reduced--but have not eliminated--the risk of BSE transmission by CMR The results of the simulations are associated with much uncertainty.

  3. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used...... three different levels of impurities, six different distributions of the BSE infectivity titers of CNS tissues and with and without inclusion of specified risk material (SRM). Our results suggest that tallow-based CMR could have been responsible for some BSE infections in nearly all simulations....... The reduction in the allowable impurities in tallow and the exclusion of SRM have greatly reduced-but have not eliminated-the risk of BSE transmission by CMR The results of the simulations are associated with much uncertainty....

  4. Mathematical model for transmission of tuberculosis in badger population with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Badger was first time identified as a carrier of Bovine tuberculosis disease in England since 30 years ago. Bovine tuberculosis can be transmitted to another species through the faces, saliva, and breath. The control of tuberculosis in the badger is necessary to reduce the spread of the disease to other species. Many actions have been taken by the government to tackle the disease such as culling badgers with cyanide gas, but this way destroys the natural balance and disrupts the badger population. An alternative way to eliminate tuberculosis within badger population is by vaccination. Here in this paper a model for transmission of badger tuberculosis with vaccination is discussed. The existence of the endemic equilibrium, the stability and the basic reproduction ratio are shown analytically. Numerical simulations show that with proper vaccination level, the basic reproduction ratio could be reduced significantly. Sensitivity analysis for variation of parameters are shown numerically.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm. PMID:26543108

  6. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China.

  7. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Gunar; van Leth, Frank; Alexandru, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients...... with non-MDR TB were enrolled at 23 centers in 16 countries in Europe during 2010-2011. A total of 52.4% of MDR TB patients had never been treated for TB, which suggests primary transmission of MDR M. tuberculosis. At initiation of treatment for MDR TB, 59.7% of M. tuberculosis strains tested were...

  8. Fatores de risco hospitalar para implante de bioprótese valvar de pericárdio bovino Hospital risk factors for bovine pericardial bioprosthesis valve implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus W. De Bacco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Identificação de fatores de risco pré-operatórios na cirurgia cardíaca valvar visa melhor resultado cirúrgico pela possível neutralização de condições relacionadas com morbi-mortalidade aumentada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetiva identificar fatores de risco hospitalar em pacientes submetidos a implante de bioprótese de pericárdio bovino. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 703 pacientes consecutivos submetidos a implante de pelo menos uma bioprótese de pericárdio bovino St. Jude Medical-Biocor® de setembro de 1991 a dezembro de 2005 no Instituto de Cardiologia do RS, sendo 392 aórticos, 250 mitrais e 61 mitro-aórticos. Analisadas as características sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal, classe funcional (New York Heart Association - NYHA, fração de ejeção, lesão valvar, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, diabete melito, função renal, arritmias cardíacas, cirurgia cardíaca prévia, revascularização miocárdica, plastia tricúspide e caráter eletivo, de urgência ou de emergência da cirurgia. Desfecho primordial foi mortalidade hospitalar. Utilizou-se regressão logística para examinar relação entre fatores de risco e mortalidade hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 101 (14,3% óbitos hospitalares. Características significativamente relacionadas à mortalidade aumentada foram sexo feminino (p 2,4mg/dl (p=0,004, classe funcional IV (pBACKGROUND: Identification of preoperative heart valve surgery risk factors aim to improve surgical outcomes with the possibility to offset conditions related to increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Intent of this study is to identify hospital risk factors in patients undergoing bovine pericardial bioprosthesis implantation. METHODS: Retrospective study including 703 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of at least one St. Jude Medical-Biocor™ bovine pericardial bioprosthesis between September 1991 and December 2005 at the Rio Grande do Sul

  9. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Jahromi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of infection-related death worldwide. Children represent 5 to 15% of all TB cases around the world and are more frequently infected and more easily affected by the most severe forms of the disease such as meningitis and disseminated form .Here, we reviewed TB in children with impact on the routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, treatment, control, and prophylaxis. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched from June1995 to May 2014 by using key words (pulmonaryTB,epidemiology,transmission,clinical manifestations,treatment,control, and prophylaxis . Pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest in several forms, including endobronchial TB with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease . Symptoms of primary pulmonary disease in the pediatric population are often insignificant. Gastric aspirates are used instead of sputum in children younger than 6 years. BCG vaccination is used in many parts of the world and the major role of vaccination is the prevention of life-threatening illness such as disseminated TB and meningitis in children.Treatment is the same as for adults. Most people infected with M .tuberculosis do not develop active disease. In healthy individuals, the lifetime risk of developing infection to disease is 5-10%. Reactivation of TB often occurs in older children and adolescent and is more common in patients who acquire TB at age 7 years and older.

  10. [Clinical presentation of tuberculosis in routine practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinser, R; Frerix, M; Müller-Ladner, U

    2012-10-01

    Since the beginning of the biologics era tuberculosis is known to be a potential life-threatening complication during treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases. National and international societies have developed recommendations for tuberculosis screening and treatment of patients at risk for development of tuberculosis. Owing to the relative rareness of overt tuberculosis in patients with rheumatic diseases, the experience of individual rheumatologists with this complication is limited. Therefore, we have analyzed the tuberculosis cases from 2006-2011 in our rheumatology referral center (treating more than 1,500 inpatient and 8,000 outpatient cases every year) to obtain a real-life picture more than 10 years after initiation of the first application of biologics outside of controlled clinical trials. We identified 4 cases that illustrate the difficulties of diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Mathematical Models of Tuberculosis Reactivation and Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steven Wallis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is highly variable, as is the response to treatment of active tuberculosis. There is presently no direct means to identify individuals in whom Mtb infection has been eradicated, whether by a bactericidal immune response or sterilizing antimicrobial chemotherapy. Mathematical models can assist in such circumstances by measuring or predicting events that cannot be directly observed. The 3 models discussed in this review illustrate instances in which mathematical models were used to identify individuals with innate resistance to Mtb infection, determine the etiology of tuberculosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists, and predict the risk of relapse in persons undergoing tuberculosis treatment. These examples illustrate the power of various types of mathematic models to increase knowledge and thereby inform interventions in the present global tuberculosis epidemic.

  12. Leprosy and tuberculosis: an insight-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahziba

    2007-01-01

    A quick glance at this review article provides an insight into the common and different features of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis and the diseases caused by these organisms. Table I provides the popular names, history, stigma, description of the disease, clinical features, classification and the types of disease manifestations, who are affected, Signs and Symptoms, Clinical examination, treatment regimens, reactions, relapses, immunity, infectiousness, risk groups, deformities, sequelae, transmission, prevention, complications, vaccination, laboratory studies, days of importance for both the diseases. Table II provides information regarding the causative organisms, M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their size, genome, protein coding region, lost genes, pseudogenes, classification, predilection, incubation period, ecology, cell structure, metabolism, resistance, bacterial index, growth in vitro, experimental animals, etc. Table III provides figures of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their genome, Lepromin and Tuberculin testing, Global scenario, Indian scenario, colonies of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, drugs for treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy (MDT blister pack), and so on.

  13. Tuberculosis ocular

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspec...

  14. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  15. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruk, Alexey; Bannister, Wendy; Podlekareva, Daria;

    2011-01-01

    To describe temporal changes in the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) among HIV-positive patients in western Europe and risk factors of TB across Europe.......To describe temporal changes in the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) among HIV-positive patients in western Europe and risk factors of TB across Europe....

  16. Assessing the risk of bovine fasciolosis using linear regression analysis for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Elisa Pereira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2016-02-15

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a disease that triggers a chronic inflammatory process in the liver affecting mainly ruminants and other animals including humans. In Brazil, F. hepatica occurs in larger numbers in the most Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to estimate areas at risk using an eight-year (2002-2010) time series of climatic and environmental variables that best relate to the disease using a linear regression method to municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The positivity index of the disease, which is the rate of infected animal per slaughtered animal, was divided into three risk classes: low, medium and high. The accuracy of the known sample classification on the confusion matrix for the low, medium and high rates produced by the estimated model presented values between 39 and 88% depending of the year. The regression analysis showed the importance of the time-based data for the construction of the model, considering the two variables of the previous year of the event (positivity index and maximum temperature). The generated data is important for epidemiological and parasite control studies mainly because F. hepatica is an infection that can last from months to years.

  17. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis Print A A A What's in this article? ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...

  18. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis A A A What's in this article? Signs ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...

  19. Gallbladder tuberculosis: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 刘奕青

    2002-01-01

    @@ Abdominal tuberculosis is common in developing countries, but gallbladder involvement is extremely rare. The diagnosis of gallbladder tuberculosis is often not suspected prior to surgery or biopsy.This paper describes the CT and ultrasonographic features of gallbladder tuberculosis in a 35-year-old patient and reviews the literature of gallbladder tuberculosis.

  20. Systems-based approaches to probing metabolic variation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Lofthouse

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes bovine and human strains of the tuberculosis bacillus, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain. M. bovis has evolved from a M. tuberculosis-like ancestor and is the ancestor of the BCG vaccine. The pathogens demonstrate distinct differences in virulence, host range and metabolism, but the role of metabolic differences in pathogenicity is poorly understood. Systems biology approaches have been used to investigate the metabolism of M. tuberculosis, but not to probe differences between tuberculosis strains. In this study genome scale metabolic networks of M. bovis and M. bovis BCG were constructed and interrogated, along with a M. tuberculosis network, to predict substrate utilisation, gene essentiality and growth rates. The models correctly predicted 87-88% of high-throughput phenotype data, 75-76% of gene essentiality data and in silico-predicted growth rates matched measured rates. However, analysis of the metabolic networks identified discrepancies between in silico predictions and in vitro data, highlighting areas of incomplete metabolic knowledge. Additional experimental studies carried out to probe these inconsistencies revealed novel insights into the metabolism of these strains. For instance, that the reduction in metabolic capability observed in bovine tuberculosis strains, as compared to M. tuberculosis, is not reflected by current genetic or enzymatic knowledge. Hence, the in silico networks not only successfully simulate many aspects of the growth and physiology of these mycobacteria, but also provide an invaluable tool for future metabolic studies.

  1. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  3. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  4. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  5. Systematic meta-analysis of the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 -2518A/G polymorphism and risk of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G; Li, X; Li, H; Wang, X; Cheng, B

    2015-05-25

    Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the association between 2518A/G polymorphisms in the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene and the risk of tuberculosis (TB). However, the results have been inconsistent and inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the MCP-1 -2518A/G polymorphism and TB. The National Center for Biotechnology Information Global Cross Database and Google Scholar database were searched for relative studies. A total of 22 case-control studies that included 7332 cases and 8004 controls for the -2518A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism were identified. The results revealed an association between the MCP-1 -2518A/G polymorphism and human TB susceptibility under a recessive model (GG vs GA+AA), dominant model (GG+GA vs AA), and homozygote comparison (GG vs AA) model for the entire database. For the dominant model, the overall odds ratio was 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.64, P = 0.004). For the recessive model, the overall odds ratio was 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.15- 1.86, P = 0.002). For the homozygote comparison, the overall odds ratio was 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.32, P = 0.002). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly elevated risks were found in Asians and Americans, but not in Africans and Europeans. We also used the Begg and Egger tests to examine publication bias, and no major publication bias was detected. Our results indicate that there is an association between the MCP-1 -2518A/G polymorphism and human TB susceptibility.

  6. 影响肺结核密切接触者发病的因素分析%A case-control study on risk factors of tuberculosis close contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜正新; 罗少霞; 何凯立; 谭青云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of tuberculosis close contact and provide scientific clues for tuberculosis prevention.Methods 289 tuberculosis patients as cases and 595 disease-free as controls,were selected according to registered data and follow-up system of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their close contacts in our hospital from 2011 to 2013.Results Univariate analysis demonstrated that factors such as history of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination,housing ventilation,interior hygiene,meat and eggs consumption,smoke,history of chronic bronchitis or diabetes,working hours per day,and the work environment conditions had significant association with pulmonary tuberculosis.Furthermore,multivariate logistic analysis showed that smoke,history of chronic bronchitis or diabetes and working hours ≥ 12 per day offered an adverse role on tuberculosis risk,while history of BCG vaccination,favorable housing ventilation or work environment,and meat and eggs consumption (>4 times/week) contributed an protective effect on tuberculosis.Conclusion Tuberculosis incidence of close contacts were closely related to their personal health quality,and their living and working environment.Individual giving-up smoking education should be strengthened,and improving environmental ventilation and health in housing and public places could be effective for pulmonary tuberculosis prevention and control.%目的 探讨肺结核密切接触者患病的相关危险因素,为高危人群的结核病防治提供科学依据.方法 对越秀区2011年至2013年涂阳肺结核患者及其密切接触者登记随访的资料中选取符合条件的密切接触者发病患者289例为病例组,未发病者595例为对照组;分析影响其发病的相关因素.结果 单因素logistic回归分析显示卡介苗接种史、住房通风情况、室内卫生情况、食用肉蛋类、吸烟、慢性支气管炎病史、糖尿病史、每天工作时间及工作环

  7. Quantification of the relative efficiency of factory surveillance in the disclosure of tuberculosis lesions in attested Irish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, K; White, P W; O'Keeffe, J; Costello, E; Martin, S W; van Grevenhof, I; More, S J

    2007-11-17

    In Ireland, factory surveillance of cattle for gross lesions is an important supplementary method for detecting herds infected with bovine tuberculosis (tb), and in recent years between 27 and 46 per cent of all new herd breakdowns in any year have been detected by this method. The aim of this study was to determine the relative efficiency of factories in detecting lesions among attested cattle slaughtered during 2003 and 2004. National databases were available on animal slaughter, programmes of tuberculin testing for bovine tb and laboratory confirmation of suspected lesions. Factories were ranked according to their submission risk (number of animals submitted with lesions/number of attested animals killed) and confirmation risk (number of animals with laboratory-confirmed lesions/number of animals submitted with lesions), adjusting for the risk profile of the animals slaughtered, including potential confounding factors such as their age and sex, whether they were purchased or homebred, the test history of their herd, the prevalence of bovine tb in the area and the season of slaughter. Approximately 3.7 million cattle were slaughtered in 42 Irish export-licensed factories during the two years. Complete data were available for 2,374,987 animals from 84,510 attested herds in 2845 District Electoral Divisions. Samples from 7398 animals with suspected tb lesions were submitted for laboratory examination; 4767 (64.4 per cent) were positive, 2011 were negative and 620 were inconclusive. The average unadjusted submission risk for all the factories was 22 per 10,000, ranging from 0 to 58 per 10,000. The unadjusted factory confirmation risk (excluding factories that had sent in fewer than 10 lesions) varied between 34.3 per cent and 86.3 per cent. The unadjusted and adjusted submission and confirmation risks were highly correlated, and animal-related factors (including their characteristics and origin) therefore did not contribute to the variations in factory

  8. Study on some risk factors and effects of bovine ketosis on dairy cows from the Galicia region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, C; Fouz, R; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2016-04-14

    The study was designed to determine the relation between β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in milk from dairy cows after calving and the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized production, and to assess the influence of BHB concentrations on culling and test-day milk productions and somatic cell counts (SCC) throughout the lactation that followed the BHB measurement. The data used in the study were obtained from 59 187 cows in the Galicia region (Spain). BHB determination was performed using Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry from the milk samples collected from each cow on the first post-partum test day. For statistical analysis, the following methods were applied: (i) ordinal regression to assess the effect of the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized milk production on milk BHB, (ii) a Cox model to estimate the influence of the BHB concentration on risk of culling (overall and for a variety of reasons) and (iii) linear regression to assess the link between BHB and the milk yield and SCC obtained from each of the tests day performed throughout lactation. The probability of having higher BHB concentrations increased when the length of the previous lactation (p = 0.006), the dry period (p = 0.003) and the 305-day normalized milk yield (p = 0.005) increased. However, the slight increase observed (especially for the case of the dry period and the 305-day milk yield) would not justify that measures be implemented to reduce these traits. Higher concentrations of BHB led to an increased risk of culling due to 'death' (p ≤ 0.001) and 'urgent slaughter' (p ≤ 0.002) (both causes of involuntary culling). It also led to a reduction in milk production (p < 0.001) and an increase in SCC (p < 0.001) in the post-partum; from that moment onward (including peak lactation), there were no differences in those two parameters depending on the BHB levels.

  9. Risk factors for differential outcome following directly observed treatment (DOT) of slum and non-slum tuberculosis patients: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Robert E.; Marlow, Mariel A; Phuphanich, Melissa E; Lee W Riley; Maciel,Ethel Leonor Noia

    2016-01-01

    Brazil’s National Tuberculosis Control Program seeks to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment in vulnerable populations. Slum residents are more vulnerable to TB due to a variety of factors, including their overcrowded living conditions, substandard infrastructure, and limited access to healthcare compared to their non-slum dwelling counterparts. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been suggested to improve TB treatment outcomes among vulnerable populations, but the program’s differential eff...

  10. Validation of a real-time PCR assay for the molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Mariana L; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Orzil, Lívia; Alencar, Andrea Padilha; Silva, Marcio Roberto; Issa, Marina Azevedo; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of tuberculosis in humans. This bacillus gained prominence with the occurrence of HIV, presenting itself as an important opportunistic infection associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The current study aimed to develop a real-time PCR using Eva Green technology for molecular identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. The primers were designed to Rv1510 gene. Ninety nine samples of M. tuberculosis and sixty samples of M. bovis were tested and no sample of the bovine bacillus was detected by the qPCR. Statistical tests showed no difference between the qPCR and biochemical tests used to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The correlation between tests was perfect with Kappa index of 1.0 (p tuberculosis in samples of bacterial suspension. TB reference laboratories (health and agriculture sectors), public health programs and epidemiological studies probably may benefit from such method.

  11. Prevalencia y riesgo anual de infección por tuberculosis en la población escolar de 7 años de edad de Ceuta Prevalence and annual risk of tuberculosis infection in the school population aged 7 years old in Ceuta (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Sánchez Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de la infección tuberculosa y el riesgo anual de infección en la población escolar de Ceuta. Método: Estudio transversal. Se realizó la prueba de la tuberculina (2UT RT-23 Tween 80 a los niños de 7 años de edad escolarizados en Ceuta en 2008. Se consideraron positivos los niños no vacunados con una induración >5mm a las 72 horas. Resultados: Se estudiaron 612 niños. La prevalencia de la infección fue del 0,98% (intervalo de confianza del 95%, margen de error del 2,5%. Su distribución mostró diferencias entre las tres zonas de salud, y fue mayor en las zonas más deprimidas, donde llegó al 2,07%. El riesgo anual de infección fue del 0,15%. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de la infección es de las más altas de España, según los últimos estudios realizados. Los resultados no se corresponden con los datos epidemiológicos de tuberculosis de Ceuta, al tener en cuenta los casos importados.Objective: To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis infection and annual risk of infection in the school population of Ceuta. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A tuberculin test (2UT RT-23 Tween 80 was given to 7-year-old schoolchildren in Ceuta in 2008. A positive result was considered as an induration of >5mm at 72hours in unvaccinated children. Results: A total of 612 children were studied. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection was 0.98% (95% confidence interval with a 2.5% margin of error. The distribution showed differences among three health areas, and was greatest in the most deprived area (2.07%. The annual risk of infection was 0.15%. Conclusions According to the most recent studies, the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in Ceuta is one of the highest of Spain. Our results do not agree with the epidemiological data for tuberculosis in Ceuta, which also includes imported cases.

  12. Risk factors of tuberculosis among college students in Changsha: A case-control study%长沙市高校学生肺结核发病危险因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋萍; 陈田木; 赵衡文; 付志勇; 吴英

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨长沙市高校学生肺结核发病的危险因素,为高校肺结核防控工作提供科学参考.方法 采用频数匹配的病例对照研究,病例组为长沙市高校2010-2011年期间疾控机构或定点医院确诊的学生肺结核病例116例,在病例所在的学校选择232名非肺结核学生为对照组.采用自制调查问卷进行一对一的面谈.结果 单因素分析显示,与高校学生肺结核发病有关联的因素有性别、民族、卡介苗接种史、BMI、肺结核病人接触史、参加集体活动频率、患有其他疾病、生活费.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,男性、未接种卡介苗、体重过低、有肺结核病人接触史、参加集体活动频率较低、生活费少可增加高校学生肺结核发病的风险.结论 影响高校学生肺结核发病的因素较多.应采取针对性的防控策略,多角度、多方法地控制高校学生肺结核的发生.%Objective To explore the high risk factors of tuberculosis among college students in Changsha,and to provide basic information for tuberculosis control.Methods Data were collected by face-to-face interview about general information among 116 college students infected tuberculosis diagnosed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 2010 to 2011 and matched 232 non-tuberculosis students from the same colleges.Results Univariate analysis showed that gender,nationality,BCG vaccination history,BMI,tuberculosis exposure,frequency of participate in group activities,comorbid diseases,and living expenses were factors associated with tuberculosis among college students.Multivariate Logistic regression showed that being male(OR =2.251,95 % CI =1.246-4.065),no BCG vaccination (OR =2.374,95 % CI =1.177-4.788),low weight (OR =2.969,95 % CI =1.582-5.569),history of contacting TB patients (OR =37.229,95 % CI=3.899-355.444),low frequency of participate in group activities (OR =4.046,95 % CI =2.476-6.612),low living

  13. Farm-level risk factors for the occurrence, new infection or persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds from South-Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, B; Barasona, J A; Gortázar, C; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Vicente, J

    2014-10-01

    Eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle is a priority in the EU. However, and despite the resources invested, TB eradication is still a goal yet to be accomplished. As a consequence, the identification of risk factors contributing to TB transmission and persistence is key to a better understand and, ultimately, more cost-effectively control and eradicate this complex zoonotic disease worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to the TB occurrence, new infection, and persistence in one of the most TB-prevalent regions in the South-Central part of Spain (SCS), Ciudad Real (CR), and for which high quality and detailed information on cattle and wild ungulate demographics, management, and sanitary status was available for up to 5 years (2007-2011). Multilevel logistic modeling was used for this purpose. Results of this study revealed that the risk for TB (occurrence, new infection, and/or persistence) in cattle herds from CR is related to TB-persistence on farm in previous years, extensive production systems (beef and bullfighting being more risky that dairy) and large farm in terms of cattle number. Also, the presence and proximity of fenced hunting estates (which are usually intensively managed) significantly contributed to the risk of TB occurrence and persistence in CR. This association suggests that wild ungulates may play a role as TB-reservoirs and transmit TB to cattle in the CR, a region where TB is endemic and is associated with extensive farming of beef cattle. To the best of author's knowledge this is the first study to (i) evaluate the wild ungulate-domestic interface at a farm level using detailed information over an extensive region and period of time (2007-2011) and (ii) to identify a direct association between TB in cattle and the proximity and management practices of wild ungulates. Methods and results presented here may support policies to better prevent and control TB in the SCS and in other regions/countries with similar

  14. 滨州市流动人口的结核病耐药状况及相关因素分析%The prevalence and risk factors of drug-resistant tuberculosis among migratory population in Binzhou China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王介营; 张道全; 王洪辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis among migratory population in Binzhou. Methods All aputum culture positive patients among migratory population, confirmed at any district (county) tuberculosis dispensary in binzhou from February 2004 to January 2005, were enrolled. The drug susceptibility test was performed by the proportion method. Unvariate and multivariate analysis were preformed to determine the risk factors associated with drug resistance. Results 493 patients were enrolled during the study period, among whom 431patients had bacteria identification and drug susceptibility results. Of the 431strains,427(99. l% ) strains were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4(0. 9% ) strained were Mycobacterium non-tuberculosis. The prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis among new cases ang retreatment cases was 16. 0% (62/387) and 40. 0% ( 16/40), respectively. The prevalence of MDR-tubercuolsis among new cases and re-treatment cases was 4. 1% (16/387) and 22. 5% (9/40) ,respectively. A history of previous treatment for tuberculosis and age group of 45 ~ 60 years were significantly associated with drug resistance. Conclusion The prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis among migratory population was relatively high in Binzhou, suggesting the necessity to strengthen the tuberculosis control program for migratory population.%目的 了解滨州市流动人口的结核病耐药状况及相关因素.方法 将滨州市各区县结核病定点医院2004年2月至2005年1月诊治的流动人口中所有新发及复治的痰培养阳性肺结核病例作为研究对象,并对所有分离培养阳性菌株进行菌型鉴定及药物敏感性测试,分析流动人口耐药结核病的流行状况.结果 所入选493例培养阳性肺结核患者.最后获得431例(占87.4%)患者的菌型鉴定及药敏结果,其中结核分枝杆菌427例(占99.1%),非结核分枝杆菌4例(占0.9%).肺结

  15. Laryngeal tuberculosis: A case of a non-healing laryngeal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Chen and P Thornley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of laryngeal tuberculosis in a 47-year-old Korean man. Laryngeal tuberculosis is rare and currently accounts for less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis. Clinical features of laryngeal tuberculosis include hoarseness, odynophagia and dyspnoea. Macroscopically, laryngeal tuberculosis may mimic laryngeal carcinoma, chronic laryngitis or laryngeal candidiasis. The diagnosis is often delayed due to a low index of clinical suspicion and hence may pose a significant public health risk. Laryngeal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with any form of laryngeal lesion.

  16. IL-10R1 S138G loss-of-function polymorphism is associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis risk development in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Ben-Abderrahmen, Yosra; Boukadida, Jalel; Harizi, Hedi

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that host genetic factors are important in determining susceptibility to mycobacterial infections. More recently, functional genetic mutations affecting IL-10 receptor 1 (IL-10R1) were described. In this study, we investigated the relationship of IL-10R1 S138G loss-of-function polymorphism (A536G: rs3135932) with susceptibility to active tuberculosis (TB) in Tunisian patients. A total of 168 patients with pulmonary TB, 55 with extrapulmonary TB, and 150 control subjects were studied. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from leukocytes and used to investigate S138G polymorphism in IL-10R1 gene by multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Associations between G allele [odds ratio OR=5.01; 95% confidence intervals CI=2.58-9.77; P=10(-7)], GG genotypes [OR=9.06; 95% CI (1.58-67.33); correcting P-values using the Bonferroni method for multiple tests Pc=0.015] and AG genotype [OR=3.75; 95% CI (1.62-8.7); Pc=0.0012] with the risk development of active extrapulmonary TB were found. In contrast, the AA genotype was found to be associated with resistance to extrapulmonary TB [OR=0.19; 95% CI (0.09-0.42); Pc=6.10(-6)]. No association was found between S138G SNP and pulmonary TB. In conclusion, our study suggested the possible role of IL-10R1 S138G loss-of-function polymorphism in extrapulmonary TB susceptibility-resistance in Tunisia.

  17. Temporal analysis of reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Simões Gaspar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3.8%. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis, despite a significant increase in that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased only in the 0- to 9-year age bracket, remaining stable or increasing in the other age groups. The incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 209% in the ≥ 60-year age bracket. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased in all geographical regions except the south, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by over 150% in the north and northeast. Regarding the outcomes, patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, in comparison with patients infected with tuberculosis only, had a 48% lower chance of cure, a 50% greater risk of treatment nonadherence, and a 94% greater risk of death from tuberculosis. Conclusions: Our study shows that tuberculosis continues to be a relevant public health issue in Brazil, because the goals for the control and cure of the disease have yet to be achieved. In addition, the sharp increase in the incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women, in the elderly, and in the northern/northeastern region reveals that the population of HIV-infected individuals is rapidly becoming more female, older, and more impoverished.

  18. Temporal analysis of reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012 *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Renato Simões; Nunes, Natália; Nunes, Marina; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3.8%. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis, despite a significant increase in that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased only in the 0- to 9-year age bracket, remaining stable or increasing in the other age groups. The incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 209% in the ≥ 60-year age bracket. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased in all geographical regions except the south, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by over 150% in the north and northeast. Regarding the outcomes, patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, in comparison with patients infected with tuberculosis only, had a 48% lower chance of cure, a 50% greater risk of treatment nonadherence, and a 94% greater risk of death from tuberculosis. Conclusions: Our study shows that tuberculosis continues to be a relevant public health issue in Brazil, because the goals for the control and cure of the disease have yet to be achieved. In addition, the sharp increase in the incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women, in the elderly, and in the northern/northeastern region reveals that the population of HIV-infected individuals is rapidly becoming more female, older, and more impoverished. PMID:28117471

  19. mosR, A Novel Transcriptional Regulator of Hypoxia and Virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic tuberculosis represents a high-risk burden for one third of the world population. Previous microarray analysis of murine tuberculosis identified a novel transcriptional regulator encoded by rv0348 that could control the establishment of the chronic phase of tuberculosis. Disruption of the ...

  20. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  1. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riza, A.L.; Pearson, F.; Ugarte-Gil, C.; Alisjahbana, B.; Vijver, S. van de; Panduru, N.M.; Hill, P.C.; Ruslami, R.; Moore, D.; Aarnoutse, R.; Critchley, J.A.; Crevel, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individu

  2. Epidemiología molecular de las tuberculosis bovina y humana en una zona endémica de Querétaro, México Molecular epidemiology of cattle and human tuberculosis in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez-Guerrero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el papel de la tuberculosis bovina en la tuberculosis humana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 255 muestras de pacientes sintomáticos, sembradas en medios de Stonebrink y Löwenstein-Jensen y analizadas por PCRMPB70 anidada y luego por spoligotyping. RESULTADOS: De las 255 muestras, 74 fueron positivas a la PCR y 20 al aislamiento: de las primeras, 58 (78% mostraron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 5 (6.7% de M. bovis; de las segundas, 8 (47% revelaron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 8 (47% de M. bovis. De las 94 muestras positivas al aislamiento o PCR, 66 (70% correspondieron a M. tuberculosis y 13 (13.8% a M. bovis. Los patrones moleculares de cuatro muestras de M. bovis de seres humanos fueron idénticos a los de las cepas de M. bovis de ganado. CONCLUSIONES: Se demuestra que M. bovis juega un papel importante en la epidemiología de la tuberculosis humana y representa un riesgo para la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of bovine TB in cases of human TB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty-five samples from symptomatic patients were included in the study. All samples were cultured in Stonebrink and Lowënstein-Jensen media and analyzed using a nested PCRMPB70. The molecular analysis was performed by spoligotyping. RESULTS: From 255 samples, 74 were PCR-positive and 20 were culture-positive. From 94 samples positive to PCR or to isolation, 66 (70% showed a spoligotype compatible with M. tuberculosis, and 13 (13.8% with M. bovis. Four fingerprints of M. bovis from humans were identical to the fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that M. bovis plays an important role in the epidemiology of TB in humans and that TB in cattle represents a risk to public health.

  3. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik O Vannberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803. Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n = 914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2 x 2 chi(2 = 7.47, P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.96. In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n = 557, Pearson's 2x2 chi(2 = 17.34, P = 0.00003, odds ratio = 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.65. This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele. CONCLUSION: This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased

  4. Tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional Tuberculosis as an occupational disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cascante

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajadores sanitarios están expuestos a múltiples enfermedades infecciosas que padecen los pacientes a los que atienden y que han sido reconocidas como enfermedades infecciosas ocupacionales. Las declaradas con más frecuencia son las adquiridas por vía hematógena, en especial la hepatitis por virus B. Existen múltiples enfermedades infecciosas trasmitidas por vía aérea y hasta el advenimiento del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo ocasionado por un coronavirus, la tuberculosis era una de las más temidas. En el presente trabajo analizaremos las causas por las que la tuberculosis se considera una enfermedad ocupacional en el personal sanitario, cuáles son las actividades con más riesgo y las medidas que deben adoptarse para disminuir la transmisión nosocomial.Health workers are exposed to numerous infectious diseases from which the patients they attend are suffering and that have been recognised as occupational infectious diseases. Those most frequently reported are acquired by the haematogenous path, especially hepatitis due to virus B. Numerous infectious diseases are transmitted through airways and until the coming of acute severe respiratory syndrome caused by a coronavirus, tuberculosis was one of the most dreaded. In this paper we analyse the reasons why tuberculosis is considered to be an occupational disease in health personnel; which activities entail most risk and the measures that should be adopted to reduce nosocomial transmission.

  5. 营养风险防范在肺结核素食习惯患者中的应用观察%The application observation of the nutritional risk prevention for the pulmonary tuberculosis patients with vegetarian diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟妞荣

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to discuss preventive measures of nutrition risk of vegetarian diet patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.MethodsCollect 64 vegetarian diet patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in our hospital. 32 of the patients received conventional nursing during 2010-2011,and the other 32 patients accepted preventive measures of nutrition risk during 2012-2014. Follow-up information of both group of patients was collected after 2,3,4 and 6 months after discharge. Evaluating criteria include improvement of symptoms,weight gain,negative sputum smear under microscopy of mycobacterium tuberculosis and the ability to perform social functions such as learning and housework in daily life.Results The overall response rate of the two groups was compared as an index to assess the recovering speed of patients. Recovering speed of the patients receiving preventive measures of nutrition risk is obviously rapid than patients receiving conventional nursing alone,with statistical significance(P<0.05).ConclusionPreventive measures of nutrition risk on vegetarian diet patients with pulmonary tuberculosis could accelerate their recovering speed.%目的:探讨肺结核素食习惯患者实施营养风险防范措施的效果。方法选取我院肺结核素食习惯患者共64例,2010年—2011年32例,实施常规护理;2012年—2014年32例,采取营养风险防范措施。2组患者均在出院后2,3,4,6个月进行回访追踪观察,评价症状改善情况,体重增长,结核菌痰涂片镜检阴转率,学习、生活、持家能力恢复情况等身体恢复指标。结果采取营养风险防范措施的患者身体恢复速度明显高于常规护理组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对肺结核素食习惯患者及时采取营养风险防范措施可加快身体恢复速度。

  6. Impaired Cytokine but Enhanced Cytotoxic Marker Expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced CD8+ T Cells in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes and Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for tuberculosis among individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To explore the influence of DM on CD8(+) T-cell responses during latent M. tuberculosis infection, we estimated the cytokine and cytotoxic marker expression pattern in individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection with DM and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection without DM. Among individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection, those with DM had diminished frequencies of CD8(+) T-helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells following stimulation by M. tuberculosis antigen and enhanced frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing cytotoxic markers, compared with those without DM. Thus, our results suggest that coincident DM modulates CD8(+) T-cell function during latent M. tuberculosis infection.

  7. Tuberculosis Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  8. Tuberculosis Treatment and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  9. Tuberculosis Immunity: Opportunities from Studies with Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ray Waters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis share >99% genetic identity and induce similar host responses and disease profiles upon infection. There is a rich history of codiscovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB including skin-testing procedures, M. bovis BCG vaccination, and interferon-γ release assays. The calf TB infection model offers several opportunities to further our understanding of TB immunopathogenesis. Recent observations include correlation of central memory immune responses with TB vaccine efficacy, association of SIRPα+ cells in ESAT-6:CFP10-elicited multinucleate giant cell formation, early γδ T cell responses to TB, antimycobacterial activity of memory CD4+ T cells via granulysin production, association of specific antibody with antigen burden, and suppression of innate immune gene expression in infected animals. Partnerships teaming researchers with veterinary and medical perspectives will continue to provide mutual benefit to TB research in man and animals.

  10. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  11. Tuberculosis in pediatric oncology and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andrea T; Airewele, Gladstone; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    Five children with malignancies (3 hematologic, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 hepatoblastoma) and one bone marrow transplant patient were treated for tuberculosis over a 30-year period. Three had pulmonary disease, 3 disseminated tuberculosis, and 1 had scrofula. Four of five had positive tuberculin skin tests, cultures were positive in 5/6 children. One child died of disseminated TB after engraftment, and one child had hepatotoxicity likely related to tuberculosis therapy. All cases were potentially preventable had they been screened due to established risk factors of foreign birth (4/6) or parental foreign birth (2/6). All children should be screened for latent tuberculosis before chemotherapy.

  12. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Anca Lelia; Pearson, Fiona; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van de Vijver, Steven; Panduru, Nicolae M; Hill, Philip C; Ruslami, Rovina; Moore, David; Aarnoutse, Rob; Critchley, Julia A; van Crevel, Reinout

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management of patients with both diseases can be difficult. Tuberculosis patients with diabetes have a lower concentration of tuberculosis drugs and a higher risk of drug toxicity than tuberculosis patients without diabetes. Good glycaemic control, which reduces long-term diabetes complications and could also improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes, is hampered by chronic inflammation, drug-drug interactions, suboptimum adherence to drug treatments, and other factors. Besides drug treatments for tuberculosis and diabetes, other interventions, such as education, intensive monitoring, and lifestyle interventions, might be needed, especially for patients with newly diagnosed diabetes or those who need insulin. From a health systems point of view, delivery of optimum care and integration of services for tuberculosis