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Sample records for bovine tuberculosis risk

  1. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  2. Prevalence and Risk factors of Bovine Tuberculosis in smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in smallholder dairy farms in Babati town council. Sixty three smallholder dairy farmers were administered with questionnaires to collect information on risk factors for ...

  3. Bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti) . Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous cat...

  4. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study focusing on the prevalence and assessment of the associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) among dairy cattle herds was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in Bahir Dar City and the surrounding districts. Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) and interviewer administer questionnaire ...

  5. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F

    2015-11-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Herd-Level Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis: A Literature Review

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    Robin A. Skuce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is one of the most challenging endemic diseases currently facing government, the veterinary profession, and the farming industry in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in several other countries. The disease has a notoriously complex epidemiology; the scientific evidence supports both cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle transmission routes. To produce more effective ways of reducing such transmission, it is important to understand those risk factors which influence the presence or absence of bovine TB in cattle herds. Here we review the literature on herd-level risk factor studies. Whilst risk factors operate at different scales and may vary across regions, epidemiological studies have identified a number of risk factors associated with bovine TB herd breakdowns, including the purchase of cattle, the occurrence of bovine TB in contiguous herds, and/or the surrounding area as well as herd size. Other factors identified in some studies include farm and herd management practices, such as, the spreading of slurry, the use of certain housing types, farms having multiple premises, and the use of silage clamps. In general, the most consistently identified risk factors are biologically plausible and consistent with known transmission routes involving cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle pathways.

  7. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  8. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Santa Catarina

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    Flávio Pereira Veloso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of supporting the strategic planning of the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, different Brazilian states have been conducting cross-sectional studies, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply and with scientific support from the University of São Paulo and the University of Brasilia. In Santa Catarina, the State Animal Health Agency (CIDASC conducted a study on bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence and assessment of risk factors in 2012. The state was divided into five regions and, in each region, independent sampling was performed in two steps: (i cattle herds with reproductive activity were randomly selected; and (ii in each herd, a sample of females aged 24 months or older underwent the intradermal comparative tuberculin test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on production characteristics and management practices that could be associated with the tuberculosis infection. Herd prevalence of bovine TB was 0.50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.074–0.93% while the prevalence of TB in adult females was 0.06% (95% CI: 0–0.12%. No significant difference in the prevalence of infected herds and of positive females was observed among the five regions. The logistic regression model revealed that herds with 19 or more females showed an odds ratio (OR of 7.68 (95% CI: 1.22–48.39 compared to smaller herds, while dairy herds presented an OR of 10.43 (95% CI: 2.00–54.25 relative to beef or dual-purpose herds. The results suggest that dairy herds, in which animals are kept in partial or total confinement, and larger herds, which tend to acquire animals more often, are at a higher risk of bovine TB. Given the low prevalence and the type of higher-risk properties, a bovine TB surveillance system should be targeted at the state’s dairy basins, particularly the western region that accounts for the major industries and more intensive dairy farms.

  9. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Republic of Ireland. Prev. Vet. Med, 17, 145-160. Gumi, B., Schelling, E., Firdessa, R., Aseffa, A., Tschopp, R., Yamuah, L. et al., 2011. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in pastoral cattle herds in the Oromia region, southern Ethiopia. Trap Anim Hlth Prod, 43(6), 1081-1087. Gumi, B., Schelling, E., Firdessa, R., Erenso, G., ...

  10. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the

  11. Farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in the dairy sector in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, M K; Michel, A L; Nielen, M; Vernooij, J C M; Rutten, V P M G

    2017-03-22

    The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately. Subsequent to univariable analysis of the 36 risk factors at herd level, 14 of these were offered to multivariable logistic regression models. Farms with higher numbers of cows, and those with concrete floors, were 3.6, and 7.5 times more at risk for presence of BTB, respectively, compared with their references. These findings will be useful as entry points for future informed decision-making towards BTB control and eradication programme in the country. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Risk factors for bovine Tuberculosis at the national level in Great Britain

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    Bessell Paul R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuing expansion of high incidence areas of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Great Britain (GB raises a number of questions concerning the determinants of infection at the herd level that are driving spread of the disease. Here, we develop risk factor models to quantify the importance of herd sizes, cattle imports from Ireland, history of bTB, badgers and cattle restocking in determining bTB incidence. We compare the significance of these different risk factors in high and low incidence areas (as determined by parish testing intervals. Results Large herds and fattening herds are more likely to breakdown in all areas. In areas with lower perceived risk (longer testing intervals, the risk of breaking down is largely determined by the number of animals that a herd buys in from high incidence areas. In contrast, in higher perceived risk areas (shorter testing intervals, the risk of breakdown is defined by the history of disease and the probability of badger occurrence. Despite differences in the management of bTB across different countries of GB (England, Wales and Scotland, we found no significant differences in bTB risk at the national level after these other factors had been taken into account. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that different types of farm are at risk of breakdown and that the most important risk factors vary according to bTB incidence in an area. The results suggest that significant gains in bTB control could be made by targeting herds in low incidence areas that import the greatest number of cattle from high incidence areas.

  13. BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS (BTB) AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING TUBERCULOSIS IN HUMANS IN THE RURAL COMMUNITY OF ETHIOPIA: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Araya; Enquselassi, Fikre; Aseffa, Abraham; Beyen, Demissew

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at assessing BTB as a possible risk factor for human TB in the rural community of North Eastern and Western parts of Ethiopia. A case-control design was conducted among cattle owning households with TB and without TB. Comparative cervical intradermal test using purified protein derivatives were used to test cattle. Reading of the reaction was done 72 ± 4hrs after antigen injection. Based on the skin test reaction measurement, cattle categorized as negative, doubtful and positive. Questionnaires were used to collect the required factors. Thirty-five with TB and 105 households without TB participated in this study of which 49.3% and 61.4% had the habit of drinking raw milk and eating uncooked meat, respectively. About 70.7% knew about the chance of disease transmission from animals to humans. Among the TB households 31.43% shared their house with their cattle. Of the attendants, approximately 38% shared utensil. Based on > 2mms as a cutoff value 23.6% an overall apparent bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and 48.6% apparent BTB in households with TB were recorded. The odds for households having bovine TB in their cattle to get tuberculosis was more than 8 times (95% CI; 2.82-24.60) higher than those owned by households without TB. Bovine TB has been seen as an exposure to human pulmonary TB occurrence. A separate house for cattle should be constructed to minimize the fear of cross infections and further study regarding the possible infection of cattle with M. tuberculosis is suggested. Key wordsi bovine tuberculosis, households, human TB, M. tuberculosis, risk.

  14. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Herbert H. T. Prins; Fitsum A Lemma; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; de Boer,

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 catt...

  15. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in low incidence regions related to the movements of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Officially Tuberculosis Free recognition (1) to investigate the risks associated with the movements of cattle from herds with different bTB risk classifications and (2) to identify herd demographic characteristics that may aid in the interpretation of tuberculin testing results. Results From 2002 to 2009, for every herd with confirmed bTB positive cattle identified through routine herd testing, there was an average of 2.8 herds with at least one unconfirmed positive reactor and 18.9 herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors. Approximately 75% of confirmed bTB positive herds were detected through cattle with no known movements outside Scotland. At the animal level, cattle that were purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed positive reactors and a recent history importing cattle from endemic bTB regions were significantly more likely to react positively on routine intradermal tuberculin tests, while cattle purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors were significantly more likely to react inconclusively. Case-case comparisons revealed few demographic differences between herds with confirmed positive, unconfirmed positive, and unconfirmed inconclusive reactors, which highlights the difficulty in determining the true disease status of herds with unconfirmed tuberculin reactors. Overall, the risk of identifying reactors through routine surveillance decreased significantly over time, which may be partly attributable to changes in movement testing regulations

  16. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in low incidence regions related to the movements of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M Carolyn; Volkova, Victoriya V; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-11-09

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Officially Tuberculosis Free recognition (1) to investigate the risks associated with the movements of cattle from herds with different bTB risk classifications and (2) to identify herd demographic characteristics that may aid in the interpretation of tuberculin testing results. From 2002 to 2009, for every herd with confirmed bTB positive cattle identified through routine herd testing, there was an average of 2.8 herds with at least one unconfirmed positive reactor and 18.9 herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors. Approximately 75% of confirmed bTB positive herds were detected through cattle with no known movements outside Scotland. At the animal level, cattle that were purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed positive reactors and a recent history importing cattle from endemic bTB regions were significantly more likely to react positively on routine intradermal tuberculin tests, while cattle purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors were significantly more likely to react inconclusively. Case-case comparisons revealed few demographic differences between herds with confirmed positive, unconfirmed positive, and unconfirmed inconclusive reactors, which highlights the difficulty in determining the true disease status of herds with unconfirmed tuberculin reactors. Overall, the risk of identifying reactors through routine surveillance decreased significantly over time, which may be partly attributable to changes in movement testing regulations and the volume of

  17. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Maria do Carmo Pessôa Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Its control has a direct impact on public health and livestock production. This study estimated the prevalence of infected herds and adult bovines and evaluated risk factors associated with the presence of tuberculosis within herds in the state of Paraná. The state was divided in seven livestock regions and independent sampling was performed. A total of 1,419 farms were sampled and 16,045 animals were tested using the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. The apparent and estimated prevalence rates in farms and adult bovine animals were 2.15% (95% CI: 1.31-3.00 and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.04-0.81, respectively. It was not possible to state with 95% confidence that the disease prevalence in any region was significantly different from that in other regions. There were no positive animals in the western region, and the prevalence of positive herds and animals in the other regions ranged from 1.03% to 3.89% and 0.17% to 1.08%, respectively. The logistic regression model identified larger herd size (OR = 2.4 and mechanical cmilking (OR = 5.18 as risk factors associated with the presence of bovine tuberculosis. The combination of low prevalence with risk factors associated to larger herds and more intensive dairy farming, renders the state of Paraná a good candidate for the implementation of industry-based free-herd accreditation schemes and makes a case for planning risk-based surveillance targeted at major dairy basins.

  18. Developing a risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England: farmer perspectives on managing trading risk for bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R; Wheeler, K; Edge, S

    2017-02-11

    This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB. Supplementary interviews and focus groups with farmers were also carried out across the risk areas. Results suggest a greater enthusiasm for a risk-based trading scheme in low-risk areas compared with high-risk areas and among members of breed societies and cattle health schemes. Third-party certification of herds by private vets or the Animal and Plant Health Agency were regarded as the most credible source, with farmer self-certification being favoured by sellers, but being regarded as least credible by buyers. Understanding farmers' attitudes towards voluntary risk-based trading is important to gauge likely uptake, understand preferences for information provision and to assist in monitoring, evaluating and refining the scheme once established. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitk?nig, Ignas M. A.; Herbert H. T. Prins; Fitsum A Lemma; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Willem F. de Boer

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle?s age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife?including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia?s highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle...

  20. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Prins, Herbert H T; Lemma, Fitsum A; Mekonnen, Daniel A; Alemu, Zelalem E; Kelkay, Tessema Z; de Boer, Willem F

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  1. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, Michael K; Rutten, V P M G; Vernooij, J C M; Uqbazghi, K; Tesfaalem, T; Butsuamlak, T; Idris, A M; Nielen, M; Michel, A L

    2016-05-25

    The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy cattle in the three major milk producing regions of Eritrea was assessed by subjecting 15,354 dairy cattle, 50 % of Eritrea's dairy cattle population, to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Skin test results were interpreted according to guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) with >4 mm as cutoff in skin thickness increase. In addition, we studied the relation between 'physiological' variables related to pregnancy and lactation, and the variable 'region' on the probability to be skin test positive. The BTB prevalences at animal and herd levels were: 21.5% and 40.9% in Maekel, 7.3% and 10% in Debub, and 0.2% and 1.6% in the Anseba region, respectively. Overall, in the regions included, prevalence was 11.3% (confidence interval (CI) 95% CI, 11.29 - 11.31%) and 17.3% (95% CI, 17.27-17.33%), at animal and herd level, respectively. Considering positive herds only, the animal BTB prevalence was 36.8%, 30.1%, and 1.8%, in Maekel, Debub and Anseba, respectively, and the overall animal prevalence within these herds was 32%. In adult dairy cattle the probability of positive reactivity in the SICTT test was highest in pregnant animals as compared to the other categories. This study reports persistent prevalence of BTB as defined by positive SICTT in the dairy sector of Eritrea, especially in the regions of Maekel and Debub that are located in the central highlands of the country. To our understanding this is the first report that has encompassed all the major dairy farms in Eritrea and it will be instrumental in advocating future BTB control programs in the dairy sector.

  3. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

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    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  4. Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis

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    Natascha V. Meunier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA rangers in a wildlife crime database. Secondly, we aimed to quantify wildlife-livestock interactions and cattle movements, on the border of QENP, using a longitudinal questionnaire completed by 30 livestock owners. From this database, 426 cattle sightings were recorded within QENP in 8 years. Thirteen (3.1% of these came within a 300 m–4 week space-time window of a buffalo herd, using the recorded GPS data. Livestock owners reported an average of 1.04 (95% CI 0.97–1.11 sightings of Uganda kob, waterbuck, buffalo or warthog per day over a 3-month period, with a rate of 0.22 (95% CI 0.20–0.25 sightings of buffalo per farmer per day. Reports placed 85.3% of the ungulate sightings and 88.0% of the buffalo sightings as further than 50 m away. Ungulate sightings were more likely to be closer to cattle at the homestead (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.6 compared with the grazing area. Each cattle herd mixed with an average of five other cattle herds at both the communal grazing and watering points on a daily basis. Although wildlife and cattle regularly shared grazing and watering areas, they seldom came into contact close enough for aerosol transmission. Between species infection transmission is therefore likely to be by indirect or non-respiratory routes, which is suspected to be an infrequent mechanism of transmission of BTB

  5. Towards risk-based test protocols: estimating the contribution of intensive testing to the UK bovine tuberculosis problem.

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    Jan van Dijk

    Full Text Available Eradicating disease from livestock populations involves the balancing act of removing sufficient numbers of diseased animals without removing too many healthy individuals in the process. As ever more tests for bovine tuberculosis (BTB are carried out on the UK cattle herd, and each positive herd test triggers more testing, the question arises whether 'false positive' results contribute significantly to the measured BTB prevalence. Here, this question is explored using simple probabilistic models of test behaviour. When the screening test is applied to the average UK herd, the estimated proportion of test-associated false positive new outbreaks is highly sensitive to small fluctuations in screening test specificity. Estimations of this parameter should be updated as a priority. Once outbreaks have been confirmed in screening-test positive herds, the following rounds of intensive testing with more sensitive, albeit less specific, tests are highly likely to remove large numbers of false positive animals from herds. Despite this, it is unlikely that significantly more truly infected animals are removed. BTB test protocols should become based on quantified risk in order to prevent the needless slaughter of large numbers of healthy animals.

  6. Towards risk-based test protocols: estimating the contribution of intensive testing to the UK bovine tuberculosis problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Eradicating disease from livestock populations involves the balancing act of removing sufficient numbers of diseased animals without removing too many healthy individuals in the process. As ever more tests for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) are carried out on the UK cattle herd, and each positive herd test triggers more testing, the question arises whether 'false positive' results contribute significantly to the measured BTB prevalence. Here, this question is explored using simple probabilistic models of test behaviour. When the screening test is applied to the average UK herd, the estimated proportion of test-associated false positive new outbreaks is highly sensitive to small fluctuations in screening test specificity. Estimations of this parameter should be updated as a priority. Once outbreaks have been confirmed in screening-test positive herds, the following rounds of intensive testing with more sensitive, albeit less specific, tests are highly likely to remove large numbers of false positive animals from herds. Despite this, it is unlikely that significantly more truly infected animals are removed. BTB test protocols should become based on quantified risk in order to prevent the needless slaughter of large numbers of healthy animals.

  7. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  8. Bovine Pulmonary Tuberculosis At Bahir Dar Municipality Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine Pulmonary Tuberculosis At Bahir Dar Municipality Abattoir, Ethiopia. ... About 44.4 % of gross tuberculous lesions were found in the tracheo-bronchial lymph node while 33.4% in the mediastinal lymph node. Analysis of risk factors revealed that cross breed cattle were more likely to have high proportion of reactors ...

  9. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...

  10. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  11. The relative effectiveness of testers during field surveillance for bovine tuberculosis in unrestricted low-risk herds in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, T A; Duignan, A; More, S J

    2015-04-01

    In Ireland, new bovine tuberculosis (bTB) cases are detected using both field and abattoir surveillance. Field surveillance is conducted on all cattle annually using the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Testing is reliant on the skills and experience of the tester and a broad range of factors may adversely affect test accuracy. There is considerable emphasis on quality control (QC) within the national programme and field inspection of testers has been conducted in Ireland for many years. Since 2008, inspection has been supplemented with quantitative performance reports, enabling testers to be evaluated and ranked using a range of performance indicators. The objectives of this study were first, to quantify the relative effectiveness of testers during field surveillance and, second, to assess whether there has been any change in the performance of testers between 2008 and 2011. Mixed logistic regression was used to assess the relative effectiveness of testers. The study population included all testers who carried out at least ten eligible tests in Ireland during 2008 or 2011. The outcome measure was a herd restriction at the eligible test. Results from the mixed model indicated that the variation by tester had significantly (p=0.039) decreased from 0.589 in 2008 to 0.426 in 2011, indicating an increase in consistency of testing, after accounting for other known risk factors. This study provides objective data on the variation in tester performance over time and the relative performance of testers during field surveillance in Ireland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dilution effect in bovine tuberculosis: risk factors for regional disease occurrence in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Z.; Boer, de W.F.; Langevelde, van F.; Xu, C.; Jebara, Ben K.; Berlingieri, F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in host diversity have been postulated to influence the risk of infectious diseases, including both dilution and amplification effects. The dilution effect refers to a negative relationship between biodiversity and disease risk, whereas the amplification effect occurs when biodiversity

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  14. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  15. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  16. Epidemiology caught in the causal web of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D U

    2013-11-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in domestic cattle in the presence of significant infection levels in wild animal species represents a major challenge for disease control. The use of wild animal population density reduction as part of risk management policies is highly controversial from the perspectives of scientific effectiveness and societal acceptability. The experience in Great Britain in dealing with this problem over the last 20 years demonstrates the need to engage in an integrated approach towards risk governance to more effectively deal with such a complex and contentious multifactorial animal disease problem. As part of this process, the traditional emphasis on bioscientific, in particular epidemiological, research needs to be complemented by relevant social science approaches. In addition, the risk assessment as well as the risk management should have effective participatory elements. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis at the SODEPA Douala abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews tuberculosis and other pathological cases of slaughtered cattle recorded in “SODEPA” (Société de Développement et d'Exploitations des Productions Animales) Douala abattoir from April 1995 – May 2003 to determine the status of Bovine tuberculosis and other pathological conditions in Zebu cattle.

  18. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  19. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  20. Assessing the impact of a cattle risk-based trading scheme on the movement of bovine tuberculosis infected animals in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Downs, S H; Kelly, L

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk-based trading (RBT) schemes has the potential to reduce the risk of bTB spread. However, any scheme will have cost implications that need to be balanced against its likely success in reducing bTB. This paper describes the first stochastic quantitative model assessing the impact of the implementation of a cattle risk-based trading scheme to inform policy makers and contribute to cost-benefit analyses. A risk assessment for England and Wales was developed to estimate the number of infected cattle traded using historic movement data recorded between July 2010 and June 2011. Three scenarios were implemented: cattle traded with no RBT scheme in place, voluntary provision of the score and a compulsory, statutory scheme applying a bTB risk score to each farm. For each scenario, changes in trade were estimated due to provision of the risk score to potential purchasers. An estimated mean of 3981 bTB infected animals were sold to purchasers with no RBT scheme in place in one year, with 90% confidence the true value was between 2775 and 5288. This result is dependent on the estimated between herd prevalence used in the risk assessment which is uncertain. With the voluntary provision of the risk score by farmers, on average, 17% of movements was affected (purchaser did not wish to buy once the risk score was available), with a reduction of 23% in infected animals being purchased initially. The compulsory provision of the risk score in a statutory scheme resulted in an estimated mean change to 26% of movements, with a reduction of 37% in infected animals being purchased initially, increasing to a 53% reduction in infected movements from higher risk sellers (score 4 and 5). The estimated mean reduction in infected animals being purchased could be improved to 45% given a 10% reduction in risky purchase behaviour by farmers which may be achieved through education programmes, or to an estimated mean of 49% if a rule was implemented

  1. Surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerCauteren, Kurt C; Atwood, Todd C; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Smith, Holly J; Stevenson, Justin S; Thomsen, Bruce V; Gidlewski, Thomas; Payeur, Janet

    2008-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identified coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. We sampled 175 coyotes in the bovine TB-endemic area. Fifty-eight tested positive, and infection prevalence by county ranged from 19% to 52% (statistical mean 33%, SE 0.07). By contrast, prevalence in deer (n = 3,817) was lower (i.e., 1.49%; Mann-Whitney U4,4 = 14, pcoyotes rather than deer, we sampled 97% fewer individuals and increased the likelihood of detecting M. bovis by 40%. As a result of reduced sampling intensity, sentinel coyote surveys have the potential to be practical indicators of M. bovis presence in wildlife and livestock.

  2. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factor assessment in cattle in rural livestock areas of Govuro District in the Southeast of Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivânia Moiane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an infectious disease of cattle that also affects other domestic animals, free-ranging and farmed wildlife, and also humans. In Mozambique, scattered surveys have reported a wide variation of bTB prevalence rates in cattle from different regions. Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health and wildlife, knowing the prevalence rates of the disease is essential to define an effective control strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Govuro district to determine bTB prevalence in cattle and identify associated risk factors. A representative sample of the cattle population was defined, stratified by livestock areas (n = 14. A total of 1136 cattle from 289 farmers were tested using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 39.6% (95% CI 36.8-42.5 using a diagnostic threshold cut-off according to the World Organization for Animal Health. bTB reactors were found in 13 livestock areas, with prevalence rates ranging from 8.1 to 65.8%. Age was the main risk factor; animals older than 4 years were more likely to be positive reactors (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.7. Landim local breed showed a lower prevalence than crossbred animals (Landim × Brahman (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings reveal an urgent need for intervention with effective, area-based, control measures in order to reduce bTB prevalence and prevent its spread to the human population. In addition to the high prevalence, population habits in Govuro, particularly the consumption of raw milk, clearly may potentiate the transmission to humans. Thus, further studies on human tuberculosis and the molecular characterization of the predominant strain lineages that cause bTB in cattle and humans are urgently required to evaluate the impact on human health in

  3. Epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucílio Antônio Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT in 2001, and the need to determine the epidemiological status of animal tuberculosis for future evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures laid down, the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in the Federal District (DF of Brazil, as well as to provide an input for the strategic management of PNCEBT. Field testing and data collection was carried out from February to December 2003. The DF was considered a single epidemiological region owing to the small number of existing farms, and the absence of significant differences between the region’s farming enterprises, which would justify the stratification of the regional sample. A total of 278 farms were randomly sampled from the local registry database of bovine farms with reproductive activity, in which 2,019 adult cows were tuberculin tested. Only one sampled animal had a positive result, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test, resulting in a bovine tuberculosis prevalence of 0.05% [95% CI: 0.0-0.4%]. The herd-level prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the DF was estimated as 0.36% [95% CI: 0-2.0%]. The analysis of risk factors was impaired by the results obtained, as the number of cases did not allow for this kind of analysis. Cattle farming in the DF is predominantly aimed at dairy production; however, it is characterized by the presence of small low milk yield herds, which may not favor the introduction and persistency of infection of Mycobacterium bovis. Health authorities from the DF perform surveillance for bovine tuberculosis and maintain the need for tests for the movement of bovines for breeding and those animals destined for any form of animal gathering, especially auctions. Therefore, it is likely that the DF has good conditions for successfully implementing the PNCEBT.

  4. Eco-epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in an African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu Workeneh

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease, and remains a cause of concern for livestock, wildlife and human health, especially in Ethiopia. It is a contagious disease, so close contact between animals or sharing of feed between infected and non-infected animals are major risk factors for

  5. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BhanuRekha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major causes of tuberculosis. These may infect many animal species, and are likely to be the main source of infection in humans. A total of 181 bovine raw milk samples and 123 pre-scapular lymph node biopsy samples were collected and subjected to acid fast staining, fluorescent staining, isolation and identification. Genus specific PCR to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC organism, and multiplex PCR (mPCR were done to differentiate M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. Among the milk samples tested, only one sample was culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Four samples were positive by MTBC-PCR and mPCR; all these four were proved to be M. tuberculosis. It is quite likely that animals can be infected with human-originated M. tuberculosis, which in turn may act as a source of infection in humans, becoming a reverse zoonosis. Hence, control strategies for human tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis should necessarily include the control strategies in animals too.

  6. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  7. Effect of host diversity and species assemblage composition on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk in Ethiopian cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert; Tessema, Zewdu K.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Current theories on diversity–disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term ‘diversity’ embodies a set of animal community

  8. Risk factors analysis and implications for public health of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a neglected zoonosis of cattle that is prevalent but under-investigated in Cameroon. Based on epidemiological data of the disease, this study was designed to assess the risks and public health implications for zoonotic M. bovis infection in cattle and humans in the highlands of Cameroon.

  9. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN...

  10. A Review of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2011-01-01

    The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures. PMID:21547232

  11. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis in a patient treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Thomsen, V Ø; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB). Screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) and prophylactic treatment has become mandatory. A 79-yr-old female with a history of severe erosive sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis was screened for LTBI......-infected cattle. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis is a risk in people with recent or previous exposure to unpasteurised dairy products. The QuantiFERON-TB test has the potential to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection. Indeterminate test results reflect either anergy, due to poor immunity, or technical...... problems and should be cautiously interpreted and as a minimum be repeated. Studies are ongoing to determine the role of QuantiFERON-TB testing in the screening for latent tuberculosis infection....

  12. Nasal swab real-time PCR is not suitable for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Q. Mayer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a zoonosis causing economic losses and public health risks in many countries. The disease diagnosis in live animals is performed by intradermal tuberculin test, which is based on delayed hypersensitivity reactions. As tuberculosis has complex immune response, this test has limitations in sensitivity and specificity. This study sought to test an alternative approach for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA samples, extracted from nasal swabs of live cows, were used for SYBR® Green real-time PCR, which is able to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the results of tuberculin test, the in vivo gold standard bTB diagnosis method, with real-time PCR, thereby determining the specificity and sensitivity of molecular method. Cervical comparative test (CCT was performed in 238 animals, of which 193 had suitable DNA from nasal swabs for molecular analysis, as indicated by amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene, and were included in the study. In total, 25 (10.5% of the animals were CCT reactive, of which none was positive in the molecular test. Of the 168 CCT negative animals, four were positive for M. tuberculosis complex at real time PCR from nasal swabs. The comparison of these results generated values of sensitivity and specificity of 0% and 97.6%, respectively; moreover, low coefficients of agreement and correlation (-0.029 and -0.049, respectively between the results obtained with both tests were also observed. This study showed that real-time PCR from nasal swabs is not suitable for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis; thus tuberculin skin test is still the best option for this purpose.

  13. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN......%) of 46 and QFT-IT positive for 53 (74%) of 72, 8 (10%) of 81, and 4 (10.3%) of 39 (p risk...

  14. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  15. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P.; Coussens, Paul M.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Bolin, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22701814

  16. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailam Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (≤0.01 of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  ≤0.05 to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

  17. First approach to molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Colombia

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    Jimena Jojoa-Jojoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the presence of Mycobacterium bovis and other Mycobacterium species in samples of cattle and buffalo in Colombia, to start the molecular characterization of M. bovis in the country. Material and methods. 492 samples were collected from herds identified with the presence of infected animals through the PPD, by the Group of Bovine Tuberculosis ICA Colombian Agricultural Institute in eight departments of Colombia. Lymph nodes of head, thorax and abdomen, gross lesions of tissues with tuberculosis, nasal swabs, milk, blood and fresh cheeses were included. Samples were subjected to detection of Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacteria by conventional microbiological analysis and PCR-6110 and spoligotyping molecular assays. Results. In the samples analyzed especially in lymph nodes, Mycobacterium bovis was demonstrated with genotypes reported and not previously reported in the world, as well as M. tuberculosis in Antioquia, Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Magdalena departments. Conclusions. In Colombia there are at least 7 genotypes of M. bovis that are infected and sick cattle and buffalo from four different departments becoming serious threat to public health.

  18. Metabolism of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide in Human and Bovine Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasǎrov, Luka B.; Moat, Albert G.

    1972-01-01

    A marked difference was found to exist between the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) glycohydrolase activity of human strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared with bovine strains. Human strains had from 6- to 20-fold higher NAD glycohydrolase activity than bovine strains. This finding explains the accumulation of free nicotinic acid in the culture medium by human strains and not by bovine strains. The biosynthetic intermediates nicotinic acid mononucleotide and deamido-NAD were not degraded by either human or bovine strains of M. tuberculosis; hence these nucleotides do not represent a source of the nicotinic acid accumulated by the human strains. PMID:4336690

  19. Tuberculosis: medical students at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D; Woolcock, A J; Cossart, Y E

    1994-04-04

    In 1979 an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in medical students at the University of Sydney. Eight of 35 Mantoux-negative students who attended the autopsy of an immunosuppressed patient with unsuspected active tuberculosis became infected and one developed clinical disease. A report of the incident was prepared for publication because it supported the then controversial University policy of recommending BCG vaccination to medical and dental students in a country where the reported prevalence of tuberculosis is very low. The report was never published, mainly in order to protect the privacy of the individual students involved, but also because it was felt by the administration of the time that it might undermine confidence in infection control procedures in the autopsy room. The original report, updated and reproduced here, suggested that tuberculosis might be an emerging nosocomial problem. This has been all too clearly realised since its re-emergence as an opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. Worldwide, the problem of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides an added risk of a return to the situation which prevailed early this century when tuberculosis was a major occupational risk for young health care workers. Infection often restricted career choices, even in those whose disease was relatively benign. Our purpose in bringing this incident to light after so many years is to point out the relevance of the extensive studies of the problem which were conducted in the 1930s and 1940s to the current situation and to suggest that health care students are vulnerable to airborne infections as well as those spread by inoculation injuries. In retrospect, our 1979 conclusions about prospects for preventing nosocomial tuberculosis appear optimistic.

  20. 'Filthy vessels': milk safety and attempts to restrict the spread of bovine tuberculosis in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a dangerous mycobacterium that can be conveyed to humans in the meat and milk of cattle. By the mid-1800s, when health scientists began arguing about its zoonotic potential and danger to humans, the disease was well established in Australian cattle herds. This article examines the Queensland response to bovine tuberculosis from the late 1800s to the 1940s, when the problem of tubercular cattle could no longer be ignored. It shows that despite widespread concern about milk safety and increasing knowledge of the disease's aetiology, the Queensland government directed its milk safety activities towards public health education rather than the inadequacies of the dairy industry's approach to bovine tuberculosis. As such, it was tardy in addressing bovine tuberculosis.

  1. Epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonata de Melo Barbieri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed to assess the epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2013. The state was divided into seven regions, and a preset number of herds was randomly sampled in each region. From each farm, female cattle aged 24 months or older were randomly sampled and subjected to the comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCTT. Animals with inconclusive test results were re-tested with the same diagnostic procedure after a minimum interval of 60 days. A total of 31?832 animals were tested from 2?182 farms. An epidemiological questionnaire was administered in the farms to identify risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis. Prevalence in the state was estimated at 4.25% (95% CI: 3.36% – 5.15% for herds and at 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46% – 0.66% for animals. Data on herd prevalence for bovine tuberculosis for each stratum showed the highest prevalences at region Sul e Sudoeste (stratum 5 and region Central (stratum 3 which were significantly different from the lowest prevalences found at regions Noroeste, Norte e Nordeste (stratum 1 and region Leste (stratum 2. The highest animal prevalences observed for the region Sul e Sudoeste (stratum 5, region Zona da Mata (stratum 4 and region Central (stratum 3 were significantly different from the lowest ones at region Triângulo Mineiro (stratum 7, region Noroeste, Norte, e Nordeste (stratum 1 and region Leste (stratum 2. The presence of bovine tuberculosis was associated with animal purchase from cattle traders (OR?=?2.59 [95% CI: 1.28 – 5.20], higher yield intensive dairy (OR?=?7.55 [95% CI: 1.89% – 30.09%] and non-intensive dairy production (OR?=?3.58 [95% CI: 1.06% – 12.04%], as well as with herds with 30 or more cows (OR?=?1.97 [95% CI: 1.02 – 3.80]. Non-specific reactors to the CCTT were found in 95.07% (95% CI: 94.05% - 96.09% of the herds. Therefore, the state of Minas Gerais should implement surveillance systems for the

  2. Vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for protection against bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis and other related species in the M. tuberculosis complex, pose a serious continual threat to the health and economic wellbeing of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide. Wildlife reservoirs of bTB play a very important role in the epidemio...

  3. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis in a patient treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Thomsen, V Ø; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2008-01-01

    before initiation of treatment with infliximab. The tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative, chest radiography was normal and she had no known risk factors for TB. After 4 months of treatment with infliximab, the patient developed ascites caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The TST was repeatedly negative......-infected cattle. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis is a risk in people with recent or previous exposure to unpasteurised dairy products. The QuantiFERON-TB test has the potential to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection. Indeterminate test results reflect either anergy, due to poor immunity, or technical....... QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) testing performed during screening and immunosuppressive treatment was indeterminate, whereas the QFT test performed at the time of ascites puncture was positive. The patient history revealed previous work at a dairy, with probable exposure to unpasteurised milk from M. bovis...

  4. Sentinel-based Surveillance of Coyotes to Detect Bovine Tuberculosis, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Smith, Holly J.; Stevenson, Justin S.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Payeur, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identified coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. We sampled 175 coyotes in the bovine TB–endemic area. Fifty-eight tested positive, and infection prevalence by county ranged from 19% to 52% (statistical mean 33%, SE 0.07). By contrast, prevalence in deer (n = 3,817) was lower (i.e., 1.49%; Mann-Whitney U4,4 = 14, p<0.001). By focusing on coyotes rather than deer, we sampled 97% fewer individuals and increased the likelihood of detecting M. bovis by 40%. As a result of reduced sampling intensity, sentinel coyote surveys have the potential to be practical indicators of M. bovis presence in wildlife and livestock. PMID:19046508

  5. Evaluation of Surveillance for Documentation of Freedom from Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza R. Nielsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study how surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB could be made more resource-effective in a bTB free country. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed to: (1 evaluate the sensitivity (CSe of four surveillance system components (SSC (i.e., meat inspection of slaughtered domestic cattle, farmed deer and pigs, and tuberculin testing of adult export cattle given that bTB would enter one of these components, (2 estimate the probability of freedom (PFree from bTB over time, and (3 evaluate how future alternative programmes based on visual meat inspection would affect the confidence in freedom from bTB at the very low animal-level design prevalence 0.0002% and a low probabilities of introduction (1%. All, except the export cattle component reached a PFree above 96% within five years. The PFree was slightly reduced if surveillance was changed to visual inspection, e.g., PFree was reduced from 96.5% to 94.3% in the cattle component, and from 98.5% to 97.7% in the pig component after 24 years. In conclusion, visual meat inspection of pigs and cattle will only reduce the confidence in freedom from bTB slightly. However, with negligible probability of introduction (0.1% the PFree could be maintained well above 99% in the cattle, pigs and deer components, which highlights the importance of rigid testing and quarantine procedures in trade of livestock.

  6. Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis OmpATb as a Novel Antigen for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In search for improved tools to control bovine tuberculosis, the development of diagnostic tests with improved specificity and sensitivity has a high priority. Such tests require the identification of enhanced immunodiagnostic reagents. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rv0899 (Outer memb...

  7. Opportunities for Improved Serodiagnosis of Human Tuberculosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, and Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial infections—tuberculosis (TB, bovine tuberculosis (bTB, and Johne’s disease (JD—are major infectious diseases of both human and animals. Methods presently in use for diagnosis of mycobacterial infections include bacterial culture, nucleic acid amplification, tuberculin skin test, interferon-γ assay, and serology. Serological tests have several advantages over other methods, including short turn-around time, relatively simple procedures, and low cost. However, current serodiagnostic methods for TB, bTB and JD exhibit low sensitivity and/or specificity. Recent studies that have aimed to develop improved serodiagnostic tests have mostly focused on identifying useful species-specific protein antigens. A review of recent attempts to improve diagnostic test performance indicates that the use of multiple antigens can improve the accuracy of serodiagnosis of these mycobacterial diseases. Mycobacteria also produce a variety of species-specific nonprotein molecules; however, only a few such molecules (e.g., cord factor and lipoarabinomannan have so far been evaluated for their effectiveness as diagnostic antigens. For TB and bTB, there has been recent progress in developing laboratory-free diagnostic methods. New technologies such as microfluidics and “Lab-on-Chip” are examples of promising new technologies that can underpin development of laboratory-free diagnostic devices for these mycobacterial infections.

  8. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  9. Potential benefits of cattle vaccination as a supplementary control for bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Andrew J K; Brooks Pollock, Ellen; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Mitchell, Andrew P; Jones, Gareth J; Vordermeier, Martin; Wood, James L N

    2015-02-01

    Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and countries are officially bTB-free. New diagnostic tests that Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) offer the potential to introduce vaccination within existing eradication programs. We use within-herd transmission models estimated from historical data from Great Britain (GB) to explore the feasibility of such supplemental use of vaccination. The economic impact of bovine Tuberculosis for farmers is dominated by the costs associated with testing, and associated restrictions on animal movements. Farmers' willingness to adopt vaccination will require vaccination to not only reduce the burden of infection, but also the risk of restrictions being imposed. We find that, under the intensive sequence of testing in GB, it is the specificity of the DIVA test, rather than the sensitivity, that is the greatest barrier to see a herd level benefit of vaccination. The potential negative effects of vaccination could be mitigated through relaxation of testing. However, this could potentially increase the hidden burden of infection within Officially TB Free herds. Using our models, we explore the range of the DIVA test characteristics necessary to see a protective herd level benefit of vaccination. We estimate that a DIVA specificity of at least 99.85% and sensitivity of >40% is required to see a protective benefit of vaccination with no increase in the risk of missed infection. Data from experimentally infected animals suggest that this target specificity could be achieved in vaccinates using a cocktail of three DIVA antigens while maintaining a sensitivity of 73.3% (95%CI: 61.9, 82.9%) relative to post-mortem detection.

  10. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  11. The political economy of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R M

    2017-04-01

    A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008. This increase appeared to coincide with changing policy regarding the control of the disease in badgers, with a more humane approach adopted and with strengthened protection for badgers through legislation. Indeed, there has been much controversy in the debate on the role of badgers in disease transmission to cattle and the need for their control as vectors of the disease. The issue has attracted the attention of the media and there have been various commissioned research projects, trials and public consultations. The findings of two social science investigations presented as examples showed that citizens generally believed that bTB in cattle is an important issue that needs to be tackled, but objected to badgers being killed, whilst cattle farmers were willing to pay around £17/animal/year for a bTB cattle vaccine. It is noted that successes regarding the control of bTB in other countries have combined both cattle and wildlife controls and involved industry working in close partnership with government.

  12. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; du Toit, Johan T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  13. Milk as a vector of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans in Spain : a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2006-01-01

    As was the case with meat, the detection of the tuberculosis bacterium in cattle resulted in the attribution of an important role to milk in human tuberculosis infection. However, the case of milk had a more serious impact with graver consequences that did meat. In effect, milk was the principal foodstuff by means of which tuberculosis was passed from cattle to humans-indeed it could be sais that it was the only effective vector that carried the bovine bacterium to the human organism. In ligh...

  14. Epidemiologic characterization of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Benitez Vendrame

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed between June 2009 and March 2010 to determine the situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rondônia. The state was divided into three regions and, in each of them, 300 farms with reproductive activity were randomly chosen and considered as primary sample units. In the selected farms, an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied. A fixed number of bovine females older than two years of age was randomly selected and tested through comparative cervical tuberculin test. Considering the State of Rondônia, the apparent prevalence of bTB positive farms was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.5–3.5%. The prevalence in the regions varied from 1.7% (95% CI = 0.7 – 4% to 3% (95% CI = 1.6–5.7%. The apparent prevalence of bTB positive animals in the State of Rondônia was 0.12% (95% CI = 0.06–0.25% and varied from 0.08% (95% CI = 0.04–0.18% to 0.15% (95% CI = 0.07–0.33% in the regions. The risk factor associated to tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia was the acquisition of animals (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.6–31.1. The State of Rondônia should implement a surveillance system to detect bTB-infected herds to certify them as bTB-free. Moreover, an efficient health education program to inform farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds should also be implemented.

  15. MOLECULAR PATTERN OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS ISOLATES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NORTHERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Padilla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the molecular pattern of M. bovis isolates from cattle of Northern Mexico and its relationship with some risk factors. Isolates (n=60 were obtained from the states of Coahuila (COA, n=14, Tamaulipas (TAM, n=16, Nuevo Leon (NL, n=14 and Baja California and Durango (DUR, n=16. The risk factors studied were: system of production (Dairy and Beef, state, age, lesion type (localized and generalized, and type of presentation (caseous and calcified. Samples were analyzed at the Regional Laboratory of Monterrey NL, following a spoligotyping protocol. Twenty-five spoligotypes belonging to the M. bovis complex were identified. Eleven (18.3% isolates presented a unique pattern, whereas 49 (81.7% were grouped in 14 clusters. The largest clusters had 12 and 17 isolates. The average heterozygocities per state were 21.4% (NL, 15.6% (TAM, 15.6% COA and 9.9% (DUR. The genetic distances of the isolates between states did not show differences (P > 0.05 when examined by Chi-square tests. The average genetic diversity (15.6% was due to the variation of strains within subpopulations. In this study an 8.3% difference among states was obtained, which suggest the idea of a unique strain of M. bovis with many variants and that the genetic diversity found for M. bovis could be in part due to the movement of animals between regions. Statistical analysis did not show association (P > 0.05 between risk factors and strains of M. bovis.

  16. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Oko-oba abattoir, Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Oko-oba abattoir, Lagos State, Nigeria. HOK Olabode, MO Adeyemi, E Igodalo, L Jwander, GD Moses. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp. 102-105. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  17. Wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis worldwide: hosts, pathology, surveillance, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, S D; Kaneene, J B

    2013-05-01

    Bovine tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease classically carried by cattle and spilling over into humans primarily by the ingestion of milk. However, in recent decades, there have been many endemic geographic localities where M. bovis has been detected infecting wildlife reservoirs, limiting the progress toward eradication of this disease from cattle. These include cervids in North America, badgers in Great Britain, feral pigs in Europe, brushtailed possums in New Zealand, and buffalo in South Africa. An overview of these wildlife hosts will provide insight into how these reservoirs maintain and spread the disease. In addition, the authors summarize the pathology, current ongoing methods for surveillance, and control. In many instances, it has proven to be more difficult to control or eradicate bovine tuberculosis in wild free-ranging species than in domesticated cattle. Furthermore, human influences have often contributed to the introduction and/or maintenance of the disease in wildlife species. Finally, some emerging themes regarding bovine tuberculosis establishment in wildlife hosts, as well as conclusions regarding management practices to assist in bovine tuberculosis control and eradication in wildlife, are offered.

  18. Evaluation of ethanol vortex ELISA for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The use of serological assays for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied and use of specific antigens have aided in improving the diagnostic accuracy of the assays. In the present study, we report an in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), developed...

  19. Multi-antigen print immunoassay for seroepidemiological surveillance of bovine tuberculosis on Indian cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroudam Veerasami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that is responsible for significant economic losses in many countries. The standard diagnostic method, the tuberculin test (TST that is used in control programmes has serious shortcomings and, given the complex nature and the economic impact of the disease, a number of other diagnostic methods have been examined. The authors have attempted to characterise antibody response using the multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA. A total of 511 serum samples were collected from farms in India on which bovine tuberculosis was prevalent and on farms with low incidence. These were tested using the MAPIA against a panel of five defined M. bovis recombinant antigens and two purified protein derivatives (bovine PPD and avian PPD to study the seroprevalence of the disease on Indian cattle farms. Results indicated that the fusion protein of antigen CFP-10:MPB83 showed a positive response in 142 out of 298 serum samples from tuberculosis-prevalent farms, thereby indicating the serological dominance of the proteins post infection. The antigen selected could be used further in the development of a simple, rapid and accurate serological diagnostic test, paired with TST, for use in bovine tuberculosis control programmes.

  20. Evaluation of surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) using an individual based epidemiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Hemerik, L.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Netherlands holds the bovine tuberculosis-free (BTB-free) status according to European Union standards, but in recent years small outbreaks of the infection have occurred. After the last outbreak in 1999 with 10 infected herds the question raised if the current surveillance system, visual

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complexes by Real-Time PCR in Bovine Milk from Brazilian Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are a public health problem worldwide. The consumption of contaminated raw milk has been recognized as a major cause of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. Other mycobacteria that may be present in raw milk and may cause diseases are those belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, molecular biology tools were applied to investigate raw milk contamination with Mycobacterium spp. in family dairy farms from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Furthermore, different variables related to the source of the milk, herd characteristics, and management were evaluated for their effect on milk contamination. Five hundred and two samples were analyzed, of which 354 were from the Northwest region (102 farms with samples from 93 bulk tanks and 261 animals) and 148 from the South region of the state (22 farms with samples from 23 bulk tanks and 125 animals). Among them, 10 (1.99%) and 7 (1.39%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9 confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis) and M. avium complexes, respectively. There was no difference in the frequencies of positive samples between the regions or the sample sources. Of the positive samples, 4 were collected from a bulk tank (1 positive for M. avium and 3 for M. tuberculosis). Moreover, 1 sample was positive concomitantly for M. tuberculosis and M. avium complexes. On risk analysis, no variable was associated with raw milk contamination by M. tuberculosis complex species. However, washing the udders of all animals and drying them with paper towels were weakly classified as risk factors for M. avium contamination. Positive samples were obtained from both animals and bulk tanks, which emphasizes the importance of tuberculosis control programs and provides evidence that milk monitoring can be used as a control practice. Moreover, the findings of this study reinforce the need for awareness of the problems of raw milk consumption among the general population.

  2. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abubakar, U.B., Kudi, A.C., Abdulkadir, I.A. and Okaiyeto, S.O., 2014. Prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Kano abattoir, Nige- ria based on lateral flow technology. J. Camel Pract. Res., 21(1), 41-45. Admasu, P., Berihun, W. and Niguse, A., 2014. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in.

  3. Efficiency of slaughterhouse surveillance for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Linaza, A V; Gordon, A W; Stringer, L A; Menzies, F D

    2017-04-01

    Post-mortem examination continues to play an important surveillance role in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme in Northern Ireland. It is estimated that 18-28% of new bTB herd breakdowns are disclosed by the detection of bTB lesions in animals routinely slaughtered. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland in detecting bTB-lesioned animals at routine slaughter (LRS) and to apply the findings to maximize the sensitivity of bTB slaughterhouse surveillance. Univariate statistical analysis on cattle slaughtered in Northern Ireland during 2011-2013 revealed that the risk of LRS disclosure varied between slaughterhouses, ranging from 0·08% to 0·54%. Furthermore, the risk of confirmation of these LRS as bTB varied between slaughterhouses, ranging from 57·9% to 72·4%. Logistic regression modelling of selected risk factors found that the risk of LRS disclosure increased with age, and was higher in purchased animals, during winter months, in animals coming from high bTB incidence areas and in animals slaughtered from herds with a bTB restriction in the last 2-3 years. Adjusting for these selected factors, the risk of LRS disclosure and bTB confirmation changed very little from the univariable analysis, suggesting that differences in disclosure risks between slaughterhouses were likely to be due to factors related to the slaughterhouses, rather than to the risk status of the animals presented. Examination of procedures within these slaughterhouses is recommended to identify ways that could increase the sensitivity of their bTB surveillance.

  4. A case study of bovine tuberculosis in an area of County Donegal, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Popelka Francisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A descriptive analysis, to investigate the potential risk factors that might have contributed to the increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB herd-breakdowns in the reference area of Co. Donegal during the fifth year of the four-area project (FAP, was performed. Seventy two different herds were restricted for BTB during the FAP; 10 of these herds were restricted twice, resulting in a total of 82 BTB breakdowns. During the first four years of the FAP, the number of BTB herd breakdowns in the area varied from a lowest of nine to a maximum of 18 per year, and were geographically dispersed. In the fifth year of the study a considerable increase in the number of BTB breakdowns (n = 32 was observed, and there was a spatial 'cluster' of infected herds in the eastern part of the study area. The increased number of BTB breakdowns during the fifth year most likely occurred because of the recrudescence of infection, herd-to-herd transmission and, to a lesser extent, purchase of infected cattle. Infected badgers remain as a possible but less likely source of infection, especially as an explanation for the cluster of infected herds. The analysis supports the hypothesis that BTB in herds is a problem that cannot be addressed successfully by dedicating our efforts to the elimination of single risk factors. Neither is it a problem that needs to be investigated only at the herd level, but rather at the area level, including groups of contiguous herds.

  5. Optimal surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis in a low-prevalence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly; Enns, Eva A; Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Craft, Meggan; Wells, Scott

    2017-06-23

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle that is difficult to control and eradicate in part due to the costly nature of surveillance and poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Like many countries, bTB prevalence in Uruguay has gradually declined to low levels due to intensive surveillance and control efforts over the past decades. In low prevalence settings, broad-based surveillance strategies based on routine testing may not be the most cost-effective way for controlling between-farm bTB transmission, while targeted surveillance aimed at high-risk farms may be more efficient for this purpose. To investigate the efficacy of targeted surveillance, we developed an integrated within- and between-farm bTB transmission model utilizing data from Uruguay's comprehensive animal movement database. A genetic algorithm was used to fit uncertain parameter values, such as the animal-level sensitivity of skin testing and slaughter inspection, to observed bTB epidemiological data. Of ten alternative surveillance strategies evaluated, a strategy based on eliminating testing in low-risk farms resulted in a 40% reduction in sampling effort without increasing bTB incidence. These results can inform the design of more cost-effective surveillance programs to detect and control bTB in Uruguay and other countries with low bTB prevalence.

  6. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  7. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... conducted in succession within a laboratory environment, and because the specificity of the DPP test, in... must be placed under quarantine, and the captive cervids from the affected herd of origin must be... captive cervids from the affected herd of origin will be considered exposed to tuberculosis. The exposed...

  8. Interleukin-17A as a biomarker for bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    T helper (Th) 17-associated cytokines are integral in the immune response to tuberculosis, initiating both protective and harmful inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate applied aspects of IL-17 biology in the context of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Using RNA...

  9. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Maidguri Nigeria –an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey on the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Maiduguri Central abattoir was carried out during the month of May to June 2008. This involves detailed investigation of the cattle slaughtered in the abattoir for the presence of tuberculous lesions, analysis and interpretation of the data obtained from abattoir ...

  10. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Uruguay (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Wells, Scott J; Perez, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries. Clustering of incident outbreaks was assessed using the Cuzick-Edwards' test and the Bernoulli model of the spatial scan statistic, and a conditional multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with bTB in a subset of Uruguayan dairy farms. Significant (P<0.05) global clustering was detected in 2012, while high-risk local clusters were detected in southwestern (2011, 2012, 2013), northwestern (2012), and southeastern (2012) Uruguay. Increased risk of bTB in different regions of Uruguay suggests a potential role of animal movements in disease dissemination. Larger herds, higher numbers of animals purchased, and incoming steers to the farm were associated with increased odds of breaking with bTB, in agreement with previous studies but also suggesting other additional sources of risk. These results will contribute to enhanced effectiveness of bTB control programs in Uruguay with the ultimate objective of preventing or mitigating the impact of the disease in the human and animal populations of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: In the absence of active tuberculosis, a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result defines latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although test results may vary depending on immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the performance...... of TST and IGRAs in five different groups of immunocompromised patients, and evaluated their ability to identify those at risk for development of tuberculosis. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients with HIV infection, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, solid-organ or stem-cell transplantation......, and healthy control subjects were evaluated head-to-head by the TST, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold in-tube test (ELISA), and T-SPOT.TB test (enzyme-linked immunospot) at 17 centers in 11 European countries. Development of tuberculosis was assessed during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequencies of positive...

  12. Tuberculin manufacturing source and breakdown incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis in British cattle, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S H; Clifton-Hadley, R S; Upton, P A; Milne, I C; Ely, E R; Gopal, R; Goodchild, A V; Sayers, A R

    2013-01-26

    The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test is the primary test used for surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Great Britain (GB). The tuberculin used can, with other factors, influence test accuracy. In this analysis, the detection of infected cattle in GB 2005-2009 was compared between SICCT tests using tuberculins manufacturered by different manufacturers. Higher rates of reactors (adjusted rate 209 vs 186 per 100,000 tests, P = 0.003) and herd bTB incidents (adjusted total breakdown rate 5.1 vs 4.5 per 100 herd-years at risk, P manufactured at Weybridge compared with Lelystad. However, confirmation of infection in reactors by postmortem evidence was higher with Lelystad tuberculin (adjusted percent 44.1 vs 47.1, P = 0.018). The findings, overall, suggest slightly higher test sensitivity and lower test specificity associated with Weybridge tuberculin compared with Lelystad. Assuming effective adjustment for confounding, the overall impact of tuberculin manufacturing source (2007-2009), was calculated to range somewhere between 315 false positive breakdowns, and 1086 bTB breakdowns missed (624 confirmed) as a result of using Weybridge and Lelystad tuberculin, respectively. However, animals that tested negative to the SICCT were not slaughtered at the time of the tests, so definitive conclusions are not possible.

  13. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Ssengooba, Willy; Muwonge, Catherine; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Kyaligonza, Stephen; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk

  14. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks using the trace-back system and molecular typing in Korean Hanwoo beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Lee, Hyeyoung; Choi, Jae Young; Jung, Suk Chan; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Hun; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2017-07-10

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease responsible for major agricultural economic losses. Abattoir monitoring and trace-back systems are an appropriate method to control bovine tuberculosis, particularly in beef cattle. In the present study, a trace-back system was applied to bovine tuberculosis outbreaks of Korean native Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis was detected in three index beef cattle during abattoir monitoring in Jeonbuk Province, Korea, and the original herds were traced back from each index cattle. All cattle in the original herds were subjected to tuberculin skin test. The positive rates of the tuberculin skin test were 64.2% (62 of 96), 2.4% (2 of 42) and 8.1% (3 of 37) at farms A, B and C, respectively. In the post-mortem examination of 56 tuberculin-positive cattle, 62% had granulomatous lesions, and Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 40 (71.4%) cattle. Molecular typing by spoligotyping and the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat assay revealed the genotype of the M. bovis strains from the index cattle were same as the M. bovis genotype in each original herd. These results suggest that tracing back from the index cattle to the original herd is an effective method to control bovine tuberculosis in beef cattle.

  17. Spatial Dynamics of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maria Luisa; Perez, Andres; Bezos, Javier; Pages, Enrique; Casal, Carmen; Carpintero, Jesus; Romero, Beatriz; Dominguez, Lucas; Barker, Christopher M.; Diaz, Rosa; Alvarez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Progress in control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is often not uniform, usually due to the effect of one or more sometimes unknown epidemiological factors impairing the success of eradication programs. Use of spatial analysis can help to identify clusters of persistence of disease, leading to the identification of these factors thus allowing the implementation of targeted control measures, and may provide some insights of disease transmission, particularly when combined with molecular typing techniques. Here, the spatial dynamics of bTB in a high prevalence region of Spain were assessed during a three year period (2010–2012) using data from the eradication campaigns to detect clusters of positive bTB herds and of those infected with certain Mycobacterium bovis strains (characterized using spoligotyping and VNTR typing). In addition, the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) was estimated in infected herds and its spatial distribution and association with other potential outbreak and herd variables was evaluated. Significant clustering of positive herds was identified in the three years of the study in the same location (“high risk area”). Three spoligotypes (SB0339, SB0121 and SB1142) accounted for >70% of the outbreaks detected in the three years. VNTR subtyping revealed the presence of few but highly prevalent strains within the high risk area, suggesting maintained transmission in the area. The spatial autocorrelation found in the distribution of the estimated within-herd transmission coefficients in herds located within distances <14 km and the results of the spatial regression analysis, support the hypothesis of shared local factors affecting disease transmission in farms located at a close proximity. PMID:25536514

  18. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Latent Tuberculosis treatment is a key tuberculosis control intervention. Adolescents are a high risk group that is not routinely treated in low income countries. Knowledge of latent Tuberculosis (TB) burden among adolescents may influence policy. Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  20. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, B.J.; Ssengooba, W.; Muwonge, C.; Nakiyingi, L.; Kyaligonza, S.; Kasozi, S.; Mugabe, F.; Boeree, M.J.; Joloba, M.; Okwera, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure of livestock in a German dairy farm: implications for intra vitam diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in an officially tuberculosis-free country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, T; Nesseler, A; Sauerwald, C; Kling, U; Riße, K; Kaim, U; Althoff, G; Fiege, N; Schlez, K; Hamann, H-P; Fawzy, A; Moser, I; Riße, R; Kraft, G; Zschöck, M; Menge, C

    2016-03-01

    Germany has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB)-free (OTF) country since 1996. Gradually rising numbers of bTB herd incidents due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in North-Western and Southern Germany during the last few years prompted the competent authorities to conduct a nationwide bTB survey in 2013/2014. This led to the detection of a dairy herd in which as many as 55 cattle reacted positively to consecutive intra vitam testing. Test-positive animals lacked visible lesions indicative of bTB at necropsy. Extensive mycobacterial culturing as well as molecular testing of samples from 11 tissues for members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) yielded negative results throughout. However, caseous lymphadenitis of Ln. mandibularis accessorius was observed during meat inspection of a fattening pig from the same farm at regular slaughter at that time. Respective tissue samples tested MTC positive by polymerase chain reaction, and M. tuberculosis T1 family were identified by spoligotyping. Four human reactors within the farmer's family were also found to be immunoreactive. As exposure of livestock to M. tuberculosis is not generally considered, its impact may result in regulatory and practical difficulties when using protocols designed to detect classical bTB, particularly in OTF countries.

  2. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  3. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of the individual slaughterhouse surveillance sensitivity for bovine tuberculosis in Catalonia (North-Eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, A; Napp, S; Lopez, S; Casal, J; Allepuz, A

    2015-10-01

    The achievement of the Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status in regions with low bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence, as is the case of North-Eastern Spain (Catalonia), might be a likely option in the medium term. In this context, risk-based approaches could be an alternative surveillance strategy to the costly current strategy. However, before any change in the system may be contemplated, a reliable estimate of the sensitivity of the different surveillance components is needed. In this study, we focused on the slaughterhouse component. The probability of detection of a bTB-infected cattle by the slaughterhouses in Catalonia was estimated as the product of three consecutive probabilities: (P1) the probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting Macroscopically Detectable Lesions (MDL); (P2) the probability that MDL were detected by the routine meat inspection process and (P3) the probability that the veterinary officer suspected bTB and sent the sample for laboratory confirmation. The first probability was obtained from data collected through the bTB eradication program carried out in Catalonia between 2005 and 2008, while the last two were obtained through the expert opinion of the veterinary officers working at the slaughterhouses who fulfilled a questionnaire administered during 2014. The bTB surveillance sensitivity of the different cattle slaughterhouses in Catalonia obtained in this study was 31.4% (CI 95%: 28.6-36.2), and there were important differences among them. The low bTB surveillance sensitivity was mainly related with the low probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting MDL (around 44.8%). The variability of the sensitivity among the different slaughterhouses could be explained by significant associations between some variables included in the survey and P2. For instance, factors like attendance to training courses, number of meat technicians and speed of the slaughter chain

  5. Status of bovine tuberculosis and its zoonotic implications in Borana zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Ararsa; Abera, Shubisa; Zewdie, Wubishet; Belina, Dinaol; Haro, Godana

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2015 to June 2016 to estimate the status of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), assessment of community's current knowledge, and zoonotic importance on this disease in Borana zone, southern Ethiopia. In this study, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, structured questionnaires, and retrospective data were used, while the result indicated 3.8% prevalence at individual animal level with 5.6% (31/554) of doubtful reactors. Among related risk factors included, old animals were significantly infected by BTB than young one (χ 2  = 32.005, P = 0.001). Parity number again showed significant difference (χ 2  = 29.163, P = 0.001) where animals with many parity were more reactive to conducted test than few parity numbers. Animals born in the breeding center managed under semi-intensive production system were more infected (χ 2  = 10.795, P = 0.029) than those brought from outside of the center. Questionnaire survey in this study indicated that out of 130 interviewed respondents, only 30% pastoralists knew what BTB mean; whereas the level of individual knowledge from interviewed showed about 72.3% of respondents had poor understanding of BTB and only about 11.5% of them knew its zoonotic importance. Meat eating habit of communities in the area were culturally inhabited to eat cooked meat and only 12.3% (16/130) of respondents gave response on habit of eating both raw and cooked meat. Milk drinking habit of pastoralist in the area showed about 79.2% drunk raw milk and the rest 20.8% used both raw and boiled milk. A retrospective data from Yabello Hospital indicated that current prevalence of human TB as 38.79% and showing the disease was highly increasing from year to year in the study area. This implies a great importance of human tuberculosis and its future concern in Borana zone. From this, there should be detail awareness of communities on BTB, its zoonotic importance, and the need of further

  6. Potential application of new diagnostic methods for controlling bovine Tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Medeiros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an economic and public health problem for several countries. Due to its economic impact on international trade, contagious nature, and implications for human health, global programs to eradicate the disease were implemented worldwide. Those programs are based on slaughtering PPD-reactive animals. Despite the National Programs in Brazil, complete eradication has not been achieved, and the disease remains, albeit at a lower prevalence. The central purpose of this review is to address diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Considering the course of the infection in cattle, at least two tests, ideally complementary to one another, may be necessary for an adequate diagnosis: the first based on the cellular response, and the second capable of identifying anergic animals by detection of specific anti-M.bovis antibodies.

  7. Systemic bovine tuberculosis: a case report/ Tuberculose bovina sistêmica: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Gross and histopathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis in an ox are described. Differential diagnoses of frequently occurring gross lesions in cattle that could be easily confused with bovine tuberculosis are discussed, and a comparative analysis of M. bovis induced tuberculosis lesions in wildlife is made.Alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas associadas a Mycobacterium bovis são descritas em um bovino. O diagnóstico diferencial de lesões macroscópicas mais freqüentemente encontradas em bovinos que podem ser confundidas com a tuberculose bovina é discutida. Uma análise comparativa de lesões induzidas por M. bovis em animais silvestres foi realizada.

  8. Active use of coyotes (Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, A R; Dunbar, M R; Johnson, S R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Martinez, L; Jones, R L

    2011-07-05

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. Coyotes possess suitable ecological characteristics to serve as a sentinel species, assuming transmission between coyotes is not significant. The question of whether free-ranging coyotes shed Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB, has not been previously addressed. We actively used coyotes as a sentinel to detect bTB in infected and uninfected counties in Michigan's Northeastern Lower Peninsula. We determined whether bTB infection was present through bacteriologic culture of lymph nodes and tissues containing lesions and cultured oral/nasal swabs and feces to establish shedding. Seventeen of 171 coyotes were M. bovis culture positive, one of which was from a previously uninfected county. All oral, nasal secretions and feces were culture negative suggesting minimal, if any, shedding of M. bovis. Thus, infection of coyotes is likely to occur through ingestion of infected deer carcasses and not from interaction with conspecifics. These findings support previous research suggesting that coyotes are useful sentinels for bTB. The use of coyotes as a sentinel, may allow wildlife managers to detect the spread of bTB into naïve counties. With earlier detection managers may be able to take proactive surveillance measures to detect the disease in deer and reduce the potential risk to domestic livestock and captive deer herds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis herd breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs.

  10. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis herd breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu Guta

    Full Text Available We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period. Seven possible causes were considered: i residual infection; ii introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v presence of infected goats in the farm; vi interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6, followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8. The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4 of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs.

  11. Pathology of naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebana, E; Johnson, L; Gough, J; Durr, P; Jahans, K; Clifton-Hadley, R; Spencer, Y; Hewinson, R G; Downs, S H

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in England and Wales. Four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in Western England and Wales were examined. The mean number of lymph nodes (LNs) with tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions per TB-confirmed animal was 1.7 in reactors and 1.5 in in-contact animals. Tuberculous lesions in both reactor and in-contact animals were most commonly observed in the LNs of the thorax, followed by the head and abdomen, particularly the mediastinal, retropharyngeal and tracheobronchial LNs. Twenty-five reactors had macroscopic lesions in the palatine tonsils. Among TB-confirmed cattle, 27% of reactors and 9% of in-contact animals had gross TB-like lesions in the lungs, particularly in the caudal lobes. Gross lesions that were not TB-confirmed were parasitic granulomas (45%), bacterial or mycotic club-forming pyogranulomas (27%) and bacterial abscesses (23%). Diagnostic sensitivity was maximised when bacteriology and histopathology were used concurrently. Stage IV granulomas, alone or in combination with other stages, constituted 63% of lesions, while 16% of lesions were stage I/II granulomas. Caseous necrosis and calcification were common features of the granulomas encountered in natural Mycobacterium bovis infections, even with pathology limited to a small number of sites. Granulomas often covered large areas of histological sections and typically contained only small numbers of acid fast bacilli.

  12. Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador Situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Proaño-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972-2008 in a variety of the country's geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry's expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its by-products, intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program.La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad contagiosa crónica que afecta a los animales domésticos, los animales salvajes y los seres humanos. Es producida por Mycobacterium bovis; causa grandes pérdidas económicas y plantea una grave limitación para el comercio ganadero internacional. Por otro lado, en los países en desarrollo donde no hay controles de la tuberculosis bovina, la infección por M. bovis representa un problema de salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, la prevalencia de tuberculosis en el ganado se desconoce porque la información no se comunica o no se consigue. En el Ecuador no hay un programa nacional de control de la tuberculosis bovina. En este artículo se revisa la situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador, sobre la base de un análisis de los datos exhaustivos obtenidos de

  13. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  14. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  15. Bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Macedonia: postmortem, microbiological and molecular study in slaughtered reactor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Cvetkovik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in cattle caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis and to a lesser extent by Mycobacterium caprae. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC can also cause the disease in domestic and wild animals and all of them have a zoonotic potential. The main purpose of the study was to determine the presence and distribution of the tuberculous lesions in reactor cattle, and to isolate and identify the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Macedonia. Lymph nodes and affected organs from 188 reactor cattle slaughtered due to a positive intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test were analyzed by detection of tuberculous lesions, followed by isolation and molecular identification of the isolated mycobacteria. The isolation was performed on selective media – Lowenstein Jensen with glycerol, Lowenstein Jensen without glycerol and Stonebrink medium supplemented with pyruvate. The molecular identification of the MTBC members was performed by analysis of the Regions of difference (RD1, RD9 and RD4 and detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lepA gene for Mycobacterium caprae. Typical tuberculous lesions were detected in 62 animals (33.0% and the lesions were most prevalent in the mediastinal lymph nodes (47.5%. The isolated mycobacteria in the MTBC were identified as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae and were found in both animals with visible lesions (82.2% and animals without visible lesions (27.7%. The slaughterhouse postmortem examinations and laboratory investigations should be included on regular bases in order to improve the National eradication program.

  16. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB

  17. Disease Control in Wildlife: Evaluating a Test and Cull Programme for Bovine Tuberculosis in African Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Hoal, E G; Jolles, A E

    2016-12-01

    Providing an evidence base for wildlife population management is difficult, due to limited opportunities for experimentation and study replication at the population level. We utilized an opportunity to assess the outcome of a test and cull programme aimed at limiting the spread of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffalo. Buffalo act as reservoirs of M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which can have major economic, ecological and public health impacts through the risk of infection to other wildlife species, livestock and surrounding communities. BTB prevalence data were collected in conjunction with disease control operations in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, from 1999 to 2006. A total of 4733 buffalo (250-950 per year) were tested for BTB using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) test, with BTB-positive animals culled, and negative animals released. BTB prevalence was spatially and temporally variable, ranging from 2.3% to 54.7%. Geographic area was a strong predictor of BTB transmission in HiP, owing to relatively stable herds and home ranges. Herds experiencing more intensive and frequent captures showed reduced per capita disease transmission risk and less increase in herd prevalence over time. Disease hot spots did not expand spatially over time, and BTB prevalence in all but the hot spot areas was maintained between 10% and 15% throughout the study period. Our data suggest that HiP's test and cull programme was effective at reducing BTB transmission in buffalo, with capture effort and interval found to be the crucial components of the programme. The programme was thus successful with respect to the original goals; however, there are additional factors that should be considered in future cost/benefit analyses and decision-making. These findings may be utilized and expanded in future collaborative work between wildlife managers, veterinarians and scientists, to optimize wildlife disease control programmes and

  18. Risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travellers to areas of high tuberculosis endemicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, F. G.; van Deutekom, H.; Draayer-Jansen, I. W.; Schepp-Beelen, A. C.; van Gerven, P. J.; van Kessel, R. P.; Mensen, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No data exist on risks of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travellers. We studied incidences of and risk factors for tuberculin skin-test conversion among Dutch long-term travellers to countries of high tuberculosis endemicity. METHODS: In a multicentre, prospective cohort

  19. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose human to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Bovine Serum Albumin: a double allergy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Spigno, F; Cioè, A; Cagnati, P; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2013-08-01

    We analyse two cases of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) allergy. The first regards a female laboratory technician with a history of bronchial asthma due to cat allergy, who developed an exacerbation of bronchial symptoms as a consequence of BSA powder inhalation at work. To date, sensitization to BSA as a cause of occupational asthma has rarely been reported in the scientific literature. The second case concerns a woman with a similar cat sensitivity, who presented an oral allergy syndrome-type clinical reaction, gastric pain and diarrhoea immediately after eating cooked pork meat. Subsequently, she developed the same reaction after eating goat meat and goat cheese, and then also after eating beef. Both patients resulted specifically sensitized to BSA and to other mammalian serum albumins which play a role as panallergens in animals. The two cases show that BSA, a well known cause of food allergy in childhood, may also provoke symptoms of food allergy in adulthood, though in case of powder inhalation, it may provoke respiratory symptoms. Prior animal sensitization appears to represent a risk factor.

  1. Management of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife: current status and near term prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Berry, Dale E

    2011-07-05

    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have now been underway for over a decade. Significant progress has been made, lowering apparent prevalence in deer in the core area by >60%, primarily via reduction of deer densities through hunting, and restrictions on public feeding and baiting of deer. These broad strategies of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), implemented with the cooperation of Michigan deer hunters, halved the deer population in the bTB endemic area. However, as hunters see fewer deer, their willingness to sustain aggressive harvests has waned, and public resentment of control measures has grown. During the past four years, apparent prevalence in core area deer has held approximately steady just below 2%. After bottoming out in 2004 at an estimated 10-12 deer/km(2), deer numbers have since rebounded by ∼ 30%. Public compliance with baiting and feeding restrictions has been variable. In general, hunters in the core area do not perceive bTB as a problem, in spite of 13 years of MDNR outreach. To date, MDNR has expended more than US$23 million on TB-related activities. Of late, a substantial portion of that funding has been diverted to support other programs which have suffered from budget shortfalls. Livestock herd breakdowns continue to occur sporadically, averaging 3-4 per year 2005 to present. In total, 46 cattle and 4 captive deer herds have been diagnosed bTB positive statewide, the majority yielding only 1 positive animal. Five cattle herds were twice infected, one thrice. Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) policy emphasis has shifted towards obtaining producer support for wildlife risk mitigation and farm biosecurity. Funding has proven a limiting factor, with the majority of the US$63 million spent to date devoted to whole herd testing. Nevertheless, some initiatives justify cautious optimism. Promising research to support

  2. Recent advances in the management of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Rudolph, Brent A; Nugent, Graham

    2011-07-05

    Established foci of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis [bTB]) in free-ranging wildlife are currently under various stages of management on three continents (Africa, Europe and North America) and in New Zealand. Other, as yet undiagnosed, foci seem likely to exist elsewhere. The complex roles that these wildlife foci play in the ecology of bTB remain among the greatest challenges facing bTB control globally. Conceptually, management of bTB in free-ranging wildlife can be thought of as progressing from the discovery of an outbreak through frequently overlapping stages of epidemiological characterization, initial control, simulation and forecasting, focused control, and verification of eradication. Surveillance in its various forms remains a critical component of assessment throughout. Since the Fourth International M. bovis Conference in 2005, research on management of bTB in free-ranging wildlife has encompassed such areas as the human dimensions of wildlife management, mitigation of bTB risks from wildlife on cattle farms, vaccine biology, and epidemiology, with a major contribution from simulation modeling. In order to advance the actual field management of bTB, however, research must be sufficiently grounded to aid development of practical, affordable and politically defensible management interventions which stand a reasonable chance of being implemented. The current management of two wildlife reservoirs of bTB, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA, serve as contrasting examples of different wildlife management strategies aimed at achieving a common goal. In New Zealand, the importance of agricultural export markets and the status of the possum as a non-native pest have facilitated direct, aggressive management of the disease reservoir, resulting in considerable progress towards bTB freedom since 1994. In Michigan, the relative importance of the

  3. Correlation between lymph node pathology and chemokine expression during bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdison, Stephanie; Watson, Michael; Coffey, Tracey J

    2009-11-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of worldwide importance yet comparatively little is known about chemokine responses to infection. We report on the levels of chemokine expression within lymph nodes of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis when infection would be well established. Expression levels of a number of chemokines were increased in infected cattle and could be correlated to levels of respective chemokine receptors. Several chemokines were significantly correlated to pathology within the lymph node, indicating a direct relationship between chemokine expression and disease. Vaccinated animals challenged with M. bovis had lower levels of chemokine expression than unvaccinated, challenged animals, correlating with lower levels of disease in vaccinated animals. The chemokine expression profile correlated with previous evidence for a pro-inflammatory bias within the lymph node. At this stage of infection we suggest there is on-going chemokine expression by cells associated with the granuloma and continual recruitment of cells to control infection.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Michigan (1975–2010: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika C. Okafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing eradication efforts, bovine tuberculosis (BTB remains a challenge in Michigan livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1 review the epidemiology of BTB in Michigan cattle, privately owned cervids, and wildlife between 1975 and 2010 and (2 identify important lessons learned from the review and eradication strategies. BTB information was accessed from the Michigan BTB Eradication Project agencies. Cattle herds (49, privately owned deer herds (4, and wild white-tailed deer (668 were found infected with BTB during the review period. BTB has occurred primarily in counties located at the northern portion of the state's Lower Peninsula. Currently used BTB eradication strategies have successfully controlled BTB spread. However additional changes in BTB surveillance, prevention, and eradication strategies could improve eradication efforts.

  5. Further evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, V; López, B; Barrera, L; Nader, A; Fliess, E; de Kantor, I N

    1990-02-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for the detection of bovine IgG anti-Mycobacterium bovis antibodies were 73.6% and 94.1%, respectively, as determined in 53 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculous cattle and 101 healthy cattle from a tuberculosis-free area. In addition, the results of ELISA and tuberculin tests in 149 cattle were compared with those of subsequent necropsy studies. Both tests failed to detect 2 animals with tuberculous lesions and positive culture; 3/12 cattle with M. bovis isolation and no lesions, and 2/7 with atypical mycobacterial infection reacted to tuberculin, but none had antibodies; in 128 cattle with neither lesions nor mycobacterial isolation, 6 were tuberculin reactors and 7 others had antibodies. Negative results were obtained by ELISA in 21/22 paratuberculous cattle. Antibodies were not detected in 88.9% to 96.4% of 697 cattle from two tuberculin negative herds of an endemic area. In a herd with proved M. bovis infection, distribution of seropositive animals in tuberculin and non-tuberculin reactors was similar. Antibody responses to cutaneous tuberculin stimuli were observed in 4 experimentally infected cattle, but only in 2/10 healthy controls after repeated PPD stimuli. Nine controls which had either received a single tuberculin dose or none showed no increase in antibody levels. The low sensitivity of this ELISA limits its usefulness as a diagnostic tool for bovine tuberculosis eradication campaigns. However, it could be helpful in epidemiological surveillance if its efficiency to identify infected herds is demonstrated.

  6. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert F; Hamman, Saidou M; Morgan, Kenton L; Nkongho, Egbe F; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2016-01-01

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires strategies that

  7. Bovine tuberculosis at the human-livestock-wildlife interface: Is it a public health problem in Tanzania? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugwesa Z. Katale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the apparent public health concern about Bovine tuberculosis (BTB in Tanzania, little has been done regarding the zoonotic importance of the disease and raising awareness of the community to prevent the disease. Bovine tuberculosis is a potential zoonotic disease that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. The presence of multiple hosts including wild animals, inefficient diagnostic techniques, absence of defined national controls and eradication programs could impede the control of bovine TB. In Tanzania, the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in animals is mostly carried out by tuberculin skin testing, meat inspection in abattoirs and only rarely using bacteriological techniques. The estimated prevalence of BTB in animals in Tanzania varies and ranges across regions from 0.2% to 13.3%, which is likely to be an underestimate if not confirmed by bacteriology or molecular techniques. Mycobacterium bovis has been detected and isolated from different animal species and has been recovered in 10% of apparently healthy wildebeest that did not show lesions at post-mortem. The transmission of the disease from animals to humans can occur directly through the aerosol route and indirectly by consumption of raw milk. This poses an emerging disease threat in the current era of HIV confection in Tanzania and elsewhere. Mycobacterium bovis is one of the causative agents of human extra pulmonary tuberculosis. In Tanzania there was a significant increase (116.6% of extrapulmonary cases reported between 1995 and 2009, suggesting the possibility of widespread M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection due to general rise of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This paper aims to review the potential health and economic impact of bovine tuberculosis and challenges to its control in order to safeguard human and animal population in Tanzania.

  8. Lessons learned during the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. J.; Radunz, B.; Glanville, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    There are very few international examples of the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) from a national cattle population. This paper presents a brief overview of the successful TB eradication programme in Australia from 1970, with primary emphasis on lessons of international relevance that were learned from the Australian experience. The national brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication campaign ran for 27 years from 1970 to 1997 and has been followed by ongoing abattoir surveillance. Rapid progress towards eradication was made in southern Australia, but proved much more challenging in extensive pastoral areas of northern Australia. Declaration of TB freedom was made on December 31, 1997. A range of factors were critical to this success, including a compelling rationale for eradication, an agreed final outcome, industry commitment and financial support, a business model for programme planning, implementation and review, consistent and transparent technical standards underpinned by a strict regulatory regime and applied research, the critical role of abattoir surveillance, effective elimination of residual infection and objective measures of programme progress. Although direct translation of some of these experiences may not be possible, many of the lessons learned from the Australian experience may be relevant to other countries. PMID:26338937

  9. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pozmogova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

  11. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Tschopp

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2% with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4% with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4% yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

  12. Evaluating diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in the southern part of Germany: A latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Döpfer, Dörte; Groll, Andreas; Hafner-Marx, Angela; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Straubinger, Reinhard K.; Zimmermann, Pia; Hartnack, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Germany has been officially free of bovine tuberculosis since 1996. However, in the last years there has been an increase of bovine tuberculosis cases, particularly in the southern part of Germany, in the Allgäu region. As a consequence a one-time tuberculosis surveillance program was revisited with different premortal and postmortal tests. The aim of this paper was to estimate diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the different tests used within this surveillance program. In the absence of a perfect test with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, thus in the absence of a gold standard, a Bayesian latent class approach with two different datasets was performed. The first dataset included 389 animals, tested with single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, PCR and pathology; the second dataset contained 175 animals, tested with single intra-dermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test, Bovigam® assay, pathology and culture. Two-way conditional dependencies were considered within the models. Additionally, inter-laboratory agreement (five officially approved laboratories) of the Bovigam® assay was assessed with Cohen's kappa test (21 blood samples). The results are given in posterior means and 95% credibility intervals. The specificities of the SICT test, SICCT test, PCR and pathology ranged between 75.8% [68.8–82.2%] and 99.0% [96.8–100%]. The Bovigam® assay stood out with a very low specificity (6.9% [3.6–11.1%]), though it had the highest sensitivity (95.7% [91.3–99.2%]). The sensitivities of the SICCT test, PCR, SICT test, pathology and culture varied from 57.8% [48.0–67.6%] to 88.9% [65.5–99.7%]. The prevalences were 19.8% [14.6–26.5%] (three-test dataset) and 7.7% [4.2–12.3%] (four-test dataset). Among all pairwise comparisons the highest agreement was 0.62 [0.15–1]). In conclusion, the specificity of the Bovigam® assay and the inter-laboratory agreement were lower than expected. PMID:28640908

  13. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  14. A prospective blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Daniel E.; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Scriba, Thomas J.; Thompson, Ethan; Suliman, Sara; Amon, Lynn M.; Mahomed, Hassan; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Whatney, Wendy; Hussey, Gregory D.; Abrahams, Deborah; Kafaar, Fazlin; Hawkridge, Tony; Verver, Suzanne; Hughes, E. Jane; Ota, Martin; Sutherland, Jayne; Howe, Rawleigh; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Boom, W. Henry; Thiel, Bonnie; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Crampin, Amelia C; Downing, Katrina; Hatherill, Mark; Valvo, Joe; Shankar, Smitha; Parida, Shreemanta K; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Aderem, Alan; Hanekom, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of blood biomarkers that prospectively predict progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease may lead to interventions that impact the epidemic. Methods Healthy, M. tuberculosis infected South African adolescents were followed for 2 years; blood was collected every 6 months. A prospective signature of risk was derived from whole blood RNA-Sequencing data by comparing participants who ultimately developed active tuberculosis disease (progressors) with those who remained healthy (matched controls). After adaptation to multiplex qRT-PCR, the signature was used to predict tuberculosis disease in untouched adolescent samples and in samples from independent cohorts of South African and Gambian adult progressors and controls. The latter participants were household contacts of adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Findings Of 6,363 adolescents screened, 46 progressors and 107 matched controls were identified. A 16 gene signature of risk was identified. The signature predicted tuberculosis progression with a sensitivity of 66·1% (95% confidence interval, 63·2–68·9) and a specificity of 80·6% (79·2–82·0) in the 12 months preceding tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk signature was validated in an untouched group of adolescents (p=0·018 for RNA-Seq and p=0·0095 for qRT-PCR) and in the independent South African and Gambian cohorts (p values tuberculosis. Interpretation The whole blood tuberculosis risk signature prospectively identified persons at risk of developing active tuberculosis, opening the possibility for targeted intervention to prevent the disease. Funding Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, Aeras, the European Union and the South African Medical Research Council (detail at end of text). PMID:27017310

  15. HIV INFECTION AS A RISK FACTOR OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Eremenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of three year follow-up over 96 HIV positive children registered in the AIDS Center. During 3 year follow up the infection with tuberculous mycobacteria was diagnosed in 27.3% (n = 23 of HIV positive children from the followed up group. The leading risk factor of tuberculosis is family exposure to a tuberculosis patient – 22.6% (n = 19. Compliance to follow-up and treatment, timely prescribed preventive anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy enhanced prevention of development of local forms of tuberculosis in the followed up group of children.

  16. Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Abera, Birhanu; Sourou, Sabi Yao; Guerne-Bleich, Emmanuelle; Aseffa, Abraham; Wubete, Alehegne; Zinsstag, Jakob; Young, Douglas

    2013-08-13

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the potential for the area to compete

  17. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  18. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle identified by nested-PCR in abattoirs from two dairy areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Gustavo; Ron, Lenin; León, Ana María; Espinosa, Wilson; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Proaño-Pérez, Freddy

    2014-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous disease that primarily affects lung tissue and lymph nodes (LN) in cattle, with economic impact on their productivity. Furthermore, it is potential zoonoses that may cause public health hazard. In this study, we evaluated the presence of bTB in two abattoirs: Cayambe and Pelileo countries located in the Ecuadorian provinces of Pichincha and Tungurahua, respectively. In total, 578 cattle were sampled (Cayambe 271 and Pelileo 307): 1,156 LN and 578 lung tissue samples were collected to apply in vitro culture and nested-PCR, respectively. The results determined a total apparent prevalence of 4.33%, with 4.06% at Cayambe's abattoir and 4.56% at Pelileo's abattoir. Additionally, the Bayesian analysis showed a total true prevalence of 2.51%, with 89.7% of sensitivity and 97.6% of specificity. The risk factors were evaluated by the use of simple logistic regressions with and without the random effect of places of origin. Associations of the origin of cattle in the selected slaughterhouses were found. The results showed an efficient method for the detection of bTB, which could identify a large number of infected animals, and the usefulness of lung tissue samples for early diagnosis of the disease was demonstrated in this study.

  19. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

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    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  20. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India.

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    Thakur, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, Dharmender Kumar; Singh, Bhoj Raj

    2016-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB). A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation. Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12%) animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22%) PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43%) PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25%) milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium TB (MTB) complex (MTC) by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 18 (64.28%) and MTB in 8 (28.57%), whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14%) were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis. Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation). Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals.

  1. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India

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    Mukesh Kumar Thakur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT, culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB. Materials and Methods: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN aspirates (71, milk (54, and blood (71 samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation. Results: Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12% animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22% PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43% PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25% milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium TB (MTB complex (MTC by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 18 (64.28% and MTB in 8 (28.57%, whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14% were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis. Conclusion: Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation. Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals.

  2. Demographic And Risk Factors Related To Military Tuberculosis

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    M. Rasolinejad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tuberculosis is one the major health care problems in developing countries. Miliary tuberculosis is induced by blood dissemination of multiple tubercle bacilli, the paramount importance of accurate diagnosis of military tuberculosis is because of its dismal outcome if untreated and the chance of cure if diagnosis happens early in the course of the disorder. In this study we describe the demographic and risk factors related to military tuberculosis, which enables us to control and reduce the incidence of military tuberculosis. This ultimately reduces the mortality and morbidity consistent with this disorder. Materials and Methods: we conducted a retrospective case control study, which compares 28 patients with military tuberculosis and 56 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as control. We reviewed all the patients' documents registered between years 1994-2004, after extracting raw data we analyzed them with chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results and Conclusion: We found that HIV (P< 0.05 infection and lack of BCG vaccination (P< 0.05 increases the number of military tuberculosis among our patients. In addition we did not find any other significant risk factor.

  3. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: epidemiology and risk factors.

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    García-Rodríguez, José Francisco; Álvarez-Díaz, Hortensia; Lorenzo-García, María Virginia; Mariño-Callejo, Ana; Fernández-Rial, Álvaro; Sesma-Sánchez, Pascual

    2011-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and risk factors associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Cases of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed from 1991 to 2008 in a Caucasian population were classified as EPTB or pulmonary TB (PTB). Of all cases, 63.7% were followed up in a specialist TB unit. A standardised protocol for data collection was used, including: gender, age, BCG vaccination, contact with PTB patient, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressive drugs/steroids and HIV-status. These variables were compared between EPTB and PTB groups. Statistical analysis was based on logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Among the 2,161 cases diagnosed, 1,186 were PTB and 705 EPTB. The overall TB incidence had fallen from 79.9/100,000 in 1992 to 27.1/100,000 in 2008, PEPTB cases decreased more slowly than PTB. EPTB increased from 30.6% of cases in 1991-1996 to 37.6% in 2003-2008 (lymphatic site increased 27%), by trend test PEPTB, while alcohol abuse (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.20-0.52), smoking habit (OR 0.45; 95%CI: 0.34-0.59), contact with PTB patients (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.76) and BCG vaccination (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.92) had a protective effect. The proportion of female gender and age of patients increased over time, whilst there was a decrease in BCG vaccinated patients. Whilst there has been a reduction in the overall incidence of TB, the proportion of EPTB increased. The proportional increase in EPTB could be explained by an increase in life expectancy and the predominance of women in the population, and by a decline in BCG vaccinated patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Abattoirs of the Littoral and Western Highland Regions of Cameroon: A Cause for Public Health Concern

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    J. Awah Ndukum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is widespread but poorly controlled in Africa and M. bovis is posing threats to human health. The risk of cattle handlers to M. bovis prevalence and public health significance of BTB in Cameroon were assessed. Slaughter inspection records from major cities revealed that BTB detection rates in cattle from 0.18% to 4.25% and BTB lesions were most common. Analyses of tissues and sera confirmed BTB in 31% (Ziehl-Neelsen, 51% (culture, and 60% (antibody detection of test cattle. Among cattle handlers, 81.9% were aware of BTB, 67.9% knew that BTB is zoonotic, and 53.8% knew one mode of transmission but over 27% consumed raw meat and/or drank unpasteurized milk. Respondents who had encountered tuberculosis cases were more informed about zoonotic BTB (P<.05. Tuberculosis is prevalent in cattle destined for human consumption in Cameroon with serious public health implications. Targeted monitoring of infected animal populations and concerted veterinary/medical efforts are essential for control.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to March, 2011 to estimate the prevalence of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, to assess risk factors and to estimate direct financial loss due to liver condemnation on cattle and sheep slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir. Additionally, the sensitivity of direct ...

  6. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was

  7. Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Southern Nationand Nationality People of Ethiopia Regional State in Amaro Special ... This warrants the need to institute for appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of this economically devastating disease.

  8. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model.

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    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L N

    2015-06-07

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain.

  9. Genetic predisposition to pass the standard SICCT test for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle.

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    William Amos

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB imposes an important financial burden on the British cattle industry, yet despite intense efforts to control its spread, incidence is currently rising. Surveillance for bTB is based on a skin test that measures an immunological response to tuberculin. Cattle that fail the test are classified as "reactors" and slaughtered. Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with the reaction of cattle to the tuberculin test. At marker INRA111 a relatively common '22' genotype occurs significantly more frequently in non-reactor cattle. Here we test the possibility that the putative protective '22' genotype does not confer resistance but instead causes cattle that carry it to react less strongly to the prescribed test, and hence avoid slaughter, potentially even though they are infected. We show that, after controlling for age and breed, '22' cattle react less strongly to the immunological challenge and may therefore be less likely to be classified as a reactor. These results highlight the potential discrepancy between infection and test status and imply that the effectiveness of the test-and-slaughter policy may be being compromised by selection for cattle that are genetically predisposed to react less strongly to tuberculin.

  10. Evaluation of Cocktails with Recombinant Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis for a Specific Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

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    María Laura Mon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delayed type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH and interferon-gamma assay are used for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TBB. The specificity of these diagnoses, however, is compromised because both are based on the response against purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium bovis (PPD-B. In this study, we assessed the potential of two cocktails containing M. bovis recombinant proteins: cocktail 1 (C1: ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MPB83 and cocktail 2 (C2: ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83, HspX, TB10.3, and MPB70. C1, C2, and PPD-B showed similar response by DTH in M. bovis-sensitized guinea pigs. Importantly, C1 induced a lower response than PPD-B in M. avium-sensitized guinea pigs. In cattle, C1 displayed better performance than PPD-B and C2; indeed, C1 showed the least detection of animals either vaccinated or Map-infected. To optimize the composition of the cocktails, we obtained protein fractions from PPD-B and tested their immunogenicity in experimentally M. bovis-infected cattle. In one highly reactive fraction, seven proteins were identified. The inclusion of FixB in C1 enhanced the recognition of M. bovis-infected cattle without compromising specificity. Our data provide a promising basis for the future development of a cocktail for TBB detection without interference by the presence of sensitized or infected animals with other mycobacteria.

  11. Use of bacterial whole-genome sequencing to investigate local persistence and spread in bovine tuberculosis

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    Hannah Trewby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases currently facing the UK cattle industry. Here, we use high-density whole genome sequencing (WGS in a defined sub-population of M. bovis in 145 cattle across 66 herd breakdowns to gain insights into local spread and persistence. We show that despite low divergence among isolates, WGS can in principle expose contributions of under-sampled host populations to M. bovis transmission. However, we demonstrate that in our data such a signal is due to molecular type switching, which had been previously undocumented for M. bovis. Isolates from farms with a known history of direct cattle movement between them did not show a statistical signal of higher genetic similarity. Despite an overall signal of genetic isolation by distance, genetic distances also showed no apparent relationship with spatial distance among affected farms over distances <5 km. Using simulations, we find that even over the brief evolutionary timescale covered by our data, Bayesian phylogeographic approaches are feasible. Applying such approaches showed that M. bovis dispersal in this system is heterogeneous but slow overall, averaging 2 km/year. These results confirm that widespread application of WGS to M. bovis will bring novel and important insights into the dynamics of M. bovis spread and persistence, but that the current questions most pertinent to control will be best addressed using approaches that more directly integrate WGS with additional epidemiological data.

  12. A multidisciplinary approach to diagnose naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in Brazil

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    Carla D. Marassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A herd infected naturally with tuberculosis was investigated by different diagnostic methods. Ninety days after a screening test that identified 21 cows as skin test positive, a Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (CITT was performed in those 21 cows and in 29 other randomly selected skin test negative cows. Milk samples and nasal swabs were collected prior to the CITT for bacteriological culture and PCR, while blood samples were collected for IFN release and antibody responses to MPB70 and MPB83, at three time points post tuberculin injection. Animals positive by CITT were slaughtered and disease confirmation undertaken. Based on the Kappa test, IFN was comparable to the standard tests (culture, PCR and CITT at all three sampling points. Results from both antibody ELISAs were similar but were not comparable to the standard tests. T-test analysis of the CITT, IFN and ELISAs demonstrated that their performances were not correlated. There is increasing recognition that individually, available diagnostic tests do not detect all infected cattle. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for the diagnosis of bovine TB should include test results for the detection of both cellular and humoral immune responses where there may be animals at different stages of infection.

  13. Risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travellers to areas of high tuberculosis endemicity.

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    Cobelens, F G; van Deutekom, H; Draayer-Jansen, I W; Schepp-Beelen, A C; van Gerven, P J; van Kessel, R P; Mensen, M E

    2000-08-05

    No data exist on risks of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travellers. We studied incidences of and risk factors for tuberculin skin-test conversion among Dutch long-term travellers to countries of high tuberculosis endemicity. In a multicentre, prospective cohort study based in travel and tuberculosis clinics in the Netherlands, 1072 BCG-naive immunocompetent travellers to countries with an estimated annual risk of M. tuberculosis infection of at least 1% were skin tested before departure with 1 tuberculin unit purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis in Tween-80. Those with results less than 2 mm were retested 2-4 months after their return with simultaneous testing for cross-sensitivity to environmental mycobacteria (1 tuberculin unit PPD of M. scrofulaceum in Tween-80). M. tuberculosis infection was defined as a post-travel M. tuberculosis tuberculin skin-test result of at least 10 mm that was 3 mm or more larger than the M. scrofulaceum result. Post-travel skin-test results were available for 656 (66%) of 988 individuals who were eligible for follow-up. Among these, 12 M. tuberculosis infections were identified (1.8%). The overall incidence rate was 3.5 per 1000 person-months of travel (95% CI 2.0-6.2), and 2.8 per 1000 person-months of travel (1.2-5.5) after exclusion of health-care workers. Two had active tuberculosis at the time of testing (incidence rate 0.6 per 1000 person-months of travel [0.3-2.3]). Work in patient care abroad was an independent risk factor (adjusted rate ratio 5.34, p=0.015). The risk of M. tuberculosis infection in long-term travellers to high-endemicity countries, even if not engaged in health-care work, is substantial and of similar magnitude to the average risk for the local population. BCG vaccination or post-travel tuberculin skin-testing of high-risk travellers should be considered.

  14. Increased risk of active tuberculosis after cancer diagnosis.

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    Simonsen, Dennis F; Farkas, Dóra K; Horsburgh, Charles R; Thomsen, Reimar W; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2017-06-01

    Cancer may increase risk of active tuberculosis but evidence is sparse. We therefore examined tuberculosis risk in patients with incident cancer using Danish nationwide medical databases. We conducted a matched follow-up study comparing risk of active tuberculosis in cancer-exposed individuals to that in a general population comparison cohort, matched on gender, age, and country of origin, in different follow-up intervals using Cox regression. We identified 290,944 patients with incident cancer and 871,147 matched comparison cohort members during 1 January, 2004-30 November, 2013. After adjusting for comorbidities, the overall adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for tuberculosis among cancer patients was 2.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-3.10). The highest tuberculosis risks were observed following cancers of the aerodigestive tract (aHR = 8.12; 95% CI: 4.33-15.22), tobacco-related cancers (aHR = 5.01; 95% CI: 3.37-7.44), and hematological cancers (aHR = 4.88; 95% CI: 2.27-10.48). Tuberculosis risk was highly elevated within the first year after cancer diagnosis (aHR = 4.14; 95% CI: 2.88-5.96), with a 6.78-fold increased aHR for cancer patients receiving cytostatics or radiotherapy. Beyond five years of observation, the overall aHR for tuberculosis remained at 2.66 (95% CI: 1.22-5.81). Cancer is a clinical predictor for increased risk of active tuberculosis, probably related to decreased infection barriers, immunosuppression, and shared risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

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    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2. Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+IL-2(+TNF-α(+ and IFN-γ(+ TNF-α(+ response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hiCD45RO(+CD62L(lo T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future.

  16. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon.

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    Robert F Kelly

    Full Text Available Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases.A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon.Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk.Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires

  17. Paratuberculosis vaccination causes only limited cross-reactivity in the skin test for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

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    Joseba M Garrido

    Full Text Available Although there is a wide consensus on the efficacy of paratuberculosis vaccination to limit economic losses, its use has been restricted because of its interference in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Data from a vaccine clinical trial in the Basque Country (Spain has been evaluated in relationship with bovine tuberculosis intradermal test results. The trial included two herds applying a Test and Culling strategy and five applying an inactivated vaccine. The vaccine was applied to animals of all ages present in each vaccinated herd when joining the trial, and then to all the replacers within their first three months of life. Yearly testing done with the comparative intradermal test (CIT was applied to all animals older than 6 weeks. Between 2005 and 2011, the study generated 2,033 records from Vaccinated Herds (VH and 2,252 from Test and Cull herds (TC. Pre-vaccination positive results rate was 2.40% among the 7 herds in the single bovine intradermal tuberculin test (BSIT. Two years later it rose to 20.42% in the VH and remained below at 0.75% in the TC. Applying the CIT reduced these rates to only 0.58% in the VH and to 0.25% in the TC ons. Regarding time since each animal joined the program, the proportion of positives to BSIT was variable and, in some cases, significantly different between time points. With regard to the age of vaccination, no significant differences were found between vaccination within the first year of life and afterwards. Vaccinated animals showed seventeen times more reactions than the non-vaccinated in the BSIT, but only four times more in the CIT. In conclusion, comparative intradermal test can be a useful tool to differentiate paratuberculosis vaccine cross-reactions from specific bovine tuberculosis reactions according to the European and Spanish legislation.

  18. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  19. High Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia: Implications for the Dairy Industry and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombo, Melaku; Hailu, Elena; Erenso, Girume; Kiros, Teklu; Yamuah, Lawrence; Vordermeier, Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V.; Sahile, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. Conclusions/Significance This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work

  20. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  1. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in central ethiopia: implications for the dairy industry and public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebuma Firdessa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB, a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT, questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy

  2. Tuberculosis and risk of acute myocardial infarction: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, M A; Kryscio, R J; Fichtenbaum, C J; Henson, D; Salt, E; Sterling, T R; Garvy, B A

    2017-05-01

    Several pathogens have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether this occurs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unclear. We assessed if tuberculosis disease increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients with tuberculosis index claims from a large de-identified database of ~15 million adults enrolled in a U.S. commercial insurance policy between 2008 and 2010. Tuberculosis patients were 1:1 matched to patients without tuberculosis claims using propensity scores. We compared the occurrence of index AMI claims between the tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. Data on 2026 patients with tuberculosis and 2026 propensity-matched patients without tuberculosis were included. AMI was more frequent in the tuberculosis cohort compared with the non-tuberculosis cohort, 67 (3·3%) vs. 32 (1·6%) AMI cases, respectively, P Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1·98, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·3-3·0). The results were similar when the analysis was restricted to pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·5-4·1). Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI. CVD risk assessment should be considered in tuberculosis patients. Mechanistic studies of tuberculosis and CVD are warranted.

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccine Efficacy Studies: Neonatal Calves and White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedi, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti)(#1). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from ...

  4. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Ag85A Antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Application in a Competitive ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ag85 complex functions as the main secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis and BCG. This complex is composed of the proteins, Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C, with Ag85A thought to play the largest role within the complex. However, the lack of commercially available monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Ag85A still hinders the biological and applicative research on this protein. In this study, we developed and identified anti-Ag85A mAbs, and five hybridoma cells were established. Using the indirect immunofluorescence test, we found that two anti-Ag85A mAbs did not cross-react with Ag85B and/or Ag85C. In addition, we showed that all of the mAbs tested in this study are able to react with endogenous Ag85A protein in BCG and rBCG:Ag85A using indirect ELISA and Western blot analyses. A competitive ELISA (cELISA based on mAb 3B8 was developed, the analyses of clinic serum samples from cattle with bovine tuberculosis (TB and healthy cattle demonstrated that the sensitivity of the cELISA was 54.2% (26/48 and the specificity was 83.5% (167/200. This study demonstrated that the mAbs against Ag85A will provide useful reagents for further investigation into the function of the Ag85 complex and can be used for serodiagnosis of bovine TB.

  5. Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Verdier (Jesse Eduard); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); I.D. Kidgell-Koppelaar (Inge); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine

  6. Field evaluation of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin against bovine tuberculosis in neonatal calves in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2010-10-01

    In developing countries, the conventional test and slaughter strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis is prohibitively expensive, and alternative control methods such as vaccination are urgently required. In this study, the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for protection against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was evaluated in Holstein calves under field conditions in Ethiopia. Thirteen neonatally vaccinated and 14 control calves were exposed for 10 to 23 months to skin test reactor cows. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing, comparative intradermal tuberculin testing, postmortem examination, and bacteriological culture were used for the evaluation of BCG efficacy. The overall mean pathology score was significantly (P control calves than in vaccinated calves. Culture positivity for Mycobacterium bovis was higher in the control calves than in the vaccinated calves, and significantly more BCG-vaccinated animals would have passed a standard meat inspection (P = 0.021). Overall, the protective efficacy of BCG was between 56% and 68%, depending on the parameters selected. Moreover, by measuring gamma interferon responses to the antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, which are present in M. bovis but absent from BCG, throughout the experiment, we were able to distinguish between vaccinated animals that were protected against bTB and those animals that were not protected. In conclusion, the present trial demonstrated an encouraging protective effect of BCG against bTB in a natural transmission setting in Ethiopia.

  7. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in wildlife in France (Sylvatub system) using scenario trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Julie; Le Strat, Yann; Hendrikx, Pascal; Dufour, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with health, zoonotic and economic implications. Infected wild animals, and particularly reservoirs, could hinder eradication of bTB from cattle populations, which could have an important impact on international cattle trade. Therefore, surveillance of bTB in wildlife is of particular importance to better understand the epidemiological role of wild species and to adapt the control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, has been implemented since 2011. It relies on three surveillance components (SSCs) (passive surveillance on hunted animals (EC-SSC), passive surveillance on dead or dying animals (SAGIR-SSC) and active surveillance (PSURV-SSC)). The effectiveness of the Sylvatub system was previously assessed, through the estimation of its sensitivity (i.e. the probability of detecting at least one case of bTB infection by each SSC, specie and risk-level area). However, to globally assess the performance of a surveillance system, the measure of its sensitivity is not sufficient, as other factors such as economic or socio-economic factors could influence the effectiveness. We report here an estimation of the costs of the surveillance activities of the Sylvatub system, and of the cost-effectiveness of each surveillance component, by specie and risk-level, based on scenario tree modelling with the same tree structure as used for the sensitivity evaluation. The cost-effectiveness of the Sylvatub surveillance is better in higher-risk departments, due in particular to the higher probability of detecting the infection (sensitivity). Moreover, EC-SSC, which has the highest unit cost, is more efficient than the surveillance enhanced by the SAGIR-SSC, due to its better sensitivity. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness ratio shows that PSURV-SSC remains the most cost-effective surveillance component of the Sylvatub system, despite its high cost in

  8. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks and social determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jeon, Christie Y; Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan B

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings.

  9. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  10. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to adjust the boundaries of the modified accredited, modified accredited advanced, and accredited-free tuberculosis risk classification...

  11. Spatial predictors of bovine tuberculosis infection and Brucella spp. exposure in pastoralist and agropastoralist livestock herds in the Ruaha ecosystem of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roug, Annette; Clifford, Deana; Mazet, Joana; Kazwala, Rudovick; John, Julius; Coppolillo, Peter; Smith, Woutrina

    2014-06-01

    While many studies investigate animal-related risk factors for disease, few have considered environmental or spatial risk factors in the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis. In the Ruaha ecosystem of Tanzania, we investigated the role of household location as a predictor for infection with Mycobacterium bovis and exposure to Brucella in pastoralist and agropastoralist cattle herds in a typical African wildlife-livestock-human interface. ArcGIS was utilized to calculate Euclidian distances between households and the nearest river, village center, protected area, and other infected households, followed by multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between risk factors and herd-level bTB and Brucella outcomes. Global and local spatial clustering of bTB-infected and Brucella-exposed herds was explored using the Cuzick-Edward’s test and SaTScan spatial scan statistics. Households located farther from rivers and closer to village centers and herds belonging to agropastoralists were more likely to have bTB-positive cattle. Risk of Brucella exposure increased with proximity to protected areas. One spatial cluster of households with Brucella spp. seropositive cattle was identified. Spatial factors may be useful for assessing disease risk and for formulating intervention and control strategies for households that manage cattle in ecosystems characterized by seasonally limited resources and intense wildlife-livestock interfaces.

  12. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunology of bovine tuberculosis: Perspectives on one health approaches and defining correlates of protection versus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is an exemplary model of the One Health Concept. The human TB vaccine, M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), was first proven effective in cattle prior to use in humans. Recent experimental ...

  14. Risk factors for mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gunda

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though it can effectively be treated, still a significant proportion of patients die on the course of their treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome and risk factors of mortality among patients.

  15. Risk factors for mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though it can effectively be treated, still a significant proportion of patients die on the course of their treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome and risk factors of mortality among patients diagnosed with ...

  16. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains is an important public health problem in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug susceptibility pattern to second line drug among MDR TB patients in Tanzania. Methods: Unmatched case control ...

  17. Tuberculosis among HIV-infected population: incidence and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only prior history of TB disease was found to have a significant association with an increased risk of TB, hazard ratio 5.7 (95% CI 2.0-16.4, p value 0.001). Conclusion: Tuberculosis incidence among HIV-infected adults with medium/high CD4 count in Bagamoyo is lower than in other high TB burden countries. Previously TB ...

  18. Rates and Risk Factors for Mortality among Tuberculosis Patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to identify risk factors associated with mortality during TB treatment and report on other treatment outcome within the National tuberculosis and leprosy treatment control programme (NTBLCP) programme in rural primary health care centres in Nigeria. Retrospective, cohort study. This study was ...

  19. Effect of smoking and indoor air pollution on the risk of tuberculosis: smoking, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Kiliçaslan, Zeki; Işsever, Halim

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported an association between smoking and increases in tuberculosis, the relationship between indoor air pollution and risk of tuberculosis is not fully understood. A limited number of studies have suggested that smoking and indoor air pollution may play a role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of smoking and indoor air pollution on the risk of active tuberculosis. It is prospectively recorded age matched case-control study. Three hundred sixty two active tuberculosis cases and 409 healthy controls were included to the study. All participants were interviewed face to face by using a questionnaire including smoking habit, quantity and duration of smoking, number of room/person in the house, monthly income of the family, indoor heating system, and environmental tobacco smoke. Patients who smoke had a five fold (95% CI: 3.2-7.5, pindoor heating had a 1.6 fold (95% CI: 1.179-2.305, pindoor air pollution may increase the risk of tuberculosis. There is a complex interaction between smoking, socioeconomic conditions, indoor air quality and tuberculosis. Our results suggest that effective indoor air quality control could help to prevent tuberculosis risk.

  20. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, William D.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  1. The Causes and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Deaths in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Seyed Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the 10 leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Understanding the cause and risk factors of TB death and lowering them can reduce its mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the cause and risk factors for death of tuberculosis. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the south west of Iran, from 2002 to 2006. Medical records of tuberculosis cases over the 5-year period were reviewed and death data were analyzed. Including criteria were documented TB diagnosed based on National Tuberculosis Program (NTP. Extracted data were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 system and by chi squared test. One hundred and twenty five deaths (3.15% with mean age of 48.96±10.03 years were detected. Risk factors for death were: cigarette smoking, diabetes, chronic peritoneal dialysis, MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage. 93 deaths (74.4% were directly attributed to tuberculosis. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, AIDS/HIV and MDR-TB were the cause of death with the rate of 69.9%, 11.8%, 9.7% and 8.6%, respectively. 32 (25.6% deaths were due to medical problems unrelated to TB, among which were cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers with the rate of 25%, 21.9% and 15.6%, respectively. The deaths of TB not only are directly related to TB, but also are caused due to comorbid conditions. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers are the main cause of death. MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage are the main risk factors for TB mortality.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Faria de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus in properties and cattle, and to identify potential infection risk factors for herds with cows of reproductive age. The state was divided into seven regions: 1. Noroeste, Norte and Nordeste; 2. Leste; 3. Central; 4. Zona da Mata; 5. Sul and Sudoeste; 6. Alto Paranaíba; and 7. Triângulo Mineiro. Random, two-stage sampling was performed of both properties and cattle from each property. Blood samples were collected from 18,990 cows of reproductive age from 2,185 properties. The serologic tests used for the detection of anti-B. abortus antibodies included the buffered, acidified plate antigen test, as a screening test, with the 2-mercaptoethanol reduction, test as a confirmatory test, as recommended by the Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal - PNCEBT (National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis on the surveyed properties and in cattle were 3.59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76 4.42% and 0.81% (95% CI: 0.05-1.10%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the total number of cows in the property as a risk factor for the presence of anti-B. abortus antibodies, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.12 - 3.34 for herds with 30 to 210 cows and 7.81 (95% CI: 3.72-16.38 for those with more than 210 cows, relative to the risk in herds with less than 30 cows, the base category. While these results demonstrate a significant reduction in the prevalence of properties with bovine brucellosis, the disease is still present in Minas Gerais, with properties with higher numbers of cows at higher risk for infection.

  3. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  4. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Rosenbaum Nielsen, Liza; Willeberg, Preben

    2015-01-01

    We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance oftwo meatinspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB)in Denmark. The systems were the current meatinspection methods (CMI......) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation ofthe probability offreedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value...... to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were...

  5. Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschopp Rea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. Results A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5% with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1% with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk. FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. Conclusions This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown.

  6. Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study on Bovine Tuberculosis by Intra Vitam Testing in Germany, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, C; Köhler, H; Moser, I; Conraths, F J; Homeier, T

    2017-08-01

    Germany was declared officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) effective from 1 July 1996. After the occurrence of several Mycobacterium (M.) bovis outbreaks in north-western Germany in recent years with high intraherd prevalence at the time of detection, the reliability of abattoir surveillance as the principal component of the national bTB control programme was debated by veterinary public health officials. Rising numbers of wildlife-associated outbreaks caused by M. caprae in southern Germany eventually prompted a nationwide cross-sectional study on bTB. A total of 51 999 cattle, that is 0.41% of the national herd kept on 1.73% of German cattle farms, were tested. Despite 4 positive and 152 inconclusive single intradermal comparative cervical test results, none of the animals was confirmed as bTB-positive by a subsequent interferon-release assay or by post-mortem PCR testing. The estimated prevalence of bTB in Germany was thus calculated as 0.0% (CI 0.0000-0.0064%) affirming that Germany still qualifies as an officially tuberculosis-free (OTF) country. Occasional randomized nationwide testing can be an appropriate tool to reassure the OTF status and may also help to maintain an appropriate training level for the diagnostic procedures and for supporting sustained disease awareness among stakeholders. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Boosting BCG with inert spores improves immunogenicity and induces specific IL-17 responses in a murine model of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Kaveh, Daryan A; Sibly, Laura; Webb, Paul R; Bull, Naomi C; Cutting, Simon M; Hogarth, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global pandemic, in both animals and man, and novel vaccines are urgently required. Heterologous prime-boost of BCG represents a promising strategy for improved TB vaccines, with respiratory delivery the most efficacious to date. Such an approach may be an ideal vaccination strategy against bovine TB (bTB), but respiratory vaccination presents a technical challenge in cattle. Inert bacterial spores represent an attractive vaccine vehicle. Therefore we evaluated whether parenterally administered spores are efficacious when used as a BCG boost in a murine model of immunity against Mycobacterium bovis. Here we report the use of heat-killed, TB10.4 adsorbed, Bacillus subtilis spores delivered via subcutaneous injection to boost immunity primed by BCG. We demonstrate that this approach improves the immunogenicity of BCG. Interestingly, this associated with substantial boosting of IL-17 responses; considered to be important in protective immunity against TB. These data demonstrate that parenteral delivery of spores represents a promising vaccine vehicle for boosting BCG, and identifies potential for optimisation for use as a vaccine for bovine TB. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  9. Silico-tuberculosis and associated risk factors in central province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tuberculosis. This article review the frequency of silicosis and tuberculosis in workers who exposed to silica and evaluate influencing factors that may increase the risk of silico-tuberculosis. Methods: an analytical cross-sectional study was performed in ...

  10. Advanced Immune Suppression is Associated With Increased Prevalence of Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections Among Persons at High Risk for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Modongo, Chawangwa; Ncube, Ronald; Sepako, Enoch; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Zetola, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors associated with mixed-strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among patients at high risk for drug-resistant tuberculosis in Botswana. Thirty-seven (10.0%) of 370 patients with tuberculosis had mixed M. tuberculosis infections, based on 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats genotyping. In log-binomial regression analysis, age prevalence ratio [PR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–3.57) and prior tuberculosis treatment (adjusted PR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.09–4.89) were associated with mixed M. tuberculosis infections. Among human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients, prior tuberculosis treatment (adjusted PR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.04–4.31) and CD4+ T-cell count of tuberculosis infections. Clinical suspicion of mixed M. tuberculosis infections should be high for patients with advanced immunosuppression and a prior history of tuberculosis treatment. PMID:25070941

  11. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workicho A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS windows version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to generate summary values for the variables and those significant variables in the bivariate analysis at p-value less than 0.25 were entered to multivariable logistic regression to identify independent determinants. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than or equal to 0.05. Results: A total of 90 cases and 90 controls were included in the study. Age of respondents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6–24.5, living in a household with only one room (AOR=5; 95%CI: 1.68–15.38, history of previous treatment (AOR=21; 95% CI: 17.8–28 and being HIV infected (AOR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.02–9.4 were found to be independent predictors of MDR-TB. Conclusion: In light of these findings, the strategies in controlling MDR-TB should emphasize on patients with HIV coinfection, young patients, those who have a history of previous treatment, and those living in crowded places. Keywords: MDR-TB, risk factors, case-control study, St. Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia

  12. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  13. Viral Booster Vaccines Improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Induced Protection Against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work in small animal laboratory models of tuberculosis have shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to prime and Modified Vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad8...

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF HEPATOTOXIC REACTIONS IN TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. IVАNOVА

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect risk groups for drug-induced liver lesions and to develop the procedure for differential monitoring of liver tests during tuberculosis chemotherapy, a prospective study was performed including 435 new tuberculosis patients. The one-dimensional and regression analysis helped to identify risk factors of drug-induced liver lesions (female sex, poor nutrition, absentation from smoking, history of medicamentous allergy, and based on them scores for risk assessment before the start of chemotherapy were worked out and validated. Drug-induced liver lesions developed in 110 patients (25.3%, 95% CI 21.4-29.6, of them 45 (40.9% developed liver lesion during first 14 days after the start of chemotherapy. The group facing a higher risk of drug-induced liver lesions developed them after a longer period of time; the number of early liver lesions made 18.5% in the high-risk group, and 6.6% (p = 0.02 in the low-risk group. The procedure of laboratory monitoring depending on the degree of risk was offered for early diagnostics of drug-induced liver lesions.

  15. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; du Toit, Johan T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  17. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of bovine tuberculosis diagnostic tests in naturally infected cattle herds using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andrés; Bezos, Javier; Marqués, Sergio; Grau, Anna; Saez, Jose Luis; Mínguez, Olga; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-02-24

    Test-and-slaughter strategies have been the basis of bovine tuberculosis (BT) eradication programs worldwide; however, eradication efforts have not succeeded in certain regions, and imperfect sensitivity and specificity of applied diagnostic techniques have been deemed as one of the possible causes for such failure. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostic tools has been impaired by the lack of an adequate gold standard to define positive and negative individuals. Here, a Bayesian approach was formulated to estimate for the first time sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the tests [single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay] currently used in Spain. Field data from the first implementation of IFN-γ assay (used in parallel with SIT test 2-6months after a first disclosure SIT test) in infected beef, dairy and bullfighting cattle herds from the region of Castilla and Leon were used for the analysis. Model results suggested that in the described situation: (i) Se of SIT test was highly variable (40.1-92.2% for severe interpretation, median=66-69%), and its Sp was high (>99%) regardless interpretation criteria; (ii) IFN-γ assay showed a high Se (median=89-90% and 83.5% for 0.05 and 0.1 cut-off points respectively) and an acceptable Sp (85.7% and 90.3% for 0.05 and 0.1 thresholds) and (iii) parallel application of both tests maximized the combined Se (95.6% using severe SIT and 0.05 cut-off point in the IFN-γ assay). These results support the potential use of the IFN-γ assay as an ancillary technique for routine BT diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  19. Effectiveness of Canada's tuberculosis surveillance strategy in identifying immigrants at risk of developing and transmitting tuberculosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Leyla Asadi, MD; Courtney Heffernan, MA; Prof Dick Menzies, MD; Prof Richard Long, MD

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Canada, tuberculosis disproportionately affects the foreign-born population. The national tuberculosis medical surveillance programme aims to prevent these cases. Individuals referred for further in-country surveillance (referrals) have a history of active tuberculosis or have features of old, healed tuberculosis on chest radiograph; those not referred (non-referrals) do not undergo surveillance. We aimed to examine the risk of transmission arising from referrals versus non-ref...

  20. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and host risk factors in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Teresa; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Reis-Santos, Bárbara; Palaci, Moisés; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Aguiar, Paola P; Ribeiro, Fabiola Karla Correa; Marques, Hebert Silva; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Johnson, John L; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Factors related to the development of extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (EPTB) are still poorly understood, particularly in high-endemic countries like Brazil. The objective of the paper is to determine host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain-related factors associated with the development of EPTB in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We conducted a retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study of new tuberculosis (TB) cases diagnosed in Espírito Santo state, Brazil between 1998 and 2007. We genotyped 612 isolates of MTB from 606 TB patients using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing and compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) and EPTB. Among 606 patients, 464 (77%) had PTB, 79 (13%) had EPTB, 51 (8%) had both, and 12 (2%) had miliary TB. The IS6110 RFLP analysis demonstrated that 250 (41%) isolates belonged to clustered RFLP patterns, 27 (11%) of which were from EPTB. We identified 73 clusters including 35 (48%) composed of 2 isolates each. By spoligotyping, 506 (83%) MTB isolates fell into known patterns and 106 (17%) fell into patterns with no family assignment; 297 (48%) isolates belonged to the Latin-American Mediterranean family. Higher school level (4-7 years OR: 0.16 95% CI 0.34-0.73 and > 8 years of education, OR 0.06 95% CI 0.009-0.50) white ethnicity (OR: 2.54 95% CI 1.03-6.25) and HIV infection (OR: 16.83 95% CI 5.23-54.18) were associated with EPTB. No specific strain lineage or percentage of clustering was associated with EPTB. These results demonstrate that risk factors for EPTB are related more to host than to MTB strain lineage characteristics.

  1. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and host risk factors in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gomes

    Full Text Available Factors related to the development of extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (EPTB are still poorly understood, particularly in high-endemic countries like Brazil. The objective of the paper is to determine host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain-related factors associated with the development of EPTB in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.We conducted a retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study of new tuberculosis (TB cases diagnosed in Espírito Santo state, Brazil between 1998 and 2007. We genotyped 612 isolates of MTB from 606 TB patients using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing and compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary TB (PTB and EPTB. Among 606 patients, 464 (77% had PTB, 79 (13% had EPTB, 51 (8% had both, and 12 (2% had miliary TB. The IS6110 RFLP analysis demonstrated that 250 (41% isolates belonged to clustered RFLP patterns, 27 (11% of which were from EPTB. We identified 73 clusters including 35 (48% composed of 2 isolates each. By spoligotyping, 506 (83% MTB isolates fell into known patterns and 106 (17% fell into patterns with no family assignment; 297 (48% isolates belonged to the Latin-American Mediterranean family. Higher school level (4-7 years OR: 0.16 95% CI 0.34-0.73 and > 8 years of education, OR 0.06 95% CI 0.009-0.50 white ethnicity (OR: 2.54 95% CI 1.03-6.25 and HIV infection (OR: 16.83 95% CI 5.23-54.18 were associated with EPTB. No specific strain lineage or percentage of clustering was associated with EPTB.These results demonstrate that risk factors for EPTB are related more to host than to MTB strain lineage characteristics.

  2. Evaluation of two cocktails containing ESAT-6, CFP-10 and Rv-3615c in the intradermal test and the interferon-γ assay for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, C; Bezos, J; Díez-Guerrier, A; Álvarez, J; Romero, B; de Juan, L; Rodriguez-Campos, S; Vordermeier, M; Whelan, A; Hewinson, R G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Aranaz, A

    2012-06-01

    The intradermal tuberculin tests and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay are the principal tests used worldwide for the ante-mortem diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. The conventional reagent currently in use in these tests is purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin obtained from Mycobacterium bovis culture. The components of PPD are poorly characterized and difficult to standardize. To overcome this issue, antigens specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are being studied. Here we have assessed the biological potency of ESAT-6, CFP-10 and Rv-3615c presented as peptide or recombinant protein cocktails in comparison with the standard bovine PPD used routinely in Spanish eradication campaigns. The study was performed in cattle (n=23) from a herd with natural M. bovis infection. Animals were simultaneously injected with PPD and the peptide and protein cocktails. The percentages of cattle reacting positively to single intradermal test were 60.9% (bovine PPD), 47.8% (peptide cocktail) and 60.9% (protein cocktail), with no significant difference between the actual skin fold thickness increases (p>0.05). The IFN-γ assay detected 60.9% of animals when stimulation was performed with bovine PPD, but decreased to 52.2% when stimulation was performed with the peptide cocktail and to 47.8% when stimulation was performed with the protein cocktail. However, no significant differences were found between IFN-γ responder frequencies (p>0.05). These results show a potential use of these defined reagents for in vivo tuberculosis diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Are intestinal helminths risk factors for developing active tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Mengistu, Getahun; Akuffo, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in active tuberculosis patients and their healthy household contacts and to assess its association with active TB in an area endemic for both types of infections. METHODS: Smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and healthy......: Intestinal helminth infection may be one of the risk factors for the development of active pulmonary TB in addition to HIV infection. This finding may have important implications in the control of TB in helminth endemic areas of the world....

  4. Prevalence and significant geospatial clusters of bovine tuberculosis infection at livestock-wildlife interface ecosystem in Eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakapuja, Richard Simon; Makondo, Zachariah Ephraim; Malakalinga, Joseph; Bryssinckx, Ward; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Moser, Irmgard; Kazwala, Rudovick Reuben; Tanner, Manfred

    2013-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important neglected zoonosis that affects livestock, wildlife and human. A study to determine prevalence and geospatial clusters for BTB was conducted from June 2010 to March 2012 at livestock-wildlife interface areas (LWIA). A total of 1,288 cattle located in vicinity of Mikumi-Selous ecosystem Tanzania were tested. Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test and spatial scan statistic analysis were applied to establish the status of the disease and identify significant spatial BTB clusters. Overall individual prevalence was 3.7 % (n=1,288) (95 % CI=2.8-4.9) and 7.8 % (95 % CI=6.4-9.4) with cut-off of >4 and >2 mm, respectively. Villages with at least one reactor were 55.8 % (n=43). Reactivity was significantly higher in Mvomero and Kilosa districts compared with Kilombero and Ulanga districts (χ (2) =15.9; Pcontrol strategies in marginalised pastoralist communities. This study calls for similar studies in other Tanzania's LWIA for efficient intervention of BTB countrywide.

  5. Preventing the Establishment of a Wildlife Disease Reservoir: A Case Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild Deer in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Carstensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16 km2 area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010.

  6. Incorporating farmer observations in efforts to manage bovine tuberculosis using barrier fencing at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Ryan K

    2010-05-01

    A federal and provincial cost-shared program was initiated in 2001 around Riding Mountain National Park in southwestern Manitoba, Canada to provide free game wire barrier fences for baled hay storage areas to prevent transmission of TB among cattle (Bos taurus), wild elk (Cervus elaphus), and deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Farmer observations of cervids on their farms were evaluated by interviewing 50 farmers that owned a game wire fence for >1 year. Of those interviewed, 82% reported some type of elk or deer damage to hay bales in the field or in their yard prior to fencing. After fencing, 23% of respondents reported some annual damage to stored hay bales that were not inside the fence, but there was a 100% decrease in the estimated annual value of hay losses. Incursions of deer inside the barrier fence were reported by 18% of respondents and most of these were due to leaving gates open. No incursions of elk inside a barrier fence were reported. Despite the important successes achieved, barrier fencing of hay bales alone does not completely protect cattle from bovine tuberculosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the histopathology to depict the different stages of bovine tuberculosis infection in a naturally infected herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Medeiros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard method for detection of bovine tuberculosis (TB is the single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT. Nevertheless, current studies suggest that a single test is not enough to detect all cattle infected by TB, particularly when animals present different stages of infection. A dairy herd comprised of 270 cows was studied and 15 were reactive to SITT plus nine inconclusive animals. Blood samples (for IFN and ELISA were collected from these 24 cows. At 30 days after injection of PPD, all the cows that were reactive to any of the employed tests were slaughtered, and tissues were processed by Bacteriology, Histopathology (HP and PCR. According to HP 33.4% of the animals were positive, 45.8% inconclusive and 20.8% were negative. The inconclusive samples came from IFN positive animals, signalizing recent infection. Regarding the animals that were negative to HP, all of them were identified by IFN while ELISA was negative. Immune responses are different in recent and advanced infections, what supports the identification between chronically or recently infected animals. This multidisciplinary approach is mandatory for the interpretation of the various tools that are frequently employed for the diagnosis of TB and mainly to identify all infected animals.

  8. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaoui Fourati, S; Mzid, H; Marouane, C; Kammoun, S; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2015-08-01

    Despite the availability of potent drugs and the availability of vaccine, tuberculosis remains until today one of the most worrying infectious diseases because of both its morbidity and mortality. This serious health problem is further complicated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant strains (XDR). The number of MDR and XDR strains has continued to increase in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the risk factors leading to the emergence of MDR-TB strains to improve its overall management. Most studies indicate that the irregular previous treatment of tuberculosis with poor adherence is the main risk factor found. Other risk factors such as digestive issues, age, sex, and immunosuppression have been reported by several studies. In Tunisia, MDR-TB prevalence remains low with 0.8% among new cases and 12% among the restatements but control of this disease is necessary and remains essentially preventive. It is based on real preventive strategies planned according to local and updated regional data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Bovine tuberculosis in Iran: The past, present and future of a national disease control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Tadayon

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB was initially reported in Iran by a French veterinarian in local breeds of cattle. An official attempt to control the disease was started in the 1940s, which runs today on a national scale. This mini-review addresses a variety of different epidemiological issues in bTb control in the world and in Iran from an immunologist's eye to find the cure for human cases infected with M. bovis. In addition, the benefits and drawbacks of this control scheme are discussed.

  10. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la incidencia de la tuberculosis ha aumentado. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecta frecuentemente a las personas con SIDA, debido a que en estos pacientes hay una reducción de la resistencia mediada por células T, lo que propicia que este bacilo pueda desarrollar la enfermedad con una frecuencia superior a la de las personas sanas. La transmisión de la enfermedad puede ser por vía directa, de un individuo afectado a otro, fundamentalmente por las gotitas de saliva que contengan a este microorganismo, o por vía indirecta por la inhalación del bacilo que se puede encontrar por meses en los objetos de uso diario, debido a su gran resistencia. Las micobacterias que producen tuberculosis en el hombre inmunocompetente son la Mycobacterium tuberculosis y la bovis, otros tipos pueden provocar tuberculosis en individuos inmunocomprometidos. La patogenicidad de este bacilo está relacionada con su capacidad para escapar de la destrucción inducida por los macrófagos y para provocar hipersensibilidad de tipo retardado. Esta enfermedad tiene muy pocas manifestaciones bucales, lo que se observa generalmente es una úlcera que toma como asiento fundamental el dorso de la lengua. La tuberculosis amenaza con convertirse en una enfermedad incurable por la deficiente administración de los programas contra ésta, por lo que la OMS plantea para su detección y tratamiento el DOTS (tratamiento observado directamente, de corta duración que comienza a tener resultados satisfactorios, aunque en el último quinquenio, el 88 % de los pacientes que se estimaban como infectados por tuberculosis no recibieron DOTS.At present, the incidence of tuberculosis is on the rise. Mycobacterium tuberculosis often infests AIDS patients due to the fact that these persons´T-cell mediated resistance is reduced, which favors the development of the disease at a higher rate than in healthy people. The disease can be transmitted directly, that is , from an

  11. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in wild deer and feral pigs and their roles in the establishment and spread of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Gortazar, C; Knowles, G

    2015-06-01

    In New Zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for Mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (TB) from possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. Here we review the epidemiology of TB in deer and pigs, and assess whether New Zealand's TB management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. In New Zealand, TB prevalences of up to 47% have been recorded in wild deer sympatric with tuberculous possums. Patterns of lesion distribution, age-specific prevalences and behavioural observations suggest that deer become infected mainly through exposure to dead or moribund possums. TB can progress rapidly in some deer (new infection to wild deer has been halted. Tuberculosis prevalence in New Zealand feral pigs can reach 100%. Infections in lymph nodes of the head and alimentary tract predominate, indicating that TB is mostly acquired through scavenging tuberculous carrion, particularly possums. Infection is usually well contained, and transmission between pigs is rare. Large reductions in local possum density result in gradual declines (over 10 years) in TB prevalence among sympatric wild deer, and faster declines in feral pigs. Elimination of TB from possums (and livestock) therefore results in eventual disappearance of TB from feral pigs and wild deer. However, the risk of spillback infection from deer to possums substantially extends the time needed to locally eradicate TB from all wildlife (compared to that which would be required to eradicate disease from possums alone), while dispersal or translocation of pigs (e.g. by hunters) creates a risk of long-distance spread of disease. The high rate at which pigs acquire M. bovis infection from dead possums makes them useful as sentinels for detecting TB in wildlife. It is unlikely that wild deer and feral pigs act as maintenance hosts anywhere in New Zealand, because

  12. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone of ... economic implication of bovine mastitis derives from the high costs of treat- ... wot et al., 2013) and 95% statistical confidence level at 5% absolute precision.

  13. Isolation and identification of bovine tuberculosis in a Brazilian herd (São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFC Nassar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium was verified in animals from a Brazilian dairy herd, a total of 42 samples from 30 cows were submitted to culture and the isolated strains were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the first specific for species belonging to the Mycobacterium complex (MTBC and the other for differentiating M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Twenty seven samples (64.3% from 18 animals (60% were positive for mycobacteria by culture, including samples from 15 retrofaryngeal lymphnodes (55.5%, 9 prescapular lymphnodes (33.3%, 2 lungs (7.4%, and 1 liver (3.7%. All isolated colonies were confirmed by PCR to contain MTBC organisms, and were identified as M. bovis by the same methodology.

  14. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derseh, Dejene; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay

    2017-01-26

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis patients have different pattern of health care seeking behavior. They usually adopt other approaches like traditional healers and spiritual holy water sites before consulting public health facilities. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01, 2015 to March 30, 2015 in seven selected holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia. During the study period, a total of 1384 adult holy water users were screened for PTB symptoms. A total of 382 pulmonary tuberculosis suspects participated in the study. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum specimens were collected and examined for acid fast bacilli using Auramine O fluorescence staining technique. Smear positive sputum samples were tested by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for rifampicin resistance. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were employed using SPSS-16 software. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 2.9% with point prevalence of 795/100, 000 holy water users. History of contact with tuberculosis patient (AOR = 9.174, 95% C.I = 2.195-38.34) and the number of family members > 5 per household (AOR = 9.258, 95% C.I = 1.14-74.97) were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Rifampicin resistance was not detected from all smear positives by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in spiritual holy water sites was 7.4 fold higher than the general population. History of contact with active tuberculosis patients and increased family size were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary TB. The national tuberculosis

  15. Risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis compared to pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J N; Lai, C H; Chen, Y H; Lee, S S J; Tsai, S S; Huang, C K; Chung, H C; Liang, S H; Lin, H H

    2009-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major global health problem. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) manifests with protean symptoms, and establishing a diagnosis is more difficult than pulmonary TB (PTB). A university-affiliated hospital in southern Taiwan. To analyse the risk factors for EPTB compared with PTB. This retrospective study compared patients with EPTB and PTB in southern Taiwan by analysing their demographic data and clinical underlying diseases. Risk factors for EPTB were further analysed. A total of 766 TB patients were enrolled in this study, with 102 (13.3%) EPTB and 664 (86.7%) PTB cases. Of the 766 patients, 3% of PTB patients had EPTB, while 19.6% of EPTB patients also had PTB. The most frequently involved EPTB site was the bone and joints (24.5%). The incidence of EPTB vs. PTB decreased significantly for each decade increase in patient age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, not being diabetic, having end-stage renal disease and not smoking were independent risk factors for EPTB. This study defines the risk factors for EPTB compared with PTB. Awareness of these factors is essential for physicians to have a high index of suspicion for accurate and timely diagnosis.

  16. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat; Dimitrova, Boika; Dodonova, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Drobniewski, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia. Design Case-control study of exposure to a variety of risk factors before and during the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Setting Large city in Russia. Participants Cases were 334 consecutive adults diagnosed as having culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003. Controls were 334 individuals sampled from a validated population registry, matched for age and sex to the patients with tuberculosis. A questionnaire collected information on potential risk factors. Main outcome measures Risk factors associated with the development of tuberculosis. Results The main risk factors for tuberculosis were low accumulated wealth (univariate odds ratio 16.70), financial insecurity (5.67), consumption of unpasteurised milk (3.58), diabetes (2.66), living with a relative with tuberculosis (2.94), being unemployed (6.10), living in overcrowded conditions (2.99), illicit drug use (8.74), and a history of incarceration in both pretrial detention centres (5.70) and prison (12.50). Conclusions When prevalence of exposure is taken into account the most important factors in the development of pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia are exposure to raw milk and unemployment. PMID:16339219

  17. Tuberculosis: Occupational risk among dental healthcare workers and risk for infection among dental patients. A meta-narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients is due to the level of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) circulation in the community and in the healthcare settings where HCWs are active. In contrast, most papers about dentistry report that dental HCWs (DHCWs) and patients are at relatively high risk, mainly based on tuberculosis case series that occurred in the 80's-90's. This meta-narrative review was designed to evaluate the tuberculosis risk in dentistry accounting for the historical-geographical contexts. All available studies reporting data on MT infection (active/latent tuberculosis, tuberculin skin test) among patients and DHCWs. PubMed, Scopus, GOOGLE Scholar. MT/tuberculosis and dentistry/dentist/dental/dent*. 238 of the 351 titles were excluded because did not concern dental healthcare providing, 94 papers were excluded because they did not provide original data. Thirteen studies on occupational risk, nine on transmission to patients remained. Some, often non-confirmed, cases of MT infection among patients were reported in specific historical-geographical contexts where MT was endemic. The risk of active pulmonary tuberculosis transmission from infected DHCWs to patients is minimal today, provided that the basic infection control guidelines are applied. The development of active tuberculosis among DHCWs is occasional and is associable to MT circulation rather than dental healthcare providing. Tuberculosis transmission in dental healthcare settings was due to the lack of basic infection control measures, while the risk is acceptable (i.e., similar to the general population) nowadays. Therefore, tuberculosis transmission can be safely prevented wearing gloves and surgical mask and providing regular air changes in the operative and non-operative dental healthcare settings. Precautionary Principle-based measures are implementable when patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis are routinely treated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish...... cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Nampula Central Hospital, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Celso; Naidoo, Saloshni

    2017-06-08

    Healthcare workers in high tuberculosis burdened countries are occupationally exposed to the tuberculosis disease with uncomplicated and complicated tuberculosis on the increase among them. Most of them acquire Mycobacterium tuberculosis but do not progress to the active disease - latent tuberculosis infection. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Nampula Central Hospital, Mozambique. This cross-sectional study of healthcare workers was conducted between 2014 and 2015. Participants (n = 209) were administered a questionnaire on demographics and occupational tuberculosis exposure and had a tuberculin skin test administered. Multivariate linear and logistic regression tested for associations between independent variables and dependent outcomes (tuberculin skin test induration and latent tuberculosis infection status). The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection was 34.4%. Latent tuberculosis infection was highest in those working for more than eight years (39.3%), those who had no BCG vaccination (39.6%) and were immunocompromised (78.1%). Being immunocompromised was significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection (OR 5.97 [95% CI 1.89; 18.87]). Positive but non-significant associations occurred with working in the medical domain (OR 1.02 [95% CI 0.17; 6.37]), length of employment > eight years (OR 1.97 [95% CI 0.70; 5.53]) and occupational contact with tuberculosis patients (OR 1.24 [95% CI 0.47; 3.27]). Personal and occupational factors were positively associated with latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Mozambique.

  20. Model of Selective and Non-Selective Management of Badgers (Meles meles) to Control Bovine Tuberculosis in Badgers and Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham C; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A; Budgey, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) causes substantial economic losses to cattle farmers and taxpayers in the British Isles. Disease management in cattle is complicated by the role of the European badger (Meles meles) as a host of the infection. Proactive, non-selective culling of badgers can reduce the incidence of disease in cattle but may also have negative effects in the area surrounding culls that have been associated with social perturbation of badger populations. The selective removal of infected badgers would, in principle, reduce the number culled, but the effects of selective culling on social perturbation and disease outcomes are unclear. We used an established model to simulate non-selective badger culling, non-selective badger vaccination and a selective trap and vaccinate or remove (TVR) approach to badger management in two distinct areas: South West England and Northern Ireland. TVR was simulated with and without social perturbation in effect. The lower badger density in Northern Ireland caused no qualitative change in the effect of management strategies on badgers, although the absolute number of infected badgers was lower in all cases. However, probably due to differing herd density in Northern Ireland, the simulated badger management strategies caused greater variation in subsequent cattle bTB incidence. Selective culling in the model reduced the number of badgers killed by about 83% but this only led to an overall benefit for cattle TB incidence if there was no social perturbation of badgers. We conclude that the likely benefit of selective culling will be dependent on the social responses of badgers to intervention but that other population factors including badger and cattle density had little effect on the relative benefits of selective culling compared to other methods, and that this may also be the case for disease management in other wild host populations.

  1. Risk factors for excess mortality and death in adults with tuberculosis in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hoog, A. H.; Williamson, J.; Sewe, M.; Mboya, P.; Odeny, L. O.; Agaya, J. A.; Amolloh, M.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Laserson, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate excess mortality and risk factors for death during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Western Kenya. METHODS: We abstracted surveillance data and compared mortality rates during anti-tuberculosis treatment with all-cause mortality from a health and demographic surveillance

  2. No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzinger, Fiona E.; den Boon, Saskia; Verver, Suzanne; Enarson, Donald A.; Lombard, Carl J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Gie, Robert P.; Beyers, Nulda

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the change in annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in two neighbouring urban communities of Cape Town, South Africa with an HIV prevalence of approximately 2%, and to compare ARTI with notification rates and treatment outcomes in the tuberculosis (TB) programme. In 1998-1999 and

  3. Parameter estimation and use of gamma interferon assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Lopes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the interference of tuberculin test on the gamma-interferon (INFg assay, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay in Brazilian conditions, and to simulate multiple testing using the comparative tuberculin test and the INFg assay. Three hundred-fifty cattle from two TB-free and two TB-infected herds were submitted to the comparative tuberculin test and the INFg assay. The comparative tuberculin test was performed using avian and bovine PPD. The INFg assay was performed by the BovigamTM kit (CSL Veterinary, Australia, according to the manufacturer's specifications. Sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay were assessed by a Bayesian latent class model. These diagnostic parameters were also estimate for multiple testing. The results of INFg assay on D0 and D3 after the comparative tuberculin test were compared by the McNemar's test and kappa statistics. Results of mean optical density from INFg assay on both days were similar. Sensitivity and specificity of the INFg assay showed results varying (95% confidence intervals from 72 to 100% and 74 to 100% respectively. Sensitivity of parallel testing was over 97.5%, while specificity of serial testing was over 99.7%. The INFg assay proved to be a very useful diagnostic method.

  4. Perceived risk of tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Bhembe, Patience Thulile; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2016-11-23

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Kingdom of Swaziland is extremely high. How healthcare workers (HCWs) in Swaziland perceive infection control (IC) measures for preventing TB transmission is unclear. This study aimed to determine perceived risk of TB infection in relation to IC measures among HCWs in three institutions of Swaziland. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014. Demographic data and IC measures were collected from main and allied HCWs. In total, 186 HCWs (19 doctors, 99 nurses, and 68 allied HCWs) were enrolled. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that nurses (OR = 39.87, 95% CI = 2.721-584.3) and other HCWs (OR =99.34, 95% CI = 7.469-1321) perceived a higher TB infection risk than did doctors. Moreover, HCWs working for infection risk (OR = 0.099, 95% CI = 0.022-0.453). Availability of N95 respirator masks (OR = 0.055, 95% CI = 0.005-0.586) and a designated sputum collection area (OR = 0.142, 95% CI = 0.037-0.545) also carried lower TB infection risks. This study depicts the current status of IC measures for TB infection in a high prevalence country. The results suggest that HCWs perceived a greater TB infection risk at inadequate environmental IC measures.

  5. Host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and risk of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Agger, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune responses to latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) may enable individuals to control Mtb infection and halt progression to tuberculosis (TB), a hypothesis applied in several novel TB vaccines. We aimed to evaluate whether immune responses to selected LTBI...

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Infection Among Household Children Contacts of Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Mishra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India has highest burden of tuberculosis (TB globally. The source of infection for children is usually an adult in their household with active TB. Only few studies have been carried out among household children contacts of active TB patients in India to assess the risk factors of infection among children. Aim and Objective: To study the risk factors of TB infection among household children contacts of sputum positive patients. Material and Methods: We conducted study on 200 household children contacts (1-15 years of sputum positive patients registered at DOTS centers in Lucknow district, Uttar Pradesh. Stratified sampling was done. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to collect the information. Infection in children was assessed by TST (Mantoux test. Results: TST positivity in children of TST positivity was associated with female index case (p=0.027, lower socioeconomic status (p=0.011, overcrowding (0.008 and duration of symptoms before treatment (p6 years, duration of stay with index case >10 hours/day and malnutrition were significantly associated. Conclusion: The study concludes that TB infection among children is significantly associated with various factors related to index case, susceptible host and environment, which can be intervened to prevent TB infection in children.

  7. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardstaff Joanne L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles. The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to

  8. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Bulling, Mark T; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2012-06-27

    The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6-8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such

  9. Splenectomy correlates with increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S-W; Wang, I-K; Lin, C-L; Chen, H-J; Liao, K-F

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there was an association between splenectomy and pulmonary tuberculosis. This was a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Programme. We identified 18 960 patients (aged 20 years or older) with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis as the case group and 73 988 participants without pulmonary tuberculosis as the control group from 1998 to 2011. Both groups were matched for sex, age (per 5 years) and index year of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with splenectomy and other co-morbidities was estimated. After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.91 in patients with splenectomy (95% CI 1.06-3.44), compared with the participants without splenectomy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR 3.07, 95% CI 2.94-3.21), pneumoconiosis (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.90-2.56), chronic kidney diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.33-1.67), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50-1.64) and chronic liver diseases (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.37) were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. The sub-analysis demonstrated that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 4.81 (95% CI 2.31-10.0) for patients co-morbid with splenectomy and any of the above diseases. Splenectomy is associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. There is a synergistic effect between splenectomy and other co-morbidities on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project: can a disease-free captive wood bison herd be recovered from a wild population infected with bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, J S; Elkin, B T; Ellsworth, T R

    2002-10-01

    The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project (HLWBRP) is a wildlife conservation project aimed at recovering a captive, disease-free herd of wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) from a wild herd infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (Brucella abortus). The disease eradication protocol that we have used involves a combination of techniques, including (1) orphaning of newborn wild-caught calves to minimize exposure to B. abortus and M. bovis, (2) testing calves for maternal antibodies to brucellosis in the field prior to inclusion in the project, (3) isolating calves in pairs to prevent potential spread of disease, (4) prophylactic treatment using antimycobacterial and anti-Brucella drugs, and (5) an intensive whole-herd testing program for both diseases and removal of reactors. From 1996 to 1998, we captured a total of 62 calves; presently, 58 individuals comprise the founder herd. The captive-born cohorts consist of 7 two-year-olds, 21 yearlings, and 22 calves. To date, there have been no cases of bovine tuberculosis or brucellosis in the captive herd.

  11. Beef and bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the risk persists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealler, S; Lacey, R

    1991-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) that are currently known to the authors to affect only mammals, including man. The diseases are progressive, fatal paralyses and dementias, for which there are no methods of certain diagnosis and no treatment. In this review the disease in cattle, the mode of transfer of these TSEs between animals by mouth, the possible presence of infective agents in the food that we eat, the resistance of BSE to cooking, and the likelihood that humans may become infected are discussed. The origins of BSE, whether from sheep, from cows, or as a mutation are considered. Whatever the origin of BSE, a substantial danger for man exists. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD), a TSE of man, may have been derived from eating infected animal tissue in the past. The possibility that this was of bovine origin and the implications that this would have for BSE infected meat in human food are discussed.

  12. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  14. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central memory T cells (Tcm’s) and polyfunctional CD4 T responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB); however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by ...

  15. Perceived risk of tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of tuberculosis (TB in the Kingdom of Swaziland is extremely high. How healthcare workers (HCWs in Swaziland perceive infection control (IC measures for preventing TB transmission is unclear. This study aimed to determine perceived risk of TB infection in relation to IC measures among HCWs in three institutions of Swaziland. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014. Demographic data and IC measures were collected from main and allied HCWs. Results In total, 186 HCWs (19 doctors, 99 nurses, and 68 allied HCWs were enrolled. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that nurses (OR = 39.87, 95% CI = 2.721–584.3 and other HCWs (OR =99.34, 95% CI = 7.469–1321 perceived a higher TB infection risk than did doctors. Moreover, HCWs working for <4 years at the TB department perceived a lower TB infection risk (OR = 0.099, 95% CI = 0.022–0.453. Availability of N95 respirator masks (OR = 0.055, 95% CI = 0.005–0.586 and a designated sputum collection area (OR = 0.142, 95% CI = 0.037–0.545 also carried lower TB infection risks. Conclusion This study depicts the current status of IC measures for TB infection in a high prevalence country. The results suggest that HCWs perceived a greater TB infection risk at inadequate environmental IC measures.

  16. A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases: a prospective derivation and external validation cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew J; Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Baldwin, Matthew R; Datta, Sumona; Zevallos, Karine; Montoya, Rosario; Valencia, Teresa R; Friedland, Jon S; Moulton, Larry H; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-11-01

    Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95

  17. Farmer and Veterinarian Attitudes towards the Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Programme in Spain: What Is Going on in the Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravino, Giovanna; Ibarra, Patricia; Casal, Ester; Lopez, Sergi; Espluga, Josep; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Allepuz, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of health interventions against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is influenced by several “non-biological” factors that may hamper bTB detection and control. Although the engagement of stakeholders is a key factor for the eradication programme’s success, social factors have been often ignored in the control programmes of animal diseases, especially in developed countries. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate perceptions, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs of farmers, and veterinarians who may influence the effectiveness of the Spanish bTB eradication programme. The study was carried out in two phases. First, 13 key representatives of different groups involved in the programme were interviewed through exploratory interviews to identify most relevant themes circulating in the population. Interviews focused on strong and weak points of the programme; reasons for failure to achieve eradication; benefits of being disease free; future perspectives, and proposed changes to the programme. Based on these results, a thematic guide was developed and detailed information was gained through face-to-face in-depth interviews conducted on a purposive sample of 39 farmers and veterinarians. Data were analysed following an ethnographic methodology. Main results suggested that the bTB programme is perceived as a law enforcement duty without an adequate motivation of some stakeholders and a general feeling of distrust arose. The complexity of bTB epidemiology combined with gaps in knowledge and weak communication throughout stakeholders contributed to causing disbeliefs, which in turn generated different kinds of guesses and interpretations. Low reliability in the routine skin test for bTB screening was expressed and the level of confidence on test results interpretation was linked with skills and experience of public and private veterinarians in the field. Lack of training for farmers and pressure faced by veterinarians during field activities

  18. Farmer and Veterinarian Attitudes towards the Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Programme in Spain: What Is Going on in the Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ciaravino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of health interventions against bovine tuberculosis (bTB is influenced by several “non-biological” factors that may hamper bTB detection and control. Although the engagement of stakeholders is a key factor for the eradication programme’s success, social factors have been often ignored in the control programmes of animal diseases, especially in developed countries. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate perceptions, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs of farmers, and veterinarians who may influence the effectiveness of the Spanish bTB eradication programme. The study was carried out in two phases. First, 13 key representatives of different groups involved in the programme were interviewed through exploratory interviews to identify most relevant themes circulating in the population. Interviews focused on strong and weak points of the programme; reasons for failure to achieve eradication; benefits of being disease free; future perspectives, and proposed changes to the programme. Based on these results, a thematic guide was developed and detailed information was gained through face-to-face in-depth interviews conducted on a purposive sample of 39 farmers and veterinarians. Data were analysed following an ethnographic methodology. Main results suggested that the bTB programme is perceived as a law enforcement duty without an adequate motivation of some stakeholders and a general feeling of distrust arose. The complexity of bTB epidemiology combined with gaps in knowledge and weak communication throughout stakeholders contributed to causing disbeliefs, which in turn generated different kinds of guesses and interpretations. Low reliability in the routine skin test for bTB screening was expressed and the level of confidence on test results interpretation was linked with skills and experience of public and private veterinarians in the field. Lack of training for farmers and pressure faced by veterinarians during

  19. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis in selected parts of Chongwe district

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    Emmanuel Chileshe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to establish the level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (BTB, one of the neglected zoonotic diseases. Materials and Methods: In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 369 small-scale milk producers were interviewed using a pretested interviewer questionnaire. Using a computer, data obtained from the operator-administered questionnaires were entered in Epidata® and exported to Stata 10.0® for analysis with which descriptive statistics were generated for analysis. The level of knowledge on BTB for both male and female small-scale milk producers was analyzed in relation to membership to cooperative, frequency of TB tests in cattle, availability of extension services, and milk handling and utilization practices. The relationships between the different hypothesized confounders and the binary outcome (BTB testing were investigated with Pearson’s Chi-squared test for association. Logistic regression model describing the BTB cattle testing among the farmers controlling for hypothesized confounders was finalized using likelihood ratio testing to screen the significance of posited confounders in the model. To ensure validity and eliminate bias of data, the interviews were limited to three interviewers. The questionnaires were pre-tested for clarity as well as to avoid confounding questions. Results: Majority (95% of the small-scale milk producers across the study had heard about BTB. The proportion of those who knew that it is transmittable to humans was low (43.8%. The proportion of those who knew its mode of transmission to humans was also low (32.4%. However, it was high in milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives followed by producers in livestock cooperatives. It was noted that a small proportion of small-scale milk producers ensured that their cattle were tested for BTB. Logistic regression showed that there was 73 times likelihood that

  20. Evaluation of quantitative IFN-gamma response for risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, John Z; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ho, Christine; Grinsdale, Jennifer; Hopewell, Philip C; Kawamura, L Masae; Nahid, Payam

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) to appropriate risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects has not been studied. To determine whether the addition of quantitative IGRA results to a prediction model incorporating clinical criteria improves risk stratification of smear-negative-tuberculosis suspects. Clinical data from tuberculosis suspects evaluated by the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from March 2005 to February 2008 were reviewed. We excluded tuberculosis suspects who were acid fast-bacilli smear-positive, HIV-infected, or under 10 years of age. We developed a clinical prediction model for culture-positive disease and examined the benefit of adding quantitative interferon (IFN)-gamma results measured by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia). Of 660 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 65 (10%) had culture-proven tuberculosis. The odds of active tuberculosis increased by 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3-11%) for each doubling of IFN-gamma level. The addition of quantitative IFN-gamma results to objective clinical data significantly improved model performance (c-statistic 0.71 vs. 0.78; P added clinical value to a prediction model incorporating conventional risk factors. Although this benefit may be attenuated within highly experienced centers, the predictive accuracy of quantitative IFN-gamma levels should be evaluated in other settings.

  1. Risk assessment in zoonotic tuberculosis in Mbarara, the main milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis, the cause of tuberculosis in cattle, sometimes causes disease in humans: transmission from cattle to humans is mainly by ingestion of raw cattle products from infected animals, and transmission by inhalation is possible when there is prolonged contact. This study was carried out in tuberculosis ...

  2. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Immunocompromised Patients. A TBNET Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith; Bumbacea, Dragos; Cirillo, Daniela M.; Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Domínguez, José; Duarte, Raquel; Ernst, Martin; Eyuboglu, Fusun Oner; Gerogianni, Irini; Girardi, Enrico; Goletti, Delia; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Julander, Inger; Lange, Berit; Latorre, Irene; Losi, Monica; Markova, Roumiana; Matteelli, Alberto; Milburn, Heather; Ravn, Pernille; Scholman, Theresia; Soccal, Paola M.; Straub, Marina; Wagner, Dirk; Wolf, Timo; Yalcin, Aslihan; Lange, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of active tuberculosis, a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result defines latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although test results may vary depending on immunodeficiency. This study compared the performance of TST and IGRAs in

  3. Risk factors for pulmonary cavitation in tuberculosis patients from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Pang, Yu; Yu, Xia; Wang, Yufeng; Lu, Jie; Gao, Mengqiu; Huang, Hairong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-10-12

    Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12.08 (5.75-25.35), Ptuberculosis strains, 330 strains (85.7%) were classified as the Beijing genotype, which included 260 strains that belonged to the modern Beijing sublineage and 70 to the ancient Beijing sublineage. In addition, there were 80 and 31 strains belonging to large and small clusters, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that cavitary disease was observed more frequently among the large clusters than the small clusters (P=0.037). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that diabetes and multidrug resistance are risk factors associated with cavitary TB. In addition, there was no significant difference in the cavitary presentation between patients infected with the Beijing genotype strains and those infected with the non-Beijing genotype strains.

  4. Role of Risk Factors in the Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

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    Alya Putri Khairani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the risk factors that played roles in the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in such patients. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Methods: This was a case control study to compare MDR-TB to non-MDR-TB pulmonary tuberculosis outpatients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung on August–September 2014. Fifty MDR-TB outpatients were included as the cases and 50 non-MDR-TB outpatients as controls. Data was collected by questionnaires and patient’s registration forms. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression test, with p<0.05 considered significant. Results: From bivariate analysis, number of previous tuberculosis treatments, regularity of previous treatment, and burden of cost were significant risk factors for developing MDR-TB (p<0.05; while from multivariate analysis, number of previous TB treatments was the only risk factor that played a significant role in the incidence of MDR-TB (OR 24.128 95% CI 6.771-85,976. Conclusions: Patients and medication factors are risk factors that play roles in the incidence of MDR-TB. The significant risk factor is the number of previous TB treatment.

  5. The risk of tuberculosis disease among persons with diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Meghan A; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Murray, Megan B

    2012-03-01

    Evidence suggests a causal link between diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis risk. However, to date, few studies have used a prospective design to estimate the impact of diabetes on tuberculosis in a general population. In this study, we prospectively investigated the risk of tuberculosis among persons with diabetes stratified by severity. A cohort study was performed that involved 17,715 Taiwanese persons on whom baseline data were collected during Taiwan's 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Participants' subsequent medical care until December 2004 was captured from the National Health Insurance database. The diagnosis and severity of diabetes were established using self-report, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and pharmacy records; incident tuberculosis disease was identified using these codes and pharmacy records. Covariates were obtained through in-person interviews. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to measure the association between tuberculosis and both diabetes and diabetes severity. Diabetes in general and treated diabetes were significantly associated with tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.09 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.10-3.95] and 2.60 [95% CI, 1.34-5.03], respectively). Compared with persons without treated diabetes, participants' risk of tuberculosis increased as the number of complications of diabetes mellitus increased (P = .0016), with >3-fold risk among those with ≥ 2 diabetes-related complications (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.59-7.50). Similarly, the risk increased among those with higher Diabetes Complications Severity Index scores (P = .0002). The risk of developing tuberculosis increased among those with increasing diabetes severity.

  6. Home humidity increased risk of tuberculosis in children living with adult active tuberculosis cases

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    Pudji Lestari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the countries with the largest number of tuberculosis (TB cases in the world. Environmental factors play significant roles in infection and disease development in children living with adult active TB cases. The aim of this study was to explore the environmental factors affecting TB risk in children, including humidity and number of people living in the same house with the children.  Using a cross-sectional study design, children living with active TB adults for at least 8 weeks were recruited. The subjects underwent clinical examination, tuberculin skin test (TST and radiological investigations. Home visits were conducted three times daily, namely in the morning, at midday, and in the evening, to measure humidity by digital hygrometer and to observe home conditions. Of 56 index cases living with active TB adults in an urban low socio-economic setting, 64 contact TB children were recruited. These children were classified as class I with negative TST and no clinical signs, class II with positive TST and no clinical signs, and class III with both positive TST and clinical signs. There were 32 (50% class I, 10 (15.6% class II and 22 (34.3% class III children. However, a sub-sample of 43 showed positive results for Mtb 16S rRNA, indicating that all children were infected. The humidity cut-off point was set at 75%, p=0.04 and EP 2.09 (CI= 1.32-3.29, signifying that children living in houses with a humidity higher than 75%, were twice more likely to be tuberculin positive. Environmental conditions playing a role in disease development were humidity and number of people living in the house.

  7. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Hui; Fu, Han; Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  8. Bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in lactating cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study of bovine mastitis was conducted on 275 lactating cows from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of mastitis and to determine the pathogens causing mastitis with the associated risk factors. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination of the udder and milk and the use of White ...

  9. TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION MIGHT INCREASE THE RISK OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

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    Xiao-Hua CHEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Candida infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients. A rare case of a multiple deep organ infection with Candida albicans and spinal tuberculosis was reported in a healthy young man. The 19-year-old man complained of month-long fever and lower back pain. He also had a history of scalded mouth syndrome. Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans was diagnosed using the culture of aspirates from different regions. Symptoms improved considerably after antifungal and antituberculous therapy. This case illustrates that infection with tuberculosis might impair the host's immune system and increase the risk of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient.

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  11. Persistent Latent Tuberculosis Reactivation Risk in United States Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John; Parker, Matthew; Lowenthal, Phillip; Flood, Jennifer; Fu, Yunxin; Asis, Redentor; Reves, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by imported active TB. Objectives: Estimate reactivation and imported TB in an immigrant cohort. Methods: We linked preimmigration records from a cohort of California-bound Filipino immigrants during 2001–2010 with subsequent TB reports. TB was likely LTBI reactivation if the immigrant had no evidence of active TB at preimmigration examination, likely imported if preimmigration radiograph was abnormal and TB was reported less than or equal to 6 months after arrival, and likely reactivation of inactive TB if radiograph was abnormal but TB was reported more than 6 months after arrival. Measurements and Main Results: Among 123,114 immigrants, 793 TB cases were reported. Within 1 year of preimmigration examination, 85% of TB was imported; 6 and 9% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. Conversely, during Years 2–9 after U.S. entry, 76 and 24% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. The rate of LTBI reactivation (32 per 100,000) did not decline during Years 1–9. Conclusions: High postarrival TB rates were caused by detection of imported TB through active postarrival surveillance. Among immigrants without active TB at baseline, reported TB did not decline over 9 years, indicating sustained high risk of LTBI reactivation. Revised guidelines should support LTBI screening and treatment more than 5 years after U.S. arrival. PMID:24308495

  12. Review of epidemiological studies on the occupational risk of tuberculosis in low-incidence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Andreas; Nienhaus, Albert; Diel, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for occupationally acquired tuberculosis and considers the implications for the prevention of tuberculosis. The relevant epidemiological studies were identified on the basis of the Medline data bank, starting with the year 1966. The evaluation of occupational groups with an elevated tuberculosis risk is exclusively based on epidemiologic studies of good or acceptable quality, applying clearly defined criteria of methodological quality. In summary, the available epidemiological evidence suggests that the risk of tuberculosis is elevated in the following occupational groups: hospital employees in wards with tuberculosis patients; nurses in hospitals; nurses attending HIV-positive or drug-addicted patients; pathology and laboratory workers; respiratory therapists and physiotherapists; physicians in internal medicine, anaesthesia, surgery and psychiatry; non-medical hospital personnel in housekeeping and transport work; funeral home employees, and prison employees. However, the epidemiological evidence is limited for all these occupations, with the exception of the nurses, because of the lack of methodologically adequate studies that have got the statistical power to differentiate between specific work tasks. There is a need for large population-based studies with precise definition of exposure, which should include molecular epidemiologic methods in the investigation of occupational risk factors of tuberculosis. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Influence of HIV and other risk factors on tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Sana; Coetzee, David

    2017-04-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) notification in South Africa has increased six-fold over the past two decades, mainly because of the HIV epidemic. To describe the sociodemographic and outcome characteristics of TB patients, and to identify risk factors associated with TB treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status. A cross-sectional study was used to analyse data from the Cape Town Metro East geographical service area (GSA) electronic TB register (ETR.Net), including adult patients aged ≥15 years who initiated TB treatment between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012. TB case notification in the GSA was 922 per 100 000 population. Of the 12 672 TB patients registered, 50.5% were co-infected with HIV. The death rate in co-infected patients was 5.4% v. 2.8% in HIV-negative patients, the rate of treatment success 66.6% v. 73.5%, and the rate of unfavourable treatment outcome 28.1% v. 23.7%. The Khayelitsha subdistrict had the highest proportion of TB burden (37.0%) and co-infection (47.6%). Fourteen percent of patients had extrapulmonary TB, 65.9% of whom were co-infected with HIV. In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection (relative risk (RR) 1.2), retreatment (RR 1.4) and sputum smear microscopy not done (RR 1.4) were significantly associated with unfavourable treatment outcome. The Eastern (RR 0.9) and Northern (RR 0.7) subdistricts were less likely to have unfavourable outcomes compared with Khayelitsha. In the stratified analysis, retreatment and smear not done were significant risk factors for an unfavourable treatment outcome in both co-infected and HIV-negative patients. The burdens of both TB and co-infection were high in this community, although HIV prevalence varied. Mortality was higher and treatment completion lower in co-infected patients than in those who were HIV-negative. Co-infection, previous TB treatment and smear not done were significant risk factors for an unfavourable outcome in all patients.

  14. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hui Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent.We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p < 0.001 compared to those without diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281. In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p < 0.001. Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%-11.5% of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service.Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  15. Influence of HIV and other risk factors on tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mahtab

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB notification in South Africa has increased six-fold over the past two decades, mainly because of the HIV epidemic. Objectives. To describe the sociodemographic and outcome characteristics of TB patients, and to identify risk factors associated with TB treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status. Methods. A cross-sectional study was used to analyse data from the Cape Town Metro East geographical service area (GSA electronic TB register (ETR.Net, including adult patients aged ≥15 years who initiated TB treatment between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012. Results. TB case notification in the GSA was 922 per 100 000 population. Of the 12 672 TB patients registered, 50.5% were co-infected with HIV. The death rate in co-infected patients was 5.4% v. 2.8% in HIV-negative patients, the rate of treatment success 66.6% v. 73.5%, and the rate of unfavourable treatment outcome 28.1% v. 23.7%. The Khayelitsha subdistrict had the highest proportion of TB burden (37.0% and co-infection (47.6%. Fourteen percent of patients had extrapulmonary TB, 65.9% of whom were co-infected with HIV. In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection (relative risk (RR 1.2, retreatment (RR 1.4 and sputum smear microscopy not done (RR 1.4 were significantly associated with unfavourable treatment outcome. The Eastern (RR 0.9 and Northern (RR 0.7 subdistricts were less likely to have unfavourable outcomes compared with Khayelitsha. In the stratified analysis, retreatment and smear not done were significant risk factors for an unfavourable treatment outcome in both co-infected and HIV-negative patients. Conclusions. The burdens of both TB and co-infection were high in this community, although HIV prevalence varied. Mortality was higher and treatment completion lower in co-infected patients than in those who were HIV-negative. Co-infection, previous TB treatment and smear not done were significant risk factors for an unfavourable outcome in all patients.

  16. The C3HeB/FeJ mouse model recapitulates the hallmark of bovine tuberculosis lung lesions following Mycobacterium bovis aerogenous infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouté, Mélodie; Carreras, Florence; Rossignol, Christelle; Doz, Emilie; Winter, Nathalie; Epardaud, Mathieu

    2017-11-07

    Achieving the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would require the discovery of an efficient combined immunodiagnostic and vaccine strategy. Since in vivo experiments on cattle are not ethically and economically acceptable there is a need for a cost-effective animal model capable of reproducing, as closely as possible, the physiopathology of bTB to (i) better characterize the cellular and molecular features of bTB immunopathogenesis and (ii) screen preclinical vaccine candidates. To develop such a model, we focused on the C3HeB/FeJ Kramnik's mouse forming hypoxic, encapsulated granulomas with a caseous necrotic center following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our work represents the first investigation on C3HeB/FeJ interaction with M. bovis, the main agent of bTB. Detailed histopathological analysis of C3HeB/FeJ lung lesions development following aerogenous M. bovis infection unraveled a bimodal evolution of the pathology. The C3HeB/FeJ recapitulated all the hallmarks of classical bovine lung granulomas but also developed, to some extend, lethal necrotic large lesions characterized by high mycobacterial and neutrophil load, and an inefficient collagen-driven lesion encapsulation. Interestingly these rapidly invasive pneumonia lesions, occurring in a constant percentage of the mice, shared all features with some exacerbated lung lesions that we and others have observed in lungs of cattle naturally or experimentally infected with M. bovis. Together, our findings demonstrate the relevance of the C3HeB/FeJ mouse as a comprehensive model to study bTB immunopathology that could be used for further vaccine therapies in the future.

  17. Toward eradication: the effect of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife on the evolution and future direction of bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, PG; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; de Lisle, GW

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New Zealand's bovine tuberculosis (TB) control programme has greatly reduced the burden of tuberculosis on the farming industry, from 11% of mature cattle found with TB at slaughter in 1905 to New Zealand implemented TB control measures in cattle from the mid-twentieth century, and later in farmed deer. Control was based on established methods of tuberculin testing of herds, slaughter of suspect cases, and livestock movement control. Unexplained regional control failures and serious disease outbreaks were eventually linked to wildlife-vectored infection from the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), which also triggered a wildlife disease complex involving a range of introduced species. This paper reviews the progressive elucidation of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in New Zealand's wildlife and farmed livestock, and the parallel development of research-led, multi-faceted TB control strategies required to protect New Zealand's livestock industries from damaging infection levels. The adoption of coordinated national pest management strategies, with increasingly ambitious objectives agreed between government and industry funders, has driven a costly but very successful management regime targeted at controlling TB in the possum maintenance host. This success has led to initiation of a strategy designed to eradicate TB from New Zealand's livestock and wildlife, which is considered a realistic long-term prospect. PMID:25273888

  18. Risk factors for prolonged treatment of lymph node tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoix, J-P; Guimard, T; Ettahar, N; Grannec, A; Flateau, C; Chapuzet, C; Bentayeb, H; Tattevin, P; Schmit, J-L

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Randomised, controlled trials have convincingly demonstrated that 6 months of chemotherapy is sufficient for most drug-susceptible LNTB. We performed a retrospective, multicentric study from 1997 to 2010 to describe factors associated with prolonged anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with LNTB. Of 126 patients diagnosed with LNTB, 22 (17.5%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected. The median treatment duration was 9 months (interquartile range, 6-12). Treatment was significantly longer in patients with HIV (P < 0.01), additional sites of TB (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P = 0.04). Factors independently associated with excessively lengthy treatment were HIV co-infection and the presence of other TB foci.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8). The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for.

  20. Bovine meat versus pork in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Italy: A quantitative risk assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluco, Simone; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Ricci, Antonia

    2018-01-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite with a high seroprevalence in the human population and the ability to infect almost all warm blooded animals. Humans can acquire toxoplasmosis from different transmission routes and food plays a critical role. Within the food category, meat is of utmost importance, as it may contain bradyzoites inside tissue cysts, which can potentially cause infection after ingestion if parasites are not inactivated through freezing or cooking before consumption. In Italy, the most commonly consumed meat-producing animal species are bovines and pigs. However, T. gondii prevalence and consumption habits for meat of these animal species are very different. There is debate within the scientific community concerning which of these animal species is the main source of meat-derived human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this work was to build a quantitative risk assessment model to estimate the yearly probability of acquiring toxoplasmosis infection due to consumption of bovine meat and pork (excluding cured products) in Italy, taking into account the different eating habits. The model was fitted with data obtained from the literature regarding: bradyzoite concentrations, portion size, dose-response relation, prevalence of T. gondii in bovines and swine, meat consumption and meat preparation habits. Alternative handling scenarios were considered. The model estimated the risk per year of acquiring T. gondii infection in Italy from bovine and swine meat to be 0.034% and 0.019%, respectively. Results suggest that, due to existing eating habits, bovine meat can be a not negligible source of toxoplasmosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi O. Desalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4% were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%, weight loss (38.0%, and haemoptysis (30.7% were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (, higher family income (, higher level of education (, and belonging to Christian faith (. Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0% and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%. Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%, alcohol consumption (42.5%, chronic kidney disease (40.4%, extremes of ages (39.4%, cancers (36.9%, and diabetes mellitus (27.5% as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.

  2. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  3. Incidence, risk factors and mortality of tuberculosis in Danish HIV patients 1995-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Gry A.; Engsig, Frederik N; Ravn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and late Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (2000-2007) periods.......Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and late Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (2000-2007) periods....

  4. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes; Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos; Renata Magliano Marins; Aline Alves Barbosa; Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares; Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with ab...

  5. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent. Methods A case-control study was conducted in an urban...

  6. Use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop bovine respiratory diseases in feedlot cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Layane Queiroz; Baptista, Anderson Lopes; Fonseca, Pedro de Almeida; Menezes, Guilherme Lobato; Nogueira,Geison Morel; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Alfieri,Amauri Alcindo; Saut, João Paulo Elsen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) affect production rates negatively because it compromise health and well-being of the affected animal. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop BRD would reduce morbidity and pulmonary lesions. For this purpose, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of two metaphylactic protocols on the morbidity of feedlot cattle with a known sanitary history, occurrence of pulmonary lesions ...

  7. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control study technique Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent diagnosed with tuberculosis during the past 10 years and two Asian control groups (community and outpatient clinic controls) from the Indian subcontinent were investigated. Cases and community controls were approached by letter. A structured questionnaire concerning a range of demographic, migration, socioeconomic, dietary, and health topics was administered by a single trained interviewer to subjects (56 cases and 100 controls) who agreed to participate. RESULTS--The results confirmed earlier findings that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. However, further analysis revealed that religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians). Unadjusted odds ratios for tuberculosis among vegetarians were 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) using community controls, and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4) using clinic controls. There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lactovegetarians had an 8.5 fold risk (95% CI 1.6 to 45.4) compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Adjustment for a range of other socioeconomic, migration, and lifestyle variables made little difference to the relative risks derived using either community or clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that a vegetarian diet is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant Asians. The mechanism is unexplained. However

  8. Prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine mastitis in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted on local and cross bred dairy cows in Jimma town and its surroundings to determine the prevalence of mastitis and potential risk factors. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical examination of udder and milk and udder test card were used. Of the total dairy cows examined ...

  9. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis ...

  10. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2. The high proportion (78% of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area.

  11. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Harris, Eva; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Mitchell, Steven; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascencio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Ledogar, Robert; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series) produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2). The high proportion (78%) of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area.

  12. Risk of tuberculosis transmission in dentistry. Results of a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D C; Younai, F S

    1997-08-01

    This pilot project was conducted for the purpose of performing a retrospective chart review on selected clients and using the results for evaluating purified protein derivative (PPD) conversion rates among the student population. The occupational risk of exposure to active tuberculosis was assessed in a large dental educational setting. Charts of clients seen in the College's Oral Medicine Clinic, referred out for health care consultation for one of several reasons potentially associated with active tuberculosis disease over a 1 year period, were reviewed. Data sources included the medical consultation log and the tuberculosis log, which were maintained by faculty in the Oral Medicine Clinic. Ninety-six clients met the authors' criteria. However, compiling data was severely hampered for two reasons: missing charts (19 of 96, or 19.8%) and non-returning clients (55, or 57%). Four clients with potentially active cases of tuberculosis were identified. Follow up revealed, however, that none of these four clients was contagious when seen at the Dental Center. The protocol and definition recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994 Guidelines, and the results of PPD screening and chart audit conducted by the authors, suggest that the employees and students of the College of Dentistry are at low risk for workplace exposure to active tuberculosis.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiza, Shaharudin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Tahir, Aris

    2011-01-18

    Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin

  14. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philana Ling Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26 before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25. Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  15. Prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons: risk factors and molecular epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Valença, Mariana Soares; Scaini, João Luis Rheingantz; Abilleira, Fernanda de Souza; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; Von Groll, Andrea; Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da

    2015-01-01

    SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) in prisons is a challenge for the public health system. Active and passive case screening are important tools for TB case detection. OBJECTIVE: To characterise TB in a southern Brazil prison in terms of epidemiological variables, diagnostic approaches and clinical isolate genotypes. DESIGN: Inmates of a southern Brazilian prison were assessed using active and passive TB case screening. Sputum microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing ...

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  17. Prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons: risk factors and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, M S; Scaini, J L R; Abileira, F S; Gonçalves, C V; von Groll, A; Silva, P E A

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in prisons is a challenge for the public health system. Active and passive case screening are important tools for TB case detection. To characterise TB in a southern Brazil prison in terms of epidemiological variables, diagnostic approaches and clinical isolate genotypes. Inmates of a southern Brazilian prison were assessed using active and passive TB case screening. Sputum microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing and genotyping were performed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. TB prevalence was 4712 per 100 000 inmates, and was associated with low educational level, time incarcerated, productive cough, previous TB history, smoking and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Overall, 27.8% of TB cases were detected by culture only; the prevalence of drug-resistant strains was 7.8%; 58.3% of clinical isolates had an identical genotypic profile. The study showed extensive circulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in a highly endemic prison. It is recommended that priority be given to the evaluation of prison inmates with longer jail times, those who are HIV-positive, those with symptoms and those with a previous history of tuberculosis. We observed that active case finding induced passive case detection.

  18. A matched case-control study to identify risk determinants of tuberculosis in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Homayra, F.; Barua, M.; Paul, S.; Saha, A.; Akter, R.; Latif, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in Bangladesh. The present study focused on identifying TB risk determinants in Bangladesh. An age-sex matched casecontrol study was conducted with each stratum consisting of one case and two controls. This study covered six divisions of

  19. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of patient delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhao, Shanliang; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J.; Schouten, Evert G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excessive time between the first presentation of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diagnosis contributes to ongoing transmission and increased risk of infection in the community, as well as to increased disease severity and higher mortality. People with type 2 diabetes

  20. The role of interferon-gamma in the increased tuberculosis risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, J.E.; Alisjahbana, B.; Nelwan, E.J.; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. van der; Ottenhoff, T.H.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Nelwan, R.H.; Netea, M.G.; Crevel, R. van

    2008-01-01

    As patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis, we hypothesized that this susceptibility to mycobacterial infection is due to a defective Th1-cytokine response. To explore this hypothesis, we examined four groups of subjects in Indonesia: 23 patients with

  1. Incidence, risk factors and mortality of tuberculosis in Danish HIV patients 1995-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Gry A; Engsig, Frederik N; Ravn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and late Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (2000-2007) periods....

  2. Grading of a positive sputum smear and the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, E.M.; Koster, B.F.; Cessie, S. le; st-van Agterveld, M.P. Kam; Soolingen, D. van; Arend, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: After the diagnosis of a case of tuberculosis (TB), contact tracing is directed by the risk of transmission, for which sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining results are highly relevant. Limited data are available on the effect of the degree of acid-fast positivity, of a polymerase chain

  3. A probabilistic transmission model to assess infection risk from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in commercial passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chieh; Liao, Chung-Min; Li, Sih-syuan; You, Shu-Han

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this article is to characterize the risk of infection from airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli exposure in commercial passenger trains based on a risk-based probabilistic transmission modeling. We investigated the tuberculosis (TB) infection risks among commercial passengers by inhaled aerosol M. tuberculosis bacilli and quantify the patterns of TB transmission in Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR). A deterministic Wells-Riley mathematical model was used to account for the probability of infection risk from M. tuberculosis bacilli by linking the cough-generated aerosol M. tuberculosis bacilli concentration and particle size distribution. We found that (i) the quantum generation rate of TB was estimated with a lognormal distribution of geometric mean (GM) of 54.29 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.05 quantum/h at particle size ≤ 5 μm and (ii) the basic reproduction numbers (R(0) ) were estimated to be 0.69 (0.06-6.79), 2.82 (0.32-20.97), and 2.31 (0.25-17.69) for business, standard, and nonreserved cabins, respectively. The results indicate that commercial passengers taking standard and nonreserved cabins had higher transmission risk than those in business cabins based on conservatism. Our results also reveal that even a brief exposure, as in the bronchoscopy cases, can also result in a transmission when the quantum generation rate is high. This study could contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of TB transmission in commercial passenger trains by assessing the relationship between TB infectiousness, passenger mobility, and key model parameters such as seat occupancy, ventilation rate, and exposure duration. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; El-Adawy, Hosny; Irfan, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ali; Akbar, Muhammad Waqas; Umar, Sajid; Ali, Qurban; Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Mahmood, Abid; Ahmed, Haroon

    2017-01-28

    The seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis were studied at animal and herd level using a combination of culture, serological and molecular methods. The study was conducted in 253 randomly selected cattle herds of the Potohar plateau, Pakistan from which a total of 2709 serum (1462 cattle and 1247 buffaloes) and 2330 milk (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) samples were collected. Data on risk factors associated with seroprevalence of brucellosis were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used for identifying important risk factors at animal and herd levels. One hundred and seventy (6.3%) samples and 47 (18.6%) herds were seropositive for brucellosis by Rose Bengal Plate test. Variations in seroprevalence were observed across the different sampling sites. At animal level, sex, species and stock replacement were found to be potential risk factors for brucellosis. At herd level, herd size (≥9 animals) and insemination method used were important risk factors. The presence of Brucella DNA was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 52.4% out of 170 serological positive samples. In total, 156 (6.7%) milk samples were positive by milk ring test. B. abortus biovar 1 was cultured from 5 positive milk samples. This study shows that the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis is high in some regions in Pakistan. Prevalence was associated with herd size, abortion history, insemination methods used, age, sex and stock replacement methods. The infected animal may act as source of infection for other animals and for humans. The development of control strategies for bovine brucellosis through implementation of continuous surveillance and education programs in Pakistan is warranted.

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali

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    Gervais Habarugira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein–Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753, with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753. The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05 and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05. Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2% were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7% cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  6. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR for the confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Brugère, Laure; Faye, Sandy; Hénault, Sylvie; Gares, Hélène; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriology and histopathology are the most commonly used tests used for official confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in most countries. PCR is also being used increasingly because it allows a fast diagnosis. This test could be applied as a supplement to or replacement for current bTB confirmatory diagnostic tests but its characteristics have first to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare sensitivities and specificities of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR under French field conditions, in the absence of a gold standard using latent class analysis. The studied population consisted of 5,211 animals from which samples were subjected to bacteriology and PCR (LSI VetMAX™ Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex PCR Kit, Life Technologies) as their herd of origin was either suspected or confirmed infected with bTB or because bTB-like lesions were detected during slaughterhouse inspection. Samples from 697 of these animals (all with bTB-like lesions) were subjected to histopathology. Bayesian models were developed, allowing for dependence between bacteriology and PCR, while assuming independence from histopathology. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than that of bacteriology (on average 87.7% [82.5-92.3%] versus 78.1% [72.9-82.8%]) while specificity of both tests was very good (on average 97.0% for PCR [94.3-99.0%] and 99.1% for bacteriology [97.1-100.0%]). Histopathology was at least as sensitive as PCR (on average 93.6% [89.9-96.9%]) but less specific than the two other tests (on average 83.3% [78.7-87.6%]). These results suggest that PCR has the potential to replace bacteriology to confirm bTB in samples submitted from suspect cattle.

  7. Effectiveness of Canada's tuberculosis surveillance strategy in identifying immigrants at risk of developing and transmitting tuberculosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Leyla; Heffernan, Courtney; Menzies, Dick; Long, Richard

    2017-10-01

    In Canada, tuberculosis disproportionately affects the foreign-born population. The national tuberculosis medical surveillance programme aims to prevent these cases. Individuals referred for further in-country surveillance (referrals) have a history of active tuberculosis or have features of old, healed tuberculosis on chest radiograph; those not referred (non-referrals) do not undergo surveillance. We aimed to examine the risk of transmission arising from referrals versus non-referrals. We did this population-based retrospective cohort study of foreign-born migrants (aged 15-64 years) to Alberta, Canada, between Jan 1, 2002, and Dec 31, 2013. We obtained information about year of arrival and country of citizenship from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and data for tuberculosis cases and their contacts from the Alberta Tuberculosis Registry. The outcome of interest was culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We compared the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and the odds of transmission among referrals versus non-referrals. By use of conventional and molecular epidemiological techniques, we defined transmission as either a secondary case or a tuberculin skin-test (TST) conversion among close contacts. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the independent association between referral for tuberculosis surveillance and transmission. Between 2002 and 2013, there were 223 225 foreign-born migrants to Alberta, of whom 5500 (2%) were referrals and 217 657 (98%) were non-referrals. 3805 (69%) referrals and 115 226 (53%) non-referrals were from countries with a tuberculosis incidence of more than 150 per 100 000 populations, or sub-Saharan Africa. 234 foreign-born individuals were diagnosed with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2013. The incidence of culture-positive pulmonary disease was nine times higher in referrals (n=50) than all non-referrals (n=184; incidence rate ratio 9·1, 95% CI 6·7

  8. Non-hispanic whites have higher risk for pulmonary impairment from pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Pasipanodya Jotam G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT contributes heavily to the societal burden of TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Methods We analyzed the pulmonary function of 320 prospectively identified patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who had completed at least 20 weeks standard anti-TB regimes by directly observed therapy. We compared frequency and severity of spirometry-defined PIAT in groups stratified by demographics, pulmonary risk factors, and race/ethnicity, and examined clinical correlates to pulmonary function deficits. Results Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was identified in 71% of non-Hispanic Whites, 58% of non-Hispanic Blacks, 49% of Asians and 32% of Hispanics (p p p = 0.978. Conclusions Despite controlling for cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status and time to beginning TB treatment, non-Hispanic White race/ethnicity remained an independent predictor for disproportionately frequent and severe pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis relative to other race/ethnic groups. Since race/ethnicity was self reported and that race is not a biological construct: these findings must be interpreted with caution. However, because race/ethnicity is a proxy for several other unmeasured host, pathogen or environment factors that may contribute to disparate health outcomes, these results are meant to suggest hypotheses for further research.

  9. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV 1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis, and associated risk factors in 161 Irish beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damien; Parr, Mervyn; Fagan, John; Johnson, Alan; Tratalos, Jamie; Lively, Francis; Diskin, Michael; Kenny, David

    2018-01-06

    There are limited data available, in Ireland or elsewhere, to determine the extent of exposure to various endemic diseases among beef cows and factors associated with exposure to causative pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd and within herd prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis in a large scale study of commercial beef herds on the island of Ireland, and to examine herd level factors associated with exposure to these pathogens in these herds. The average number of cows tested per herd was 35.5 (median 30). Herd level seroprevalence to Bovine Herpesvirus-1(BHV-1), Bovine Viral-Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis was 90%, 100%, 91% and 67%, respectively, while the mean within herd prevalence for the these pathogens was 40%, 77.7%, 65.7% and 5.7%, respectively. The study confirms that the level of seroconversion for the four pathogens of interest increases with herd size. There was also evidence that exposure to one pathogen may increase the risk of exposure to another pathogen. Herd level seroprevalences were in excess of 90% for BVDV, BHV-1 and Leptosporosis. Larger herds were subject to increased exposure to disease pathogens. This study suggests that exposure to several pathogens may be associated with the further exposure to other pathogens.

  10. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  11. Assessment of a protein cocktail-based skin test for bovine tuberculosis in a double-blind field test in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ting; Jia, Hong; Ding, Jiabo; Li, Pingjun; Yang, Hongjun; Hou, Shaohua; Yuan, Weifeng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Haichun; Liang, Qianqian; Li, Ming; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Hongfei

    2013-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis. The traditional diagnostic method used often is the tuberculin skin test, which uses bovine purified protein derivatives (PPD-B). However, it is difficult to maintain uniformity of PPD-B from batch to batch, and it shares common antigens with nonpathogenic environmental mycobacteria. To overcome these problems, M. bovis-specific antigens that showed good T cell stimulation, such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv3615c, etc., have been used in the skin test, but there have been no large-scale clinical studies on these antigens. In this study, two combinations (CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail and CFP-10/ESAT-6/Rv3872/MPT63 protein cocktail) were developed and used as stimuli in the skin test. Cattle were double-blind tested to assess the efficiency of the protein cocktail-based skin tests. The results showed that the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail-based skin test can differentiate TB-infected cattle from Mycobacterium avium-infected ones and that it shows a high degree of agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (κ = 0.8536) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (κ = 0.8154). Compared to the tuberculin skin test, the relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 87% and 97%, respectively., The relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 93% and 92%, respectively, on comparison with the IFN-γ release assay. The correlation between the increases in skin thickness observed after the inoculation of stimuli was high (PPD-B versus CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4, Spearman r of 0.8435). The correlation between the optical density at 450 nm (OD450) obtained after blood stimulation with PPD-B and the increase in skin thickness observed after inoculation of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail was high (Spearman r = 0.7335). Therefore, the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test

  12. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovic, I; Sester, M; Gomez-Reino, J J

    2010-01-01

    of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, tuberculin skin testing is recommended to screen all adult candidates for TNF antagonist treatment for the presence of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, paediatric practice suggests concomitant use of both the tuberculin skin test...... reduces the risk of progression to TB. This TBNET consensus statement summarises current knowledge and expert opinions and provides evidence-based recommendations to reduce the TB risk among candidates for TNF antagonist therapy....

  13. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Park, Ji Wan

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32-1.92, P = 2.1×10-6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population.

  14. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

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    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  15. Use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop bovine respiratory diseases in feedlot cattle

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    Layane Queiroz Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD affect production rates negatively because it compromise health and well-being of the affected animal. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop BRD would reduce morbidity and pulmonary lesions. For this purpose, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of two metaphylactic protocols on the morbidity of feedlot cattle with a known sanitary history, occurrence of pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and the possible participation of Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in the development of BRD. An experimental study was designed in which 3,094 adult, male, cattle, were grouped according to the risk to develop BRD: a group without metaphylaxis (n=2,104, low-risk animals; b metaphylaxis group with oxytetracycline (n=789, moderate-risk animals; c metaphylaxis group with tildipirosin (n=201, high-risk animals. All cattle were immunized against pathogens associated with BRD (BoHV-1, BVDV, BRSV, PI3. The morbidity for BRD was 8.2% (253/3,094; cattle within the moderate-risk group for BRD had the lowest frequency (6.1%, followed by high-risk animals with tildipirosin metaphylaxis (6.5% and low-risk without metaphylaxis (9.1% (P=0.019. At the abattoir, 1.2% of lungs with lesions were found. There was a difference (P=0.036 in the frequency of pulmonary lesions between healthy animals (1.1% and those diagnosed with BRD (2.8%. Two agents associated with BRD were identified by PCR assays in the lungs (n=37 of cattle: M. haemolytica (16.2% and H. somni (5.4%. In addition, concomitant infections involving these pathogens were identified in the lungs of two steers. These results demonstrate that the use of metaphylactic protocols, based on the risk to develop BRD, reduces morbidity and pulmonary lesions in affected cattle. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions were more

  16. Markers related to the diagnosis and to the risk of abortion in bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, Sonia; López-Gatius, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. An important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. In the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. Markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gestation. The identification of parasite molecules that are specifically identified in the aborting cows might help to understand the mechanism of parasite-associated abortion and control the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Delhi region.

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    Chhavi Porwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India with a major burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB does not have national level data on this hazardous disease. Since 2006, emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB is considered a serious threat to global TB control. This study highlights the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with XDR-TB in Delhi. METHODS: The study was conducted during April 2007 to May 2010. Six hundred eleven MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from four tertiary care hospitals, treating TB patients in Delhi and the demographic details recorded. Sputum samples were cultured using rapid, automated liquid culture system (MGIT 960. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for Rifampicin (RIF and Isoniazid (INH was performed for all positive M. tuberculosis (M.tb cultures. All MDR-TB isolates were tested for sensitivity to second-line drugs [Amikacin (AMK, Capreomycin (CAP, Ofloxacin (OFX, Ethionamide (ETA]. RESULTS/FINDINGS: Of 611, 483 patients were infected with MDR M. tuberculosis (M.tb strains. Eighteen MDR-TB isolates (3.7% were XDR M.tb strains. Family history of TB (p 0.045, socioeconomic status (p 0.013, concomitant illness (p 0.001 and previous intake of 2(nd line injectable drugs (p 0.001 were significantly associated with occurrence of XDR-TB. Only two of the patients enrolled were HIV seropositive, but had a negative culture for M. tuberculosis. 56/483 isolates were pre-XDR M. tuberculosis, though the occurrence of pre-XDR-TB did not show any significant demographical associations. CONCLUSIONS: The actual incidence and prevalence rate of XDR-TB in India is not available, although some scattered data is available. This study raises a concern about existence of XDR-TB in India, though small, signaling a need to strengthen the TB control program for early diagnosis of both tuberculosis and drug resistance in order to break the chains of transmission.

  19. Prediction Model of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Evaluation of the Incidence and Risk Factors

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    Farzaneh Dastan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives:Tuberculosis (TB still remains a major health concern both in developing and developed countries. The rate of the liver injury due to anti-TB drugs in developed countries has been reported up to 4%. The goal of this study is to assess the rate and risk factors for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (DILI. Also, a model has been designed to predict DILI in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods:We conducted an observational study. The investigation was carried out in the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran. Anti-tuberculosis drug treatment course and patients’ demographic data, medical and drug history, and social habits were extracted from their medical records. DILI was defined as an increase in serum alanine aminotransfrase (ALT or aspartate aminotransfrase (AST greater than three times of the upper limit of normal (ULN, with symptoms of liver injury, or five times of the ULN without symptoms.Results:In this study, 87 patients (33 male, 54 female, mean age 54.29±21.79 years with tuberculosis diagnosis were followed. Anti-tuberculosis induced liver injury was detected in 14 (16.1% patients. Concomitant use of hepatotoxic drugs (Isoniazid, Rifampin and Pyrazinamide and the abnormal baseline serum liver enzyme levels before the initiation of therapy were found as risk factors for anti-tuberculosis induced liver injury.Conclusion:Anti-tuberculosis induced liver injury is a major problem in tuberculosis patients which lead to treatment interruption in 14 (16.1% patients. Due to the lack of evidence regarding the mechanism of this side effect, we recommend to monitor anti-tuberculosis drug levels in order to study their probable correlations with DILI.   

  20. [Recognizing up as a subject of risk: the conscience of possible harms of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maíra; de Oliveira, Dora Lucia Leidens Correa

    2013-12-01

    This paper analyzes from the users' perception adherent to treatment, the meanings attributed to the risks of the disease. The qualitative study was developed from the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews, with 19 users as subjects adhering to tuberculosis treatment. The project was approved by the research ethics committee of UFRGS. Survey participants indicate relational risks such as the possibility of harms that tuberculosis is the interaction of the patient with society, with interference with public and private dimensions of everyday life. The recognition of the participants as subjects of risks was part of a process that is producing identities, making them sought an image of the subject concerned with his care and the care of the other, preserving their personal relationships and interaction in society.

  1. Pesticide Residues in Bovine Milk in Punjab, India: Spatial Variation and Risk Assessment to Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in bovine milk (n = 312) from Punjab, India, showed chlorpyrifos, DDT, and γ-HCH as the predominant contaminants. In addition, the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan suphate, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, malathion, profenofos, and ethion was reported in milk samples. In this study, it was observed that 12 milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for γ-HCH (lindane), 18 for DDT and chlorpyrifos, and 1 sample each for endosulfan, cypermethrin, and profenophos. In India, DDT is still permitted for a malaria control program, which may be the plausible reason for its occurrence in milk samples. The spatial variation for presence of pesticide residues in milk indicated greater levels in cotton-growing areas of Punjab. At current levels of pesticide residues in bovine milk, the human health risk assessment in terms of noncancer and cancer hazard was calculated based on both lower-bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper-bound [UP (95th percentile level)] limits. It was noticed that cancer and noncancer risk were within United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribed limits for both adults and children at the LB, but children were being exposed to greater risk for DDT and HCH at the 95th-percentile UB level.

  2. Clinical manifestation and risk factors of tuberculosis infection in Malaysia: case study of a community clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rohan; Subramaniam, Indra Devi

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis infection cases in Malaysia and to determine the individual risk factors for their occurrence. The study adopted a quantitative research approach with use of descriptive statistical approach. The study setting was a community clinic which treats walk in patients who are mainly living and working in the surrounding areas. The study was conducted for a period of one year. All tuberculosis patients who sought treatment in the clinic during the time were included in this study. The total number of cases was 40. Data was collected from the medical records of the tuberculosis patients. The risk factors selected for investigation were demographic characteristics of age and sex, personal habits such as smoking, drug use and alcohol and presence of diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), diabetes mellitus, cancer, cyanotic heart disease, renal failure and steroid use. Patients in the age group ranging from 41 to 50 years had the highest incidence of the infection. Smoking appears to be the most important risk factor for contracting followed by drug abuse, HIV+ infection and diabetes mellitus. People with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and HIV that are high risk factors for TB should be screened for TB so that early detection and intervention is possible. Educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at risk groups.

  3. Clinical Manifestation and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Infection in Malaysia: Case Study of a Community Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rohan; Shanmuganathan, Indra Devi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis infection cases in Malaysia and to determine the individual risk factors for their occurrence. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative research approach with use of descriptive statistical approach. The study setting was a community clinic which treats walk in patients who are mainly living and working in the surrounding areas. The study was conducted for a period of one year. All tuberculosis patients who sought treatment in the clinic during the time were included in this study. The total number of cases was 40. Data was collected from the medical records of the tuberculosis patients. The risk factors selected for investigation were demographic characteristics of age and sex, personal habits such as smoking, drug use and alcohol and presence of diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), diabetes mellitus, cancer, cyanotic heart disease, renal failure and steroid use. Results: Patients in the age group ranging from 41 to 50 years had the highest incidence of the infection. Smoking appears to be the most important risk factor for contracting followed by drug abuse, HIV+ infection and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: People with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and HIV that are high risk factors for TB should be screened for TB so that early detection and intervention is possible. Educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at risk groups. PMID:25946947

  4. Undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in Malaysia: an overlooked risk for tuberculosis in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Altice, Frederick L; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy. From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses. Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17). The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Alcohol use as a risk factor for tuberculosis – a systematic review

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    Jaramillo Ernesto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been evident that there is an association between alcohol use and risk of tuberculosis. It has not been established to what extent this association is confounded by social and other factors related to alcohol use. Nor has the strength of the association been established. The objective of this study was to systematically review the available evidence on the association between alcohol use and the risk of tuberculosis. Methods Based on a systematic literature review, we identified 3 cohort and 18 case control studies. These were further categorized according to definition of exposure, type of tuberculosis used as study outcome, and confounders controlled for. Pooled effect sizes were obtained for each sub-category of studies. Results The pooled relative risk across all studies that used an exposure cut-off level set at 40 g alcohol per day or above, or defined exposure as a clinical diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder, was 3.50 (95% CI: 2.01–5.93. After exclusion of small studies, because of suspected publication bias, the pooled relative risk was 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89–4.59. Subgroup analyses of studies that had controlled for various sets of confounders did not give significantly different results and did not explain the significant heterogeneity that was found across the studies. Conclusion The risk of active tuberculosis is substantially elevated in people who drink more than 40 g alcohol per day, and/or have an alcohol use disorder. This may be due to both increased risk of infection related to specific social mixing patterns associated with alcohol use, as well as influence on the immune system of alcohol itself and of alcohol related conditions.

  6. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

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    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-06-08

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  7. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  8. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59–50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94–443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10–71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31–140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54–590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program. PMID:25265020

  9. Tuberculosis testing among populations with high HIV risk in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

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    Velasquez, Michele G.; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Cerecer, Paris; Lozada, Remedios; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Burgos, Jose Luis; Garfein, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of prior tuberculin skin testing (TST) among populations at risk for HIV infection in Tijuana, Mexico, and to identify factors associated with TST. Methods Sex workers, injection drug users, noninjecting drug users, and homeless persons ≥ 18 years old were recruited by using targeted sampling for risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify correlates of self-reported TST history. Results Of 502 participants, 38.0% reported prior TST, which was associated with previous incarceration in the United States of America [odds ratio (OR) = 13.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.37–24.33] and injection drug use (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27–3.11). Positive results on serologic tests for M. tuberculosis infection (57%) and HIV (4.2%) were not associated with a prior TST. Conclusions A history of TST was lower in HIV-positive participants even though TST is indicated for persons with HIV in Mexico. Fewer than half the individuals at high risk for HIV in this study had a history of TST; however, TST was fairly common among those individuals with a prior history of incarceration. Increased tuberculosis screening is needed for populations at risk of contracting HIV in Tijuana, particularly those outside of criminal justice settings. PMID:22910722

  10. Increased risk of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with rheumatic diseases.

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    Lu, M-C; Lai, C-L; Tsai, C-C; Koo, M; Lai, N-S

    2015-12-01

    Impaired immunity in patients with rheumatic diseases can increase the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, it is less clear whether rheumatic diseases affect the risk of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). To investigate the risk of PTB and EPTB in patients with rheumatic diseases using a population-based database. From Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, 8536 patients with tuberculosis (TB) were frequency-matched with 42,680 controls for sex, 10-year age group and index year. Subjects were retrospectively traced back for their first diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. The association between TB and rheumatic diseases was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. The risk of developing PTB was significantly higher in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.90, P EPTB were significantly higher in RA patients (aOR 4.67, P EPTB were associated with various rheumatic diseases. Rheumatologists should be vigilant to the possibility of TB, and particularly EPTB, in their patients.

  11. Tuberculosis testing among populations with high HIV risk in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Michele G; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C; Cerecer, Paris; Lozada, Remedios; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Burgos, Jose Luis; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of prior tuberculin skin testing (TST) among populations at risk for HIV infection in Tijuana, Mexico, and to identify factors associated with TST. Sex workers, injection drug users, noninjecting drug users, and homeless persons > 18 years old were recruited by using targeted sampling for risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify correlates of self-reported TST history. Of 502 participants, 38.0% reported prior TST, which was associated with previous incarceration in the United States of America [odds ratio (OR) = 13.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.37-24.33] and injection drug use (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27- 3.11). Positive results on serologic tests for M. tuberculosis infection (57%) and HIV (4.2%) were not associated with a prior TST. A history of TST was lower in HIV-positive participants even though TST is indicated for persons with HIV in Mexico. Fewer than half the individuals at high risk for HIV in this study had a history of TST; however, TST was fairly common among those individuals with a prior history of incarceration. Increased tuberculosis screening is needed for populations at risk of contracting HIV in Tijuana, particularly those outside of criminal justice settings.

  12. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

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    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  13. Co-infection and risk factors of tuberculosis in a Mexican HIV+ population

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    Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The situation of tuberculosis (TB is being modified by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is increasing the occurrence of new cases and the generation of drug resistant strains, affecting not only the people infected with HIV, but also their close contacts and the general population, conforming a serious public health concern. However, the magnitudes of the factors associated to this co-infection differ considerably in relation to the population groups and geographical areas. METHODS: In order to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for the co-infection of tuberculosis (TB in a population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ in the Southeast of Mexico, we made the analysis of clinical and epidemiological variables and the diagnosis of tuberculosis by isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory samples. RESULTS: From the 147 HIV+ individuals analyzed, 12 were culture positive; this shows a prevalence of 8% for the co-infection. The only variable found with statistical significance for the co-infection was the number of CD4-T < 200 cells/mm³, OR 13 (95%, CI 2-106 vs 12-109. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report describing the factors associated with tuberculosis co -infection with HIV in a population from Southern Mexico. The low number of CD4 T-cells was the only variable associated with the TB co-infection and the rest of the variables provide scenarios that require specific and particular interventions for this population group.

  14. Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless Population of Rome: An Integrated Model of Recruitment for Risk Management

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    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors show the results of an integrated model for risk management of tuberculosis in a sample of sheltered homeless in Rome. Tuberculin skin test (TST was used for evaluating the prevalence of latent infection (LTBI. In TST positives, expectorate was collected and chest X-ray was achieved. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate determinants of infection. Out of 288 recruited subjects, 259 returned for the TST reading; 45.56% were positive and referred to a specialized center; 70 accessed the health facility and completed the clinical pathway. The risk factors associated to LTBI were male gender (OR=3.72, age over 60 years (OR=3.59, immigrant status (OR=3.73, and obesity (OR=2.19. This approach, based on an integrated social network, guarantees high adherence to screening (89.93%, allowing patients testing positive for latent tuberculosis infection to be diagnosed and rapidly referred to a specialized center.

  15. Population-level effects of risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

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    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2017-05-01

    Results obtained from a nationwide longitudinal study were extended to estimate the population-level effects of selected risk factors on the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the first 50days at risk in medium-sized to large Australian feedlots. Population attributable fractions (PAF) and population attributable risks (PAR) were used to rank selected risk factors in order of importance from the perspective of the Australian feedlot industry within two mutually exclusive categories: 'intervention' risk factors had practical strategies that feedlot managers could implement to avoid exposure of cattle to adverse levels of the risk factor and a precise estimate of the population-level effect while 'others' did not. An alternative method was also used to quantify the expected effects of simultaneously preventing exposure to multiple management-related factors whilst not changing exposure to factors that were more difficult to modify. The most important 'intervention' risk factors were shared pen water (PAF: 0.70, 95% credible interval: 0.45-0.83), breed (PAF: 0.67, 95% credible interval: 0.54-0.77), the animal's prior lifetime history of mixing with cattle from other herds (PAF: 0.53, 95% credible interval: 0.30-0.69), timing of the animal's move to the vicinity of the feedlot (PAF: 0.45, 95% credible interval: 0.17-0.68), the presence of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) in the animal's cohort (PAF: 0.30, 95% credible interval: 0.04-0.50), the number of study animals in the animal's group 13days before induction (PAF: 0.30, 95% credible interval: 0.10-0.44) and induction weight (PAF: 0.16, 95% credible interval: 0.09-0.23). Other important risk factors identified and prioritised for further research were feedlot region, season of induction and cohort formation patterns. An estimated 82% of BRD incidence was attributable to management-related risk factors, whereby the lowest risk category of a composite management-related variable comprised

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Primary Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China.

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    Wang, Sheng Fen; Zhou, Yang; Pang, Yu; Zheng, Hui Wen; Zhao, Yan Lin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of primary drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and associated risk factors in China. We also explored factors contributing to the transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). A total of 2794 representative, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from treatment-naive patients were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, and risk factors for drug-resistant TB were analyzed. We also analyzed MDR-TB strain sublineages, drug-resistance-conferring mutations, and risk factors associated with clustered primary MDR strains. Among 2794 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from treatment-naive patients, the prevalence of any resistance to first-line drugs was 33.2% and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 5.7%. We did not find any risk factors significantly associated with resistance to first-line drugs. The 93 primary MDR-TB isolates were classified into six sublineages, of which, 75 (80.6%) isolates were the RD105-deleted Beijing lineage. The largest sublineage included 65 (69.9%) isolates with concurrent deletions of RD105, RD207, and RD181. Twenty-nine (31.2%) primary MDR strains grouped in clusters; MDR isolates in clusters were more likely to have S531L rpoB mutation. This study indicates that primary drug-resistant TB and MDR-TB strains are prevalent in China, and multiple measures should be taken to address drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: site distribution and risk of mortality

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    Magee, M. J.; Foote, M; Ray, S. M.; Gandhi, N. R.; Kempker, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Scarce data exist on the relationship between diabetes and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). We evaluated whether diabetes impacts site of TB and risk of death in patients with EPTB. We evaluated a cohort of TB cases from the state of Georgia between 2009 and 2012. Patients aged ?16 years were classified by diabetes status according to medical records. Site of EPTB was determined by culture and/or state TB classification. Death was defined by all-cause mortality. Of 1325 eligible reported T...

  18. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Ngamvithayapong-Yanai, Jintana; Kawatsu, Lisa; Ohkado, Akihiro; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Shimouchi, Akira; Ito, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2013-01-01

    We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB): those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM), contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW) and the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese tuberculosis surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (n = 96 689). The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigners and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%). HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2%) yet highest in foreigners (1.3%). HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multi drug resistant (MDR) TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0-0.9%) except foreigners, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females were 3.6-24 times higher than the general population. Reasons for the high proportion of "HIV status unknown" should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programs to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit tuberculosis prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW.

  19. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamvithayapong-Yanai, Jintana; Kawatsu, Lisa; Ohkado, Akihiro; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Shimouchi, Akira; Ito, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB): those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM), contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW) and the elderly. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese tuberculosis surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (n = 96 689). Results The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigners and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%). HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2%) yet highest in foreigners (1.3%). HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multi drug resistant (MDR) TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0–0.9%) except foreigners, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females were 3.6–24 times higher than the general population. Discussion Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programs to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit tuberculosis prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW. PMID:23908950

  20. Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2011-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral

  1. The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes.

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    Wolf, Tiffany M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Travis, Dominic; Mugisha, Lawrence; Singer, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen exchange between humans and primates has been facilitated by anthropogenic disturbances, such as changing land use patterns, habitat destruction, and poaching, which decrease population sizes and increase levels of primate-human interaction. As a result, human and domestic animal diseases have become a recognized threat to endangered primate populations. Tuberculosis is a major global human and animal health concern, especially in equatorial Africa where many of the remaining free-living great ape populations exist in proximity with exposed and/or infected human populations and their domestic animals. Increased anthropogenic pressure creates an opportunity for the anthropozoonotic spread of this disease. This review examines current evidence of the risk of tuberculosis transmission to great apes, the benefits and limitations of current detection methods, the impact of current great ape conservation and management strategies on this risk, and the need for an ecosystem health-based approach to mitigating the risks of tuberculosis transmission to great apes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mining and Risk of Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Lurie, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the relationship between mining and tuberculosis (TB) among countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We used multivariate regression to estimate the contribution of mining activity to TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality, as well as rates of TB among people living with HIV, with control for economic, health system, and population confounders. Results. Mining production was associated with higher population TB incidence rates (adjusted b = 0.093; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.067, 0.120; with an increase of mining production of 1 SD corresponding to about 33% higher TB incidence or 760 000 more incident cases), after adjustment for economic and population controls. Similar results were observed for TB prevalence and mortality, as well as with alternative measures of mining activity. Independent of HIV, there were significant associations between mining production and TB incidence in countries with high HIV prevalence (≥ 4% antenatal HIV prevalence; HIV-adjusted B = 0.066; 95% CI = 0.050, 0.082) and between log gold mining production and TB incidence in all studied countries (HIV-adjusted B = 0.053; 95% CI = 0.032, 0.073). Conclusions. Mining is a significant determinant of countrywide variation in TB among sub-Saharan African nations. Comprehensive TB control strategies should explicitly address the role of mining activity and environments in the epidemic. PMID:20516372

  3. Risk of latent tuberculosis infection in children living in households with tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional survey in remote northern Lao People's Democratic Republic

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    Slesak Gunther

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in Laos (289 per 100,000. We evaluated the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among children (0–15 years living with tuberculosis patients in rural northern Laos. Methods In a cross sectional survey of 30 randomly selected villages, 72 tuberculosis patients were traced and their 317 contacts (148 were children investigated using a questionnaire, a tuberculin skin tests (positive: > = 10 mm, a 3-day sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB, and chest radiography. Results None of the 148 contact-children received prophylaxis, one had cervical tuberculosis; the risk for LTBI was 31.0%. Awareness of the infectiousness of tuberculosis was low among patients (31% and their contacts (31%, and risky behavior was common. After multivariate logistic analysis, increased LTBI was found in children with contact with sputum positive adults (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4–7.7, patients highly positive sputum prior to treatment (AFB >2+; OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 1.7–12.3, and living in ethnic minorities (OR: 5.4, 95% CI: 2.2–13.6. Conclusion The study supports the importance of contact tracing in remote settings with high TB prevalence. Suggestions to improve the children's detection rate, the use of existing guidelines, chemoprophylaxis of contact-children and the available interventions in Laos are discussed. Improving education and awareness of the infectiousness of TB in patients is urgently needed to reduce TB transmission.

  4. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

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    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  5. Globalization of pediatric transplantation: The risk of tuberculosis or not tuberculosis.

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    McCulloch, Mignon; Lin, Philana Ling

    2017-05-01

    The risk of TB among pediatric SOT recipients increases as the globalization of medical care continues to broaden. Unlike adults, children and especially infants are more susceptible to TB as a complication after transplantation. Little data exist regarding the true incidence of TB and the optimal risk-based management of this very vulnerable population. Here, we highlight the theoretical and practical issues that complicate the management of these patients and pose some questions that should be addressed when managing these patients. More data are needed to provide optimal guidance of the best diagnostic and management practices to this unique population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: quantification of the population disease-level effect from cattle leaving herds detected as a source of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, L P; Courcier, E A; Gordon, A W; O'Hagan, M J H; Stegeman, J A; Menzies, F D

    2017-12-01

    Determination of the proportion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns attributed to a herd purchasing infected animals has not been previously quantified using data from the Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS) database in Northern Ireland. We used a case-control study design to account for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herds. Cases (N = 6926) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they would disclose as a confirmed bTB reactor or a Lesion at Routine Slaughter (LRS). Controls (N = 303 499) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they did not become a bTB reactor or LRS. Our study showed that the cattle leaving herds which disclosed bTB within 450 days had an increased odds of becoming a confirmed bTB reactor or LRS compared with the cattle which left herds that remained free for 450 days (odds ratio (OR) = 2·09: 95% CI 1·96-2·22). Of the 12 060 confirmed bTB breakdowns included in our study (2007-2015 inclusive), 31% (95% CI 29·8-31·5) contained a confirmed bTB reactor(s) or LRS(s) at the disclosing test which entered the herd within the previous 450 days. After controlling for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herd, our study showed that 6·4% (95% CI 5·9-6·8) of bTB breakdowns in Northern Ireland were directly attributable to the movement of infected animals.

  7. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders' perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool ('analysis tool for surveillance systems'). For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the added value of the participatory approach was highlighted.

  8. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Calba

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders' perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool ('analysis tool for surveillance systems'.For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3.Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the added value of the participatory approach was

  9. Identifying patients at high risk of tuberculosis recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxana T Sadikot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been done in relation to recurrence of tuberculosis (TB following completion of treatment. However, recurrence of TB is still a major problem from a public health perspective in high-burden countries, where no special attention is being given to this issue. Disease recurrence is an important indicator of the efficacy of antituberculosis treatment. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 25%. This variability is not only a reflection of regional epidemiology of recurrence but differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs. In addition to treatment failure related to medication adherence, there are several key host factors that are associated with high rates of recurrence. The widely recognized host factors independent of treatment program that predispose to TB recurrence include: malnutrition; human immunodeficiency virus; substance abuse including tobacco use; comorbidity such as diabetes, renal failure and systemic diseases, especially immunosuppressive states; and environmental exposure such as silicosis. With improved understanding of the human genome, proteome, and metabolome, additional host-specific factors that predispose to recurrence are being discovered. Information on temporal and geographical trends of TB cases as well as genotyping might provide further information to enable us to fully understand TB recurrence and discriminate between reactivation and new infection. The recently launched World Health Organization End TB Strategy emphasizes the importance of integrated, patient-centered TB care. Continued improvement in diagnosis, treatment approaches, and defining host-specific factors are needed to fully understand the clinical epidemiological and social determinants of TB recurrence.

  10. Health Care Visits as a Risk Factor for Tuberculosis in Taiwan: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Chen, Chien-Chou; Chiang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Fang, Chi-Tai; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether health care visits of nontuberculous patients are a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis. We conducted a case-control study nested within the cohort of 1 million individuals from the health insurance database in Taiwan between 2003 and 2010. We identified incident cases of tuberculosis through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes and prescription of antituberculosis drugs. We identified 4202 case participants and 16 808 control participants matched by age, gender, and date of diagnosis to estimate the association between frequency of health care visits and incidence of tuberculosis. Frequency of health care visits was associated with increased risk of tuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for other medical comorbidities (P for trend < .001). Compared with individuals with fewer than 5 visits per year, those with more than 30 had a 77% increase in tuberculosis risk (adjusted odds ratio = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 1.97). Frequent health care visits of nontuberculous patients appear to be a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis. Efforts should focus on educating the general population to avoid unnecessary hospital visits, strengthening active case finding, and intensifying infection control in all health care settings.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents are a high risk group that is not ... Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection among adolescents in rural Uganda. .... Smoking habit. Yes. 2. 0.04. Drinking habit. Yes. 11. 0.22. History of hospitalization in last 6 months. Yes. 43. 0.86. HIV sero-status. HIV infected. 4. 0.08.

  12. Long-term impacts of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on beef risk perceptions and risk attitudes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muringai, Violet; Goddard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to examine whether or not changes in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) concerns exert an effect on people's risk perceptions and risk attitudes regarding consuming beef in Canada, 8 years after finding the first domestic animal with BSE. Data were collected from two surveys (2071 respondents) conducted with the same respondents in 2008 and 2011 in Canada. Data on meat consumption for the same households were also available from the Nielsen Homescan panel over the period 2002 to 2009. Based on census data, the current sample is generally not representative of the Canadian population, but the sample is unique in that the same individuals responded to two surveys and there is an ability to track their evolving household purchases of beef before the first survey and between the two surveys. In essence, alterations in beef risk perceptions are significantly influenced by changes in concerns regarding (1) feed given to livestock, (2) animal diseases and BSE, (3) trust in manufacturers, the government, and farmers, and (4) demographic characteristics. There were significant differences in beef purchases across households, with alterations to their risk perceptions and risk attitudes. In conclusion, although the first domestic incident of BSE was in 2003, concerns regarding BSE are still contributing to consumers' risk perceptions but not to their risk attitudes with respect to consumption of beef in 2011.

  13. Insight to the Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Tianjin, China during 2006-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Zhenhua Yang; Yanyong Fu; Guoqin Zhang; Xu Wang; Yuhua Zhang; Xiexiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among all the reported tuberculosis (TB) cases has increased in different populations. Despite the large burden of TB in China, the epidemiology of EPTB in China remains largely understudied and the risk factors for having EPTB diagnosis in China have not been identified. Methods To gain insight to EPTB epidemiology in China, we analyzed TB surveillance data collected in Tianjin, China, during 2006 to 2011. The frequency of EPTB ...

  14. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Qiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were interviewed before start of treatment and during the fifth month of treatment using structured questionnaires. Information on treatment outcome was extracted from patient records. Patients cured at the end of treatment were compared to patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (failure, default, and death. Results A total of 841 patients were registered between January-June 2007 of which 792 (94% were cured. Independent risk factors for non-cure were having a low income (30 days, a positive smear test result two months after start of treatment, not being aware of the need to go to the CDC for medical follow up during treatment, and not seeing the need for treatment observation. Conclusion Reducing the financial burden of TB disease and providing health education to improve compliance with treatment could increase the proportion of patients with successful treatment outcomes.

  15. Effects on productivity and risk factors of Bovine respiratory disease in dairy heifers : a review for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Martin, S.W.; Nielen, M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review about the impact of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) on the productivity of dairy heifers and about risk factors for the disease, as far as these are relevant to commercial dairy farming in the Netherlands. The review includes peerreviewed publications over

  16. Quantitative risk assessment for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in low or zero prevalence countries: the example of Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model is applied to Norwegian data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the period 1980¿2010. For each year, the BSE risk in cattle is estimated as the expected number of cases. The age

  17. A Bayesian approach to study the risk variables for tuberculosis occurrence in domestic and wild ungulates in South Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Prieto Víctor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Although eradication is a priority for the European authorities, bTB remains active or even increasing in many countries, causing significant economic losses. The integral consideration of epidemiological factors is crucial to more cost-effectively allocate control measures. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the association between TB distribution and a list of potential risk factors regarding cattle, wild ungulates and environmental aspects in Ciudad Real, a Spanish province with one of the highest TB herd prevalences. Results We used a Bayesian mixed effects multivariable logistic regression model to predict TB occurrence in either domestic or wild mammals per municipality in 2007 by using information from the previous year. The municipal TB distribution and endemicity was clustered in the western part of the region and clearly overlapped with the explanatory variables identified in the final model: (1 incident cattle farms, (2 number of years of veterinary inspection of big game hunting events, (3 prevalence in wild boar, (4 number of sampled cattle, (5 persistent bTB-infected cattle farms, (6 prevalence in red deer, (7 proportion of beef farms, and (8 farms devoted to bullfighting cattle. Conclusions The combination of these eight variables in the final model highlights the importance of the persistence of the infection in the hosts, surveillance efforts and some cattle management choices in the circulation of M. bovis in the region. The spatial distribution of these variables, together with particular Mediterranean features that favour the wildlife-livestock interface may explain the M. bovis persistence in this region. Sanitary authorities should allocate efforts towards specific areas and epidemiological situations where the wildlife-livestock interface seems to critically hamper the definitive b

  18. Serial QuantiFERON testing and tuberculosis disease risk among young children: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Nemes, Elisa; Tameris, Michele; Landry, Bernard S; Mahomed, Hassan; McClain, J Bruce; Fletcher, Helen A; Hanekom, Willem A; Wood, Robin; McShane, Helen; Scriba, Thomas J; Hatherill, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa. QFT negative, HIV uninfected young children aged 18-24 weeks were enrolled. We stratified participants by quantitative QFT result (interferon-γ 4·00 IU/mL) at the intermediate study visit (day 336) and determined risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease over the subsequent 6-24 months. No QFT differences were observed between placebo and MVA85A groups at day 336 or end of study; therefore, both groups were included in analyses. Study clinicians were not masked to QFT values, but strict case definitions were used that excluded QFT results. We used generalised additive models to evaluate the quantitative relation between day 336 QFT value and subsequent disease risk, and we compared disease rates between QFT strata using a two-sample Poisson test. Among 2512 young children with QFT tests done at day 336, 172 (7%) were positive; 87 (7%) of 1267 in placebo group and 85 (7%) of 1245 in the MVA85A group (p=1·00). Compared with QFT non-converters (tuberculosis disease incidence 0·7 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0·4-1·1]), children with QFT conversion at interferon-γ values between 0·35-4·00 IU/mL did not have significantly increased risk of disease (2·5 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0·4-9·4]; incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3·7 (95% CI 0·4-15·8; p=0·23). However, QFT conversion at interferon-γ values higher than 4·00 IU/mL was associated with substantially increased disease incidence (28·0 per 100 person-years [95% CI 14·9-45·7]) compared with non-converters (IRR 42·5 [95% CI 17·2-99·7]; ptuberculosis

  19. A Prediction Rule to Stratify Mortality Risk of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Nuno S.; Castro, António Gil; Ramos, Angélica; Carvalho, Teresa; Meira, Leonor; Araújo, David; Almeida, Leonor; Boaventura, Rita; Fragata, Patrícia; Chaves, Catarina; Costa, Patrício; Portela, Miguel; Ferreira, Ivo; Magalhães, Sara Pinto; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Duarte, Raquel; Guimarães, João Tiago; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis imposes high human and economic tolls, including in Europe. This study was conducted to develop a severity assessment tool for stratifying mortality risk in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A derivation cohort of 681 PTB cases was retrospectively reviewed to generate a model based on multiple logistic regression analysis of prognostic variables with 6-month mortality as the outcome measure. A clinical scoring system was developed and tested against a validation cohort of 103 patients. Five risk features were selected for the prediction model: hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.8–7.9), age ≥50 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.8), bilateral lung involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.4), ≥1 significant comorbidity—HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure or cirrhosis, congestive heart failure and chronic respiratory disease–(OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–3.8), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1). A tuberculosis risk assessment tool (TReAT) was developed, stratifying patients with low (score ≤2), moderate (score 3–5) and high (score ≥6) mortality risk. The mortality associated with each group was 2.9%, 22.9% and 53.9%, respectively. The model performed equally well in the validation cohort. We provide a new, easy-to-use clinical scoring system to identify PTB patients with high-mortality risk in settings with good healthcare access, helping clinicians to decide which patients are in need of closer medical care during treatment. PMID:27636095

  20. Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients at risk of drug resistance in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteserin, Johana; Camacho, Mirtha; Barrera, Lucía; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Ritacco, Viviana; Martin, Anandi

    2013-07-01

    Bolivia ranks among the 10 Latin American countries with the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. In view of this, and of the lacking information on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the country, we explored genotype associations with drug resistance and clustering by analyzing isolates collected in 2010 from 100 consecutive TB patients at risk of drug resistance in seven of the nine departments in which Bolivia is divided. Fourteen isolates were MDR, 29 had other drug resistance profiles, and 57 were pansusceptible. Spoligotype family distribution was: Haarlem 39.4%, LAM 26.3%, T 22.2%, S 2.0%, X 1.0%, orphan 9.1%, with very low intra-family diversity and absence of Beijing genotypes. We found 66 different MIRU-VNTR patterns; the most frequent corresponded to Multiple Locus Variable Analysis (MLVA) MtbC15 patterns 860, 372 and 873. Twelve clusters, each with identical MIRU-VNTR and spoligotypes, gathered 35 patients. We found no association of genotype with drug resistant or MDR-TB. Clustering associated with SIT 50 and the H3 subfamily to which it belongs (pBolivia. However, results should be taken cautiously because the sample is small and includes a particular subset of M. tuberculosis population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection among adolescents in rural Uganda. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a study .... study tailored training. Interpretation of TST readings ..... The strength of this study included the use of clinical history coupled with microbiological and ...

  2. Influence of HIV and other risk factors on tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive cases and 50% for sputum smear-negative cases.[2,3] Deaths from TB represent a significant indicator of the severity of the effect of HIV on TB epidemiology.[1] Extrapulmonary. TB (EPTB), which is also a risk factor for unfavourable ...

  3. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mbelele

    in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug .... time as a result, poor adherence to treatment ensue and hence, creating good environment for emergence of ... volume to sputum sample collected in a 50 mL plastic centrifuge tube, mixed well and left to stand for 20 ...

  4. Prevalence of and risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran and its neighboring countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimma, Worku; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Shahmoradi, Leila; Abdurahman, Ahmed Abdulahi; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Nasehi, Mahshid; Yazdi, Sharifi; Safdari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis, in particular drug-resistant tuberculosis, is of global concern due to the high mortality and morbidity associated with it annually. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran and its neighboring countries. Four databases (PubMed, BioMed Central, EMBASE, and Web of Science) were searched using key terms. Nineteen eligible articles were identified, of which 12 and seven were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively. The overall pooled estimate of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, including both new and previously treated tuberculosis cases, in Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11-20). The patients with a previous tuberculosis treatment history (odds ratio [OR] = 6.45; 95% CI 5.12-7.79), those aged tuberculosis. The forest plot revealed that the pooled odds for the development of multidrug- resistant tuberculosis were 2.01 (95% CI 1.65-2.36). Poor adherence to treatment was one of the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a great concern for public health programs in many countries globally, including those included in this review. The risk factors for the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, specifically a previous tuberculosis treatment history, should be targeted through the implementation of specialized interventions.

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Aravindalochanan, Vigneswari; Rajan, Rajeswari; Chinnasamy, C.; Srinivasan, Rajan; Selvam, Jerard Maria; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognised as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB). India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. There are inadequate data on prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes among TB cases in India. Aim was to determine diabetes prevalence among a cohort of TB cases registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in selected TB units in Tamil Nadu, India, and assess pattern of diabetes management amongst known cases. Methods 827 among the eligible patients (n = 904) underwent HbA1c and anthropometric measurements. OGTT was done for patients without previous history of DM and diagnosis was based on WHO criteria. Details of current treatment regimen of TB and DM and DM complications, if any, were recorded. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics, habitual risk factors, and type of TB. Findings DM prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI 22.6–28.5) and that of pre-diabetes 24.5% (95% CI 20.4–27.6). Risk factors associated with DM among TB patients were age (31–35, 36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs diabetes, risk factors were age (36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs diabetes or pre-diabetes. PMID:22848473

  6. Pneumoconiosis and liver cirrhosis are not risk factors for tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.P.; Pan, Y.H.; Hua, C.C.; Shieh, H.B.; Jiang, B.Y.; Yu, T.J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chilung (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    It is unclear whether patients with liver cirrhosis and coal miners with pneumoconiosis are at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Furthermore, little is known of the likelihood of pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus or advanced lung cancer being due to TB. To answer these questions, patients with these clinical comorbidities were analysed. The study was retrospective and included 264 TB patients, 478 non-TB pneumonia patients, and as negative controls, 438 subjects without pneumonia. The parameters analysed were age, gender and the presence of pneumoconiosis, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus and advanced lung cancer. Male gender was the only significant factor increasing the risk of pulmonary TB. When compared with non-TB pneumonia and control patients, the odds ratios were 1.862 and 2.182, respectively. Patients with liver cirrhosis did not show an increased risk of pulmonary TB after regression analysis. Pneumoconiosis resulted in a 2.260 (P = 0.003) odds ratio for pulmonary TB, compared with the controls. However, there was no difference in pneurmoconiosis between TB and non-TB pneumonia patients. Patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer and those receiving haemodialysis had a lower risk for pulmonary TB in lower respiratory tract infection, with odds ratios of 0.342, 0.311 and 0.182, respectively. Physicians should first consider non-TB bacterial infection rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer or those receiving haemodialysis.

  7. The risk of tuberculosis in SLE patients from an Asian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Thumboo, Julian; Tan, Ban Hock; Tan, Thuan Tong; Fong, Chern Hui Jeffrey; Ng, Han Seong; Fong, Kok Yong

    2017-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). However, little is known about the extent and risk factors for TB among Asian patient with SLE. We aimed to assess the rate of TB in patients with SLE, and investigate the risk of SLE on TB development using hospital administrative database. This is an historical cohort study of hospital discharge database from 2004 to 2011 to identify cases with SLE and TB using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-9-AM) codes. Of 301568 hospitalized patients, 841 (0.3%) patients had SLE, 1843 (0.6%) patients had TB, including 17 SLE patients (2.0%). SLE patients had a significantly higher rate of TB (2.0 vs. 0.6%, p SLE. The differences in the higher rate after breaking down was in the pulmonary TB group (1.7 vs. 0.5%, p SLE was a significant and independent predictor of TB (odds ratio 4.6, 95% CI 2.8-7.5, p SLE patients were found to experience higher rates of tuberculosis in this group of Asian patient population. Patients with SLE should be considered as a high-risk group for TB, active screening for latent patients and treatment for positive TB patients is needed.

  8. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  9. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivânia Camelo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The state was divided into three regions, and in each region, approximately 300 properties were randomly sampled. From these selected properties, a pre-established number of animals were randomly selected and blood serum samples were obtained. A total of 3,901 animals were selected from 900 properties. For each selected property, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to assess the type of farming, the animal husbandry practices and the sanitary practices that could be associated with the presence of brucellosis infection. The testing protocol consisted of screening the samples with a buffered acidified plate antigen test and retesting the positive samples with a complement fixation test (CF. One positive animal was enough to define an infected herd. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the state were 4.5% [3.2; 6.4%] and 1.4% [0.7; 2.7%], respectively. By region, the prevalence rates of infected herds and animals, respectively, were as follows: Zona da Mata, 3.3% [1.8; 6.1%] and 1.7% [0.5; 3.0%]; Agreste, 7.4% [4.9; 10.9%] and 1.9% [0.8; 3.0%]; and Sertão, 1.3% [0.5; 3.5%] and 0.7% [0.0; 1.6%]. Flooded pastures (OR = 2.86 [1.37; 6.42] and the presence of 13 or more females in the herd (3rd quartile (OR = 2.65 [1.19; 5.89] were identified as risk factors. The existence of veterinary care emerged as a protective factor against bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco (OR = 0.24 [0.10; 0.58].

  10. HIV-1 infection as a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis: a case-control study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broek, J; Borgdorff, M W; Pakker, N G; Chum, H J; Klokke, A H; Senkoro, K P; Newell, J N

    1993-12-01

    A population-based case-control study was carried out in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, to determine the relative and population attributable risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection for developing active tuberculosis. Cases were 441 consecutively diagnosed patients with tuberculosis (all types), aged 15-54 years. Controls were a representative population sample of 4161 people, drawn in a stratified cluster sample from urban areas, roadside settlements, and rural villages. HIV-1 infection was determined by ELISA and if the ELISA result was indeterminate by Western Blot. The HIV-1 prevalence in cases was 23.0% in rural, 32.1% in roadside, and 54.1% in urban areas, while in controls these prevalences were 3.4%, 7.2% and 12.1% respectively. The relative risk (RR) of HIV-1 infection for the development of active tuberculosis was estimated to be 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4-11.0). This risk varied little by sex or residence, but appeared to be more pronounced in the age group 25-34 years. The case detection rate of tuberculosis in those aged 15-54 years was 125/100,000 people per year. The population attributable risk was 36/100,000 people per year, implying that 29% of tuberculosis cases at present may be attributable to HIV-1 infection. It is concluded that HIV-1 infection is a major contributing factor to the increased case detection rate of tuberculosis observed over the past 10 years in Mwanza Region. If the prevalence of HIV-1 continues to increase, the incidence of tuberculosis will continue to rise as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays...

  12. PROFILE AND RISK FACTORS OF ADVERSE REACTIONS IN NEW TUBERCULOSIS CASES RECEIVING TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Ivаnovа; S. E. Borisov

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate  the frequency  and risk factors of adverse reactions,  the monitoring results  of clinical and laboratory tests  of 435 new cases of respiratory tuberculosis being on the intensive phase of chemotherapy have been analyzed. 95.2% of patients had adverse reactions (95% CI 92.7-96.9); 48.7% demonstrated severe adverse reactions and in 72.7% treatment regimen had to be changed. Regarding the profile of adverse reactions, hepatotoxic ones prevailed (59.3%), they were followed...

  13. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with

  14. Tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba: estudo retrospectivo Bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba: retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão M. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais positivos para a tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado, coletados de suas 23 microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 10.963 propriedades e 54.472 bovinos foram submetidos ao teste de tuberculinização. Para o diagnóstico foi utilizada, como prova de triagem, a tuberculinização cervical simples para gado de leite e a tuberculinização na prega caudal para gado de corte; como prova confirmatória foi utilizada a tuberculinização cervical comparativa. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 62 (0,57% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e dos animais analisados, 136 (0,25% foram positivos. Houve diferença significativa (pThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci and positive animals for bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its 23 microregions, during the January 2008 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 10,963 herds were examined and 54,472 cattle were submitted to the tuberculin test. For diagnosis the cervical and caudal-fold tuberculin tests were used as screening tests in dairy and beef cattle, respectively; as confirmatory test, comparative cervical test was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one positive animal. Of the herds investigated, 62 (0.57% had at least one positive animal, and of the animals examined, 136 (0.25% were positive. There was significant difference (p<0.001 in the proportion of positivity for females (0.32% and males (0.04%. Despite low frequency of foci of brucellosis and seropositive animals, it is

  15. Factors that Influence Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Red Deer and Wild Boar in an Epidemiological Risk Area for Tuberculosis of Game Species in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, S; Manteigas, A; Ribeiro, R; Otte, J; Fonseca, A Pina; Caetano, P; Abernethy, D; Boinas, F

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. Eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. In Portugal, a high-risk area for bTB was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. Data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic and bTB information to assess factors that determined the occurrence and distribution of bTB in both species. The likelihood of bTB-like lesions in wild boar was positively associated with density of red deer, wild boar and cattle, while for red deer, only their density and age were significant factors. The likelihood of Mycobacterium bovis isolation in wild boar was associated with density of cattle and red deer and also with the anatomical location of lesions, while for red deer, none of the variables tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that, in the study area, the role of red deer and wild boar may be different from the one previously suggested by other authors for the Iberian Peninsula, as red deer may be the driving force behind M. bovis transmission to wild boar. These findings may assist the official services and game managing bodies for the management of hunting zones, what could also impact the success of the bTB eradication programme. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Tuberculosis risk varies with the duration of HIV infection: a prospective study of European drug users with known date of HIV seroconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; Langendam, Miranda; Zangerle, Robert; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso; Boufassa, Faroudy; Schiffer, Veronique; Brettle, Raymond P.; Robertson, J. Roy; Fontanet, Arnaud; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Background: It is not known whether the risk of active tuberculosis disease varies with the length of time that individuals are infected with HIV. Objective: To study how, independently of CD4 T cell count, the risk of tuberculosis varies with the duration of HIV infection. Methods: Using Poisson

  17. Increased risk of incident osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture in tuberculosis patients: a population-based study in a tuberculosis-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-Y; Feng, J-Y; Ting, W-Y; Yen, Y-F; Chuang, P-H; Pan, S-W; Su, V Y-F; Su, W-J

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of osteoporosis in tuberculosis, a chronic infection, has rarely been evaluated. In this study, we found significantly higher incidence rates of osteoporosis (Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.82) and osteoporotic fracture (AHR 2.33) in tuberculosis patients than matched cohorts, which suggest that osteoporosis screening should be considered in tuberculosis patients' follow-up program. The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence of incident osteoporosis in patients who completed anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Chronic inflammatory disorders are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. Although TB is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammatory responses, the impact of active TB on incident osteoporosis is unclear. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the association between history of active TB and incident osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, active TB patients and their age- and sex-matched controls were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2000-2012. The occurrence of incident osteoporosis, osteoporotic fractures, and risk factors associated with osteoporosis among TB patients and matched controls were analyzed. We observed incident osteoporosis in 2.2% (n = 86) of the TB patients and in 1.1% (n = 162) of the matched controls. The incidence rate of osteoporosis was 4.31 and 1.80 per 1000 person-years, which was significantly higher in TB patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, TB was an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The other independent factors associated with osteoporosis were older age, female sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and lower income. Moreover, we demonstrated that the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture was significantly higher in TB patients. Patients with a history of active TB have a higher incidence rate of

  18. Determination of decisional cut-off values for the optimal diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis with a modified IFNγ assay (Bovigam®) in a low prevalence area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Sandy; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Gares, Hélène; Benet, Jean-Jacques; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Boschiroli, María-Laura

    2011-07-05

    The Bovigam(®) gamma interferon (IFNγ) assay was used to complement official skin-test screening in a low bovine tuberculosis (bTB) prevalence region in France. The aim of our work was to determine decisional cut-off values for protein purified derivatives (PPD) and ESAT6-CFP10 antigens (R) in order to optimize the efficacy of the modified Bovigam(®) test, in this low-prevalence area, for optimal classification of infected or non-infected herds following positive skin tests. The sensitivity of the IFNγ assay relative to post-mortem bTB-positive animals (Se(r)) was studied in 60 cattle from 20 bTB-infected herds. Its absolute specificity (Sp) was studied in 492 cattle from 25 bTB-free herds from a bTB-free zone. Its operational specificity (relative to the positive skin test) (Sp(r)) was also studied in 547 skin-test positive cattle from 172 bTB-free herds from an infected zone. Using normalized interpretations for individual (PPD or R) results, the cut-off values at 0.02 for PPD and 0.01 for R were obtained with a view to employ them in low prevalence areas with no previously observed non-specific reactions to SITT. Concerning its use after positive skin tests, cut-off values were set at 0.05 for PPD and at 0.03 for R. The choice of an interpretation method considering positive results with PPD and/or R (PPDUR), justified in a high risk context, provided a test Se(r) of 93% [84-98] and Sp(r) of 71.8% [67.9-75.6]. Analysis of positive results with PPD and R (PPDUR), ideal for low-risk contexts, provided a test Sp(r) of 94.3% [92.0-96.1] and Se(r) of 77% [64-87]. Thus, adapting the criteria to the region's infection status and to the conditions for its application is essential for the appropriate use of the IFNγ assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bovine tuberculosis in Donana Biosphere Reserve: the role of wild ungulates as disease reservoirs in the last Iberian lynx strongholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gortázar

    Full Text Available Doñana National Park (DNP in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4% wild boar, 26 (27.4% red deer and 18 (18.5% fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001. Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001 and red deer (p<0.01, whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01. The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to

  20. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Yunis, Maria; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N.; Romero, Viviana; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J.

    2009-01-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the Tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against Tuberculin, regardless of the result of the Tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-Tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such IgG Tuberculin antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with Tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. PMID:20004475

  1. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis: prevalence and risk factors in districts of metema and west armachiho, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Moges, Feleke; Gelaw, Aschalew; Eshetie, Setegn; Kumera, Gemechu

    2015-10-26

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging challenge for TB control programs globally. According to World health organization, 2012 report Ethiopia stands 15(th) out of the 27 high priority countries in the world and 3(rd) in Africa. Updated knowledge of the magnitude of MDR-TB is so substantial to allocate resources, and to address prevention and control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted in West Armachiho and Metema districts between February 01 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB using the proportional method on LJ media. Data were analyzed using statistical Package SPSS version 20; binary logistic regression was used to assess the association. P-values DOTS are recommended to reduce the burden of MDR-TB.

  2. 'Complex' but coping: experience of symptoms of tuberculosis and health care seeking behaviours - a qualitative interview study of urban risk groups, London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, G. M.; Joly, L.; Zumla, A

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud Tuberculosis awareness, grounded in social cognition models of health care seeking behaviour, relies on the ability of individuals to recognise symptoms, assess their risk and access health care (passive case finding). There is scant published research into the health actions of ‘hard-to-reach’ groups with tuberculosis, who represent approximately 17% of the London TB caseload. This study aimed to analyse patients’ knowledge of tuberculosis, their experiences of symptoms and the...

  3. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  4. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Gomes, Nathália Mota; da Mota Bastos, Meire Cardoso; Marins, Renata Magliano; Barbosa, Aline Alves; Soares, Luiz Clóvis Parente; de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu, Annelise Maria; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2015-01-01

    To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR=2.05; 95% CI=1.15-3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR=3.14; 95% CI=1.96-5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.14-0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.76-3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR=6.01, 95% CI=3.78-9.56), illiteracy (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.27-2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.24-4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.01-3.75). Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  5. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Oromia Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulisa, Girma; Workneh, Tilaye; Hordofa, Niguse; Suaudi, Mohamed; Abebe, Gemeda; Jarso, Godana

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) caused by multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A 6-month case-control study was performed in 2013-14. Sputum samples and standardized questionnaire data (demographics, treatment, TB contact history, underlying disease, history of imprisonment) were collected from cases with suspected MDR-TB aged ≥ 18 years. Sputum was processed locally in the Oromia Public Health Laboratory using standard techniques. Data from MDR-TB cases and TB-positive controls were compared using logistic regression analysis. For each factor, the association with outcome variables was estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) together with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Of 439 suspected MDR-TB cases, 265 had a confirmed M. tuberculosis infection, of whom 88 (33%) had laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Over two-thirds (65%) were between 18 and 39 years of age. On multivariate analysis, an occupation of farming, known TB contact history, alcohol use, HIV infection, previous known TB history, and previous TB treatment outcome were predictors of MDR-TB. The rate of MDR-TB was high among suspected cases in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Local MDR-TB detection capacity and local epidemiology studies are essential to detect MDR-TB and guide the use of the sparse resources to optimize MDR-TB control. If TB is suspected, the presence of any of the above factors should alert Oromia Region clinicians and public health professionals to screen for MDR-TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amitesh; Mrigpuri, Parul; Faye, Abhishek; Bandyopadhyay, Debdutta; Singla, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB) is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases. PMID:28144063

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Active Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review of 13 Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Christie Y; Murray, Megan B

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, 8.8 million people develop active tuberculosis and 1.6 million people die from this highly contagious infection that usually affects the lungs. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacteria that are spread through the air when people with active tuberculosis cough or sneeze. Most infected people never become ill—a third of the world's population is actually infected with M. tuberculosis—because the human immune system usually contains ...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection among primary health care workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Thiago Nascimento do; Riley, Lee W; Sanchez, Mauro; Fregona, Geisa; Nóbrega, Renata Lyrio Peres; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves; Zandonade, Eliana; Locatelli, Rodrigo Leite; Souza, Fernanda Mattos de; Rajan, Jayant V; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-12-18

    Health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from occupational exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for LTBI among primary HCW in five Brazilian cities. We conducted a cross-sectional study, from 2011 to 2013, among primary HCW, using a structured questionnaire and an evaluated for LTBI using the Quantiferon-TB Gold in-tube test. The magnitude of the associations was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression models. Among 708 HCW, the LTBI prevalence was 27% (n = 196; 95%CI: 24%-31%). We found that the following factors were positively associated with LTBI in primary HCW: age > 50 years (OR = 2.94; 95%CI: 1.44-5.99), absence of a BCG scar (OR = 2.10; 95%CI: 1.28-3.43), self-reported ex-smoker status (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.04-3.11), being a nurse (OR = 2.97; 95%CI: 1.13-7.83), being a nurse technician (OR = 3.10; 95%CI: 1.26-7.60), being a community health agent (OR = 2.60; 95%CI: 1.06-6.40), and irregular use of N95 masks (OR = 2.51; 95%CI: 1.11-5.98). In contrast, HCWs who do not work in health care facilities with a TB control program were less likely to have LTBI (OR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.45-0.97). This study demonstrated a substantial occupational risk of LTBI among primary HCW in Brazil. The Brazilian TB control program, as well as local programs, need to target these high-risk HCW with education, as well as with better personal protective equipment to prevent acquisition of new TB infection.

  10. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Ito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB: those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM, contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW and the elderly. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese TB surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (N = 96 689. Results: The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigner and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%, respectively. HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2% yet highest in foreigners (1.3%. HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0%–0.9% except foreigner, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females was 3.6–24 times higher than the general population. Discussion: Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programmes to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit TB prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW.

  11. Inclusion of information on risk factors, socio-economic status and health seeking in a tuberculosis prevalence survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lönnroth, K.; Holtz, T. H.; Cobelens, F.; Chua, J.; van Leth, F.; Tupasi, T.; Williams, B.

    2009-01-01

    Data on socio-economic status, exposure to risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and previous health-seeking for TB may be included in a TB prevalence survey to gain better knowledge about the distribution of TB in the population as well as a better understanding of what factors are driving the TB

  12. Risk of travelling to the country of origin for tuberculosis among immigrants living in a low-incidence country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, S. V.; Mensen, M.; Beltman, M.; Gijsberts, M.; van Ameijden, E. J. C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; Erkens, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Verver, S.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: Two thirds of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Netherlands are foreign-born. OBJECTIVE: To determine if travelling to the country of origin is a risk factor for TB among two different immigrant groups that have lived in the Netherlands for at least 2 years. DESIGN: In this unmatched

  13. Fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose Risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis

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    Pedro Dornelles Picon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma coorte de 610 pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera inscritos para tratamento entre 1989 e 1994 e curados com o esquema contendo rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida (RHZ. Avaliaram-se os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, sexo, cor, duração dos sintomas, cavitação das lesões, extensão da doença, diabetes melito, alcoolismo, infecção pelo HIV, negativação tardia do escarro, adesão ao tratamento e doses dos fármacos. Para detecção das recidivas, os pacientes foram seguidos por 7,7 ± 2,0 anos, após a cura, pelo sistema de informação da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul. Nas análises utilizaram-se os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e a regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 26 recidivas (4,3%, correspondendo a 0,55/100 pessoas-ano. A taxa de recidiva foi de 5,95 e 0,48/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente, nos pacientes HIV-positivos e nos HIV-negativos (p OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 610 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled for treatment between 1989 and 1994 and cured using a three-drug treatment regimen of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (RHZ. The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and medication doses. In order to detect recurrence, the patients were monitored through the Rio Grande do Sul State Healt Department Information System for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Cox regression models. RESULTS: There were 26 cases of recurrence (4.3%, which corresponds to 0.55/100 patients-year. The recurrence rate was 5.95 and 0

  14. Increased risk of tuberculosis disease in people with diabetes mellitus: record-linkage study in a UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, F; Wotton, C J; Critchley, J A; Unwin, N C; Goldacre, M J

    2012-06-01

    The authors aimed to determine whether, and by how much, diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and conversely whether TB increases the risk of DM. Retrospective cohort analyses using data from two Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS) datasets, containing information on hospital admissions and day-case care between 1963 and 1998 (ORLS1) and between 1999 and 2005 (ORLS2), were carried out. The rate ratio (RR) for tuberculosis after admission to hospital with diabetes and for diabetes after hospital admission with tuberculosis was calculated. In ORLS1, the RR for TB in people admitted to hospital with DM, comparing the latter with a reference cohort, was 1.83 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.60), and in ORLS2 the RR was 3.11 (1.17 to 7.03). RRs for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) within ORLS1 were similar at, respectively, 1.80 (1.16 to 2.67) and 1.98 (0.88 to 3.92). In ORLS 2 the RR for PTB was 2.63 (0.91 to 6.30). In ORLS1, there was no indication that TB was a risk factor for DM (RR 1.12, 0.76 to 1.60). The ORLS2 dataset was too small to analyse whether TB led to DM. DM was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of TB within this predominantly white, English population. The authors found no evidence that TB increases the risk of DM. Our findings suggest that the risks of PTB and EPTB were both raised among individuals with DM. As DM prevalence rises, this association will become increasingly important for TB control and treatment.

  15. Simulation of risk of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in hospitals of an intermediate incidence country.

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    Ochoa, J; Hincapié-Palacio, D; Sepúlveda, H; Ruiz, D; Molina, A; Echeverri, S; León, A L; Escombe, A R; Arbeláez, M P

    2015-09-01

    We simulated the frequency of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in order to classify the risk of TB transmission for nine hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. We used a risk assessment approach to estimate the average number of infections in three risk groups of a cohort of 1082 workers exposed to potentially infectious patients over 10- and 20-day periods. The risk level of the hospitals was classified according to TB prevalence: two of the hospitals were ranked as being of very high priority, six as high priority and one as low priority. Consistent results were obtained when the simulation was validated in two hospitals by studying 408 healthcare workers using interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing. The latent infection prevalence using laboratory tests was 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 34·3-47·7] and 44% (95% CI 36·4-51·0) in those hospitals, and in the simulation, it was 40·7% (95% CI 32·3-49·0) and 36% (95% CI 27·9-44·0), respectively. Simulation of risk may be useful as a tool to classify local and regional hospitals according to their risk of nosocomial TB transmission, and to facilitate the design of hospital infection control plans.

  16. Risk factors for tuberculosis in dialysis patients: a prospective multi-center clinical trial

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    Goumenos Demetrios S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uraemia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB in chronic haemodialysis patients (HDPs. In the current study, was determined the impact of various risk factors on TB development. Our aim was to identify which HDPs need anti-TB preventive therapy. Methods Prospective study of 272 HDPs admitted, through a 36-month period, to our institutions. Specific Relative Risk (RR for TB was estimated, considering age matched subjects from the general population as reference group. Entering the study all patients were tested with tuberculin (TST. Using Cox's proportional hazard model the independent effect of various risk factors associated with TB development was estimated. Results History of TB, dialysis efficiency, use of Vitamin D supplements, serum albumin and zinc levels were not proved to influence significantly the risk for TB, in contrast to: advanced age (>65 years, BMI, diabetes mellitus, tuberculin reactivity, healed TB lesions on chest X-ray and time on dialysis. Elderly (>70 years old HDPs (Adjusted RR 25.3, 95%CI 20.4-28.4, P Conclusion The above mentioned factors have to be considered by the clinicians, evaluating for TB in HDPs. Positive TST, the existence of predisposing risk factors and/or old TB lesions on chest X-ray, will guide the diagnosis of latent TB infection and the selection of those HDPs who need preventive chemoprophylaxis.

  17. Tuberculosis in African lions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been

  18. Identification of false-positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assays by repeat testing in HIV-infected patients at low risk for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jacob; Reves, Randall; Johnson, Steven; Belknap, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) is increasingly being used for latent tuberculosis screening in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. This is a retrospective analysis of repeating positive QFT assays as a strategy to identify false-positive results in HIV-infected patients at low risk for tuberculosis.

  19. CCL5 rs2107538 Polymorphism Increased the Risk of Tuberculosis in a Sample of Iranian Population

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    Hamid Reza Kouhpayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5 with immunoregulatory and inflammatory activities has an important role in granuloma formations that activates and stimulates T-cells and macrophages. Cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a chemokine receptor, which is important for migration of immune cells to site of infection. In the present study we investigated the possible association between CCL5 –403G/A (rs2107538, CCL5 –28C/G (rs2280788 and CCR5 Δ32 polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in an Iranian population. This case-control study was performed on 160 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 160 unrelated healthy subjects. The CCL5 –403G/A, CCL5 –28C/G and CCR5 Δ32 polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR, tetra amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS PCR and PCR, respectively. Our results showed that GA as well as GA+AA genotypes of CCL5 –403G/A (rs2107538 increased the risk of PTB in comparison with GG genotype (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.03–2.81, P=0.038 and OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.00–2.68, P=0.049, respectively. No significant association was found between CCL5 –28C/G as well as CCR5 Δ32 polymorphism and PTB risk. In conclusion, our findings proposed that CCL5 –403G>A polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to PTB in our population. Larger sample sizes with different ethnicities are required to validate our findings.

  20. Prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors of tuberculosis in children with HIV living in the UK and Ireland (CHIPS): a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkova, Anna; Chappell, Elizabeth; Judd, Ali; Goodall, Ruth L; Welch, Steven B; Foster, Caroline; Riordan, Andrew; Shingadia, Delane; Shackley, Fiona; Doerholt, Katja; Gibb, Diana M; Collins, Intira J

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common serious co-infection in people living with HIV worldwide, but little is known about its incidence in HIV-infected children living in high-resource settings with low tuberculosis prevalence. We aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in children with HIV living in the UK and Ireland to understand rates, risk factors, and outcomes of the disease in this group. We did an analysis of children enrolled in CHIPS, an observational multicentre cohort of children receiving HIV care in the UK and Ireland. We assessed characteristics and prevalence of tuberculosis at baseline, measured incidence of disease through the follow-up period using the CHIPS database, and calculated associated risk factors in these children with multivariable logistic and Cox regression models. Between Jan 1, 1996, to Sept 18, 2014, data for 1848 children with 14 761 years of follow-up were reported to CHIPS. 57 (3%) children were diagnosed with tuberculosis: 29 children had tuberculosis at presentation (prevalent tuberculosis) and 29 had the disease diagnosed during follow-up (incident tuberculosis), including one child with recurrent tuberculosis events. Median age at diagnosis was 9 years (IQR 5-12). 25 (43%) children had pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 (41%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis with or without pulmonary involvement, and the remainder (n=9; 16%) had unspecified-site tuberculosis. The overall incidence rate for the follow-up period was 196 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 137-283). In our multivariable model, tuberculosis at presentation was associated with more severe WHO immunological stage at baseline (odds ratio 0·25, 95% CI 0·08-0·74; p=0·0331; for none vs severe) and being born abroad (odds ratio 0·28, 0·10-0·73; p=0·0036; for UK and Ireland vs abroad). Incident tuberculosis was associated with time-updated more severe WHO immunological stage (hazard ratio 0·15, 95% CI 0·06-0·41; p=0·0056; for none vs severe

  1. Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer risk in current smokers: the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Li, Zhong-Min; Shin, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Moo-Song; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2013-06-01

    Authors evaluated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) history as a risk factor for lung cancer in current male smokers in a prospective, population-based cohort study. The subjects were the 7,009 males among the participants in the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study for whom there was full information on PTB history and smoking habits. With a 16-yr follow-up, 93 cases of lung cancer occurred over the 99,965 person-years of the study. The estimated relative risk (RR) of PTB history of current smokers in lung cancer after adjusting for three confounders - intake of coffee and tomatoes, and age at entry - was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.08-3.19). The observed joint RRs and attributable risks (ARs) across strata of three confounders were greater than the expected, indicating a positive interaction. Thus a history of PTB in current smokers may be another risk factor for lung cancer. Based on a synergic interaction, a heavy male smoker with a PTB history would be expected to belong to the group at high risk of lung cancer.

  2. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bamise; Chetty, Naven

    2017-12-01

    The preference for computed tomography (CT) for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05) and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05). The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively). These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  3. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

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    Adeleye Bamise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preference for computed tomography (CT for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05 between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05 and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05. The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively. These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  4. COPD and the risk of tuberculosis--a population-based cohort study.

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    Malin Inghammar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and tuberculosis (TB primarily affect the lungs and are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD and TB have common risk factors such as smoking, low socioeconomic status and dysregulation of host defence functions. COPD is a prevalent co-morbid condition, especially in elderly with TB but in contrast to other diseases known to increase the risk of TB, relatively little is known about the specific relationship and impact from COPD on TB-incidence and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All individuals > or = 40 years of age, discharged with a diagnosis of COPD from Swedish hospitals 1987-2003 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register (n = 115,867. Records were linked to the Swedish Tuberculosis Register 1989-2007 and the relative risk of active TB in patients with COPD compared to control subjects randomly selected from the general population (matched for sex, year of birth and county of residence was estimated using Cox regression. The analyses were stratified by year of birth, sex and county of residence and adjusted for immigration status, socioeconomic status (SES and inpatient co-morbidities previously known to increase the risk of TB. COPD patients had a three-fold increased hazard ratio (HR of developing active TB (HR 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 4.0 that was mainly dependent on an increased risk of pulmonary TB. In addition, logistic regression estimates showed that COPD patients who developed active TB had a two-fold increased risk of death from all causes within first year after the TB diagnosis compared to the general population control subjects with TB (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.1. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study comprised of a large number of COPD patients shows that these patients have an increased risk of developing active TB compared to the general population. The results raise concerns that the increasing global burden

  5. 76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and...- 7221. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Background Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious and infectious...

  6. Contact networks in a wildlife-livestock host community: identifying high-risk individuals in the transmission of bovine TB among badgers and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Monika; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2009-01-01

    The management of many pathogens, which are of concern to humans and their livestock, is complicated by the pathogens' ability to cross-infect multiple host species, including wildlife. This has major implications for the management of such diseases, since the dynamics of infection are dependent on the rates of both intra- and inter-specific transmission. However, the difficulty of studying transmission networks in free-living populations means that the relative opportunities for intra- versus inter-specific disease transmission have not previously been demonstrated empirically within any wildlife-livestock disease system. Using recently-developed proximity data loggers, we quantify both intra- and inter-specific contacts in a wildlife-livestock disease system, using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers and cattle in the UK as our example. We assess the connectedness of individuals within the networks in order to identify whether there are certain 'high-risk' individuals or groups of individuals for disease transmission within and between species. Our results show that contact patterns in both badger and cattle populations vary widely, both between individuals and over time. We recorded only infrequent interactions between badger social groups, although all badgers fitted with data loggers were involved in these inter-group contacts. Contacts between badgers and cattle occurred more frequently than contacts between different badger groups. Moreover, these inter-specific contacts involved those individual cows, which were highly connected within the cattle herd. This work represents the first continuous time record of wildlife-host contacts for any free-living wildlife-livestock disease system. The results highlight the existence of specific individuals with relatively high contact rates in both livestock and wildlife populations, which have the potential to act as hubs in the spread of disease through complex contact networks. Targeting testing or preventive

  7. Counting the Homeless: A Previously Incalculable Tuberculosis Risk and Its Social Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Larry D.; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance among the homeless is not supported by the political will necessary for TB elimination. We merged the first stakeholder-accepted enumeration of homeless persons with existing surveillance data to assess TB risk among the homeless in Houston, Texas. The average incidence per 100 000 was 411 among homeless and 9.5 among housed persons. The homeless were more likely than the housed to be US-born, clustered, and in a larger-sized cluster. Multivariate analysis revealed that TB rates among the homeless were driven not by comorbidities but by social determinants. Homeless patients were hospitalized more days than the housed and required more follow-up time. Reporting of TB rates for populations with known health disparities could help reframe TB prevention and better target limited funds. PMID:23488504

  8. Predictors of bovine TB risk behaviour amongst meat handlers in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study guided by the health belief model.

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    Dupe Hambolu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. RESULTS: Just over a quarter (28.1% of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p = 0.03, not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p = 0.001, and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p = 0.001. Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value = 0.021. Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM.

  9. NEW APPROACHES TO REHABILITATION AMONG CHILDREN FROM HIGH RISK GROUPS OF TUBERCULOSIS

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    V.A. Aksenova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research studied the impact of the mixture of bacteria lysates (IRS 19 on the recurrence of the acute respiratory infections among the weakened and sickly children from TB high risk group, who underwent rehabilitation at the anti TB health center. The researcher studied the tolerance to the physical loads (Shalkov test, secretory Iga concentration in the saliva, recurrence of the acute respiratory infections under supervision in catamnesis within a year. To prevent and treat bacterial nasal and respiratory infections, the authors used the mixture of bacteria lysates (Solvay pharma along the specific chemical tuberculosis prevention. Performed complex rehabilitation increased the resistance of the children's body infected with TB mycobacteria and conduced to the increase of the normergic reactions to tuber culine. They revealed that the recurrence of the acute respiratory infections among the children, who received the mixture of bacteria lysates, made up 0,9 ± 0,2 among the children infected and 1,1 ± 0,2 non=infected with tb mycobacteria within the first 6 months of observation. In the test group, these indices came to 2,2 ± 0,3 and 2,3 ± 0,2, respectively. After they carried on the immunocorrection course, the saliva witnessed the increase of the secretory Iga concentration (among the children both infected and non infected with TB mycobacteria. performed research proves that it is clinically efficient, safe and expedient to introduce the seasonal course of the local immuno corrector — the mixture of bacteria lysates to the set of the rehabilitation actions among the children from TB high risk groups, which allows them to recommend wider application of this medication in children.Key words: mixture of bacteria lysates, tuberculosis, prevention, children.

  10. High annual risk of tuberculosis infection among nursing students in South India: a cohort study.

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    Devasahayam J Christopher

    Full Text Available Nurses in developing countries are frequently exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB patients, and have a high prevalence of TB infection. To estimate the incidence of new TB infection, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at the Christian Medical College in Southern India. Annual tuberculin skin testing (TST was conducted to assess the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI in this cohort.436 nursing students completed baseline two-step TST testing in 2007 and 217 were TST-negative and therefore eligible for repeat testing in 2008. 181 subjects completed a detailed questionnaire on exposure to tuberculosis from workplace and social contacts. A physician verified the questionnaire and clinical log book and screened the subjects for symptoms of active TB. The majority of nursing students (96.7% were females, almost 84% were under 22 years of age, and 80% had BCG scars. Among those students who underwent repeat testing in 2008, 14 had TST conversions using the ATS/CDC/IDSA conversion definition of 10 mm or greater increase over baseline. The ARTI was therefore estimated as 7.8% (95%CI: 4.3-12.8%. This was significantly higher than the national average ARTI of 1.5%. Sputum collection and caring for pulmonary TB patients were both high risk activities that were associated with TST conversions in this young nursing cohort.Our study showed a high ARTI among young nursing trainees, substantially higher than that seen in the general Indian population. Indian healthcare providers and the Indian Revised National TB Control Programme will need to implement internationally recommended TB infection control interventions to protect its health care workforce.

  11. High prevalence of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in persons with no known risk factors.

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    Larissa Otero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In high multidrug resistant (MDR tuberculosis (TB prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. RESULTS: Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203 had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4-8.3 (37/584 rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention.

  12. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies.

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    Christie Y Jeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB. The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27-4.26. Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. CONCLUSION: DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.

  13. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

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    Mayara Fernanda Maggioli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.

  14. Revisiting an old disease? Risk factors for bovine enzootic haematuria in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

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    Hidano, Arata; Sharma, Basant; Rinzin, Karma; Dahal, Narapati; Dukpa, Kinzang; Stevenson, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH) is a debilitating disease of cattle caused by chronic ingestion of bracken fern. Control of BEH is difficult when bracken fern is abundant and fodder resources are limited. To fill a significant knowledge gap on modifiable risk factors for BEH, we conducted a case-control study to identify cattle management practices associated with BEH in the Bhutanese cattle population. A case-control study involving 16 of the 20 districts of Bhutan was carried out between March 2012 and June 2014. In Bhutan sodium acid phosphate and hexamine (SAP&H) is used to treat BEH-affected cattle. All cattle greater than three years of age and treated with SAP&H in 2011 were identified from treatment records held by animal health offices. Households with at least one SAP&H-treated cattle were defined as probable cases. Probable case households were visited and re-classified as confirmed case households if the BEH status of cattle was confirmed following clinical examination and urinalysis. Two control households were selected from the same village as the case household. Households were eligible to be controls if: (1) householders reported that none of their cattle had shown red urine during the previous five years, and (2) haematuria was absent in a randomly selected animal from the herd following clinical examination. Details of cattle management practices were elicited from case and control householders using a questionnaire. A conditional logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between exposures of interest and household BEH status. A total of 183 cases and 345 controls were eligible for analysis. After adjusting for known confounders, the odds of free-grazing for two and three months in the spring were 3.81 (95% CI 1.27-11.7) and 2.28 (95% CI 1.15-4.53) times greater, respectively, in case households compared to controls. The odds of using fresh fern and dry fern as bedding in the warmer months were 2.05 (95% CI 1.03-4.10) and 2

  15. Vitamin D deficiency and the risk of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang SJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shao-Jun Huang,1 Xian-Hua Wang,2 Zhi-Dong Liu,1 Wen-Li Cao,3 Yi Han,1 Ai-Guo Ma,2 Shao-Fa Xu1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Institute of Human Nutrition, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background and aim: To conduct meta-analyses of all published studies on various aspects of association between vitamin D and tuberculosis (TB.Methods: PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for all properly controlled studies on vitamin D and TB. Pooled odds ratio, mean difference or standardized mean difference, and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated with the Cochrane Review Manager 5.3.Results: A significantly lower vitamin D level was found in TB patients vs controls; vitamin D deficiency (VDD was associated with an increased risk of TB, although such an association was lacking in the African population and in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected African population. A significantly lower vitamin D level was found in human immunodeficiency virus-TB-coinfected African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment who developed TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome vs those who did not develop TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. VDD was associated with an increased risk of developing active TB in those subjects with latent TB infection and with an increased risk of tuberculin skin test conversion/TB infection conversion, and the trend toward a lower vitamin D level in active TB patients vs latent TB infection subjects did not reach statistical significance, indicating that VDD was more likely a risk factor than a consequence of TB. This concept was further strengthened by our result that anti-TB treatment did not

  16. [Prevalence and annual risk of tuberculosis infection in the school population aged 7 years old in Ceuta (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Romero, José María; Ramos Marín, María Violeta; Sánchez Fernández, José Javier; Cantón Gálvez, José Miguel; Sánchez Fernández, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis infection and annual risk of infection in the school population of Ceuta. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A tuberculin test (2UT RT-23 Tween 80) was given to 7-year-old schoolchildren in Ceuta in 2008. A positive result was considered as an induration of ≥5 mm at 72 hours in unvaccinated children. A total of 612 children were studied. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection was 0.98% (95% confidence interval with a 2.5% margin of error). The distribution showed differences among three health areas, and was greatest in the most deprived area (2.07%). The annual risk of infection was 0.15%. According to the most recent studies, the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in Ceuta is one of the highest of Spain. Our results do not agree with the epidemiological data for tuberculosis in Ceuta, which also includes imported cases. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  18. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  19. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Contacts by Interferon-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). A TBNET Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Block, Michael

    2015-01-01

    with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the QuantiFERON-Gold in-Tube (QFT) test or the T-SPOT.TB (TSPOT) were prospectively collected and analyzed. MAIN RESULTS: Among 5020 contacts of 1023 index cases, 25 prevalent secondary cases were identified at screening. Twenty-four incident cases occurred among 4513 contacts......RATIONAL: Latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is defined by a positive interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result in the absence of active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Only few, mostly monocentric studies have evaluated the role of IGRAs to predict the development of tuberculosis in recent...... contacts in low incidence countries of tuberculosis. We analyzed IGRA results and the effect of preventive chemotherapy on tuberculosis progression rates among recent contacts. METHODS: Results from contact investigations at 26 centers in 10 European countries including testing for latent infection...

  20. A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Sydney; Muma, John Bwalya; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-07-09

    Zambia's estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) - infection with Mycobacterium bovis - in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications.

  1. Risk of self-reported symptoms or diagnosis of active tuberculosis in relationship to low body mass index, diabetes and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, L; Andrews, J R; Basu, S; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J D

    2016-10-01

    Globally, tuberculosis prevalence has declined, but its risk factors have varied across place and time - low body mass index (BMI) has persisted while diabetes has increased. Using India's National Family Health Survey (NFHS), wave 3 and World Health Survey (WHS) data, we examined their relationships to support projection of future trends and targeted control efforts. Multivariate logistic regressions at the individual level with and without diabetes/BMI interactions assessed the relationship between tuberculosis, diabetes and low BMI and the importance of risk factor co-occurrence. Population-level analyses examined how tuberculosis incidence and prevalence varied with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. In NFHS, diabetic individuals had higher predicted tuberculosis risks (diabetic vs. non-diabetic: 2.50% vs. 0.63% at low BMI; 0.81% vs. 0.20% at normal BMI; 0.37% vs. 0.09% at high BMI), which were not significantly different when modelled independently or allowing for risk modification with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. WHS findings were generally consistent. Population-level analysis found that diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence may be associated with elevated tuberculosis risk, although its predicted effect on tuberculosis incidence/prevalence was generally ≤0.2 percentage points and not robustly statistically significant. Concerns about the additional elevation of tuberculosis risk from diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence and hence the need to coordinate tuberculosis control efforts around the nexus of co-occurring diabetes and low BMI may be premature. However, study findings robustly support the importance of individually targeting low BMI and diabetes as part of ongoing tuberculosis control efforts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Diabetes mellitus and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: site distribution and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Foote, M; Ray, S M; Gandhi, N R; Kempker, R R

    2016-07-01

    Scarce data exist on the relationship between diabetes and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). We evaluated whether diabetes impacts site of TB and risk of death in patients with EPTB. We evaluated a cohort of TB cases from the state of Georgia between 2009 and 2012. Patients aged ⩾16 years were classified by diabetes status according to medical records. Site of EPTB was determined by culture and/or state TB classification. Death was defined by all-cause mortality. Of 1325 eligible reported TB cases, 369 (27·8%) had any EPTB including 258 (19·5%) with only EPTB and 111 (8·4%) with pulmonary TB and EPTB. Of all TB cases, 158 had diabetes (11·9%). In multivariable analysis, the odds of any EPTB was similar in patients with and without diabetes [adjusted odds ratio 1·04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·70-1·56]. The risk of death was 23·8% in patients with EPTB and diabetes vs. 9·8% in those with no diabetes (P Diabetes was common in patients with EPTB and risk of death was high. Improved understanding of the relationship between diabetes and EPTB is critical to determine the extent that diabetes affects TB diagnosis and clinical management.

  3. Risk factors associated with tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G X; Wang, L X; Chai, S J; Klena, J D; Cheng, S M; Ren, Y L; Ren, L P; Gao, F; Li, Y Y; He, G M; Li, J B; Wang, Y; Rao, C; Varma, J K

    2012-11-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection. In China, surveys examining TB infection among HCWs have not studied general health care facilities, compared tuberculin tests conducted using local protocols against an internationally accepted test or characterised risk factors. To measure the prevalence of and risk factors for TB infection among HCWs in Inner Mongolia, China. Between April and August 2010, we administered QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests, skin tests using Chinese tuberculin (TST) and surveys among HCWs at an infectious diseases hospital and a general medical hospital. We assessed whether demographic characteristics, personal exposure and work exposure were associated with QFT-GIT and TST positivity, and assessed agreement between test results. Of 999 HCWs, 683 (68%) were QFT-GIT-positive, which was associated with greater age, longer HCW career, TB disease in a co-worker and greater daily patient exposure using multivariable analysis. TST reactions ≥ 5 mm occurred in 69% of the HCWs; agreement between test results was low ( 0.22). The prevalence of TB infection among HCWs in Inner Mongolia is high; infection was associated with occupational exposure. Results from locally conducted TST are difficult to interpret. In China, TB infection control in health care facilities should be strengthened.

  4. The occupational risk of tuberculosis in a low-prevalence population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, S

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection in low-prevalence countries has been declining. Estimates of the risk of occupational TB in these countries are contradictory. To evaluate the risk of occupational TB in a low-prevalence population using a comprehensive database. All compensation claims in British Columbia (BC), Canada, reporting workplace TB exposure for the years 1999-2008 were reviewed. Cases with TB infection were identified for all occupational groups with five or more claims in the decade and analysis provided estimates of incidence rates of active TB and relative risks of latent TB (LTB) infections. There were 70 occupational groups making 639 claims including 100 with LTB and eight with active TB. Only 18 occupations had five or more claims. Four occupational groups had a significantly increased relative risk of infection compared with all other occupational groups. These were employment counsellors, registered nurses, x-ray technicians and home support workers. Active TB infections were relatively rare compared with the general population (1-4 compared with 7-10/100000 person-years, respectively). Few occupational groups were at risk of TB exposure at work on a regular basis. Only a handful had an apparent increased risk of contracting TB and these should be the focus of prevention efforts. Work-related active TB infections are rare hence the burden of occupational TB disease is low in BC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Oxlade

    Full Text Available Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB.Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the 2006 Demographic Health Survey (DHS for India, we assessed self-reported TB status, TB determinants and household socioeconomic status. We used these data to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF for each key TB risk factor based on the prevalence of determinants and estimates of the effect of these risk factors derived from published sources. We conducted a mediation analysis using principal components analysis (PCA and regression to demonstrate how the association between poverty and TB prevalence is mediated.The prevalence of self-reported TB in the 2006 DHS for India was 545 per 100,000 and ranged from 201 in the highest quintile to 1100 in the lowest quintile. Among those in the poorest population, the PAFs for low body mass index (BMI and indoor air pollution were 34.2% and 28.5% respectively. The PCA analysis also showed that low BMI had the strongest mediating effect on the association between poverty and prevalent TB (12%, p = 0.019.TB control strategies should be targeted to the poorest populations that are most at risk, and should address the most important determinants of disease--specifically low BMI and indoor air pollution.

  6. Nutritional Status and Tuberculosis Risk in Adult and Pediatric Household Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibana, Omowunmi; Acharya, Xeno; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Becerra, Mercedes C; Galea, Jerome T; Chiang, Silvia S; Contreras, Carmen; Calderon, Roger; Yataco, Rosa; Velásquez, Gustavo E; Tintaya, Karen; Jimenez, Judith; Lecca, Leonid; Murray, Megan B

    2016-01-01

    Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; or whether nutritional status predicts this risk in children. We assessed the impact of body mass index on incident TB infection and disease among adults and children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We determined body mass index at baseline and followed participants for one year for TB infection and disease. We used Cox proportional regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for incident TB infection and disease. We enrolled 14,044 household contacts, and among 6853 negative for TB infection and disease at baseline, 1787 (26.1%) became infected. A total of 406 contacts developed secondary TB disease during follow-up. Body mass index did not predict risk of TB infection but overweight household contacts had significantly decreased risk of TB disease (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.37-0.64; p index ≥ 35 kg/m2 continued to predict a lower risk of TB disease (HR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.74; p 0.009). We found no association between high body mass index and TB infection or disease among children under 12 years of age. High body mass index protects adults against TB disease even at levels ≥ 35 kg/m2. This protective effect does not extend to TB infection and is not seen in children.

  7. The risks of using allogeneic cell lines for vaccine production : The example of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, Lindert; Bell, Charlotte R

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a hemorrhagic disease that emerged in calves across Europe in 2007. Its occurrence is attributed to immunization of the calf's mother with a vaccine produced using an allogeneic cell line. Vaccine-induced alloantibodies specific for

  8. Tuberculosis Is Not a Risk Factor for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Smyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a progressive cholestatic liver disease characterised serologically by cholestasis and the presence of high-titre antimitochondrial antibodies, and histologically by chronic nonsuppurative cholangitis and granulomata. As PBC is a granulomatous disease and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most frequent cause of granulomata, a causal relation between tuberculosis and PBC has been suggested. Attempts to find serological evidence of PBC-specific autoantibodies such as AMA have been made and, conversely, granulomatous livers from patients with PBC have been investigated for molecular evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This paper discusses in detail the reported data in support or against an association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and PBC. We discuss the immunological and microbiological data exploring the association of PBC with exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also discuss the findings of large epidemiologic studies investigating the association of PBC with preexistent or concomitant disorders and the relevance of these findings with tuberculosis. Genome-wide association studies in patients with tuberculosis as well as in patients with PBC provide conclusive hints regarding the assumed association between exposure to this mycobacterium and the induction of PBC. Analysis of these data suggest that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an unlikely infectious trigger of PBC.

  9. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest. Ethiopia.

  10. Pediatric Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Diagnostic Challenges in a Low Prevalence Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-García, Begoña; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Ruíz-Contreras, Jesús; Bellón, Jose M; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria A; Mellado-Peña, María J

    2016-11-01

    Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. Children EPTB. During the study period, 93 of 526 pediatric TB cases had EPTB (17.7%). The most common site was lymphatic TB (34.5%). The source case was not identified in most extrapulmonary cases, contrary to pulmonary TB (28% vs. 63.3%; P EPTB cases (EPTB presented higher rate of bacteriologic confirmation (66% vs. 49.4%; P EPTB was associated with the child's foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (1.1-5.3)], immune disorders [OR 5.8 (1.9-17.1)] and drug resistance [OR 2.4 (1.1-5.4)]. In our low-prevalence region, childhood EPTB was linked to immigrant status, immune disorders and drug resistance, and presented high rate of complications. Our study underscores the relevance of improved diagnostic tools and systematic TB screening in high risk populations.

  11. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  12. Tuberculosis infection during Hajj pilgrimage. The risk to pilgrims and their communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Orainey, Ibrahim O

    2013-07-01

    Millions of Muslims travel to Makkah every year to perform Hajj. Many pilgrims come from countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Over-crowding, physical exhaustion, heat, and co-morbid conditions of mostly middle-aged and elderly pilgrims make them susceptible to infection, or reactivation of latent TB. Evidence from previous reports indicated a significant risk of acquiring infection during Hajj. Pilgrims infected in Makkah may spread the infection to contacts in their countries. Spread of multi-drug resistant TB is a real concern. Control efforts are required to reduce the risk of infection and transmission. Screening of pilgrims from high burden countries before travel with chest x-ray will help to detect and treat active TB, and prevent infection of others. Low incidence countries may consider carrying out tuberculin skin test or Quanti-FERON TB assay for pilgrims before and after Hajj, to identify and treat recent converters. National and international coordinated efforts are essential for successful implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

  13. Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Tuberculosis Go to Information for Researchers ► Tuberculosis (TB) is ... are drug resistant. Why Is the Study of Tuberculosis a Priority for NIAID? Tuberculosis is one of ...

  14. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  15. The risk factor of false-negative and false-positive for T-SPOT.TB in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Li, Yan

    2018-02-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd). Statistics were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 using logistic regression. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was 92.83% (233/251; 95%CI 0.8872-0.9557) and 83.67% (82/98; 95%CI 0.7454-0.9010), respectively. Patients with tuberculous meningitis were more likely to have false-negative results (OR 17.4, 95%CI 3.068-98.671; P.05). Tuberculous meningitis was a risk factor of false-negative for T-SPOT.TB, while cured TB was a risk factor of false-positive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  17. Prevalence of female genital tuberculosis, its risk factors and associated clinical features among the women of Andaman Islands, India: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, R; Sugunan, A P; Vijayachari, P; Burma, S P; Mandal, A; Saha, M K; Shah, W A

    2017-07-01

    There is scarcity of information on the prevalence of female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) in the community. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of FGTB, its risk factors and associated clinical features. Community-based cross-sectional survey. This study was carried during October 2011 and May 2014 in the Andaman Islands. A total of 13,300 women aged 20-59 years were primarily screened using a structured questionnaire. About 721 (5.4%) were found initially eligible for screening for genital tuberculosis by clinical examination and specimen collection for laboratory tests but only 460 (63.8%) expressed their willingness. Endometrial specimens were collected from 405 (88%) subjects. The association of the potential risk factors with genital tuberculosis was tested by Chi-squared test. A similar analysis was performed to identify clinical features associated with genital tuberculosis. The estimated prevalence of FGTB was 45.1 cases per 100,000 women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-98.1). Infertility and oligomenorrhoea were identified as clinical features associated with FGTB. Past history of tuberculosis and history of close contact with tuberculosis cases were identified as risk factors. This study shows the prevalence of FGTB among the female population of the Andaman Islands. Though the estimated prevalence was close to the expected prevalence, but as only 63.8% of the eligible women could be adequately screened, a much higher prevalence of FGTB could not be ruled out. Infertility, oligomenorrhoea, past history of tuberculosis and contact with tuberculosis case were identified as factors associated with genital tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The importance of communication in promoting voluntary participation in an experimental trial: A qualitative study based on the assessment of the gamma-interferon test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boireau, Clémence; Dufour, Barbara; Praud, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors leading each stakeholder to participate in an experimental trial is a key element for improving trial set-up and for identifying selection bias in statistical analyses. An experimental protocol, validated by the European Commission, was developed in France to assess the ability of the gamma-interferon test in terms of accuracy to replace the second intradermal skin test in cases of suspected bovine tuberculosis. Implemented between 2013 and 2015, this experimental trial was based on voluntary participation. To determine and understand the motivation or reluctance of farmers to take part in this trial, we carried out a sociological survey in France. Our study was based on semi-structured interviews with the farmers and other stakeholders involved. The analysis of findings demonstrated that shortening the lock-up period during tuberculosis suspicion, following the use of a gamma-interferon test, was an important aim and a genuine challenge for the animal health stakeholders. However, some farmers did not wish to continue the trial because it could potentially have drastic consequences for them. Moreover, misunderstandings and confusion concerning the objectives and consequences of the trial led stakeholders to reject it forcefully. Based on our results, we offer some recommendations: clear and appropriate communication tools should be prepared to explain the protocol and its aims. In addition, these types of animal health trials should be designed with the stakeholders' interests in mind. This study provides a better understanding of farmer motivations and stakeholder influences on trial participation and outcomes. The findings can be used to help design trials so that they promote participation by farmers and by all animal health stakeholders in general.

  19. The importance of communication in promoting voluntary participation in an experimental trial: A qualitative study based on the assessment of the gamma-interferon test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Boireau

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors leading each stakeholder to participate in an experimental trial is a key element for improving trial set-up and for identifying selection bias in statistical analyses. An experimental protocol, validated by the European Commission, was developed in France to assess the ability of the gamma-interferon test in terms of accuracy to replace the second intradermal skin test in cases of suspected bovine tuberculosis. Implemented between 2013 and 2015, this experimental trial was based on voluntary participation. To determine and understand the motivation or reluctance of farmers to take part in this trial, we carried out a sociological survey in France. Our study was based on semi-structured interviews with the farmers and other stakeholders involved. The analysis of findings demonstrated that shortening the lock-up period during tuberculosis suspicion, following the use of a gamma-interferon test, was an important aim and a genuine challenge for the animal health stakeholders. However, some farmers did not wish to continue the trial because it could potentially have drastic consequences for them. Moreover, misunderstandings and confusion concerning the objectives and consequences of the trial led stakeholders to reject it forcefully. Based on our results, we offer some recommendations: clear and appropriate communication tools should be prepared to explain the protocol and its aims. In addition, these types of animal health trials should be designed with the stakeholders' interests in mind. This study provides a better understanding of farmer motivations and stakeholder influences on trial participation and outcomes. The findings can be used to help design trials so that they promote participation by farmers and by all animal health stakeholders in general.

  20. HIV risk behaviour among public primary healthcare patients with tuberculosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with HIV in tuberculosis (TB patients in a public primary healthcare (PHC setting in South Africa (SA.Method. Among 4 900 consecutively selected TB patients (54.5% men; women 45.5% from 42 public PHC clinics in 3 districts in SA, a cross-sectional survey was performed to assess new TB and new TB retreatment patients within one month of anti-TB treatment.Results. The sample comprised 76.6% new TB patients and 23.4% TB retreatment patients. Of those who had tested for HIV, 59.9% were HIV-positive; 9.6% had never tested for HIV. In multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio (OR 5.86; confidence interval (CI 4.07 - 8.44, female gender (OR 0.47; CI 0.37 - 0.59, residing in an informal settlement (OR 1.55; CI 1.13 - 2.12, being a TB retreatment patient (OR 0.55; CI 0.42 - 0.72, occasions of sexual intercourse with condom use (OR 1.07; CI 1.02 - 1.13 and having a sexual partner receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART (OR 7.09, CI 4.35 - 11.57 were associated with an HIV-positive status in TB patients.Conclusion. This study revealed high HIV risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected last sexual intercourse and alcohol and drug use in the context of sexual intercourse among TB patients in SA. Various factors were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Condom use and substance use risk reduction need to be considered as HIV-prevention measures when planning such strategies for TB patients.

  1. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  2. Converging risk factors but no association between HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hof, S; Tursynbayeva, A; Abildaev, T; Adenov, M; Pak, S; Bekembayeva, G; Ismailov, S

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is a country with a low HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) burden, but a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe the epidemiology of multidrug resistance and HIV among TB patients, using the 2007-2011 national electronic TB register. HIV test results were available for 97.2% of TB patients. HIV prevalence among TB patients increased from 0.6% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2011. Overall, 41.6% of patients had a positive smear at diagnosis, 38.6% a positive culture and 51.7% either a positive smear or culture. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 92.7% of culture-positive cases. Socio-economic factors independently associated with both HIV and MDR-TB were urban residency, drug use, homelessness and a history of incarceration. In adjusted analysis, HIV positivity was not associated with MDR-TB (OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.86-1.2). Overall, among TB patients with DST and HIV test results available, 65.0% were positive for neither HIV nor MDR-TB, 33.5% only for MDR-TB, 0.9% only for HIV and 0.6% for both HIV and MDR-TB. Among injection drug users, 12.5% were positive for HIV and MDR-TB. We showed increasing HIV prevalence among TB patients in Kazakhstan. HIV was not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB, but risk factors were largely overlapping and we did identify subgroups at particular risk of HIV-MDR-TB co-infection, notably drug users. Enhanced efforts are necessary to provide care to these socially vulnerable populations.

  3. Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubulis, J; Kinikar, A; Ithape, M; Khandave, M; Dixit, S; Hotalkar, S; Kulkarni, V; Mave, V; Gupte, N; Kagal, A; Jain, S; Bharadwaj, R; Gupta, A

    2014-02-01

    India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World Health Organization definitions (definition 1). Controls were healthy children aged ≤ 5 years. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of being a TB case given exposure, including indoor air pollution (IAP; exposure to tobacco smoke and/or biomass fuels) and vitamin D deficiency. Cases were re-analyzed according to a new consensus research definition of pediatric TB (definition 2). Sixty cases and 118 controls were enrolled. Both groups had high levels of vitamin D deficiency (55% vs. 50%, P = 0.53). In multivariable analysis, TB was associated with household TB exposure (aOR 25.41, 95%CI 7.03-91.81), household food insecurity (aOR 11.55, 95%CI 3.33-40.15) and IAP exposure (aOR 2.67, 95%CI 1.02-6.97), but not vitamin D deficiency (aOR 1.00, 95%CI 0.38-2.66). Use of definition 2 reduced the number of cases to 25. In multivariate analysis, TB exposure, household food insecurity and IAP remained associated with TB. Household TB exposure, exposure to IAP and household food insecurity were independently associated with pediatric TB.

  4. Prevalence, risk factors and social context of active pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.

  5. Can Social History Variables Predict Prison Inmates’ Risk for Latent Tuberculosis Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E. Weant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in correctional facilities may improve TB control. The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRC consists of 32 prisons. Inmates are screened upon entry to ODRC and yearly thereafter. The objective of the study was to determine if social history factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and drug use are significant predictors of LTBI and treatment outcomes. We reviewed the medical charts of inmates and randomly selected age-matched controls at one ODRC facility for 2009. We used a conditional logistic regression to assess associations between selected social history variables and LTBI diagnosis. Eighty-nine inmates with a history of LTBI and 88 controls were identified. No social history variable was a significant predictor of LTBI. Medical comorbidities such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis C were significantly higher in inmates with LTBI. 84% of inmates diagnosed with LTBI had either completed or were on treatment. Annual TB screening may not be cost-effective in all inmate populations. Identification of factors to help target screening populations at risk for TB is critical. Social history variables did not predict LTBI in our inmate population. Additional studies are needed to identify inmates for the targeted TB testing.

  6. Evidence and potential risk factors of tuberculosis among captive Asian elephants and wildlife staff in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Yusuf; Ong, Bee Lee; Zakaria, Zunita; Hassan, Latiffah; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Verasahib, Khebir; Razak, Mohd Firdaus Ariff Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Elephant tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with considerable conservation and public health risk. We conducted prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies in elephants and wildlife staff respectively in order to identify potential risk factors associated with TB in captive Asian elephants and their handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. Sixty elephants in six different facilities were screened for TB longitudinally using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK and DPP VetTB assays from February 2012 to May 2014, and 149 wildlife staff were examined for tuberculosis infection using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT) assay from January to April, 2012. Information on potential risk factors associated with infection in both elephants and staff were collected using questionnaires and facility records. The overall seroprevalence of TB amongst the elephants was 23.3% (95% CI: 13.8-36.3) and the risk of seroconversion was significantly higher among elephants with assigned mahouts [p=0.022, OR=4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-18.2)]. The percentage of QFT responders among wildlife staff was 24.8% (95% CI: 18.3-32.7) and the risk of infection was observed to be significantly associated with being a zoo employee [p=0.018, OR=2.7 (95% CI: 1.2-6.3)] or elephant handler [p=0.035, OR=4.1 (95% CI: 1.1-15.5)]. These findings revealed a potential risk of TB infection in captive elephants and handlers in Malaysia, and emphasize the need for TB screening of newly acquired elephants, isolating sero-positive elephants and performing further diagnostic tests to determine their infection status, and screening elephant handlers for TB, pre- and post-employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on BSE risk in bovine intestines and mesentery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Bovine intestines and mesenteries in the European Union (EU) have to be removed from the food and feed chain. The opinion provides a quantitative assessment of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) infectious load that might enter the food and feed chain yearly if bovine intestine...

  8. Use of Corticosteroids for Urinary Tuberculosis Patients at Risk of Developing Ureteral Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kosuke; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Ohba, Kojiro; Mochizuki, Kota; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with urinary tuberculosis developed post renal anuria two days after starting an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. He had bilateral hydronephrosis, and his right kidney was radiologically diagnosed to be non-functioning. A transurethral catheter was placed in the left ureter. No improvement in the ureteral stricture was noted during the initial three weeks of treatment; however, the stricture did thereafter improve after the commencement of oral prednisolone. In cases of urinary tuberculosis, ureteral stricture can deteriorate and result in ureteral obstruction during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pre-emptive administration of corticosteroids may be beneficial for preventing such stricture in patients with a pre-existing ureteral lesion. PMID:27904125

  9. Tuberculosis – Risk of continued transmission in healthcare workers

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    José Torres Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Control of tuberculosis (TB in healthcare workers requires an early recognition of contacts, the adoption of efficient protective measures and screening for cases of latent tuberculosis (TL and recent TL. Aims: Systematic screening for TB and TL in healthcare workers with contact with patients or other workers with TB and risk of contagion. Material and methods: In a hospital with approximately 5400 workers 13 screenings were performed September 2007– December 2008 due to risk of continued TB. These consisted of clinical observation, tuberculin skin test (PT, Quantiferon®-TB Gold (QTF test if PT ≥10 mm and <15 mm and chest X-ray. The diagnoses were performed according to the recommendations of the Portuguese Pulmonolgy Society (SPP. Results: 792 workers (563 ♂; 229 ♀ were included in the 13 screenings. Of these, 75 presented symptoms and 31 had radiology abnormalities. PT was performed in 490 workers, with results <10 mm in 250, ≥10 and <15 mm in 175 (QTF positive in 36 and ≥15 mm in 65. Of the screened workers, 280 had a previous PT ≥15 mm, and therefore it was not repeated. 1 case of active TB was diagnosed in a worker, as well as 408 cases of TL (51.5% and 42 cases of recent TL (5.3%. Conclusions: TB is considered an occupational disease in healthcare workers. The screening of contacts and TL cases is an important tool for an early diagnosis of active disease and for identifying the cases with higher risk of future disease. Resumo: Introdução: O controlo da tuberculose (TB em profissionais de saúde passa pelo reconhecimento precoce dos contactos, adopção de medidas de protecção eficazes e despiste dos casos de tuberculose latente (TL e latente recente. Objectivos: Rastreio sistemático de TB e TL nos profissionais de saúde com contacto com doentes ou funcionários com TB e risco de contágio. Material e métodos: Num hospital com

  10. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  11. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Terefe G; Ayanto, Samuel Y

    2016-04-02

    People concentrated in congregated systems such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for tuberculosis transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. The condition is more serious in Africa particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its poor living conditions and ineffective health services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June 2013 in Hadiya Zone prison. Prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through compound light microscopy. The data obtained was analyzed using statistical software like Epidata and STATA. A total of 164 prisoners were included in the survey using active screening strategy and the point prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the prison was 349.2 per 100,000 populations; about three times higher than its prevalence in the general population. Even though lack of visit from family was the only variable identified as a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.029), almost all of the PTB positive cases were rural residents, farmers, male youngsters and those who shared cell with TB patients and chronically coughing persons as well as those who stayed in a cell that contains >100 inmates. There is high prevalence of TB in Hadiya Zone prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. The study also documented a number of factors which may facilitate exposures to TB though most of them are not significantly associated. Therefore, strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.

  12. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Fernanda A G; Gomes, Murilo N; Uieda, Wilson; Begot, Alberto L; Ramos, Ofir de S; Fernandes, Marcus E B

    2016-01-01

    The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  13. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  14. Renal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Džamić Zoran; Dimitrijević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is charac...

  15. Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  17. Prevalence of and risk factors for resistance to second-line drugs in people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in eight countries: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracy; Cegielski, Peter; Akksilp, Somsak; Asencios, Luis; Campos Caoili, Janice; Cho, Sang-Nae; Erokhin, Vladislav V; Ershova, Julia; Gler, Ma Tarcela; Kazennyy, Boris Y; Kim, Hee Jin; Kliiman, Kai; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Leimane, Vaira; van der Walt, Martie; Via, Laura E; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Yagui, Martin A; Kang, Hyungseok; Akksilp, Rattanawadee; Sitti, Wanlaya; Wattanaamornkiet, Wanpen; Andreevskaya, Sofia N; Chernousova, Larisa N; Demikhova, Olga V; Larionova, Elena E; Smirnova, Tatyana G; Vasilieva, Irina A; Vorobyeva, Alena V; Barry, Clifton E; Cai, Ying; Shamputa, Isdore C; Bayona, Jaime; Contreras, Carmen; Bonilla, Cesar; Jave, Oswaldo; Brand, Jeannette; Lancaster, Joey; Odendaal, Ronel; Chen, Michael P; Diem, Lois; Metchock, Beverly; Tan, Kathrine; Taylor, Allison; Wolfgang, Melanie; Cho, Eunjin; Eum, Seok Yong; Kwak, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jiim; Lee, Jongseok; Min, Seonyeong; Degtyareva, Irina; Nemtsova, Evgenia S; Khorosheva, Tatiana; Kyryanova, Elena V; Egos, Grace; Perez, Ma Therese C; Tupasi, Thelma; Hwang, Soo Hee; Kim, Chang-ki; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Hee Jeong; Kuksa, Liga; Norvaisha, Inga; Skenders, Girts; Sture, Ingrida; Kummik, Tiina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Somova, Tatiana; Levina, Klavdia; Pariona, Gustavo; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Valencia, Eddy; Viiklepp, Piret

    2012-10-20

    The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is increasing due to the expanded use of second-line drugs in people with multidrug-resistant (MDR) disease. We prospectively assessed resistance to second-line antituberculosis drugs in eight countries. From Jan 1, 2005, to Dec 31, 2008, we enrolled consecutive adults with locally confirmed pulmonary MDR tuberculosis at the start of second-line treatment in Estonia, Latvia, Peru, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand. Drug-susceptibility testing for study purposes was done centrally at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 11 first-line and second-line drugs. We compared the results with clinical and epidemiological data to identify risk factors for resistance to second-line drugs and XDR tuberculosis. Among 1278 patients, 43·7% showed resistance to at least one second-line drug, 20·0% to at least one second-line injectable drug, and 12·9% to at least one fluoroquinolone. 6·7% of patients had XDR tuberculosis (range across study sites 0·8-15·2%). Previous treatment with second-line drugs was consistently the strongest risk factor for resistance to these drugs, which increased the risk of XDR tuberculosis by more than four times. Fluoroquinolone resistance and XDR tuberculosis were more frequent in women than in men. Unemployment, alcohol abuse, and smoking were associated with resistance to second-line injectable drugs across countries. Other risk factors differed between drugs and countries. Previous treatment with second-line drugs is a strong, consistent risk factor for resistance to these drugs, including XDR tuberculosis. Representative drug-susceptibility results could guide in-country policies for laboratory capacity and diagnostic strategies. US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare

  18. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM... tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. William Hench, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Tuberculosis Eradication...

  20. Risk factors associated with tuberculosis mortality in adults in six provinces of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Zerbini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a cause of illness and death across the world, especially in developing countries and vulnerable population groups. In 2013, 1.5 million died from the disease worldwide. In Argentina, the largest proportion of TB-related deaths occurred in the northern provinces. Several international studies reported that TB mortality was related to the presence of certain comorbidities and socio-demographic characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the main risk factors associated with TB mortality in adults from six provinces in Argentina, especially those with higher TB mortality rates. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. It included all patients of =18 years with clinical and/or bacteriological TB diagnosis who underwent treatment from January 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2013. Socio-demographic, clinical and bacteriological variables were surveyed. Information on 157 cases and 281 controls was obtained. Patients reported as deceased to the TB Control Program were considered cases, and those whose treatment result was reported as successful in the same time period were considered controls. For 111 deaths, the average time elapsed between the start of treatment and death was 2.3 months; median: 1. TB-related mortality was associated with poor TB treatment adherence (OR: 3.7 [1.9-7.3], p: 0.000, AIDS (OR: 5.29 [2.6-10.7], p: 0.000, male gender (OR: 1.7 [1.1-2.5], p: 0.009, belonging to indigenous people (OR: 7.2 [2.8-18.9], p:0. 000 and age = 50 (OR: 2.2 [1.4-3.3], p: 0.000. By multivariate analysis the two first associations were confirmed. This study sets up the basis for planning inter-program and inter-sector work to accelerate the decline in the inequitable TB mortality.

  1. Risk factors associated with tuberculosis mortality in adults in six provinces of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Elsa; Greco, Adriana; Estrada, Silvia; Cisneros, Mario; Colombo, Carlos; Beltrame, Soledad; Boncompain, Carina; Genero, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a cause of illness and death across the world, especially in developing countries and vulnerable population groups. In 2013, 1.5 million died from the disease worldwide. In Argentina, the largest proportion of TB-related deaths occurred in the northern provinces. Several international studies reported that TB mortality was related to the presence of certain comorbidities and socio-demographic characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the main risk factors associated with TB mortality in adults from six provinces in Argentina, especially those with higher TB mortality rates. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. It included all patients of =18 years with clinical and/or bacteriological TB diagnosis who underwent treatment from January 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2013. Socio-demographic, clinical and bacteriological variables were surveyed. Information on 157 cases and 281 controls was obtained. Patients reported as deceased to the TB Control Program were considered cases, and those whose treatment result was reported as successful in the same time period were considered controls. For 111 deaths, the average time elapsed between the start of treatment and death was 2.3 months; median: 1. TB-related mortality was associated with poor TB treatment adherence (OR: 3.7 [1.9-7.3], p: 0.000), AIDS (OR: 5.29 [2.6-10.7], p: 0.000), male gender (OR: 1.7 [1.1-2.5], p: 0.009), belonging to indigenous people (OR: 7.2 [2.8-18.9], p:0. 000) and age = 50 (OR: 2.2 [1.4-3.3], p: 0.000). By multivariate analysis the two first associations were confirmed. This study sets up the basis for planning inter-program and inter-sector work to accelerate the decline in the inequitable TB mortality.

  2. Indicators to assess the quality of programs to prevent occupational risk for tuberculosis: are they feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Raquel dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the feasibility of quality indicators for evaluation of hospital programs for preventing occupational tuberculosis. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study. We tested indicators for evaluating occupational tuberculosis prevention programs in six hospitals. The criterion to define feasibility was the time spent to calculate the indicators. Results: time spent to evaluate the indicators ranged from 2h 52min to 15h11min 24sec. The indicator for structure evaluation required less time; the longest time was spent on process indicators, including the observation of healthcare workers' practices in relation to the use of N95 masks. There was an hindrance to test one of the indicators for tuberculosis outcomes in five situations, due to the lack of use of tuberculin skin test in these facilities. The time requires to calculate indicators in regarding to the outcomes for occupational tuberculosis largely depends upon the level of organizational administrative structure for gathering data. Conclusions: indicators to evaluate the structure for occupational tuberculosis prevention are highly feasible. Nevertheless, the feasibility of indicators for process and outcome is limited due to relevant variations in administrative issues at healthcare facilities.

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Maria Rosaria; Westermann, Claudia; Nienhaus, Albert; Arnese, Antonio; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Crispino, Vincenzo; Coppola, Nicola; De Rosa, Alfredo

    2017-03-04

    To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Italian dental students exposed to the same occupational risks as dental health care personnel and to evaluate potential risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students. After clinical evaluation, students were given a tuberculin skin test; in those found positive, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was conducted. Of the 281 students enrolled, 10 were only TST positive; 8 were TST or/and IGRA positive. We found that participants testing positive at TST and/or IGRA, a group in which the risk of false LTBI positives is minimal, were older and had been studying longer. Although the prevalence of LTBI among dental students in our study was low, a risk of acquiring a work-related infection exists even in a country with a low incidence of TB. Thus, dental students should be screened to catch LTBI early on.

  4. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  5. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  6. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Fu-Heng; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yin, Hong; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus, is an important pathogen of cattle worldwide, causing reproductive disorders in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. However, limited information about BVDV infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) in China is available, especially in white yaks which is a unique yak breed that only lives in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County (TTAC), Gansu Province, northwest China. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with BVDV infection in 1584 yaks in Gansu province, northwest China, between April 2013 and March 2014 using an indirect ELISA test. The overall seroprevalence of BVDV in yaks was 37.56 % (595/1584), with 45.08 % (275/610) in black yaks and 32.85 % (320/974) in white yaks. Moreover, positive yaks were found in all four regions, varied from 33.22 to 40.31 %. Male yaks had a similar seroprevalence (37.84 %) with that of the female yaks (37.11 %). Season, species and geographical origins of yaks were considered as risk factors analyzed by logistic regression model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seroprevalence and risk factors associated with BVDV infection in white yaks in China.

  8. Latent tuberculosis infection screening in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients preceding anti-TNF therapy in a tuberculosis high-risk country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Juliana Barbosa; Bonfiglioli, Karina Rossi; Silva, Clovis A; Kozu, Katia Tomie; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Bonfa, Eloisa; Aikawa, Nadia Emi

    To evaluate, in an endemic country, the long-term efficacy of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and primary prophylaxis in patients with JIA receiving TNF blockers. This was a retrospective cohort that included JIA patients eligible to anti-TNF therapy. Patients were screened for LTBI prior to anti-TNF using tuberculin skin test (TST), chest X-ray and history of exposure to TB. Subjects were regularly followed at 2-month intervals. Sixty-nine JIA patients with current age of 17.4±5.8 years, mean disease duration of 5.0±4.9 years were included. Forty-seven patients received a single anti-TNF, while 22 patients switched to another anti-TNF once or twice: 57 were treated with etanercepte, 33 patients with adalimumab and 3 infliximab. LTBI screening was positive in three patients: one had TST-positive and history of TB exposure and two had solely TST-positive. No active TB was diagnosed during the study period (median of follow-up was 3.8 years). Long-term evaluation revealed that LTBI screening and primary prophylaxis before anti-TNF treatment was effective in a high-risk country and TST was the most sensitive parameter to identify these patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  9. [Meningoencephalitis tuberculosis--primary isolation of resistant M. tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajramović, Nermina; Koluder, Nada; Dautović, Sajma; Muratović, Planinka

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of serious diseases in developing countries. Despite of decreasing tuberculosis in industrial countries, diseases is not eradicated. In last fifth years the picture of diseases is changed with large number atypical cases. Factor that is responsible for this are variable and includes primary infection in old ages, or problems that are in relation with immigration of populations. Tuberculosis meningitis disease witch appears mostly in childhood with high incidence in first three years of life. Most cases tuberculosis meningitis are caused with human types of tuberculosis bacillus, while bovines type is responsible for less than 5% of cases, but there are also reported cases of tuberculosis meningitis caused 3% atypical mycobacterium. In report is described a girl in age of two years sick of tuberculosis meningitis, she come from Kosovo, with positive epidemiological anamnesis. When she came to the hospital diseases had all clinical manifestation of serious meningoencefalitis. Very soon signs of decompensate hydrocephalus are developed. In the culture of cerebrospinalis fluid isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary resistant on etambutol and rifampicin.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Shengfen; Song, Yuanyuan; Ou, Xichao; Zhao, Bing; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-08-01

    Mixed infections have been considered as a potential obstacle for tuberculosis treatment and control. To date, few studies have been done to determine the rate of mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China. In this study, we used the standard 24-loci MIRU-VNTR method to genotype the representative M. tuberculosis isolates from the national drug-resistant survey conducted in China. A total of 3248 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains had complete 24-loci MIRU-VNTR results and available for the analyses. Overall, MIRU-VNTR typing identified 115 (3.5%) isolates as being mixed MTBC infections in China. Statistical analysis revealed that mixed infections were significantly more likely to occur in men than women. Compared with the percentage of mixed infection from patients aged 45-56 years, the percentages of mixed infections were higher among patients aged 25-44 years [OR (95% CI): 1.844(1.129-3.014)] and old patients [older than 65 years OR (95% CI): 1.908(1.097-3.319)]. In addition, significantly higher frequencies of hemoptysis (P = 0.022) and chest pain (P = 0.012) were observed among mixed infections, using patients infected with a single strain as a reference. In conclusion, this study has provided the first comprehensive understanding of mixed MTBC infections in China, which will be essential to generate the effective TB control strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A matched case-control study to identify risk determinants of tuberculosis in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Homayra, F.; Latif, A.H.M.; Barua, M.; Saha, A.; Paul, S.; Akter, R.; Islam, S.; Islam, A.

    2017-01-01

    According to the estimates of 2015, the global incidence rate for tuberculosis (TB) is 142 per 100,000 population [1]. In Bangladesh, the prevalence rate of TB is 382 per 100,000 population and incidence rate is 225 per 100,000 population [1], [2]. Over the years researchers primarily focused on

  12. Bovine leptospirosis: Prevalence, associated risk factors for infection and their cause-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Juscivete F; de Araújo, Hugo L; Lilenbaum, Walter; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan infectious disease that causes severe reproductive disorders in cattle, especially those related to abortion. This disease has rodents as main reservoirs; however, cattle are responsible for maintenance of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with infection and cause-effect relation of leptospirosis in dairy herds from Southern of Brazil. Serum samples of 1242 cows were collected from herds classified as of medium and high density, and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). These farms were located in the West part of Santa Catarina State (Brazil). A total of 80 cows (6.44%) were considered positives for the infection with titration of 1:100. Using a multivariate analysis, we identified two factors associated to bovine leptospirosis: dog access to pastures (p leptospirosis. Thus, we conclude that leptospirosis is prevalent in dairy cattle in the west part of Santa Catarina state, as well as the access of dogs to pastures and contact of rodents with feed increase the chance of cattle infection by Leptospira spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis in northern part of Ethiopia: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Gebretsadik; Enquselassie, Fikre; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the role of various determinants of tuberculosis (TB) is particularly important in countries like Ethiopia where TB is endemic and the resources available to public health intervention are limited However, little information is available on risk factors of TB to be able to effectively and efficiently control TB. To identify and determine the potential host and environmental-related risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A matched case-control study was conducted from April-August 2011. Cases were defined as all newly diagnosed of PTB patients aged 15 years and above, who were registered by directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) program health centers found in the randomly selected 16 districts in the region. Controls were age matched with no previous history of TB and chronic cough. For each case, two controls were recruited. Trained nurses collected data using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Predictors of caseness were identified using conditional logistic regression method. Odds ratio were calculated with 95% confidence intervals to assess the strength of association. Data was collected from 463 cases and 860 controls. The mean age of the cases and controls were 37 +/- 14.9 and 39 +/- 14.5 years, respectively. In the multivariable analysis significant risk factors for active PTB were illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.93), household food shortage (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.73), HIV seropositivity (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.42, 5.13), and past alcohol consumption (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.50). Marriage (OR = 95% CI: 0.37, 0.89) was identified as protective factor. Consumption of raw milk, history of imprisonment, having a separate kitchen, history of asthma and history of TB contact were significant risk factors on crude analysis but their significance was not maintained in multivariable analysis. Our study results indicated that household food shortage, HIV sero

  14. Human health risk of dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine meat and tissues from Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta; Martínez, David; Flores, Argel; Romero, Dora; Suárez, Víctor; López, Karla; Uscanga, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    Tissue distribution patterns of organochlorine pesticides in bovine carcasses varied significantly among seasons, geographic locations and tissues. The highest concentrations of Σ-DDT during the dry season were detected in lungs from Paso de Ovejas (2,834.90μg/kg lipid) and, during the rainy season, Lindane and Σ-HCH in muscle and lung samples from Paso de Ovejas (995.80 and 1,690.10μg/kg lipid). Estimated daily intakes of γ-HCH and Σ-DDT (3.35 and 1.22μg/kg bw/day) through consumption of muscle tissues from Paso de Ovejas and Puente Nacional during the rainy season showed the highest contribution. During the rainy season the highest non-cancer Hazard Ratios estimated corresponded to γ-HCH (3.97) and Σ-DDT (4.39) detected in muscle samples from Puente Nacional. The highest Hazard Ratios of cancer risk to the 95th centile daily consumption through meat corresponded to p,p'-DDT from Alvarado (7.76E+06) and from Paso de Ovejas for γ-HCH (1.50E+05) during rainy season. The results indicate potential non- and carcinogenic risks to consumer health through meat consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of IGRA-positivity and risk factors for tuberculosis among injecting drug users in Estonia and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Karnite, Anda; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Kirvelaite, Gunta; Kliiman, Kai; Loit, Helle-Mai; Uusküla, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Illegal drug use and HIV are independent risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among injecting drug users (IDU). Estonia and Latvia have experienced high rates of TB as well as IDU and HIV outbreaks. There is a lack of knowledge about TB among IDUs in these countries. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection among IDUs in Estonia and Latvia. Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited from syringe exchange programmes using respondent-driven sampling. For assessing infection with MTB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was used. The study included 375 participants from Estonia and 313 from Latvia. The prevalence of IGRA-positivity among IDUs was 7.7% in Estonia and 25.6% in Latvia. HIV-prevalence was 62% in Estonia and 23% in Latvia. In both countries, IGRA-positivity rates did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. IGRA-positivity was independently associated with a prior diagnosis of TB in Estonia and with imprisonment (ever within a lifetime) and preceding contact with a TB patient in Latvia. Our findings indicate there is an urgent need for a more vigorous approach in providing IDUs with TB screening services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Diabetes-Tuberculosis Co-Epidemic: The Interaction between Individual and Socio-Economic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firănescu Adela-Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of morbi-mortality, about 30% of the population having a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have a threefold increased risk of developing the disease. The prevalence of DM is rapidly increasing, especially in countries with low and middle income, where TB incidence is also increased, thus baffling the efforts for TB control. The DM-TB co-epidemic is more frequent in married, older men, with reduced level of education, low income, without a steady job, with lifestyle habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarism, living in an urban environment, in crowded areas, in insanitary conditions. These patients have a higher body mass index (BMI compared with those without DM and frequently present family history of TB, family history of DM, longer duration of DM and reduced glycemic control. TB associated with DM is usually asymptomatic, more contagious, multidrug resistant and is significantly associated with an increased risk of therapy failure, relapse and even death. Thus, the DM-TB comorbidity represents a threat to public health and requires the implementation of urgent measures in order to both prevent and manage the two diseases.

  17. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, L.

    2013-01-01

    simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three...... system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter...... in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial....

  18. Incidence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia (2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Ahmed Memish

    Full Text Available SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. OBJECTIVE: To summarize data on the incidence of tuberculosis and associated risk factors for cases reported during 2010-2011. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of routinely collected data through an established national disease notification system of the Ministry of Health in KSA. RESULTS: The estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis fell from 15.8/100000 (95% CI: 15.3/100,000-16.3/100,000 in 2010 to 13.8/100,000 (95% CI: 13.4/100,000-14.2/100,000 in 2011. Saudis experienced a decrease from 11.8/100,000 (95% CI: 11.3/100,000 to 12.3/100,000 in 2010 to 9.9/100,000 (95% CI: 9.5/100,000-10.4/100,000 in 2011 while the incidence in non-Saudis declined from 24.7/100,000 (95% CI: 23.6/100,000 to 25.7/100,000 in 2010 to 22.5/100,000 (95% CI: 21.5/100,000 to 23.4/100,000 in 2011. The proportion of Extra Pulmonary TB (EPTB which increased minimally from 30% in 2010 to 32% in 2011 was higher than global figures and strongly associated with age, sex, nationality and occupation. CONCLUSION: The current estimated incidence of about 14/100,000 in 2011 is less than half its estimated value of 44/100000 in 1990. Without prejudice to any under-reporting, the KSA appeared to be on the course for TB elimination by 2050 having reached the first milestone set by WHO. The proportion of EPTB remains higher than global figure and age, sex, nationality and occupation were significant independent predictors of EPTB.

  19. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  20. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  1. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays....... Other biomarkers such as interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10 (IP-10) may have potential for the diagnosis of latent TB infections. OBJECTIVES: To describe IP-10 concentrations and their association to TST and INF-gamma responses in children recently exposed to adults with smear-positive TB in Brazil...... and Nepal. METHODS:: Two surveys using the same design were undertaken to describe TST, INF-gamma, and IP-10 responses in 146 children in Nepal and 113 children in Brazil. RESULTS: The concordance of TST and QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube (QFT-IT) was high (kappa 0.73 in Brazil and 0.80 in Nepal). IP-10...

  2. Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hulusi DİNÇOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%. 6 (4.14% of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance, 10 (6.90% gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance and 5 (3.45% gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance. As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.

  3. Tuberculosis, before and after Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Children in Nigeria: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Anígilájé

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, there is a dearth of pediatric data on the risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB, before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART.A retrospective observational cohort study, between October 2010 and December 2013, at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. TB was noted among children less than 15 years of age at ART enrolment (prevalent TB-PrevTB, within 6 months (early incident tuberculosis-EITB and after 6 months (late incident tuberculosis-LITB of a 12-month follow-up on ART. Potential risk factors for PrevTB and incident TB were assessed using the multivariate logistic and Cox regression models respectively.Among 368 HIV-1 infected children, PrevTB was diagnosed in 73 children (19.8%. Twenty-eight EITB cases were diagnosed among 278 children over 132 person-years (py with an EITB rate of 21.2/100 py. Twelve LITB cases were seen among 224 children over 221.9 py with a LITB rate of 5.4/100 py. A significant reduction in the incidence rates of TB was found over time (75%, p˂ 0.001. Young age of children (12-35 months, aOR; 24, 95% CI; 4.1-146.6, p ˂ 0.001; 36-59 months, aOR;21, 95%CI;4.0-114.3, p ˂ 0.001; history of TB in children (aOR; 29, 95% CI; 7.3-119.4, P˂ 0.001; severe immunosuppression (aOR;38, 95% CI;12-123.2,p ˂ 0.001; oropharyngeal candidiasis (aOR;3.3, 95% CI; 1.4-8.0, p = 0.009 and sepsis (aOR; 3.2, 95% CI;1.0-9.6, p = 0.043 increased the risk of PrevTB. Urban residency was protective against EITB (aHR; 0.1, 95% CI; 0.0-0.4, p = 0.001. Virological failure (aHR; 4.7, 95% CI; 1.3-16.5, p ˂ 0.001 and sepsis (aHR; 26, 95% CI; 5.3-131.9, p ˂ 0.001 increased the risk of LITB.In our cohort of HIV-infected children, a significant reduction in cases of incident TB was seen following a 12-month use of ART. After ART initiation, TB screening should be optimized among children of rural residency, children with sepsis, and those with poor virological response to ART.

  4. Seasonality of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words "Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence" and " Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation". The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia. Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.

  5. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  6. Prevalence of previously undetected tuberculosis and underlying risk factors for transmission in a prison setting in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesokan, HK; Cadmus, EO; Adeyemi, WB; Lawal, O; Ogunlade, C.O.; Osman, E; Olaleye, OD; CADMUS, SIB

    2014-01-01

    People with congregational tendencies such as the prison inmates constitute an important target group in the global efforts towards the control of tuberculosis (TB). The prison setting in most developing countries particularly Nigeria, currently does not have routine diagnostic procedures for TB despite the existing risks that could facilitate disease transmission.

  7. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  8. Identifying High-Risk Populations of Tuberculosis Using Environmental Factors and GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. Abdul; Shariff, N. M.; Dony, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS) based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1) to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  9. Comparative genomics of archived pyrazinamide resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...

  10. 76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and... as modified accredited advanced for tuberculosis. DATES: This interim rule is effective October 4...

  11. 75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and....aphis.usda.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alecia Naugle, Coordinator, National Tuberculosis...

  12. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    well as those facing political turmoil, migration, poverty and unemployment and where intravenous drug abuse is rampant. HIV is the most important known risk factor that promotes progression to active TB in people with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB/HIV A Clinical Manual 2004). The lifetime risk of tuberculosis ...

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis in Ambo town of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis ...

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of several bovine viral diseases in dairy farms of San Pedro de los Milagros, Antioquia, Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolás Fernando Ramírez Vásquez; David Villar Argaiz; Jorge Arturo Fernández Silva; Julián Londoño Pino; Jenny Jovanna Chaparro Gutiérrez; Martha Eufemia Olivera Ángel

    2016-01-01

    .... All farms were up to date on the annual official vaccinations against brucellosis and foot and mouth disease, and 5 out of 29 farms used vaccines against viruses of the bovine respiratory complex...

  16. Indicators to assess the quality of programs to prevent occupational risk for tuberculosis: are they feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Talita Raquel Dos; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Gryschek, Anna Luiza de Fátima Pinho Lins

    2016-06-07

    to analyze the feasibility of quality indicators for evaluation of hospital programs for preventing occupational tuberculosis. a descriptive cross-sectional study. We tested indicators for evaluating occupational tuberculosis prevention programs in six hospitals. The criterion to define feasibility was the time spent to calculate the indicators. time spent to evaluate the indicators ranged from 2h 52min to 15h11min 24sec. The indicator for structure evaluation required less time; the longest time was spent on process indicators, including the observation of healthcare workers' practices in relation to the use of N95 masks. There was an hindrance to test one of the indicators for tuberculosis outcomes in five situations, due to the lack of use of tuberculin skin test in these facilities. The time requires to calculate indicators in regarding to the outcomes for occupational tuberculosis largely depends upon the level of organizational administrative structure for gathering data. indicators to evaluate the structure for occupational tuberculosis prevention are highly feasible. Nevertheless, the feasibility of indicators for process and outcome is limited due to relevant variations in administrative issues at healthcare facilities. analisar a viabilidade de indicadores de qualidade para avaliação de programas hospitalares de prevenção de tuberculose ocupacional. estudo descritivo transversal. Testaram-se indicadores de avaliação de programas de prevenção de tuberculose ocupacional em seis hospitais. O critério para definir a viabilidade foi o tempo necessário para aplicar os indicadores. o tempo necessário para avaliar os indicadores variou de 02'52'' até 15h11'24''. O indicador para a avaliação da estrutura demandou menor tempo; o maior tempo foi utilizado com os indicadores de processo, incluindo a observação das práticas dos trabalhadores de saúde em relação ao uso de máscaras N95. Um dos indicadores de resultados de tuberculose deixou de ser

  17. Peritoneal tuberculosis: radiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ospina-Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB is an extrapulmonary form of presentation of tuberculosis. HIV infection is a primary risk factor for this condition. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathological confirmation in addition to supporting radiological imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT are useful to obtain a radiographic diagnosis, with typical findings including diffuse peritoneal thickening, presence of ascites in varying volumes, adenopathies, and caseating nodes. We report 2 cases of patients with ascites and nodular peritoneal thickening on diagnostic images, as well as high CA-125 levels in laboratory tests. In both patients, a diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was reached following a US-guided peritoneal biopsy.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Health Care Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Jia, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Pan, Liping; Xing, Aiying; Gu, Shuxiang; Du, Boping; Sun, Qi; Wei, Rongrong; Zhang, Zongde

    2013-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). In China, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, but the prevalence of LTBI in HCWs especially in the hospital for pulmonary diseases has not been assessed enough. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors of LTBI among HCWs in a chest hospital and a TB research institute in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in China in 2012. LTBI was assessed by T-SPOT.TB, and information on HCWs was collected using a standardised questionnaire. Risk factors for LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression. The overall prevalence of LTBI among HCWs was 33.6%. Analyzed by job category, the highest prevalence was found among laboratory staff (43.4%). In the different workplaces, the proportion of LTBI was significantly higher among the high risk workplaces (37.4%) compared to the low risk workplaces. The duration of employment had a significant impact on the prevalence of LTBI. Positive T-SPOT.TB test results accounted for 17.6%, 16.8%, 23.5%, 41.8% and 41.6% in groups of ≤2, 3-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 working years respectively. In multivariate analysis, job categories (Laboratory staff [2.76 (95% CI: 1.36; 5.60)], technician staff [2.02 (95% CI: 1.12; 3.64)]); working duration as a HCW for 11 to 20 years [3.57 (95% CI: 1.46; 8.71)], and 20 years above [3.41 (95% CI: 1.28; 9.11)]; and the history of household TB contact [2.47 (95% CI: 1.15; 5.33)] were associated with increased risk of LTBI. Prevalence of LTBI estimated by T-SPOT.TB is high among Chinese HCWs and working duration, job category and the history of household TB contact were associated with increased risk. These data highlight adequate infection control measures should be undertaken.

  19. Quantitative assessment of the risk of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreementon the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Ter-restrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment.Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports...... trees were made to evaluate the importance of the various BVDV introductionroutes. With the current surveillance system, the risk of BVDV introduction was estimatedto one or more introductions within a median of nine years (3–59). However, if all importedanimals were tested and hoof trimmers always...... disinfected the tools used abroad, the riskcould be reduced to one or more introductions within 33 years (8–200). Results of thisstudy can be used to improve measures of BVD surveillance and prophylaxis in Danishdairy herds....

  20. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. Aims: To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP tuberculosis (TB patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Settings and Design: A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs of Darjeeling from August′2011 to December′2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1 st Qtr′09 to 2 nd Qtr′10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls. Materials and Methods: The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted odds ratios (AOR. Results: 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP; 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP; cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%, adverse effects of drugs (25.32%, and long distance of DOT center (21.52%. In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT provider and smoking. Conclusions: Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in

  1. Is HIV infection a risk factor for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Suchindran

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of human suffering and death. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB, and extensive drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB have emerged as threats to TB control. The association between MDR-TB and HIV infection has not yet been fully investigated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence on the association between HIV infection and MDR-TB.Original studies providing Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance data stratified by HIV status were identified using MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. Crude MDR-TB prevalence ratios were calculated and analyzed by type of TB (primary or acquired, region and study period. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed, and pooled prevalence ratios were generated if appropriate. No clear association was found between MDR-TB and HIV infection across time and geographic locations. MDR-TB prevalence ratios in the 32 eligible studies, comparing MDR-TB prevalence by HIV status, ranged from 0.21 to 41.45. Assessment by geographical region or study period did not reveal noticeable patterns. The summary prevalence ratios for acquired and primary MDR-TB were 1.17 (95% CI 0.86, 1.6 and 2.72 (95% CI 2.03, 3.66, respectively. Studies eligible for review were few considering the size of the epidemics. Most studies were not adjusted for confounders and the heterogeneity across studies precluded the calculation of a meaningful overall summary measure.We could not demonstrate an overall association between MDR-TB and HIV or acquired MDR-TB and HIV, but our results suggest that HIV infection is associated with primary MDR-TB. Future well-designed studies and surveillance in all regions of the world are needed to better clarify the relationship between HIV infection and MDR-TB.

  2. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence