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Sample records for bovine stearoyl-coa desaturase

  1. Partial genetic characterization of Stearoyl Coa-Desaturase´s structural region in Bubalus bubalis

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    R.B. Thomazine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs comprise a family of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. The main form of CLA, cis-9, trans-11-C18:2 show positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. The major dietary sources of these fatty acids are derived from ruminant animals, in particular dairy products. In these animals, the endogenous synthesis mainly occurs in mammary gland by the action of enzyme Stearoyl CoA Desaturase (SCD. Different levels of expression and activity of SCD in mammary gland can explain partially the variation of CLA levels in fat milk. Considering a great fat concentration in bubaline milk and the benefit of a high and positive correlation between fat milk and CLA production, this study was carried on with the intention of sequencing and characterizing part of the gene that codifies SCD in buffaloes. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of lactating bubaline which begins to the breed Murrah. After the (acho que nao precisa desse the extractions, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 and E143F1. The fragments obtained in PCR were cloned into “T” vectors and transformed in competent cells DH10B line. After this, three samples of each fragment were sequenced from 5’ and 3’ extremities using a BigDye kit in an automatic sequencer. Sequences were edited in a consensus of each fragment and were submitted to BLAST-n / NCBI for similarity comparisions among other species. The sequence obtained with Z43D1 primers shows 938 bp enclosing exons 1 and 2 and intron 1. The primers E143F1 show 70 bp corresponding to exon 3 of bubaline SCD gene. Similarities were obtained between 85% and 97% among bubaline sequences and sequences of SCD gene described in human, mouse, rat, swine, bovine, caprine and ovine species. This study has permitted the identification and partial characterization of SCD codifing region in Bubalus bubalis specie.

  2. Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Dijkstra, J.; Liesman, J.S.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Lock, A.L.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Baal, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the ¿9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD

  3. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in

  4. Bioengineering resistance to phytoene desaturase inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Three natural somatic mutations at codon 304 of the phytoene desaturase gene (pds) of Hydrilla verticillata ( L. f. Royle) have been reported to provide resistance to the herbicide fluridone. We substituted the arginine 304 present in the wild-type H. verticillata phytoene desaturase (PDS) with all...

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

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    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  6. The Bacillus subtilis Acyl Lipid Desaturase Is a Δ5 Desaturase

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    Altabe, Silvia G.; Aguilar, Pablo; Caballero, Gerardo M.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was recently reported to synthesize unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) with a double bond at positions Δ5, Δ7, and Δ9 (M. H. Weber, W. Klein, L. Muller, U. M. Niess, and M. A. Marahiel, Mol. Microbiol. 39:1321-1329, 2001). Since this finding would have considerable importance in the double-bond positional specificity displayed by the B. subtilis acyl lipid desaturase, we have attempted to confirm this observation. We report that the double bond of UFAs synthesized by B. subtilis is located exclusively at the Δ5 position, regardless of the growth temperature and the length chain of the fatty acids. PMID:12730185

  7. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

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    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  8. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase – the lipid metabolism regulator

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    Mirosław Kucharski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an enzyme from the class of oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the formation of a fatty acid double bond between C9 and C10. It plays a key role in composition of the fatty acid profile in adipose tissue and animal products such as meat and milk. Additionally, it is an important regulator of metabolic processes in the body, and it determines the maintenance of energy homeostasis. This enzyme is encoded by an SCD gene, which, depending on the species, may exist as different isoforms. mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase is dependent on many factors, including diet, hormones, and the activity of other genes. In previous studies, several mutations were characterized within the sequence of Δ9-desaturase, which may affect the activity of the protein in the tissues, as well as the value of breeding animals. Effects of particular mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme appears to be particularly important for diseases associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases or cancer in humans. Also, it seems that using sheep as a potential animal model could be helpful in uncovering and understanding the mechanisms regulated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase.

  9. Gene silencing of stearoyl-ACP desaturase enhances the stearic acid content in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, de L.; Springer, J.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Martens, D.E.; Eggink, G.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), the enzyme that converts stearic acid into oleic acid, is silenced by artificial microRNA in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two different constructs, which target different positions on the mRNA of stearoyl-ACP desaturase, were tested.

  10. Expression and evolution of delta9 and delta11 desaturase genes in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

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    Rodríguez, Sergio; Hao, Guixia; Liu, Weitian; Piña, Benjamín; Rooney, Alejandro P; Camps, Francisco; Roelofs, Wendell L; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2004-12-01

    Desaturation of fatty acids is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones. The main component of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone blend is produced by the action of Delta11 and Delta9 desaturases. In this article, we report on the cloning of four desaturase-like genes in this species: one from the fat body (Sls-FL1) and three (Sls-FL2, Sls-FL3 and Sls-FL4) from the pheromone gland. By means of a computational/phylogenetic method, as well as functional assays, the desaturase gene products have been characterized. The fat body gene expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1:4.5) ratio, whereas the pheromone gland Sls-FL2 expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1.5:1) ratio. Although both Delta9 desaturases produced (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid from myristic acid, transformed yeast grown in the presence of a mixture of myristic and (E)-11-tetradecenoic acids produced (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid, but not (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid. The Sls-FL3 gene expressed a protein that produced a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (Z)-11-octadecenoic acids in a 5:4:60:31 ratio. Despite having all the characteristics of a desaturase gene, no function could be found for Sls-FL4.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterizaton of house cricket (Acheta domesticus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) Delta9 desaturase.

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    Riddervold, M H; Tittiger, C; Blomquist, G J; Borgeson, C E

    2002-12-01

    Studies of insect fatty acyl-CoA desaturases have heretofore concentrated on the Diptera and Lepidoptera. We report here the isolation and characterization of a fatty acyl-CoA Delta9 desaturase from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera). Two desaturase cDNAs were isolated from a library, one of which contained two intron sequences. The clones were identical in their respective coding regions, but had divergent 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The cDNAs encode a 359 amino acid desaturase enzyme that could rescue a fatty acyl-CoA desaturase auxotrophic phenotype when expressed in yeast. Biochemical analysis of lipids from transformed yeast cells confirmed that the enzyme is a Delta9 desaturase with activity on both palmitic and stearic acid substrates. Southern blotting indicated multiple Delta9 desaturase genes within the genome. A single message that was up-regulated in fed insects vs. starved insects was observed on northern blots, indicating transcriptional regulation in response to diet.

  12. Rapid induction of microsomal delta 12(omega 6)-desaturase activity in chilled Acanthamoeba castellanii.

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    Jones, A L; Lloyd, D; Harwood, J L

    1993-01-01

    The activity of microsomal delta 12-desaturase in Acanthamoeba castellanii was increased after growing cultures were chilled from the optimal growth temperature (30 degrees C) to 15 degrees C. This increase was detectable in microsomes isolated from organisms subjected to only 10 min chilling. The mechanism of induction was investigated. The increase in activity on chilling was greatly reduced when protein synthesis was blocked before the temperature shift. Thus the major mechanism for the induction of delta 12-desaturase is increased protein synthesis. delta 12-Desaturase activity was higher when assayed at 20 degrees C than when assayed at 30 degrees C, but these changes were not due to the increased solubility of O2 at 20 degrees C. The major substrate of delta 12-desaturase was found to be 1-acyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine. PMID:8250841

  13. Identification of an animal ω-3 fatty acid desaturase by heterologous expression in Arabidopsis

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    Spychalla, James P.; Kinney, Anthony J.; Browse, John

    1997-01-01

    In animals, fatty acid desaturases catalyze key reactions in the synthesis of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. A search of the Caenorhabditis elegans DNA databases, using the sequences of Arabidopsis genes, identified several putative desaturases. Here we describe the characterization of the first of these genes, fat-1. The predicted protein encoded by a fat-1 cDNA showed 32–35% identity with both FAD2 and FAD3 of Arabidopsis. When expressed in transgenic plants, fat-1 ...

  14. Genetic variation in lipid desaturases and its impact on the development of human disease.

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    Merino, Diana M; Ma, David W L; Mutch, David M

    2010-06-18

    Perturbations in lipid metabolism characterize many of the chronic diseases currently plaguing our society, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Thus interventions that target plasma lipid levels remain a primary goal to manage these diseases. The determinants of plasma lipid levels are multi-factorial, consisting of both genetic and lifestyle components. Recent evidence indicates that fatty acid desaturases have an important role in defining plasma and tissue lipid profiles. This review will highlight the current state-of-knowledge regarding three desaturases (Scd-1, Fads1 and Fads2) and their potential roles in disease onset and development. Although research in rodent models has provided invaluable insight into the regulation and functions of these desaturases, the extent to which murine research can be translated to humans remains unclear. Evidence emerging from human-based research demonstrates that genetic variation in human desaturase genes affects enzyme activity and, consequently, disease risk factors. Moreover, this genetic variation may have a trans-generational effect via breastfeeding. Therefore inter-individual variation in desaturase function is attributed to both genetic and lifestyle components. As such, population-based research regarding the role of desaturases on disease risk is challenged by this complex gene-lifestyle paradigm. Unravelling the contribution of each component is paramount for understanding the inter-individual variation that exists in plasma lipid profiles, and will provide crucial information to develop personalized strategies to improve health management.

  15. Two Fatty Acid Desaturases, STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 and FATTY ACID DESATURASE3, Are Involved in Drought and Hypoxia Stress Signaling in Arabidopsis Crown Galls1[W][OPEN

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    Klinkenberg, Joern; Faist, Hanna; Saupe, Stefanie; Lambertz, Sophie; Krischke, Markus; Stingl, Nadja; Fekete, Agnes; Mueller, Martin J.; Feussner, Ivo; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-derived crown galls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain elevated levels of unsaturated fatty acids and strongly express two fatty acid desaturase genes, ω3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) and STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 (SAD6). The fad3-2 mutant with impaired α-linolenic acid synthesis developed significantly smaller crown galls under normal, but not under high, relative humidity. This strongly suggests that FAD3 plays a role in increasing drought stress tolerance of crown galls. SAD6 is a member of the SAD family of as yet unknown function. Expression of the SAD6 gene is limited to hypoxia, a physiological condition found in crown galls. As no sad6 mutant exists and to link the function of SAD6 with fatty acid desaturation in crown galls, the lipid pattern was analyzed of plants with constitutive SAD6 overexpression (SAD6-OE). SAD6-OE plants contained lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid levels, which upon reduction of SAD6 overexpression by RNA interference (SAD6-OE-RNAi) regained wild-type-like levels. The development of crown galls was not affected either in SAD6-OE or SAD6-OE-RNAi or by RNA interference in crown galls. Since biochemical analysis of SAD6 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli failed, SAD6 was ectopically expressed in the background of the well-known suppressor of salicylic acid-insensitive2 (ssi2-2) mutant to confirm the desaturase function of SAD6. All known ssi2-2 phenotypes were rescued, including the high stearic acid level. Thus, our findings suggest that SAD6 functions as a Δ9-desaturase, and together with FAD3 it increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in crown galls under hypoxia and drought stress conditions. PMID:24368335

  16. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

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    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant-type phytoene desaturase: Functional evaluation of structural implications.

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    Julian Koschmieder

    Full Text Available Phytoene desaturase (PDS is an essential plant carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme and a prominent target of certain inhibitors, such as norflurazon, acting as bleaching herbicides. PDS catalyzes the introduction of two double bonds into 15-cis-phytoene, yielding 9,15,9'-tri-cis-ζ-carotene via the intermediate 9,15-di-cis-phytofluene. We present the necessary data to scrutinize functional implications inferred from the recently resolved crystal structure of Oryza sativa PDS in a complex with norflurazon. Using dynamic mathematical modeling of reaction time courses, we support the relevance of homotetrameric assembly of the enzyme observed in crystallo by providing evidence for substrate channeling of the intermediate phytofluene between individual subunits at membrane surfaces. Kinetic investigations are compatible with an ordered ping-pong bi-bi kinetic mechanism in which the carotene and the quinone electron acceptor successively occupy the same catalytic site. The mutagenesis of a conserved arginine that forms a hydrogen bond with norflurazon, the latter competing with plastoquinone, corroborates the possibility of engineering herbicide resistance, however, at the expense of diminished catalytic activity. This mutagenesis also supports a "flavin only" mechanism of carotene desaturation not requiring charged residues in the active site. Evidence for the role of the central 15-cis double bond of phytoene in determining regio-specificity of carotene desaturation is presented.

  18. Associations of estimated Δ-5-desaturase and Δ-6-desaturase activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

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    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The role of PUFA in reducing the risk of stroke is uncertain. The concentrations of PUFA in the human body are determined both by dietary intake and by activities of desaturase enzymes. Desaturase enzymes have been associated with chronic diseases, but little is known about their association with stroke risk. We investigated the associations of Δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and Δ-5-desaturase (D5D) activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke among 1842 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989. ANCOVA and Cox regression models were used for the analyses. Whole serum desaturase activities were estimated as product:precursor ratios - γ-linolenic acid:linoleic acid for D6D and arachidonic acid:dihomo-γ-linolenic acid for D5D. Higher D6D activity was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin and TAG concentrations and worse homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) indices. In contrast, higher D5D activity was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin, LDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, higher HDL-cholesterol concentration, and better HOMA indices. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred. Neither D6D activity (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile hazard ratios (HR) 1·18; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·74) nor D5D activity (HR 1·06; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·60) were associated with stroke risk. In conclusion, higher D5D activity was favourably associated and higher D6D activity unfavourably associated with several stroke risk factors, but not with the risk of incident stroke.

  19. Characterization of a structurally and functionally diverged acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from milkweed seed.

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    Cahoon, E B; Coughlan, S J; Shanklin, J

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA for a structurally variant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase was isolated from milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed, a tissue enriched in palmitoleic (16:1delta9)* and cis-vaccenic (18:1delta11) acids. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the milkweed cDNA catalyzed delta9 desaturation of acyl-ACP substrates, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited seven- to ten-fold greater specificity for palmitoyl (16:0)-ACP and 30-fold greater specificity for myristoyl (14:0)-ACP than did known delta9-stearoyl (18:0)-ACP desaturases. Like other variant acyl-ACP desaturases reported to date, the milkweed enzyme contains fewer amino acids near its N-terminus compared to previously characterized delta9-18:0-ACP desaturases. Based on the activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of a delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase, this structural feature likely does not account for differences in substrate specificities.

  20. Evidence that the Yeast Desaturase Ole1p Exists as a Dimer In Vivo

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    Lou, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2010-06-18

    Desaturase enzymes are composed of two classes, the structurally well characterized soluble class found predominantly in the plastids of higher plants and the more widely distributed but poorly structurally defined integral membrane class. Despite their distinct evolutionary origins, the two classes both require an iron cofactor and molecular oxygen for activity and are inhibited by azide and cyanide, suggesting strong mechanistic similarities. The fact that the soluble desaturase is active as a homodimer prompted us test the hypothesis that an archetypal integral membrane desaturase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the {Delta}{sup o}-acyl-Co-A desaturase Ole1p, also exhibits a dimeric organization. Ole1p was chosen because it is one of the best characterized integral membrane desaturase and because it retains activity when fused with epitope tags. FLAG-Ole1p was detected by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates in which anti-Myc antibodies were used for capture from yeast extracts co-expressing Ole1p-Myc and Ole1p-FLAG. Interaction was confirmed by two independent bimolecular complementation assays (i.e. the split ubiquitin system and the split luciferase system). Co-expression of active and inactive Ole1p subunits resulted in an {approx}75% suppression of the accumulation of palmitoleic acid, demonstrating that the physiologically active form of Ole1p in vivo is the dimer in which both protomers must be functional.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

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    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Bi-Bo

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to screen for and isolate a novel enzyme with the specific activity of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, R. oryzae was identified as a novel fungal species that produces large amounts of γ-linolenic acid. A full-length cDNA, designated here as RoD6D, with high homology to fungal Δ6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. oryzae by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. It had an open reading frame of 1176 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 391 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RoD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, a hydropathy profile, and a cytochrome b5 -like domain in the N terminus. When the coding sequence was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl, the encoded product of RoD6D exhibited Δ6-fatty acid desaturase activity that led to the accumulation of γ-linolenic acid. The corresponding genomic sequence of RoD6D was 1565 bp in length, with five introns. This is the first report on the characterization and gene cloning of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase of R. oryzae from Douchi. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei

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    Alloatti, Andres [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Gupta, Shreedhara; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Nguewa, Paul A. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Altabe, Silvia G. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Deumer, Gladys; Wallemacq, Pierre [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, LTAP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Michels, Paul A.M. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Uttaro, Antonio D., E-mail: toniuttaro@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibiting {Delta}9 desaturase drastically changes T. brucei's fatty-acid composition. {yields} Isoxyl specifically inhibits the {Delta}9 desaturase causing a growth arrest. {yields} RNA interference of desaturase expression causes a similar effect. {yields} Feeding T. brucei-infected mice with Isoxyl decreases the parasitemia. {yields} 70% of Isoxyl-treated mice survived the trypanosome infection. -- Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of sleeping sickness, is exposed to important changes in nutrients and temperature during its life cycle. To adapt to these changes, the fluidity of its membranes plays a crucial role. This fluidity, mediated by the fatty-acid composition, is regulated by enzymes named desaturases. We have previously shown that the oleoyl desaturase is essential for Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. In this work, we present experimental support for the relevance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) for T. brucei's survival, in both its insect or procyclic-form (PCF) and bloodstream-form (BSF) stages. We evaluated this essentiality in two different ways: by generating a SCD knocked-down parasite line using RNA interference, and by chemical inhibition of the enzyme with two compounds, Isoxyl and a thiastearate with the sulfur atom at position 10 (10-TS). The effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 50}) of PCF was 1.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}M for Isoxyl and 5 {+-} 2 {mu}M for 10-TS, whereas BSF appeared more susceptible with EC{sub 50} values 0.10 {+-} 0.03 {mu}M (Isoxyl) and 1.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}M (10-TS). RNA interference showed to be deleterious for both stages of the parasite. In addition, T. brucei-infected mice were fed with Isoxyl, causing a reduction of the parasitemia and an increase of the rodents' survival.

  3. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  4. The regulation of lipid droplet size and phospholipid composition by stearoyl-CoA desaturase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xun; Li, Juan; Zou, Xiaoju

    2013-01-01

    desaturase mutants, independently, and in combination with mutants disrupted in conserved lipid metabolic pathways. C. elegans with impaired SCD activity displayed both reduced fat stores and decreased lipid droplet size. Mutants in the daf-2 (insulin-like growth factor receptor), rsks-1 (homolog of p70S6......kinase, an effector of the TOR signaling pathway), and daf-7 (transforming growth factor beta) display high fat stores, the opposite of the low fat observed in the fat-6;fat-7 desaturase mutants. The metabolic mutants in combination with fat-6;fat-7 displayed low fat stores, with the exception of the daf...

  5. Delta 12-Fatty Acid Desaturase from Candida parapsilosis Is a Multifunctional Desaturase Producing a Range of Polyunsaturated and Hydroxylated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), e93322/1-e93322/10 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae * omega-3 fatty acid desaturase * heterologous expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0093322

  6. The role of desaturases in the biosynthesis of marking pheromones in bumblebee males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Vogel, H.; Matoušková, Petra; Prchalová, Darina; Žáček, Petr; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Šebesta, Petr; Svatoš, Aleš; Jahn, Ullrich; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2013), s. 724-731 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * bumblebee * Hymenoptera * pheromone * RNA-seq * functional expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2013

  7. Cloning of a novel stearoyl-acyl desaturase gene from white ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning of a novel stearoyl-acyl desaturase gene from white ash (Fraxinus americana) and evolution analysis with those from other plants. G Chen, ZK Xing, WL Pan, LP Bai, JF Ye, DJ Ma, ZP Wei, JG Fan, ZF Guo ...

  8. Plasma sulfur amino acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in two caucasian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinknes, K.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Drevon, C.A.; Refsum, H.; Nurk, E.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Teerlink, T.; Tell, G.S.; Nygard, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Ueland, P.M.; Elshorbagy, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    In rats, dietary restriction of the cysteine precursor methionine suppresses hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 expression and activity, whereas cysteine supplementation reverses these effects. In 2 independent cohorts: Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; N=2021, aged 71-74. y), Norway, and Hoorn

  9. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  10. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Ohlrogge, J.B. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1[Delta][sup 6cis]), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the [Delta][sup 9]-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and [Delta][sup 4]-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  12. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of the Peroxodiferric Intermediate of Ricinus communis Soluble Delta(9) Desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srnec, Martin; Rokob, Tibor András; Schwartz, J. K.; Kwak, Y.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Solomon, E. I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2012), s. 2806-2820 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diferrous non-heme iron enzyme * QM/MM calculations * delta-9 * desaturase * reaction mechanism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2012

  13. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A delta9 desaturase from Bombus lucorum males: Investigation of the biosynthetic pathway of marking pheromones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Petra; Luxová, Anna; Matoušková, J.; Jiroš, Pavel; Svatoš, Aleš; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2008), s. 2534-2541 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA AV ČR IAA4055403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biosynthesis * bumblebees * desaturase * marking pheromone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  15. Effects of developmental age, ambient temperature, and dietary alterations on delta(12) desaturase activity in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; Howell, J D; Blomquist, G J; Borgeson, C E

    2000-07-01

    Double bond formation in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is mediated by desaturase enzymes. Certain insect species have been found to possess a Delta(12) desaturase, previously thought to occur exclusively in plants. We have begun to characterize this enzyme to determine its relatedness to those found in plants and animals. Desaturase activity can be altered significantly by a number of environmental factors in protozoa, cyanobacteria, plants, fish, and rats. We present evidence here that Delta(12) desaturase activity in Acheta domesticus is affected by developmental stage, starvation, dietary alterations, and fluctuations in ambient temperature. Highest activity is observed during the middle of the penultimate instar and 3 to 6 days after adult emergence. Starvation markedly decreases Delta(12) activity, whereas resumption of feeding on fat-free or low fat diets increases activity.

  16. Δ9 desaturase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Key enzyme in the parasite metabolism. Cloning and overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Mariela R; Paulucci, Natalia S; Selva, Armentano; Garban, Hermes; de Lema, Mirta García

    2017-01-01

    Desaturases, key enzymes in the metabolism of fatty acids, regulate the physical and biochemical properties of membranes. They adjust the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to changes in the environmental. We demonstrated the existence of Δ9 desaturase activity in epimastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. In the present study, showed that this enzyme has an approximate molecular mass of 50kDa and a pI value of approximately 9. In order to characterize the Δ9 desaturase of Trypanosoma cruzi, (TcΔ9DES) we have cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene consists of 1300bp and encodes a peptide of 433 amino acids with a molecular weight of 50kDa. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed three clusters of histidine and two hydrophobic regions, characteristic of membrane-bound desaturases. Gene expression studies showed that TcΔ9DES was overexpressed as an active protein. Fatty acid analysis showed that the expressed protein was confirmed to be functional with Δ9 desaturase activity. This enzyme changed the fatty acid profile of TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli, decreasing the levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids and enhancing palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) and monounsaturated 18 carbons fatty acids. When [1-14C]palmitic or [1-14C]stearic acid was used as substrate, TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli exhibited high desaturase activity associated with increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the TcΔ9DES enzyme was actively expressed in E. coli. To check the commitment of TcΔ9DES against sterol biosynthesis inhibitors we tested the activity under ketoconazole effect. Native TcΔ9DES, showed a significant activity inhibition. Since TcΔ9DES has shown active participation under different environmental factors, among them, ketoconazole, we consider that it plays a critical role in the metabolism of the parasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Markers of endogenous desaturase activity and risk of coronary heart disease in the CAREMA cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially EPA (C20:5n-3 and DHA (C22:6n-3, are known to prevent fatal coronary heart disease (CHD. The effects of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, however, remain unclear. δ-5 and δ-6 desaturases are rate-limiting enzymes for synthesizing long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 and C18:3n-6 to C18:2n-6 ratios are markers of endogenous δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but have never been studied in relation to incident CHD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between these ratios as well as genotypes of FADS1 rs174547 and CHD incidence. METHODS: We applied a case-cohort design within the CAREMA cohort, a large prospective study among the general Dutch population followed up for a median of 12.1 years. Fatty acid profile in plasma cholesteryl esters and FADS1 genotype at baseline were measured in a random subcohort (n = 1323 and incident CHD cases (n = 537. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs of incident CHD adjusted for major CHD risk factors. RESULTS: The AA genotype of rs174547 was associated with increased plasma levels of C204n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 and increased δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but not with CHD risk. In multivariable adjusted models, high baseline δ-5 desaturase activity was associated with reduced CHD risk (P for trend = 0.02, especially among those carrying the high desaturase activity genotype (AA: HR (95% CI = 0.35 (0.15-0.81 for comparing the extreme quintiles. High plasma DHA levels were also associated with reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we observed a reduced CHD risk with an increased C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 ratio, suggesting that δ-5 desaturase activity plays a role in CHD etiology. This should be investigated further in other independent studies.

  18. A metabolomic strategy defines the regulation of lipid content and global metabolism by Δ9 desaturases in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cecilia; Sar, Funda; Shaw, W Robert; Mishima, Masanori; Miska, Eric A; Griffin, Julian L

    2012-01-20

    Caenorhabditis elegans provides a genetically tractable model organism to investigate the network of genes involved in fat metabolism and how regulation is perturbed to produce the complex phenotype of obesity. C. elegans possess the full range of desaturases, including the Δ9 desaturases expressed by fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7. They regulate the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, used for the synthesis of lipids including phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to define the metabolome of all the possible knock-outs for the Δ9 desaturases, including for the first time intact lipids. Despite the genes having similar enzymatic roles, excellent discrimination was achievable for all single and viable double mutants highlighting the distinctive roles of fat-6 and fat-7, both expressing steroyl-CoA desaturases. The metabolomic changes extend to aqueous metabolites demonstrating the influence Δ9 desaturases have on regulating global metabolism and highlighting how comprehensive metabolomics is more discriminatory than classically used dyes for fat staining. The propagation of metabolic changes across the network of metabolism demonstrates that modification of the Δ9 desaturases places C.elegans into a catabolic state compared with wildtype controls.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a delta-6 desaturase encoding gene from Nannochloropsis oculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Pan, Jin; Yang, Guanpin

    2011-03-01

    A gene ( NANOC-D6D) encoding a desaturase that removes two hydrogen atoms from fatty acids at delta 6 position was isolated from a cDNA library of Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd (Eustigmatophyceae). The unicellular marine microalga N. oculata synthesizes rich long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA). The deduced protein contains 474 amino acids that fold into 4 trans-membrane domains. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicates that NANOC-D6D is phylogenetically close to the delta-6 fatty acid desaturase of marine microalgae such as Glossomastix chrysoplasta, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVScl to verify the substrate specificity of NANOC-D6D. Our results suggest that the recombinant NANOC-D6D simultaneously desaturates linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA).

  20. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of ... vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and expressed the n-3 Fad gene in mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells). Transfection of ..... altering dietary omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane ...

  1. Metabolism of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Rat Testis : Expression and regulation of delta5-desaturase, delta6-desaturase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 and the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, delta and gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In mammalian cells essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are converted to longer PUFAs by alternating steps of elongation and desaturation. In contrast to other PUFA-rich tissues, the testis is continuously drained of these fatty acids, as spermatozoa are transported to the epididymis. Alteration of the germ cell lipid profile from spermatogonia to condensing spermatids and mature spermatozoa had been described prior to this work, but the male gonadal gene expression of the desaturase...

  2. Novel Genes Encoding Hexadecanoic Acid Δ6-Desaturase Activity in a Rhodococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Hiroyuki; Hagihara, Hiroshi; Takigawa, Hirofumi; Tsujino, Yukiharu; Ozaki, Katsuya

    2016-11-01

    cis-6-Hexadecenoic acid, a major component of human sebaceous lipids, is involved in the defense mechanism against Staphylococcus aureus infection in healthy skin and closely related to atopic dermatitis. Previously, Koike et al. (Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:1064-1066, 2000) reported that a mutant strain of Rhodococcus sp. produced cis-6-hexadecenoate derivatives from palmitate alkyl esters. From the mutant Rhodococcus strain, we identified and sequenced two open reading frames present in an amplified 5.7-kb region; these open reading frames encoded tandemly repeated Δ6-desaturase-like genes, Rdes1 and Rdes2. A phylogenetic tree indicated that Rdes1 and Rdes2 were different from previously known Δ6-desaturase genes, and that they formed a new cluster. Rdes1 and Rdes2 were each introduced into vectors and then expressed separately in Escherichia coli, and the fatty acid composition of the transformed cells was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The amount of cis-6-hexadecenoic acid was significantly higher in Rdes1- or Rdes2-transformed E. coli cells (twofold and threefold, respectively) than in vector-only control cells. These results showed that cis-6-hexadecenoic acid was produced in E. coli cells by the rhodococcal Δ6-desaturase-like proteins.

  3. Linoleic acid biosynthesis and characterization of the. Delta. sup 12 desaturase in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, C.

    1988-01-01

    De novo biosynthesis of linoleic acid was demonstrated in vivo in 8 of 32 insect species examined, including both holometabolous and hemimetabolous species. The incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C) acetate into linoleic acid was demonstrated by radio-gas-liquid chromatography (radio-GLC), and in selected species by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography, silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography, radio-GLC and GLC linked to mass spectrometry of ozonolysis products. Analysis of the ozonolysis products clearly demonstrated that the entire molecule was labeled and that synthesis of linoleate was de novo from acetate. The in vivo incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C)acetate into lipid was monitored during the final three stadia of both male and female house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Characterization of the {Delta}{sup 12}-desaturase showed that, in the house cricket, this enzyme is microsomal and requires a reduced pyridine dinucleotide as a cofactor, with NADPH the preferred electron donor. The optimal substrate concentration for desaturation is about 40 uM. Addition of the microsomal supernatant, MgCl{sub 2} or ATP did not enhance activity. The form of the substrate for the desaturase, oleic acid, was determined and appears to be a CoA derivative, as is true for most animal desaturases, rather than a complex lipid, as it is in plants.

  4. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Chin Hua

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

  5. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in bovine cumulus cells protects the oocyte against saturated fatty acid stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, Hilde; van Tol, Helena T A; Wubbolts, Richard W; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Gadella, Bart M; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic rich and poor conditions are both characterized by elevated free fatty acid levels and have been associated with impaired female fertility. In particular, saturated free fatty acids have a dose-dependent negative impact on oocyte developmental competence, while mono-unsaturated free fatty

  6. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  7. The delta 12-desaturase from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae): characterization and form of the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, C; Borgeson, C; Blomquist, G J; de Renobales, M

    1990-04-01

    A novel delta 12-desaturase from animals, which converts oleic acid (18:1n-9) to linoleic acid (18:2n-6), was characterized in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. The delta 12-desaturase product, linoleic acid, was determined by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography, radio-gas-liquid chromatography and radio-high-performance liquid chromatography with the latter being used for routine analyses. Enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction of whole insect homogenates. NADPH or NADH was required for activity, with NADPH being the more efficient electron donor. In short incubation times with oleoyl-CoA as substrate, the highest amount of product, linoleic acid, was found as linoleoyl-CoA. With longer incubation periods, most of the linoleic acid was recovered in the polar lipid fraction containing phospholipid. Preincubation of the microsomal preparation in the absence of NADPH, which allowed 90% of the oleoyl moiety to be transacylated into complex lipid, resulted in no detectable desaturation upon addition of NADPH. These data indicate that the oleic acid moiety used as substrate was in the form of a CoA derivative and not in the form of a phospholipid, as it is for the plant delta 12-desaturase. This is the first characterization of a delta 12-desaturase from an animal system and the first report of a delta 12-desaturase that uses oleoyl-CoA as substrate.

  8. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  9. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  10. Exploring the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and functional characterization of novel acyl-lipid desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazarreta Cifré, Lorena; Alemany, Mariana; de Mendoza, Diego; Altabe, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    At low temperatures, Bacillus cereus synthesizes large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) with double bonds in positions Δ5 and Δ10, as well as Δ5,10 diunsaturated fatty acids. Through sequence homology searches, we identified two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative Δ5 desaturase and a fatty acid acyl-lipid desaturase in the B. cereus ATCC 14579 genome, and these were named BC2983 and BC0400, respectively. Functional characterization of ORFs BC2983 and BC0400 by means of heterologous expression in Bacillus subtilis confirmed that they both encode acyl-lipid desaturases that use phospholipids as the substrates and have Δ5 and Δ10 desaturase activities. Thus, these ORFs were correspondingly named desA (Δ5 desaturase) and desB (Δ10 desaturase). We established that DesA utilizes ferredoxin and flavodoxins (Flds) as electron donors for the desaturation reaction, while DesB preferably employs Flds. In addition, increased amounts of UFAs were found when B. subtilis expressing B. cereus desaturases was subjected to a cold shock treatment, indicating that the activity or the expression of these enzymes is upregulated in response to a decrease in growth temperature. This represents the first work reporting the functional characterization of fatty acid desaturases from B. cereus.

  11. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  12. 6-Desaturase-Like Encoding Gene Introduction in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Hary Ayu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the economically valuable aquaculture fish species in Indonesia. This research was aimed to produce F0 transgenic catfish carrying masou salmon Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD gene. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme is involved in highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Transgenic catfish was produced by sperm-mediated gene transfer using electroporation method. In this study, as the first step, sperms were electroporated with three different OmΔ6FAD concentration (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 to have the highest sperm viability after electroporation (125 V/cm, pulse frequency 5 times, pulse length 30 millisecond, pulse interval 0.1 second. The highest sperm viability and sperm carrying OmΔ6FAD were obtain at 100 µg mL-1. This concentration was then used to produce F0 transgenic catfish in the second step. Sperm motility, sperm viability, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and larval survival at 14 days after hatching were the same as the controls (p>0.05. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin and then used as template to identify transgenic F0 by PCR method using specific primer for OmΔ6FAD gene. The PCR result showed that 53.84% of F0 carried OmΔ6FAD gene. The result of fatty acid analysis showed that EPA and DHA contents of F0 transgenic fish and non-transgenic fish were similar.   Keywords: catfish, Δ6-desaturase-like gene, fatty acids, electroporation

  13. Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

    2013-09-14

    Δ9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Δ6-Desaturase (D6D) and Δ5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids.

  14. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2015-01-01

    increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure...... is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic...

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  16. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  17. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA. In general, carriers of FADS minor alleles tend to have higher habitual plasma and tissue levels of LA and αLNA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid, EPA and also to a lesser extent DHA. In conclusion, available research findings suggest that FADS minor alleles are also associated with reduced inflammation and CVD risk, and that dietary total fat and fatty acid intake have the potential to modify relationships between FADS gene variants and circulating fatty acid levels. However to date, neither the size-effects of FADS variants on fatty acid status, nor the functional SNP in FADS1 and 2 have been identified. Such information could contribute to the refinement and targeting of EPA and DHA recommendations, whereby additional LC n-3 PUFA intakes could be recommended for those carrying FADS minor alleles.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three omega-6 desaturase genes from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Coelho, N; Olsson, M E; Brodelius, P E; Carvalho, I S; Brodelius, M

    2009-07-01

    Two full-length cDNA clones of PoleFAD2 and one full-length cDNA clone of PoleFAD6, encoding omega-6 fatty acid desaturases, the key enzymes for the conversion of oleic into linoleic acid, were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) leaves and seeds. The deduced amino acid sequence of both isoforms of PoleFAD2 showed higher similarities to other microsomal omega-6 desaturases then to PoleFAD6 or other plastidial orthologues, and vice versa. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that all genes are expressed in all tissues of purslane tested, but higher levels of mRNA accumulation were detected in reproductive organs and cells that proliferate rapidly or store lipids. Wounding affected the levels of mRNA accumulation of both, FAD2 and FAD6 genes in purslane leaves, while chilling stress affected only FAD2 transcript level. The expression patterns observed reflect the discrete roles of these genes in membrane synthesis for cell division, thylakoid development, and lipid storage or in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of signaling molecules that influence plant development or defense.

  19. A more desirable balanced polyunsaturated fatty acid composition achieved by heterologous expression of Δ15/Δ4 desaturases in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhu

    Full Text Available Arachidonic (ARA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway--a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, a Δ6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage, coding for Euglena gracilis Δ4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus Δ4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line. Both of the Δ4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis Δ4-desaturase with C. elegans Δ15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition--a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of Δ15/Δ4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health.

  20. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  1. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of a Δ9- Fatty Acid Desaturase from an Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. A3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Lawal; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturase enzymes play an essential role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Pseudomonas sp. A3 was found to produce a large amount of palmitoleic and oleic acids after incubation at low temperatures. Using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a novel Δ9- fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated, cloned, and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene was designated as PA3FAD9 and has an open reading frame of 1,185 bp which codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. The activity of the gene product was confirmed via GCMS, which showed a functional putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase capable of increasing the total amount of cellular unsaturated fatty acids of the E. coli cells expressing the gene. The results demonstrate that the cellular palmitoleic acids have increased two-fold upon expression at 15°C using only 0.1 mM IPTG. Therefore, PA3FAD9 from Pseudomonas sp.A3 codes for a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein which was actively expressed in E. coli. PMID:27494717

  2. Isolation of a Δ5 desaturase gene from Euglena gracilis and functional dissection of its HPGG and HDASH motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters Pollak, Dana; Bostick, Michael W; Yoon, Hyeryoung; Wang, Jamie; Hollerbach, Dieter H; He, Hongxian; Damude, Howard G; Zhang, Hongxiang; Yadav, Narendra S; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Sharpe, Pamela; Xue, Zhixiong; Zhu, Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Delta (Δ) 5 desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of health-beneficial long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) via the "desaturation and elongation" pathways. A full length Δ5 desaturase gene from Euglena gracilis (EgΔ5D) was isolated by cloning the products of polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides as primers, followed by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The whole coding region of EgΔ5D was 1,350 nucleotides in length and encoded a polypeptide of 449 amino acids. BlastP search showed that EgΔ5D has about 39 % identity with a Δ5 desaturase of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In a genetically modified dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6) producing Yarrowia lipolytica strain, EgΔ5D had strong Δ5 desaturase activity with DGLA to ARA conversion of more than 24 %. Functional dissection of its HPGG and HDASH motifs demonstrated that both motifs were important, but not necessary in the exact form as encoded for the enzyme activity of EgΔ5D. A double mutant EgΔ5D-34G158G with altered sequences within both HPGG and HDASH motifs was generated and exhibited Δ5 desaturase activity similar to the wild type EgΔ5D. Codon optimization of the N-terminal region of EgΔ5D-34G158G and substitution of the arginine with serine at residue 347 improved substrate conversion to 27.6 %.

  3. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2017-01-01

    the strongest changes in allele frequency since the Bronze Age show associations with expression changes and multiple lipid-related phenotypes. Furthermore, the selected alleles are associated with a decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids among Europeans...... to agriculture, resulting in a lower intake of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but a higher intake of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid.......FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe...

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  5. Stearoyl CoA Desaturase Is Required to Produce Active, Lipid-Modified Wnt Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rios-Esteves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins contain palmitoleic acid, an unusual lipid modification. Production of an active Wnt signal requires the acyltransferase Porcupine and depends on the attachment of palmitoleic acid to Wnt. The source of this monounsaturated fatty acid has not been identified, and it is not known how Porcupine recognizes its substrate and whether desaturation occurs before or after fatty acid transfer to Wnt. Here, we show that stearoyl desaturase (SCD generates a monounsaturated fatty acid substrate that is then transferred by Porcupine to Wnt. Treatment of cells with SCD inhibitors blocked incorporation of palmitate analogs into Wnt3a and Wnt5a and reduced Wnt secretion as well as autocrine and paracrine Wnt signaling. The SCD inhibitor effects were rescued by exogenous addition of monounsaturated fatty acids. We propose that SCD is a key molecular player responsible for Wnt biogenesis and processing and that SCD inhibition provides an alternative mechanism for blocking Wnt pathway activation.

  6. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo...... ex vivo-activated immune cells. We observed no association between T-cell distribution and maternal or infant FADS gene variants. We conclude that increased maternal LCPUFA synthesis and breast milk AA are associated with decreased levels of IL-5, IL-13 (type-2 related), IL-17 (type-17 related......) and IL-10 (regulatory immune responses), but not with interferon-γ and TNF-α, which could be due to an effect of the maternal FADS variants on the offspring immune response transferred via breast milk LCPUFA. Copyright © The Authors 2015....

  7. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Regulation of the bovine SCD5 promoter by EGR2 and SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengi, Andrea J; Corl, Benjamin A

    2012-05-04

    In rodents, the transcription factors early growth response 2 (EGR2) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) regulate transcription of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene during peripheral nerve myelination, which may be important for synthesis of the lipid component of myelin. Most non-rodent genomes do not contain the SCD2 gene, but rather express SCD5 in brain and nervous tissues. In this paper, we asked whether bovine SCD5 is regulated in a similar manner to rodent SCD2. Expression of EGR2 did not result in an increase in endogenous SCD5 mRNA expression in JEG3 cells, but did result in activation of truncated bovine SCD5 promoter luciferase reporter constructs. Similar results were obtained with expression of the active form of SREBP1a; however, unlike rodent SCD2, there was no synergistic activation of the bovine SCD5 promoter reporters when EGR2 and SREBP1a were co-expressed. Mutation of the putative EGR2 binding site in the SCD5 promoter abolished activation by SREBP1a, suggesting that EGR2 and SREBP1a bind to the same site in the SCD5 promoter. Finally, we have identified a region of the bovine SCD5 promoter between 505 and 305 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site that appears to be important for maintaining basal levels of transcription of this gene. While it appears that there are some differences between the regulation of rodent SCD2 and bovine SCD5, the promoters of both genes can be activated by EGR2 and SREBP1a. This is the first report of potential regulators of SCD5 transcription. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of α-linolenic acid content in transgenic tobacco seeds by targeting a plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) gene of Sesamum indicum to ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Expression of sesame plastidial FAD7 desaturase modified with the endoplasmic reticulum targeting and retention signals, enhances the α-linolenic acid accumulation in seeds of Nicotiana tabacum. In plants, plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase-7 (FAD7) catalyzes the formation of C16 and C18 trienoic fatty acids using organellar glycerolipids and participate in the membrane lipid formation. The plastidial ω-3 desaturases (FAD7) share high sequence homology with the microsomal ω-3 desaturases (FAD3) at the amino acid level except the N-terminal organelle transit peptide. In the present study, the predicted N-terminal plastidial signal peptide of fad7 gene was replaced by the endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was placed at the C-terminal. The expression of the modified sesame ω-3 desaturase increases the α-linolenic acid content in the range of 4.78-6.77 % in the seeds of transgenic tobacco plants with concomitant decrease in linoleic acid content. The results suggested the potential of the engineered plastidial ω-3 desaturase from sesame to influence the profile of α-linolenic acid in tobacco plant by shifting the carbon flux from linoleic acid, and thus it can be used in suitable genetic engineering strategy to increase the α-linolenic acid content in sesame and other vegetable oils.

  11. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result is infection and malnutrition (22). On the other hand, there also consistent with previous reports (16,18) which .... formulation of livestock breeding policy. In proc. 5th. Britton S. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and ... Ankara: Turkish-German Health. 1996: 343-349. Information Project, General Directorate of.

  12. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  13. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with Δ5 Desaturase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khalidah Abdul Hamid

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG, histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3 to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors.

  14. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Δ5 Desaturase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Noor Khalidah; Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Donald, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads) genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG), histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH) and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors. PMID:26943160

  15. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Xue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA. To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

  16. Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase gene in a southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senni Juniawati Bunga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish is the main source of ?-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5?-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:5?-3, which have positive effects on human health and can be beneficial in human diet context. Studies involving fatty acyl desaturase (Fads and elongase of very long chain fatty acids (Elovl enzymes that convert C18 PUFA to C20/22 LC-PUFA have been performed in some fish species. However, very little is known about LC-PUFA biosynthesis in tuna species. This study investigated the ?6 Fads gene performance in the SBT cell line. The ?6 Fads nucleotide sequences from various fish species were identified and retrieved to compare them with the SBT ?6 Fads nucleotide sequence. The ?6 Fads gene was performed using real time PCR (RT-PCR and then was compared it with ?-actin gene performance as a reference housekeeping gene. By performing multiple sequence alignments and comparing the highly conserved regions among fish ?6 Fads sequences, the SBT ?6 Fads nucleotide sequence was determined to be ? 75% identical to the other fish ?6 Fads sequences. The results showed that when the SBT ?6 Fads and ?-actin cDNAs were performed in a standard PCR system and the products were analysed by electrophoresing them on a 2% (w/v agarose gel, the target genes that were obtained were similar to the expected sizes. The observed band size for the ?6 Fads PCR product was 207 bp and for the ?-actin PCR product was 98 bp. The presence of the observed bands indicated that the primer pairs that were designed and used were successfully amplified the target genes. The results of this study might provide relevant information to support further investigating of the desaturase and elongase gene expression that might contribute to a better understanding of ?-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish. Key words: ?6 Fads gene, Southern Bluefin tuna, cell line, ?-3 LC-PUFA

  17. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

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    Powell DR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available David R Powell, Jason P Gay, Melinda Smith, Nathaniel Wilganowski, Angela Harris, Autumn Holland, Maricela Reyes, Laura Kirkham, Laura L Kirkpatrick, Brian Zambrowicz, Gwenn Hansen, Kenneth A Platt, Isaac van Sligtenhorst, Zhi-Ming Ding, Urvi Desai Metabolism Research, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., The Woodlands, TX, USA Abstract: Delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for w3, w6, and w9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels

  18. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Naoki; Sanz-Jorquera, Alicia; Carboni, Stefano; Davie, Andrew; Oboh, Angela; Monroig, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called "Δ8 pathway".

  19. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816.

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    Naoki Kabeya

    Full Text Available Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads, key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA. Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called "Δ8 pathway".

  20. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism.

  1. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  3. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

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    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  4. Carotenoid content and expression of phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase genes in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Nam Il; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-15

    Momordica charantia, a tropical plant, produces a fruit that has a β-carotene concentration five times higher than that of carrot. To elucidate the molecular basis of β-carotene accumulation in M. charantia, the gene expression levels of phytoene synthase (McPSY) and phytoene desaturase (McPDS) were determined. These levels were particularly high in the flowers of M. charantia. During fruit maturation, the expression levels of McPSY and McPDS decreased during the mid-stages but increased in the fully mature fruit. In addition, carotenoids accumulated as the peel changed from green to orange. Thus, McPSY and McPDS expression correlated with carotenoid accumulation during fruit maturation. Principal component analysis (PCA) also was used to evaluate the differences among the profiles of seven carotenoids identified in the fruit at several maturation stages. Riper fruits had higher carotenoid concentrations than less ripe fruits. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyanobacteria as source of marine bioactive compounds: Molecular specific detection based on Δ9 desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, Faten; Barkallah, Mohamed; Elleuch, Fatma; Karkouch, Nesrine; Dammak, Mouna; Baréa, Bruno; Villeneuve, Pierre; Abdelkafi, Slim; Fendri, Imen

    2017-12-01

    The blue-green microalga, Arthrospira sp., isolated from the sea of Kssour Essef in Mahdia (Tunisia), was purified and then identified both morphologically and genetically based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Following physicochemical analysis, the prokaryotic microalga tested represented a competitive source of pigments and showed a considerable rate in protein (64%) which was confirmed by FTIR measurement. The lipid content (4%) was quantified by the gravimetric method and the intracellular lipid bodies were detected with the Nile red staining. Using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector, the fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27.4% and 32.88% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), respectively. Given the richness of the isolated microalga in unsaturated fatty acids, we have developed a SYBR Green real time PCR method for the specific identification of Arthrospira sp. Δ9 desaturase gene. This current method will be of great value for carrying out high-throughput studies like cloning, heterologous expression and structure-function relationship analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

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    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease (AD remain unclear. We used a lipidomic approach to identify lipid abnormalities in the brains of subjects with AD (N = 37 compared to age-matched controls (N = 17. The analyses revealed statistically detectable elevations in levels of non-esterified monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and mead acid (20:3n-9 in mid-frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD patients. Further studies showed that brain mRNAs encoding for isoforms of the rate-limiting enzyme in MUFAs biosynthesis, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1, SCD-5a and SCD-5b, were elevated in subjects with AD. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ('desaturation index'--displayed a strong negative correlation with measures of cognition: the Mini Mental State Examination test (r = -0.80; P = 0.0001 and the Boston Naming test (r = -0.57; P = 0.0071. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the lipogenic enzyme SCD in AD.

  7. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel.

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    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA. The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9 locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

  9. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Peng Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S. aureus, staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16 of S. aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid components analysis, enzyme inhibition, and crtN mutational studies indicated that the molecular target of NP16 is dehydrosqualene desaturase (CrtN. S. aureus treated with NP16 showed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and to innate immune clearance in a mouse infection model. Our study validates CrtN as a novel druggable target in S. aureus and presents a potent and effective lead compound for the development of virulence factor-based therapy against S. aureus.

  10. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  11. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FADS genotypes and desaturase activity estimated by the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid are associated with inflammation and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Malerba, Giovanni; Guarini, Patrizia; Illig, Thomas; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sandri, Marco; Friso, Simonetta; Pizzolo, Francesca; Schaeffer, Linda; Heinrich, Joachim; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Corrocher, Roberto; Olivieri, Oliviero

    2008-10-01

    The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (LA) into arachidonic acid (AA) and that of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1 and FADS2 have been associated with different concentrations of AA and LA, and those associations have possible functional consequences for desaturase activity. We aimed to evaluate the possible association among FADS genotypes, desaturase activity, inflammation, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirteen FADS SNPs and the ratio of AA to LA (AA/LA) on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, a marker of desaturase activity, were evaluated in 876 subjects with (n = 610) or without (n = 266) angiographically documented CAD. Both AA/LA and the ratio of EPA to ALA (EPA/ALA) were higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD, but, in a multiple logistic regression model, only a higher AA/LA resulted an independent risk factor for CAD (odds ratio: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.61, 4.05 for higher compared with lower ratio tertile; P for trend FADS haplotypes, including the alleles associated with a higher ratio. In populations following a Western diet, subjects carrying FADS haplotypes that are associated with higher desaturase activity may be prone to a proinflammatory response favoring atherosclerotic vascular damage.

  13. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  14. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  15. Identification and evaluation of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes for hyperfortifying α-linolenic acid in transgenic rice seed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua Liang; Yin, Zhi Jie; Xiao, Li; Xu, Yi Nong; Qu, Le Qing

    2012-01-01

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed of ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio in the diet are a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is a need to enhance the ALA content and to reduce the ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to ALA. Six ω-3 (Δ-15) fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes were cloned from rice and soybean. The subcellular localizations of the proteins were identified. The FAD genes were introduced into rice under the control of...

  16. Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant docosahexaenoic acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Harsløf, L.; Larsen, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy is supported by DHA in breast-milk and may thus decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alphalinolenic acid is low and polymorphisms in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has...... been shown to have little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHAstatus. We aim to investigate the role of diet and FADS-polymorphisms on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years. Methods: This cross-sectional study with Danish infants...

  17. Homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Garba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases perform oxygenated desaturation reactions to insert double bonds within fatty acyl chains in regioselective and stereoselective manners. The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase strictly creates the first double bond between C9 and 10 positions of most saturated substrates. As the three-dimensional structures of the bacterial membrane fatty acid desaturases are not available, relevant information about the enzymes are derived from their amino acid sequences, site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping in similar membrane-bound desaturases. The cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 was found to produce high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids at low temperature. Subsequently, an active Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was isolated and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. In this paper we report homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Three dimensional structure of the enzyme was built using MODELLER version 9.18 using a suitable template. The protein model contained the three conserved-histidine residues typical for all membrane-bound desaturase catalytic activity. The structure was subjected to energy minimization and checked for correctness using Ramachandran plots and ERRAT, which showed a good quality model of 91.6 and 65.0%, respectively. The protein model was used to preform MD simulation and docking of palmitic acid using CHARMM36 force field in GROMACS Version 5 and Autodock tool Version 4.2, respectively. The docking simulation with the lowest binding energy, −6.8 kcal/mol had a number of residues in close contact with the docked palmitic acid namely, Ile26, Tyr95, Val179, Gly180, Pro64, Glu203, His34, His206, His71, Arg182, Thr85, Lys98 and His177. Interestingly, among the binding residues are His34, His71 and His206 from the first, second, and third conserved histidine motif, respectively

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  19. Creation of glyphosate-resistant Brassica napus L. plants expressing DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenkova-Pavlova I. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Creation of glyphosate-resistant canola plants expressing bifunctional hybrid desC::licBM3 gene. In the hybrid gene the sequence of DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium S. vulcanus without plastid targeting was fused with the sequence of thermostable lichenase reporter LicBM3 gene. Methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, PCR, quantitative and qualitative determination of lichenase activity, genetic analysis. Results. Transgenic canola plants, carring the enolpyruvat shikimat phosphate syntase gene (epsps, conferring on plants resistance to phosphonomethyl glycine herbicides (Roundup, as well as the desC::licBM3 gene, were selected. The presence of transgenes was confimed by multiplex PCR. The epsps gene expression in canola was shown at the transcription level, during in vitro growth and after greenhouse herbicide treatment. Activity of the licBM3 gene product as a part of hybrid protein allowed quantitative and qualitative estimation of the desaturase gene expression. Inheritance of heterologous genes and their expression in the first generation were investigated. Conclusions. Transgenic canola plants were obtained, the presence of trangenes in plant genome was proved and expression of the target genes was detected.

  20. Identification of a novel delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene and its promoter from oil-producing fungus Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongsheng; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Xinxin; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2009-01-01

    Reverse Transcriptional Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Rapid Amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE) and Thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR were used successfully to clone the open reading frame (1,377 bp) of delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene (named as RAD9) and its promoter region from oil-producing fungi Rhizopus arrhizus. Functional identification of the protein was done by sub-cloning RAD9 into the expression vector pYES2.0 to generate a recombinant plasmid pYRAD9, which was then subsequently transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae delta9-fatty acid desaturase mutation strain L8-14C to be expressed under the control of GAL1 promoter. The transformant containing RAD9 named as L8-14C-pYRAD9 could grow on the synthetic minimal medium plate with out oleic acid supplement. Fatty acid analysis also showed that the transformant contained 16:1 and 18:1. This indicated that pYRAD9 could successfully complement the mutation of L8-14C. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequence of RAD9 promoter showed several basic transcriptional elements including a CAAT box, a GC box, a CACCC box, two TATA boxes and also several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Preliminary functional analysis of this promoter in S. cerevisiae was done using lacZ report gene.

  1. Arabidopsis fatty acid desaturase FAD2 is required for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ω-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0 and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

  2. Lactogenic hormones stimulate expression of lipogenic genes but not glucose transporters in bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y; Wall, E H; McFadden, T B; Misra, Y; Qian, X; Blauwiekel, R; Kerr, D; Zhao, F-Q

    2013-02-01

    During the onset of lactation, there is a dramatic increase in the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) and a group of enzymes involved in milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the lactogenic hormones mediate both of these increases. Bovine mammary explants were cultured for 48, 72, or 96 h with the following hormone treatments: no hormone (control), IGF-I, insulin (Ins), Ins + hydrocortisone + ovine prolactin (InsHPrl), or Ins + hydrocortisone + prolactin + 17β-estradiol (InsHPrlE). The relative expression of β-casein, α-lactalbumin, sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA), stearyol-CoA desaturase (SCD), GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 were measured by real-time PCR. Exposure to the lactogenic hormone combinations InsHPrl and InsHPrlE for 96 h stimulated expression of β-casein and α-lactalbumin mRNA by several hundred-fold and also increased the expression of SREBF1, FASN, ACACA, and SCD genes in mammary explants (P hormone combinations had no effect on GLUT1 or GLUT8 expression and inhibited GLUT12 expression by 50% after 72 h of treatment (P hormone treatments. Moreover, treatment of dairy cows with bovine prolactin had no effect on GLUT expression in the mammary gland. In conclusion, lactogenic hormones clearly stimulate expression of milk protein and lipogenic genes, but they do not appear to mediate the marked up-regulation of GLUT expression in the mammary gland during the onset of lactation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  4. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing of Phytoene desaturase in Cassava

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    John Odipio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes into crop species. In order to develop capacity for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the tropical staple cassava (Manihot esculenta, the Phytoene desaturase (MePDS gene was targeted in two cultivars using constructs carrying gRNAs targeting two sequences within MePDS exon 13. After Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into cassava cells, both constructs induced visible albino phenotypes within cotyledon-stage somatic embryos regenerating on selection medium and the plants regenerated therefrom. A total of 58 (cv. 60444 and 25 (cv. TME 204 plant lines were recovered, of which 38 plant lines (19 from each cultivar were analyzed for mutagenesis. The frequency of plant lines showing albino phenotype was high, ranging from 90 to 100% in cv. TME 204. Observed albino phenotypes were comprised of full albinos devoid of green tissue and chimeras containing a mixture of white and green tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that 38/38 (100% of the plant lines examined carried mutations at the targeted MePDS site, with insertions, deletions, and substitutions recorded. One putatively mono-allelic homozygous line (1/19 was found from cv. 60444, while 1 (1/19 and 4 (4/19 putatively bi-allelic homozygous lines were found in 60444 and TME204, respectively. The remaining plant lines, comprised mostly of the chimeras, were found to be putatively heterozygous. We observed minor (1 bp nucleotide substitutions and or deletions upstream of the 5′ and or downstream of the 3′ targeted MePDS region. The data reported demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of cassava is highly efficient and relatively simple, generating multi-allelic mutations in both cultivars studied. Modification of MePDS described here generates visually detectable mutated events in a relatively short time frame of 6–8 weeks, and does not require sequencing to confirm editing at the

  5. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Mensink, M.; Saris, W. H. M.; de Bruin, T. W. A.; Blaak, E. E.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and

  6. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Bruin, de T.W.A.; Blaak, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND

  7. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Qu, Shujie; Wang, Qiang; Bian, Fei; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Haitao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping; He, Qingfang

    2014-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs.

  9. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health.

  10. Roles of StearoylCoA Desaturase-1 in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Growth, Survival and Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igal, R. Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The development and maintenance of defining features of cancer, such as unremitting cell proliferation, evasion of programmed cell death, and the capacity for colonizing local tissues and distant organs, demand a massive production of structural, signaling and energy-storing lipid biomolecules of appropriate fatty acid composition. Due to constitutive activation of fatty acid biosynthesis, cancer cell lipids are enriched with saturated (SFA) and, in particular, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which are generated by StearoylCoA desaturase-1, the main enzyme that transforms SFA into MUFA. An increasing number of experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that high levels of SCD1 activity is a major factor in establishing the biochemical and metabolic perturbations that favors the oncogenic process. This review examines evidence that suggests the critical implication of SCD1 in the modulation of multiple biological mechanisms, specifically lipid biosynthesis and proliferation and survival signaling pathways that contribute to the development and progression of cancer

  11. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...... formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. We selected and characterized the gene encoding stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1). siRNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 abrogated HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon and Jc1-infected cells, while...... exogenous supplementation of either oleate or palmitoleate, products of SCD1 activity, resurrected HCV replication in SCD1 knockdown cells. SCD1 was coimmunoprecipitated with HCV nonstructural proteins and colocalized with both double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and HCV nonstructural proteins, indicating that SCD1...

  12. Cloning, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase in the herbivorous euryhaline teleost Scatophagus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; Wang, Shuqi; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish are generally unable or have low ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, with some notable exceptions including the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus in which such a capability was recently demonstrated. To determine whether this is a unique feature of S. canaliculatus or whether it is common to the herbivorous marine teleosts, LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways were investigated in the herbivorous euryhaline Scatophagus argus. A putative desaturase gene was cloned and functionally characterized, and tissue expression and nutritional regulation were investigated. The full-length cDNA was 1972 bp, containing a 1338 bp open-reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 445 amino acids, which possessed all the characteristic features of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad). Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed the protein product of the cDNA efficiently converted 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively, indicating Δ6 desaturation activity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that highest Δ6 fad mRNA expression was detected in liver followed by brain, with lower expression in other tissues including intestine, eye, muscle, adipose, heart kidney and gill, and lowest expression in stomach and spleen. The expression of Δ6 fad was significantly affected by dietary lipid and, especially, fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in liver of fish fed a diet with a ratio of 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 of 1.72:1. The results indicated that S. argus may have a different LC-PUFA biosynthetic system from S. canaliculatus despite possessing similar habitats and feeding habits suggesting that LC-PUFA biosynthesis may not be common to all marine herbivorous teleosts.

  13. Cloning, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase in the herbivorous euryhaline teleost Scatophagus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dizhi Xie

    Full Text Available Marine fish are generally unable or have low ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA from C18 PUFA precursors, with some notable exceptions including the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus in which such a capability was recently demonstrated. To determine whether this is a unique feature of S. canaliculatus or whether it is common to the herbivorous marine teleosts, LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways were investigated in the herbivorous euryhaline Scatophagus argus. A putative desaturase gene was cloned and functionally characterized, and tissue expression and nutritional regulation were investigated. The full-length cDNA was 1972 bp, containing a 1338 bp open-reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 445 amino acids, which possessed all the characteristic features of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed the protein product of the cDNA efficiently converted 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively, indicating Δ6 desaturation activity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that highest Δ6 fad mRNA expression was detected in liver followed by brain, with lower expression in other tissues including intestine, eye, muscle, adipose, heart kidney and gill, and lowest expression in stomach and spleen. The expression of Δ6 fad was significantly affected by dietary lipid and, especially, fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in liver of fish fed a diet with a ratio of 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 of 1.72:1. The results indicated that S. argus may have a different LC-PUFA biosynthetic system from S. canaliculatus despite possessing similar habitats and feeding habits suggesting that LC-PUFA biosynthesis may not be common to all marine herbivorous teleosts.

  14. Reducing saturated fatty acids in Arabidopsis seeds by expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans 16:0-specific desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Deirdre; Scheer, Barbara; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2013-05-01

    Plant oilseeds are a major source of nutritional oils. Their fatty acid composition, especially the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, has important effects on human health. Because intake of saturated fats is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, a goal of metabolic engineering is to develop oils low in saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the seeds of many oilseed crops and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We expressed FAT-5, a membrane-bound desaturase cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans, in Arabidopsis using a strong seed-specific promoter. The FAT-5 enzyme is highly specific to 16:0 as substrate, converting it to 16:1∆9; expression of fat-5 reduced the 16:0 content of the seed by two-thirds. Decreased 16:0 and elevated 16:1 levels were evident both in the storage and membrane lipids of seeds. Regiochemical analysis of phosphatidylcholine showed that 16:1 was distributed at both positions on the glycerolipid backbone, unlike 16:0, which is predominately found at the sn-1 position. Seeds from a plant line homozygous for FAT-5 expression were comparable to wild type with respect to seed set and germination, while oil content and weight were somewhat reduced. These experiments demonstrate that targeted heterologous expression of a desaturase in oilseeds can reduce the level of saturated fatty acids in the oil, significantly improving its nutritional value. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  17. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  18. Cloning and bioinformatics analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS of Delta 6 Desaturase gene from Mortierella alpina (CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Ashaar ghadim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Membrane-bound desaturases and related enzymes play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Delta6 desaturase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the unsaturated fatty acids. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus with active Delta 6 desaturase which hasbeengreatly considered recently. Materials and methods: In order to isolate and clone Δ6D gene from Mortierella alpina, after extraction of total RNA and synthesis cDNA, PCR amplification has been done using gene specific primers. The amplified fragment was cloned into the pBlueScriptSK+ containing seed specific promoter napin. Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli DH5a by freezing and thawing method. The confirmed gene construct was cloned into the binary vector pBI121 and transformed into Agrobacterium LBA4404 in order to transform canola plants. Bioinformatics characterization of target gene was investigated by servers TMHMM, ProtParam and Psipred. Results: Correctness of cloning was confirmed by PCR with specific primers, enzymatic digestion and sequencing. The proliferation of a fragment with 830 bp using internal primer of napin promoter and Delta6 desaturase primer confirmed insertion of the gene along with napin promoter. Nucleotide sequencing results showed that cloned CDS includes 1374 nucleotides that will translate to a protein with 448 amino acids. Using bioinformatics analysis, presence of cytochrome b5 domain, three His-box, secondary and spatial structures, transmembrane and conserved domains were confirmed. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results of BLAST analysis using nucleotide and protein sequences, and also presence of functional domains in the protein, it can be predicted that cloned CDS will show proper enzyme activity after transformation into plants. Confirming these results requires expression analysis of the gene in appropriate plant system and studying its function in the enzyme level.

  19. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Young, Lindsay R; Picklo, Matthew J; Sauter, Edward R; Qin, Wenyi; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2012-01-01

    Compared with diets high in fat, low-fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low-fat (LF) (20% fat) and an LF high-omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3) (23% fat with 3% as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) would enhance n-3 composition of plasma phospholipid fatty acid and reduce urinary prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) relative to a high-fat diet (HF) (40% fat) and that these changes would be associated with alterations in δ5 desaturase (D5D) and δ6 desaturase (D6D) activity. Phospholipid fatty acids and urinary PGE(2) were measured, and D5D and D6D activity indices calculated in a crossover trial in 17 postmenopausal women fed each of 3 test diets (HF, LF, and LFn3) for 8-week feeding periods. Desaturase activity indices were calculated as D5D, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and D6D, 20:3n-6/18:2n-6. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, and total n-3 fatty acids increased, whereas linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased with consumption of LFn3. The LF resulted in enhanced arachidonic acid and DHA. High fat reduced D6D, whereas both HF and LF increased D5D. Urinary PGE(2) was reduced in response to both the LF and LFn3 diets. Low-fat diets, with or without long-chain n-3 fatty acids, promote positive health effects due in part to favorable alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and modification in desaturase activity indices, suggesting that the type and amount of fat consumed are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature and metal exposure affect membrane fatty acid composition and transcription of desaturases and elongases in fathead minnow muscle and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of cell membrane FA composition and of elongase and desaturase gene transcription levels. To this end, muscle and brain membrane FA composition and FA desaturase (fads2, degs2 and scd2) and elongase (elovl2, elovl5 and elovl6) gene transcription levels were analyzed in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) acclimated for eight weeks to 15, 25 or 30°C exposed or not to cadmium (Cd, 6μg/l) or nickel (Ni, 450 6μg/l). The response of membrane FA composition to temperature variations or metal exposure differed between muscle and brain. In muscle, an increase of temperature induced a decrease of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and an increase of saturated FA (SFA) in agreement with the current paradigm. Although a similar response was observed in brain between 15 and 25°C, at 30°C, brain membrane unsaturation was higher than predicted. In both tissues, metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of membrane FA composition. The transcription of desaturases and elongases was higher in the brain and varied with acclimation temperature and metal exposure but these variations did not generally reflect changes in membrane FA composition. The mismatch between gene transcription and membrane composition highlights that several levels of control other than gene transcription are involved in adjusting membrane FA composition, including post-transcriptional regulation of elongases and desaturases and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Our study also reveals that metal exposure affects the mechanisms involved in adjusting cell membrane FA composition in ectotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Insertion-Deletions In a FADS2 Intron 1 Conserved Regulatory Locus Control Expression Of Fatty Acid Desaturases 1 and 2 And Modulate Response To Simvastatin

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Holly T.; Zhang, Jimmy; Kothapalli, Kumar S.D.; Kim, Andrea J.; Park, Woo Jung; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1 and FADS2) code for enzymes required for synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) important in the central nervous system, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular health. SNPs in these genes are associated with numerous health outcomes, but it is unclear how genetic variation affects enzyme function. Here, lymphoblasts obtained from Japanese participants in the International HapMap Project were evaluated for asso...

  3. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Expression of acyl-lipid Delta12-desaturase gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and its effect on cold stress tolerance of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Reza Maali; Yur'eva, Natalia O; Shimshilashvili, Khristina R; Goldenkova-Pavlova, Irina V; Pchelkin, Vasiliy P; Kuznitsova, Elmira I; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D; Trunova, Tamara I; Los, Dmitry A; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nosov, Alexander M

    2010-03-01

    We report the expression profile of acyl-lipid Delta12-desaturase (desA) gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its effect on cell membrane lipid composition and cold tolerance in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic (Solanum tuberosum) cells. For this purpose, a hybrid of desA and reporter gene encoding thermostable lichenase (licBM3) was constructed and used to transform these cells. The expression of this hybrid gene was measured using qualitative (Petri dish test, electrophoregram and zymogram) and quantitative methods (spectrometry and gas liquid chromatography assays). The maximum level of linoleic acid in the bacterial cells containing hybrid gene was 1.9% of total fatty acids. Cold stress tolerance assays using plant damage index and growth parameters showed that cold tolerance was enhanced in primary transgenic lines because of increased unsaturated fatty acid concentration in their lipids. The greatest content of 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids in primary transgenic plants was observed for lines 2 (73%) and 3 (41%). Finally, our results showed that desaturase could enhance tolerance to cold stress in potato, and desaturase and lichenase retain their functionality in the structure of the hybrid protein where the enzymatic activity of target gene product was higher than in the case of reporter lichenase gene absence in the construction.

  5. FADS gene polymorphisms confer the risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population through the altered desaturase activities: based on high-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We explored the desaturase activities and the correlation of fatty acid desaturases (FADS gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with plasma fatty acid in coronary artery disease (CAD patients in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Plasma fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in CAD patients (n = 505 and a control group (n = 510. Five SNPs in the FADS gene were genotyped with high-resolution melting (HRM methods. RESULTS: After adjustment, D6D activity, assessed as arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6/linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6, was higher in CAD patients (pT and rs174460 C>T were different between the two groups. The rs174537 T allele was associated with a lower risk of CAD [OR 0.743, 95% CI (0.624, 0.884, p = 0.001]. Carriers of the rs174460 C allele were associated with a higher risk of CAD [OR 1.357, 95% CI (1.106, 1.665, p = 0.003]. CONCLUSIONS: We firstly report that the rs174460 C allele is associated with a higher risk of CAD, and confirm that the rs174537 T allele is associated with a lower risk of CAD. Our results indicate that FADS gene polymorphisms are likely to influence plasma fatty acid concentrations and desaturase activities.

  6. Serum phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acid composition and Δ-9-desaturase activity are associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Sun; Baek, Seung Han; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2014-09-01

    Because alterations in blood fatty acid (FA) composition by dietary lipids are associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that serum phospholipid FA composition would reflect the early alteration of fasting glycemic status, even in people without metabolic syndrome (MetS). To examine this hypothesis, serum phospholipid FA, desaturase activities, fasting glycemic status, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in study participants (n = 1022; 30-69 years; male, n = 527; female, n = 495; nondiabetics without disease) who were stratified into normal fasting glucose (NFG) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) groups. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA), oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), Δ-9-desaturase activity (D9D; 18:1n-9/18:0), and DGLA/linoleic acid (20:3n-6/18:2n-6) in serum phospholipids were significantly higher in IFG subjects than NFG controls. Study subjects were subdivided into 4 groups, based on fasting glucose levels and MetS status. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) was highest in IFG-MetS and lowest in NFG-non-MetS subjects. Oleic acid and D9D were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and DGLA/linoleic acid were higher in MetS than in non-MetS, regardless of fasting glucose levels. The high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRPs) and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α were higher in IFG than in NFG, regardless of MetS status. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Total MUFAs, OA, and D9D were positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hs-CRP, and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with triglyceride and hs-CRP. Lastly, total MUFA, OA, palmitoleic acid, and D9D were associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status, therefore suggesting that these may be useful markers for predicting the risk of type 2

  7. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Becka, S.; Krejci, P.; Chrpova, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunological method for quantitative determination of bovine growth hormone in blood plasma or serum for routine use was worked out. The antibody is also suitable for radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone. The chloramin T and lactoperoxidase methods were used. Standard b-STH isolated by one of the authors was labelled with I-125(Na 125 I, carrier free, Amersham). The I-125-hormone was separated on Sephadex G-50 or G-100 and stored in 0.05M phosphate pH 7.5 with 1% of human serum albumine at 25 deg C. The method was checked on 2500 samples. Rabbit antiserum to b-STH was prepared in sufficient amount to serve also for other laboratories interested in the method. (author)

  9. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  10. Ole1, fatty acid desaturase, is required for Atg9 delivery and isolation membrane expansion during autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ogasawara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy, a major degradation pathway of cytoplasmic components, is carried out through formation of a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Although the involvement of specific lipid species in the formation process remains largely obscure, we recently showed that mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA generated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 are required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. To obtain further insight into the role of MUFA in autophagy, in this study we analyzed the autophagic phenotypes of the yeast mutant of OLE1, an orthologue of SCD1. Δole1 cells were defective in nitrogen starvation-induced autophagy, and the Cvt pathway, when oleic acid was not supplied. Defects in elongation of the isolation membrane led to a defect in autophagosome formation. In the absence of Ole1, the transmembrane protein Atg9 was not able to reach the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS, the site of autophagosome formation. Thus, autophagosome formation requires Ole1 during the delivery of Atg9 to the PAS/autophagosome from its cellular reservoir.

  11. Long-term fructose consumption prolongs hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 activity independent of upstream regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Shang; Yao, Ling; Li, Jin-Xiu; Ma, Peng; Jiang, Li-Rong; Ke, Da-Zhi; Pan, Yong-Quan; Wang, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-28

    Dietary fructose is considered a risk factor for metabolic disorders, such as fatty liver disease. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of fructose is not well characterized. We investigated the hepatic expression of key regulatory genes related to lipid metabolism following fructose feeding under well-defined conditions. Rats were fed standard chow supplemented with 10% w/v fructose solution for 5 weeks, and killed after chow-fasting and fructose withdrawal (fasting) or chow-fasting and continued fructose (fructose alone) for 14 h. Hepatic deposition of triglycerides was found in rats from both groups. As expected, fructose alone increased mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes and correspondingly decreased mRNA levels of lipid oxidative genes in the liver. Interesting, hepatic levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 mRNA remained elevated under fructose withdrawn conditions, although expression levels of other genes, including two key transcription factors (carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c) fell to normal levels, indicating that long-term fructose intake increased SCD1 activity, independent of upstream regulatory genes, such as ChREBP and SREBP-1c. In conclusion, SCD1 overexpression in fatty liver disease is not affected by fasting after long-term fructose consumption in rats. Regulation of SCD1 plays an important role in fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Iwai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acid (SFA-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Mutations Uncover an Impact of Stearic Acid in Leaf and Nodule Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Colantonio, Vincent; Flowers, Nicholas D; Zhou, Zhou; Henry, Jason; Liu, Shiming; Meksem, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SACPD-C) has been reported to control the accumulation of seed stearic acid; however, no study has previously reported its involvement in leaf stearic acid content and impact on leaf structure and morphology. A subset of an ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenized population of soybean ( Glycine max ) 'Forrest' was screened to identify mutants within the GmSACPD-C gene. Using a forward genetics approach, one nonsense and four missense Gmsacpd-c mutants were identified to have high levels of seed, nodule, and leaf stearic acid content. Homology modeling and in silico analysis of the GmSACPD-C enzyme revealed that most of these mutations were localized near or at conserved residues essential for diiron ion coordination. Soybeans carrying Gmsacpd-c mutations at conserved residues showed the highest stearic acid content, and these mutations were found to have deleterious effects on nodule development and function. Interestingly, mutations at nonconserved residues show an increase in stearic acid content yet retain healthy nodules. Thus, random mutagenesis and mutational analysis allows for the achievement of high seed stearic acid content with no associated negative agronomic characteristics. Additionally, expression analysis demonstrates that nodule leghemoglobin transcripts were significantly more abundant in soybeans with deleterious mutations at conserved residues of GmSACPD-C. Finally, we report that Gmsacpd-c mutations cause an increase in leaf stearic acid content and an alteration of leaf structure and morphology in addition to differences in nitrogen-fixing nodule structure. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1: Is It the Link between Sulfur Amino Acids and Lipid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Poloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An association between sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine and lipid metabolism has been described in several experimental and population-based studies. Changes in the metabolism of these amino acids influence serum lipoprotein concentrations, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, recent evidence has suggested that the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1 may be the link between these two metabolic pathways. SCD-1 is a key enzyme for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Its main substrates C16:0 and C18:0 and products palmitoleic acid (C16:1 and oleic acid (C18:1 are the most abundant fatty acids in triglycerides, cholesterol esters and membrane phospholipids. A significant suppression of SCD-1 has been observed in several animal models with disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, and the activity of SCD-1 is also associated with the levels of these amino acids in humans. This enzyme also appears to be involved in the etiology of metabolic syndromes because its suppression results in decreased fat deposits (regardless of food intake, improved insulin sensitivity and higher basal energy expenditure. Interestingly, this anti-obesogenic phenotype has also been described in humans and animals with sulfur amino acid disorders, which is consistent with the hypothesis that SCD-1 activity is influenced by these amino acids, in particularly cysteine, which is a strong and independent predictor of SCD-1 activity and fat storage. In this narrative review, we discuss the evidence linking sulfur amino acids, SCD-1 and lipid metabolism.

  15. Expression of C-5 sterol desaturase from an edible mushroom in fisson yeast enhances its ethanol and thermotolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayushi Kamthan

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is an environment friendly and renewable source of energy produced by the fermentation of agricultural raw material by a variety of microorganisms including yeast. Obtaining yeast strains that are tolerant to stresses like high levels of ethanol and high temperature is highly desirable as it reduces cost and increases yield during bioethanol production. Here, we report that heterologous expression of C-5 Sterol desaturase (FvC5SD-an ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes in fission yeast, not only imparts increased thermotolerance but also tolerance towards high ethanol concentration and low pH. This tolerance could be attributed to an increase of ≈1.5 fold in the level of ergosterol and oleic acid (C-18 unsaturated fatty acid as analysed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. FvC5SD is a membrane localized iron binding enzyme that introduces double bond at C-5 position into the Δ7-sterol substrates to yield Δ5, 7- sterols as products. In F. velutipes, FvC5SD transcript was observed to be upregulated by ≈5 fold under low pH condition and by ≈ 9 folds and ≈5 fold at 40°C and 4°C respectively when compared to normal growth temperature of 23°C. Besides, susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs like Congo red and Calcoflour white was also found to increase in FvC5SD expressing S. pombe strain. Alteration in membrane sterol and fatty acid composition could also lead to increase in susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs. Thus, this study has immense industrial application and can be employed to ensure competitiveness of fermentation process.

  16. Determination of Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 Gene Variants in South Anatolian Red and East Anatolian Red Cattle

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    İjlal İpek PAYA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fat composition in ruminant’s milk is one of the factors that can affect human health in positive or adverse ways. Optimizing ruminant feed to achieve ideal fatty acid composition in milk has been an ongoing area of research in recent years, without satisfactory results to date. It has been argued that in addition to changes in feed, genetic information can also be utilized to improve milk fatty acid composition. The aim of the study is to investigate the incidence of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD gene variants, which are claimed to affect fat content and quality of milk in Turkish native cattle breeds. Fifty South Anatolian Red (SAR and 50 East Anatolian Red (EAR cattle were used in the study. The 5th exon of SCD gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR products were subjected to sequencing analysis. Among the samples sequenced polymorphism at three nucleotide positions have been observed on the 5th exon of the SCD gene, namely A702G, T762C and C878T. Of these three, the polymorphic position C878T was utilized to determine peptide variants of A (293Ala or the V (293 Val of individual samples. Frequency of A variant and AA genotype in SAR and EAR cattle breeds was 0.91 and 0.77 as well as 0.43 and 0.29, respectively. In particular the SAR exhibits a very low frequency of the V allele, believed to have been an ancestral allele. In both samples, 2 individuals were identified to have the VV genotype. The results suggested that high frequency of A allele and AA genotype which confers great advantage on milk composition and meat fatty acid composition was present in SAR and EAR cattle breeds

  17. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  18. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S.; Zimmer, J. Paul; Butt, C.M.; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early postnatal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (Formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA content compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early post-natal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  19. Relationship between a Common Variant in the Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Cluster and Eicosanoid Generation in Humans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Austin G.; Murphy, Robert C.; Uhlson, Charis J.; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C.; Sergeant, Susan; Miller, Leslie R.; Howard, Timothy D.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic shifts in the Western diet have led to a marked increase in the dietary intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA). Dietary LA can then be converted to arachidonic acid (ARA) utilizing three enzymatic steps. Two of these steps are encoded for by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster (chromosome 11, 11q12.2-q13) and certain genetic variants within the cluster are highly associated with ARA levels. However, no study to date has examined whether these variants further influence pro-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase eicosanoid products. This study examined the impact of a highly influential FADS SNP, rs174537 on leukotriene, HETE, prostaglandin, and thromboxane biosynthesis in stimulated whole blood. Thirty subjects were genotyped at rs174537 (GG, n = 11; GT, n = 13; TT, n = 6), a panel of fatty acids from whole serum was analyzed, and precursor-to-product PUFA ratios were calculated as a marker of the capacity of tissues (particularly the liver) to synthesize long chain PUFAs. Eicosanoids produced by stimulated human blood were measured by LC-MS/MS. We observed an association between rs174537 and the ratio of ARA/LA, leukotriene B4, and 5-HETE but no effect on levels of cyclooxygenase products. Our results suggest that variation at rs174537 not only impacts the synthesis of ARA but the overall capacity of whole blood to synthesize 5-lipoxygenase products; these genotype-related changes in eicosanoid levels could have important implications in a variety of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24962583

  20. Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Austin G; Murphy, Robert C; Uhlson, Charis J; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Sergeant, Susan; Miller, Leslie R; Howard, Timothy D; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-08-08

    Dramatic shifts in the Western diet have led to a marked increase in the dietary intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA). Dietary LA can then be converted to arachidonic acid (ARA) utilizing three enzymatic steps. Two of these steps are encoded for by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster (chromosome 11, 11q12.2-q13) and certain genetic variants within the cluster are highly associated with ARA levels. However, no study to date has examined whether these variants further influence pro-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase eicosanoid products. This study examined the impact of a highly influential FADS SNP, rs174537 on leukotriene, HETE, prostaglandin, and thromboxane biosynthesis in stimulated whole blood. Thirty subjects were genotyped at rs174537 (GG, n = 11; GT, n = 13; TT, n = 6), a panel of fatty acids from whole serum was analyzed, and precursor-to-product PUFA ratios were calculated as a marker of the capacity of tissues (particularly the liver) to synthesize long chain PUFAs. Eicosanoids produced by stimulated human blood were measured by LC-MS/MS. We observed an association between rs174537 and the ratio of ARA/LA, leukotriene B4, and 5-HETE but no effect on levels of cyclooxygenase products. Our results suggest that variation at rs174537 not only impacts the synthesis of ARA but the overall capacity of whole blood to synthesize 5-lipoxygenase products; these genotype-related changes in eicosanoid levels could have important implications in a variety of inflammatory diseases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  2. Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans

  3. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  5. Lipid peroxidation in bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P; Makkar, H P

    1983-01-01

    Bovine whole semen, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma did not undergo lipid peroxidation when aerobically incubated. However, lipid peroxidation was induced in washed spermatozoa in the presence of iron or iron plus sodium ascorbate, whereas heating, sonication, or treatment with proteolytic enzymes did not have any effect. The time required for formation of optimum concentration of lipid peroxides in washed spermatozoa is very short as compared to other systems. Lipid peroxides are entirely contributed by the lipid fraction of spermatozoa. Formation of lipid peroxides is completely inhibited by the presence of seminal plasma in incubation mixture.

  6. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  7. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  9. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  10. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  11. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Cortez, Beatriz A; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Assumpção, Mayra Eo; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-10-27

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  13. Human breast cancer tissues contain abundant phosphatidylcholine(36∶1 with high stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Ide

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer and mortality in women worldwide. Recent studies have argued that there is a close relationship between lipid synthesis and cancer progression because some enzymes related to lipid synthesis are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. However, lipid distribution in breast cancer tissues has not been investigated. We aimed to visualize phosphatidylcholines (PCs and lysoPCs (LPCs in human breast cancer tissues by performing matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS, which is a novel technique that enables the visualization of molecules comprehensively. Twenty-nine breast tissue samples were obtained during surgery and subjected to MALDI-IMS analysis. We evaluated the heterogeneity of the distribution of PCs and LPCs on the tissues. Three species [PC(32∶1, PC(34∶1, and PC(36∶1] of PCs with 1 mono-unsaturated fatty acid chain and 1 saturated fatty acid chain (MUFA-PCs and one [PC(34∶0] of PCs with 2 saturated fatty acid chains (SFA-PC were relatively localized in cancerous areas rather than the rest of the sections (named reference area. In addition, the LPCs did not show any biased distribution. The relative amounts of PC(36∶1 compared to PC(36∶0 and that of PC(36∶1 to LPC(18∶0 were significantly higher in the cancerous areas. The protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, which is a synthetic enzyme of MUFA, showed accumulation in the cancerous areas as observed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The ratios were further analyzed considering the differences in expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and Ki67. The ratios of the signal intensity of PC(34:1 to that of PC(34:0 was higher in the lesions with positive ER expression [corrected]. The contribution of SCD1 and other enzymes to the formation of the observed phospholipid composition is discussed.

  14. Attenuation of UVR-induced vitamin D3 synthesis in a mouse model deleted for keratinocyte lathosterol 5-desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Anastasia M; Pasta, Saloni; Watson, Gordon; Shackleton, Cedric; Epstein, Ervin H

    2017-07-01

    The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D 3 (D 3 ). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D 3 , a mouse in which UVR does not produce D 3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system. By crossing to mice with tissue-specific expression of Cre or CreER 2 (Cre/estrogen receptor), we generated two lines of transgenic mice. One line has constitutive keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d (Sc5d k14KO ). The other line (Sc5d k14KOi ) has tamoxifen-inducible keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d. Mice deleted for keratinocyte Sc5d lose the ability to increase circulating D 3 following UVR exposure of the skin. Thus, unlike in control mice, acute UVR exposure did not affect circulating D 3 level in inducible Sc5d k14KOi mice. Keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d was proven by sterol measurement in hair - in control animals lathosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3β-ol, the target molecules of SC5D in the sterol biosynthetic pathways, together constituted a mean of 10% of total sterols; in the conditional knockout mice these sterols constituted a mean of 56% of total sterols. The constitutive knockout mice had an even greater increase, with lathosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3β-ol accounting for 80% of total sterols. In conclusion, the dominant presence of the 7-DHC precursors in hair of conditional animals and the lack of increased circulating D 3 following exposure to UVR reflect attenuated production of the D 3 photochemical precursor 7-DHC and, consequently, of D 3 itself. These animals provide a useful new tool for investigating the role of D 3

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    OpenAIRE

    Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activi...

  16. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  17. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  18. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  19. Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants using an acyl-CoA Delta6-desaturase with omega3-preference from the marine microalga Micromonas pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, James R; Shrestha, Pushkar; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P

    2010-05-01

    Long-chain (> or = C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) EPA and DHA (20:5(Delta5,8,11,14,17) and 22:6(Delta4,7,10,13,16,19)) have well-documented health benefits against coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders. Currently, the predominant sources of these fatty acids are marine fish and algal oils, but research is being conducted to ensure that a sustainable, land-based production system can be developed. We here describe the metabolic engineering of an artificial pathway that produces 26% EPA in leaf triacylglycerol using a newly-identified Delta6-desaturase from the marine microalga Micromonas pusilla. We also demonstrate that this enzyme appears to function as an acyl-CoA desaturase that has preference for omega3 substrates both in planta and in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this desaturase shares highly conserved motifs with previously described acyl-CoA Delta6-desaturases. 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  1. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  2. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is ...

  3. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 17β-estradiol induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkaid, Anissa; Duguay, Sabrina R.; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    To sustain cell growth, cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by increased lipogenesis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) catalyzes the production of monounsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane biogenesis, and is required for cell proliferation in many cancer cell types. Although estrogen is required for the proliferation of many estrogen-sensitive breast carcinoma cells, it is also a repressor of SCD-1 expression in liver and adipose. The current study addresses this apparent paradox by investigating the impact of estrogen on SCD-1 expression in estrogen receptor-α-positive breast carcinoma cell lines. MCF-7 and T47D mammary carcinomas cells and immortalized MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were hormone-starved then treated or not with 17β-estradiol. SCD-1 activity was assessed by measuring cellular monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios, and SCD-1 expression was measured by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The role of SCD-1 in cell proliferation was measured following treatment with the SCD-1 inhibitor A959372 and following SCD-1 silencing using siRNA. The involvement of IGF-1R on SCD-1 expression was measured using the IGF-1R antagonist AG1024. The expression of SREBP-1c, a transcription factor that regulates SCD-1, was measured by qPCR, and by immunoblot analyses. 17β-estradiol significantly induced cell proliferation and SCD-1 activity in MCF-7 and T47D cells but not MCF-10A cells. Accordingly, 17β-estradiol significantly increased SCD-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells compared to untreated cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 4-OH tamoxifen or siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor-α largely prevented 17β-estradiol-induced SCD-1 expression. 17β-estradiol increased SREBP-1c expression and induced the mature active 60 kDa form of SREBP-1. The selective SCD-1 inhibitor or siRNA silencing of SCD-1 blocked the 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and increase in

  5. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes.

  7. Upregulated mRNA expression of desaturase and elongase, two enzymes involved in highly unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways during follicle maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyu Yee-Ling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 and arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6, collectively known as the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, play pivotal roles in vertebrate reproduction, very little is known about their synthesis in the ovary. The zebrafish (Danio rerio display capability to synthesize all three HUFA via pathways involving desaturation and elongation of two precursors, the linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3n-3. As a prerequisite to gain full understanding on the importance and regulation of ovarian HUFA synthesis, we described here the mRNA expression pattern of two enzymes; desaturase (fadsd6 and elongase (elovl5, involved in HUFA biosynthesis pathway, in different zebrafish ovarian follicle stages. Concurrently, the fatty acid profile of each follicle stage was also analyzed. Methods mRNA levels of fadsd6 and elovl5 in different ovarian follicle stages were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. For analysis of the ovarian follicular fatty acid composition, gas chromatography was used. Results Our results have shown that desaturase displayed significant upregulation in expression during the oocyte maturation stage. Expression of elongase was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic follicles, followed by maturation stage. Fatty acid composition analysis of different ovarian follicle stages also showed that ARA level was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic and matured follicles. DHA level was highest in both late vitellogenic and maturation stage. Conclusion Collectively, our findings seem to suggest the existence of a HUFA synthesis system, which could be responsible for the synthesis of HUFA to promote oocyte maturation and possibly ovulation processes. The many advantages of zebrafish as model system to understand folliculogenesis will be

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two ω-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yufei; Chen, Baojun; Win, Aung Naing; Fu, Chun; Lian, Jianping; Liu, Xue; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Xingcui

    2018-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D) is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica) and perilla (Perilla frutescens) contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous) genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A) tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5’UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5’UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops. PMID:29351555

  9. Loss of Function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in Tomato Enhances Basal Aphid Resistance in a Salicylate-Dependent Manner1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Carlos A.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M.; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A.; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A.; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2012-01-01

    We report here that disruption of function of the ω-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families. PMID:22291202

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two ω-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Xue

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica and perilla (Perilla frutescens contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5'UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5'UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops.

  11. Combined transgenic expression of Punica granatum conjugase (FADX) and FAD2 desaturase in high linoleic acid Arabidopsis thaliana mutant leads to increased accumulation of punicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Miles, Robin; Wickramarathna, Aruna; Sahibollah, Ariff Firman; Greer, Michael S; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-09-01

    Arabidopsis was engineered to produce 21.2 % punicic acid in the seed oil. Possible molecular factors limiting further accumulation of the conjugated fatty acid were investigated. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ) is a conjugated linolenic acid isomer and is a main component of Punica granatum (pomegranate) seed oil. Medical studies have shown that punicic acid is a nutraceutical with anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. It has been previously demonstrated that the conjugated double bonds in punicic acid are produced via the catalytic action of fatty acid conjugase (FADX), which is a homolog of the oleate desaturase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the Δ(12)-double bond of linoleic acid (18:2Δ(9cis,12cis) ) into conjugated Δ(11trans) and Δ(13cis) -double bonds. Previous attempts to produce punicic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds overexpressing P. granatum FADX resulted in a limited accumulation of punicic acid of up to 4.4 %, accompanied by increased accumulation of oleic acid (18:1∆(9cis) ), suggesting that production of punicic acid in some way inhibits the activity of oleate desaturase (Iwabuchi et al. 2003). In the current study, we applied a new strategy to enhance the production of punicic acid in a high linoleic acid A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant background using the combined expression of P. granatum FADX and FAD2. This approach led to the accumulation of punicic acid at the level of 21 % of total fatty acids and restored the natural proportion of oleic acid observed in the A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant. In addition, we provide new insights into the high oleate phenotype and describe factors limiting the production of punicic acid in genetically engineered plants.

  12. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  13. Loss of C-5 Sterol Desaturase Activity Results in Increased Resistance to Azole and Echinocandin Antifungals in a Clinical Isolate of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Jeffrey M; Dickens, C Michael; Parker, Josie E; Caudle, Kelly E; Manigaba, Kayihura; Whaley, Sarah G; Nishimoto, Andrew T; Luna-Tapia, Arturo; Roy, Sujoy; Zhang, Qing; Barker, Katherine S; Palmer, Glen E; Sutter, Thomas R; Homayouni, Ramin; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Kelly, Steven L; Rogers, P David

    2017-09-01

    Among emerging non- albicans Candida species, Candida parapsilosis is of particular concern as a cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonatal and intensive care unit patients. While fluconazole and echinocandins are considered effective treatments for such infections, recent reports of fluconazole and echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis indicate a growing problem. The present study describes a novel mechanism of antifungal resistance in this organism affecting susceptibility to azole and echinocandin antifungals in a clinical isolate obtained from a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Transcriptome analysis indicated differential expression of several genes in the resistant isolate, including upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway genes ERG2 , ERG5 , ERG6 , ERG11 , ERG24 , ERG25 , and UPC2 Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the resistant isolate possessed an ERG3 mutation resulting in a G111R amino acid substitution. Sterol profiles indicated a reduction in sterol desaturase activity as a result of this mutation. Replacement of both mutant alleles in the resistant isolate with the susceptible isolate's allele restored wild-type susceptibility to all azoles and echinocandins tested. Disruption of ERG3 in the susceptible and resistant isolates resulted in a loss of sterol desaturase activity, high-level azole resistance, and an echinocandin-intermediate to -resistant phenotype. While disruption of ERG3 in C. albicans resulted in azole resistance, echinocandin MICs, while elevated, remained within the susceptible range. This work demonstrates that the G111R substitution in Erg3 is wholly responsible for the altered azole and echinocandin susceptibilities observed in this C. parapsilosis isolate and is the first report of an ERG3 mutation influencing susceptibility to the echinocandins. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  15. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  16. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  17. Unraveling the genetic background of bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition enhances the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and is expected to increase opportunities for changing bovine milk fat

  18. Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas J; Brown, Jennifer M; Murray, Richard D; Getty, Brian; Birtles, Richard J; Hart, C Anthony; Carter, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize treponemes present in the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and compare them with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes. Seven spirochete isolates were obtained from the bovine GI tract, which, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, clustered within the genus Treponema as four novel phylotypes. One phylotype was isolated from several different GI tract regions, including the omasum, colon, rumen, and rectum. These four phylotypes could be divided into two phylotype pairs that clustered closest with each other and then with different, previously reported rumen treponemes. The treponemes displayed great genotypic and phenotypic diversity between phylotypes and differed considerably from named treponeme species and those recently reported by metagenomic studies of the bovine GI tract. Phylogenetic inference, based on comparisons of 16S rRNA sequences from only bovine treponemes, suggested a marked divergence between two important groups. The dendrogram formed two major clusters, with one cluster containing GI tract treponemes and the other containing BDD treponemes. This division among the bovine treponemes is likely the result of adaptation to different niches. To further differentiate the bovine GI and BDD strains, we designed a degenerate PCR for a gene encoding a putative virulence factor, tlyC, which gave a positive reaction only for treponemes from the BDD cluster.

  19. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timenetsky Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. Conclusions The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  20. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  1. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosome-.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine... a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6...

  3. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  4. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  6. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  7. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  8. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo...... in order to confirm their sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, new methods that can be routinely used should be developed. Preferably, these measures would be validated and in place prior to implementation of the new meat safety assurance system, in a move towards effective, risk-based control...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana P Dassanayake

    Full Text Available Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2-5 μM, all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10-30 μM as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates.

  10. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  11. Relative gene expression of fatty acid synthesis genes at 60 days postpartum in bovine mammary epithelial cells of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Janmeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to study the relative gene expression of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis at 60 days postpartum (pp in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes of each breed were selected at random from Livestock Research Station, Navsari and Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh, Gujarat, respectively, for this study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 60 pp from these two breeds to study relative gene expression of major milk fat genes using non-invasive approach of obtaining primary bovine MECs (pBMEC from milk samples. Results: In this study overall, the relative expression of the six major milk lipogenic genes butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 (BTN1A1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase mitochondrial (GPAM, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA, and lipin (LPIN did not show changes in expression patterns at 60th day of lactation in both Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes. Conclusion: The pBMEC can be successfully recovered from 1500 ml of milk of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes using antibody-mediated magnetic bead separation and can be further used for recovering RNA for down step quantification of major milk lipogenic gene expression. The relative expression of the six major milk lipogenic genes BTN1A1, SCD, LPL, GPAM, ACACA, and LPIN did not show changes in expression patterns in both Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes, suggesting expression levels of lipogenic genes are maintained almost uniform till peak lactation without any significant difference.

  12. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  13. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  14. Mad Cow Disease-Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mad Cow Disease - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Ashutosh ... HP Agricultural University, Palampur 176 662, India. DES (Vety. Sei.) KVK (P A U) Old Gurunanak College Building Hardochhani Road Gurdaspur Punjab 143 521 India.

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  17. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs.

  18. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  19. mediated RNA interference in bovine fibroblast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a key element in the mechanisms used to regulate both aspects of keeping the balance between energy uptake and energy expenditure. MC4R was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNA expressing plasmids, which were controlled by the U6 promoter in bovine.

  20. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
    Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  1. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  3. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  4. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  5. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  7. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total dissection method was used as a gold standard to indicate the absence or prйsence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was, on average, lower in naturally infected animals than in expйrimental calves. This was because in natural infections, there were more li ...

  8. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  9. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  10. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  11. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111...

  12. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  13. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  14. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  15. Alum Activates the Bovine NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Harte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a move away from vaccines composed of whole or inactivated antigens toward subunit-based vaccines, which although safe, provide less immunological protection. As a result, the use of adjuvants to enhance and direct adaptive immune responses has become the focus of much targeted bovine vaccine research. However, the mechanisms by which adjuvants work to enhance immunological protection in many cases remains unclear, although this knowledge is critical to the rational design of effective next generation vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which alum, a commonly used adjuvant in bovine vaccines, enhances IL-1β secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Unlike the case with human PBMCs, alum promoted IL-1β secretion in a subset of bovine PBMCs without priming with a toll-like receptor agonist. This suggests that PBMCs from some cattle are primed to produce this potent inflammatory cytokine and western blotting confirmed the presence of preexisting pro-IL-1β in PBMCs from a subset of 8-month-old cattle. To address the mechanism underlying alum-induced IL-1β secretion, specific inhibitors identified that alum mediates lysosomal disruption which subsequently activates the assembly of an NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and potentially caspase-8 containing complex. These components form an inflammasome, which mediates alum-induced IL-1β secretion in bovine PBMCs. Given the demonstrated role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulating adaptive immunity in murine systems, these results will inform further targeted research into the potential of inflammasome activation for rational vaccine design in cattle.

  16. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  17. Bovine trophectoderm cells induced from bovine fibroblasts with induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Neil C; Sparks, Wendy O; Phillips, Caitlin E; Ealy, Alan D; Powell, Anne M; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M; Donovan, David M; Blomberg, Le Ann

    2017-06-01

    Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either six or eight factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2. At later passages (≥ passage 8), however, immunoblot and antiviral activity assays revealed that more than half of the iBT cell lines had stopped expressing IFNT. Messenger RNAs specific to trophectoderm differentiation and function were found in the iBT cell lines, and 2-dimensional-gel analysis for cellular proteins showed an expression pattern similar to that of trophectoderm cell lines derived from bovine blastocysts. Integration of some of the human reprogramming factors, including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, and LIN28, were detected by PCR, but their transcription was mostly absent in the iBT cell lines. Gene expression assessment of endogenous bovine reprogramming factor orthologs revealed endogenous bLIN28 and bMYC transcripts in all; bSOX2 and bNANOG in none; and bKLF4 and bPOU5F1 in less than half of the iBT cell lines. These results demonstrate that bovine trophectoderm can be induced via reprogramming factor expression from bovine liver-derived fibroblasts, although other fibroblast populations-e.g., derived from fetal thigh tissue-may produce similar results, albeit at lower frequencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Use of PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism in the gene of the enzyme Stearoyl-CoA-Desaturase in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The milk is an important food because it contents Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA. These fatty acids are synthesized in mammary gland under action of the enzyme Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase (SCD and have showed some positive effects in human disease prevention and treatments. A variation of CLA in milk fat exists and can be partially explained by the different levels of expression of SCD. The aim was to study part of the encoding regions of SCD´s gene using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Genomic DNA was extracted from lactating Murrah females. After this, PCR reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 that encloses exon I, II and intron I. The fragments amplified are composed by 938 pb. Then, RFLP techniques were applied in the fragments using the restriction enzymes Pst I and Sma I. The enzyme Pst I has generated fragments of 788pb and 150bp and the Sma I has generated fragments of 693pb and 245pb. All the animals showed the same migration standard for both enzymes, characterizing a genetic monomorphism for this region of SCD gene. The analysis determined that there aren’t genetic differences between these animals in the studied regions by using Pst I and Sma I enzymes.

  19. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  20. Identification of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD Gene Interactions in Korean Native Cattle Based on the Multifactor-dimensionality Reduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-yep Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fat quality is determined by the composition of fatty acids. Genetic relationships between this composition and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1 gene were examined using 513 Korean native cattle. Single and epistatic effects of 7 SNP genetic variations were investigated, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was used to investigate gene interactions in terms of oleic acid (C18:1, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and marbling score (MS. The g.6850+77 A>G and g.14047 C>T SNP interactions were identified as the statistically optimal combination (C18:1, MUFAs and MS permutation p-values were 0.000, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively of two-way gene interactions. The interaction effects of g.6850+77 A>G, g.10213 T>C and g.14047 C>T reflected the highest training-balanced accuracy (63.76%, 64.70% and 61.85% respectively and was better than the individual effects for C18:1, MUFAs and MS. In addition, the superior genotype groups were AATTCC, AGTTCC, GGTCCC, AGTCCT, GGCCCT and AGCCTT. These results suggest that the selected SNP combination of the SCD1 gene and superior genotype groups can provide useful inferences for the improvement of the fatty acid composition in Korean native cattle.

  1. Identification of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) Gene Interactions in Korean Native Cattle Based on the Multifactor-dimensionality Reduction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Yep; Jin, Me-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Ha, Jae-Jung; Kim, Byung-Ki; Yeo, Jung-Sou; Lee, Jea-Young

    2013-09-01

    Fat quality is determined by the composition of fatty acids. Genetic relationships between this composition and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) gene were examined using 513 Korean native cattle. Single and epistatic effects of 7 SNP genetic variations were investigated, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to investigate gene interactions in terms of oleic acid (C18:1), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and marbling score (MS). The g.6850+77 A>G and g.14047 C>T SNP interactions were identified as the statistically optimal combination (C18:1, MUFAs and MS permutation p-values were 0.000, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively) of two-way gene interactions. The interaction effects of g.6850+77 A>G, g.10213 T>C and g.14047 C>T reflected the highest training-balanced accuracy (63.76%, 64.70% and 61.85% respectively) and was better than the individual effects for C18:1, MUFAs and MS. In addition, the superior genotype groups were AATTCC, AGTTCC, GGTCCC, AGTCCT, GGCCCT and AGCCTT. These results suggest that the selected SNP combination of the SCD1 gene and superior genotype groups can provide useful inferences for the improvement of the fatty acid composition in Korean native cattle.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a stress-dependent plastidial delta12 fatty acid desaturase from the Antarctic microalga Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yandu; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Li, Zhaoxin; Yang, Qingli; Li, Fuchao; Liu, Shaofang; Gan, Qinhua; Qin, Song

    2010-02-01

    An acclimation to the changing physicochemical conditions and high amount of Delta(12)-unsaturated fatty acids of the Antarctic Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7 prompted us to speculate about the involvement of Delta(12)-fatty acid desaturases (FAD) in its adaptation to the extremely unfavorable ambience. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated CvFAD6, was isolated from C. vulgaris NJ-7 via RT-PCR and RACE methods. Sequence alignment showed that the gene was homologous to corresponding Delta(12)-FAD from other eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was grouped with plastidial Delta(12)-FAD with conserved histidine boxes. Yeast cells transformed with a plasmid construct containing CvFAD6 coding region accumulated a considerable amount of linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9,12)), normally not present in wild-type yeast cells, suggesting that the isolated gene encodes a functional Delta(12) enzyme. The correlation between the accumulation of CvFAD6 and temperature has been examined by real time PCR. The analysis showed a constant expression of CvFAD6 from 25 to 15 degrees C whereas a fourfold increased from 25 to 4 degrees C. Moreover, CvFAD6 transcription was more sensitive to saline stress since a 20-fold increase at 6% NaCl was detected. Our data demonstrate that CvFAD6 is the enzyme responsible for the Delta(12) fatty acids desaturation involved in low temperature and high salinity acclimation for Antarctic C. vulgaris NJ-7.

  3. Global deletion of lipocalin 2 does not reverse high-fat diet-induced obesity resistance in stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 skin-specific knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Nicholas J; Burhans, Maggie S; Ade, Lacmbouh; O'Neill, Lucas M; Chen, Xiaoli; Ntambi, James M

    2014-03-14

    Over the past century, obesity has developed into a paramount health issue that affects millions of people worldwide. Obese individuals have an increased risk to develop other metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, among others. Previously we determined that mice lacking stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) enzyme specifically in the skin (SKO) were lean and protected from high-fat diet induced adiposity. Additionally, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) mRNA was found to be 27-fold higher in the skin of SKO mice compared to control mice. Given reports suggesting that Lcn2 plays a role in protection against diet-induced weight gain, adiposity and insulin resistance, we hypothesized that deletion of Lcn2 alongside the skin-specific SCD1 deficiency would diminish the obesity resistance observed in SKO mice. To test this, we developed mice lacking SCD1 expression in the skin and also lacking Lcn2 expression globally and surprisingly, these mice did not gain significantly more weight than the SKO mice under high-fat diet conditions. Therefore, we conclude that Lcn2 does not mediate the protection against high-fat diet-induced adiposity observed in SKO mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin-specific deletion of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 alters skin lipid composition and protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Harini; Flowers, Matthew T; Liu, Xueqing; Paton, Chad M; Sullivan, Ruth; Chu, Kiki; Zhao, Minghui; Ntambi, James M

    2009-07-24

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and is an important regulator of whole body energy homeostasis. Severe cutaneous changes in mice globally deficient in SCD1 also indicate a role for SCD1 in maintaining skin lipids. We have generated mice with a skin-specific deletion of SCD1 (SKO) and report here that SKO mice display marked sebaceous gland hypoplasia and depletion of sebaceous lipids. In addition, SKO mice have significantly increased energy expenditure and are protected from high fat diet-induced obesity, thereby recapitulating the hypermetabolic phenotype of global SCD1 deficiency. Genes of fat oxidation, lipolysis, and thermogenesis, including uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha, are up-regulated in peripheral tissues of SKO mice. However, unlike mice globally deficient in SCD1, SKO mice have an intact hepatic lipogenic response to acute high carbohydrate feeding. Despite increased basal thermogenesis, SKO mice display severe cold intolerance because of rapid depletion of fuel substrates, including hepatic glycogen, to maintain core body temperature. These data collectively indicate that SKO mice have increased cold perception because of loss of insulating factors in the skin. This results in up-regulation of thermogenic processes for temperature maintenance at the expense of fuel economy, illustrating cross-talk between the skin and peripheral tissues in maintaining energy homeostasis.

  5. A ζ-carotene desaturase gene, IbZDS, increases β-carotene and lutein contents and enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Kang, Chen; Song, Xuejin; Yu, Ling; Liu, Degao; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2017-09-01

    ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the ZDS gene has not been applied to carotenoid improvement of plants. Its roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses have not been reported. In this study, the IbZDS gene was isolated from storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Nongdafu 14. Its overexpression significantly increased β-carotene and lutein contents and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Kokei No. 14) plants. Significant up-regulation of lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY) and β-carotene hydroxylase (β-CHY) genes and significant down-regulation of lycopene ε-cyclase (ε-LCY) and ε-carotene hydroxylase (ε-CHY) genes were found in the transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) and proline contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt stress. The salt stress-responsive genes encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), SOD, CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and POD were found to be significantly up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress. This study indicates that the IbZDS gene has the potential to be applied for improving β-carotene and lutein contents and salt tolerance in sweetpotato and other plants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-05-20

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity.

  7. A novel chemical synthesis of 1-O-hexadecyl-rac-[2-3H]glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine and a simple assay for plasmanyl desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A K; Hajra, A K

    1996-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for chemical synthesis of lysophosphatidylethanolamine is described. 1-O-hexadecyl diazohydroxyacetone (A. K. Hajra, T. V. Saraswathi and A. K. Das. 1983. Chem. Phys. Lipids. 33: 179-193) was decomposed by benzyloxycarbonyl (CBZ) derivative of phosphorylethanolamine (I) to give 1-O-hexadecyl dihydroxyacetone-3-(N)-CBZ phosphorylethanolamine (II). Compound (II) was reduced by NaBH4 and the product (III), after catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis produced the final compound, 1-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine (IV). The yield of (IV), starting from 1-O-hexadecyl diazohydroxyacetone was 53%. The identities of the compounds were verified by NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectral (FAB-MS) analysis. 1-O-hexadecyl-rac[2-3H]glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine prepared by the method above was shown to be a good in vitro substrate for plasmanyl delta 1'-desaturase (EC 1.14.99.19). Using this radioactive substrate, a simple and rapid solvent partition assay for this enzyme was developed with results comparable to those obtained by the two-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic assay method. The advantage of this rapid assay system and the applicability of the chemical synthetic method for other phosphoglycerides are discussed.

  8. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  10. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    OpenAIRE

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Oliveira, Rosângela C.; Cortez, Beatriz de Araujo; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Santelli, Glaucia Maria Machado; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min...

  11. Development of antiserum against bovine prolactin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razdan, M.N.; Kaker, M.L.; Galhotra, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Antiserum against bovine prolactin was raised in male rabbits and tested against crossreacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. One sharp precipitin band against prolactin was observed. The antiserum showed a small faint band against bovine growth hormone. No crossreaction was observed against bovine follicle stimulating hormone, bovine luteinizing hormone, bovine thyroid stimulating hormone and normal calf serum. The crossreaction with bovine growth hormone vanished after treating the antiserum with normal calf serum. Antibody titre of the absorbed anti-prolactin serum determined by radioimmunoassay was high, which could bind 31.30% at 1:10,000 final dilution. Maximum binding was not inhibited by the addition of higher amounts of contaminants, suggesting that the absorbed antiserum was immunologically monospecific and could be used for radioimmunoassay work. (author)

  12. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  14. Genetic detection and characterization of atypical bovine pestiviruses in foetal bovine sera claimed to be of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Larska, M; Giammarioli, M; De Mia, G M; Cardeti, G; Zhou, W; Alenius, S; Belák, S; Liu, L

    2013-06-01

    Two European laboratories independently detected atypical bovine pestiviral nucleic acids in three commercial batches of foetal bovine serum (FBS) that was claimed by the producers to be of Australian origin. Additional batches of FBS were obtained directly from Australia to exclude possible contamination of the Australian FBS with that of South American origin during manufacturing/packaging in European countries. RT-PCR amplification of partial 5'untranslated region and the complete N(pro) gene yielded a specific band with expected size, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Bayesian analysis of sequence data demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relation of the newly detected atypical bovine pestiviruses to those of South American origin, which were related to the recognized bovine pestivirus species, bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Taken together, the results indicated the presence of atypical bovine pestiviruses in the Australian FBS, and most likely in Australian Continent. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  16. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  17. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  18. Identification of a Δ5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited Δ5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the Δ5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus Δ5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus.

  19. Molecular cloning and stress-dependent expression of a gene encoding Delta(12)-fatty acid desaturase in the Antarctic microalga Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yandu; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Qingli; Li, Zhaoxin; Liu, Shaofang; Gan, Qinhua; Qin, Song

    2009-11-01

    The psychrotrophic Antarctic alga, Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7, grows under an extreme environment of low temperature and high salinity. In an effort to better understand the correlation between fatty acid metabolism and acclimation to Antarctic environment, we analyzed its fatty acid compositions. An extremely high amount of Delta(12) unsaturated fatty acids was identified which prompted us to speculate about the involvement of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase in the process of acclimation. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated CvFAD2, was isolated from C. vulgaris NJ-7 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RACE methods. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene was homologous to known microsomal Delta(12)-FADs with the conserved histidine motifs. Heterologous expression in yeast was used to confirm the regioselectivity and the function of CvFAD2. Linoleic acid (18:2), normally not present in wild-type yeast cells, was detected in transformants of CvFAD2. The induction of CvFAD2 at an mRNA level under cold stress and high salinity is detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that both temperature and salinity motivated the upregulation of CvFAD2 expression. The accumulation of CvFAD2 increased 2.2-fold at 15 degrees C and 3.9-fold at 4 degrees C compared to the alga at 25 degrees C. Meanwhile a 1.7- and 8.5-fold increase at 3 and 6% NaCl was detected. These data suggest that CvFAD2 is the enzyme responsible for the Delta(12) fatty acids desaturation involved in the adaption to cold and high salinity for Antarctic C. vugaris NJ-7.

  20. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E.; Tor, M.; Pena, R.N.; Estany, J.

    2015-07-01

    Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT) and gender (barrows and gilts) was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98) and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (probability between 0.91-0.99) as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95%) and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43) than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA) and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams. (Author)

  1. Activation of human stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 contributes to the lipogenic effect of PXR in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available The pregnane X receptor (PXR was previously known as a xenobiotic receptor. Several recent studies suggested that PXR also played an important role in lipid homeostasis but the underlying mechanism remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we found that rifampicin, an agonist of human PXR, induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Lipid analysis showed the total cholesterol level increased. However, the free cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not changed. Treatment of HepG2 cells with rifampicin induced the expression of the free fatty acid transporter CD36 and ABCG1, as well as several lipogenic enzymes, including stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, long chain free fatty acid elongase (FAE, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT, while the expression of acyl:cholesterol acetyltransferase(ACAT1 was not affected. Moreover, in PXR over-expressing HepG2 cells (HepG2-PXR, the SCD1 expression was significantly higher than in HepG2-Vector cells, even in the absence of rifampicin. Down-regulation of PXR by shRNA abolished the rifampicin-induced SCD1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Promoter analysis showed that the human SCD1 gene promoter is activated by PXR and a novel DR-7 type PXR response element (PXRE response element was located at -338 bp of the SCD1 gene promoter. Taken together, these results indicated that PXR activation promoted lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells and SCD1 is a novel PXR target gene.

  2. A study of associations between early DHA status and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) SNP and developmental outcomes in children of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Karina R; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Schnurr, Theresia M; Hansen, Torben; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    DHA from diet or endogenous synthesis has been proposed to affect infant development, however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we aim to verify previously observed fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS) SNP-specific associations with erythrocyte DHA status in 9-month-old children and sex-specific association with developmental outcomes. The study was performed in 166 children (55 % boys) of obese mothers. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was analysed in blood-samples obtained at 9 months of age, and developmental outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years. Erythrocyte DHA level ranged from 4·4 to 9·9 % of fatty acids, but did not show any association with FADS SNP or other potential determinants. Regression analysis showed associations between erythrocyte DHA and scores for personal-social skills (β 1·8 (95 % CI 0·3, 3·3), P=0·019) and problem solving (β 3·4 (95 % CI 1·2, 5·6), P=0·003). A tendency was observed for an association in opposite direction between minor alleles (G-variant) of rs1535 and rs174575 and personal-social skills (P=0·062 and 0·068, respectively), which became significant when the SNP were combined based on their previously observed effect on erythrocyte DHA at 9 months of age (β 2·6 (95 % CI 0·01, 5·1), P=0·011). Sex-SNP interaction was indicated for rs174575 genotype on fine motor scores (P=0·016), due to higher scores among minor allele carrying girls (P=0·043), whereas no effect was seen among boys. In conclusion, DHA-increasing FADS SNP and erythrocyte DHA status were consistently associated with improved personal-social skills in this small cohort of children of obese mothers irrespective of sex, but the sample was too small to verify potential sex-specific effects.

  3. Distinct regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression by cis and trans C18:1 fatty acids in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minville-Walz, M; Gresti, J; Pichon, L; Bellenger, S; Bellenger, J; Narce, M; Rialland, M

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of trans fatty acids is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases and with atherogenic risk factors. Trans fatty acids might play their atherogenic effects through lipid metabolism alteration of vascular cells. Accumulation of lipids in vascular smooth muscle cells is a feature of atherosclerosis and a consequence of lipid metabolism alteration. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (scd1) catalyses the production of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. oleic acid) and its expression is associated with lipogenesis induction and with atherosclerosis development. We were interested in analysing the regulation of delta-9 desaturation rate and scd1 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) exposed to cis and trans C18:1 fatty acid isomers (cis-9 oleic acid, trans-11 vaccenic acid or trans-9 elaidic acid) for 48 h at 100 μM. Treatment of HASMC with these C18:1 fatty acid isomers led to differential effects on delta-9 desaturation; oleic acid repressed the desaturation rate more potently than trans-11 vaccenic acid, whereas trans-9 elaidic acid increased the delta-9 desaturation rate. We then correlated the delta-9 desaturation rate with the expression of scd1 protein and mRNA. We showed that C18:1 fatty acids controlled the expression of scd1 at the transcriptional level in HASMC, leading to an increase in scd1 mRNA content by trans-9 elaidic acid treatment, whereas a decrease in scd1 mRNA content was observed with cis-9 oleic acid and trans-11 vaccenic acid treatments. Altogether, this work highlights a differential capability of C18:1 fatty acid isomers to control scd1 gene expression, which presumes of different consequent effects on cell functions.

  4. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-04-04

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  6. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  7. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  8. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  9. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can therefore be concluded that bovine RPRM gene contained 4 transition mutations and 5 indels that can be used in marker assisted selection. Evolutionary findings also demonstrated the existence of a divergent evolution between bovine RPRM gene and RPRM gene of fishes and frog. Keywords: Identity, phylogeny ...

  10. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different ... patibility Complex (MHC) of cattle is known as Bovine .... Table 1. Frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

  11. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the ...

  12. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  13. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  14. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  15. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  16. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  17. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study whose objective was to determine epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characteristics of bovine anaplasmosis was carried out into two phases. The first phase was carried out in November 2005 to October 2006 . The prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis was determined using thin blood film and IFT and the ...

  18. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  19. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  20. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  2. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can stil...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  4. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  5. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  6. Extrachromosomal nucleic acids in bovine babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Hotzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of small extrachromosomal nucleic acid elements were found in the bovine babesias, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. One element with an apparent size of 5.5 kilobase pairs (kbp is a double stranded RNA related to virus like particles. Another molecule is a double stranded DNA with a molecular size of about 6.2 kbp. Southern blot comparison of restriction DNA fragments of the latter molecule, which is present in both B. bovis and B. bigemina is described.

  7. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of Virus-Specific Bacterial Adherence to Bovine Embryonic Lung Cells Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 †

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Thomas E.; Gates, Connie

    1983-01-01

    Infection of bovine embryonic lung cells with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 did not induce in vitro, virus-specific, hemadsorption-related adherence of Corynebacterium pyogenes, Haemophilus somnus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Brucella sp., or Salmonella typhimurium.

  9. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  10. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M.A.S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell cultures for virus isolation. In the experimental studies for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 29/35 specimens were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 32/35 by cell culture and in the field cases, 22/119 were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 19/119 by cell culture. In the field cases of bovine viral diarrhea, 28/69 samples were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 14/69 by cell culture. When fluorescent antibody technique was performed on inoculated cell cultures a total of 24/69 specimens were positive for bovine viral diarrhea. The sensitivity of fluorescent antibody technique was thus comparable to that of cell culture method for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:6299484

  11. Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Holmes, Geoff; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  13. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  14. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall be...

  16. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  17. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  18. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  19. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang Leyu; Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T.; LaMarr, William A.; Ozbal, Can C.; Bhat, B. Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K m = 10.5 μM). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value = 0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC 50 values of 0.88 and 0.12 μM, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 μM - 14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC 50 values of <10 μM, including 111 <1 μM and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW < 450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable target, SCD1. Further medicinal

  20. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang Leyu [Research Technology Center, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States); LaMarr, William A.; Ozbal, Can C. [Biotrove, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Bhat, B. Ganesh [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: gbhat@gnf.org

    2008-10-03

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K{sub m} = 10.5 {mu}M). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value = 0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC{sub 50} values of 0.88 and 0.12 {mu}M, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 {mu}M - 14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC{sub 50} values of <10 {mu}M, including 111 <1 {mu}M and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW < 450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable

  1. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  2. Heterogeneity of the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 gene and metabolic risk factors in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arregui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. In mice and humans its activity has been associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, but also with the prevention of saturated fatty acids accumulation and subsequent inflammation, whereas for liver fat content inconsistent results have been reported. Thus, variants of the gene encoding SCD1 (SCD1 could potentially modify metabolic risk factors, but few human studies have addressed this question. METHODS: In a sample of 2157 middle-aged men and women randomly drawn from the Potsdam cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, we investigated the impact of 7 SCD1 tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1502593, rs522951, rs11190480, rs3071, rs3793767, rs10883463 and rs508384 and 5 inferred haplotypes with frequency >5% describing 90.9% of the genotype combinations in our population, on triglycerides, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and fetuin-A. RESULTS: No significant associations between any of the SNPs or haplotypes and BMI, WC, fetuin-A and hs-CRP were observed. Associations of rs10883463 with triglycerides, GGT and HbA1c as well as of rs11190480 with ALT activity, were weak and became non-significant after multiple-testing correction. Also associations of the haplotype harbouring the minor allele of rs1502593 with HbA1c levels, the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs11190480 and rs508384 with activity of ALT, and the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs522951, rs10883463 and rs508384 with triglyceride and HbA1C levels and GGT activities did not withstand multiple-testing correction. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are no associations between common variants of SCD1 or its inferred haplotypes and the investigated metabolic risk factors

  3. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  4. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Long In

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA composition in healthy Korean men. Methods Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T, FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T, and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition (P for interaction = 0.009 or of AA (≥4.573% (P for interaction = 0.047. Conclusion HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  5. Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci and the Role of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Jacqueline P.

    2018-01-01

    Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation resear...

  6. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  7. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  8. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...... by an amidation-site (Gly-Arg-Arg), and a C-terminal nonapeptide. Comparison with human, porcine, and rat cDNA sequences revealed extensive homology in the coding region as well as in short noncoding structures....

  10. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF′ was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF′ in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF′-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF′ as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF′ to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:27886237

  11. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  12. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  13. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  14. Bovine and human papillomaviruses: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J S

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, inoculation with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found to cause mesenchymal tumors of the skin in cattle and horses, as well as tumors of the bladder in cattle. Subsequent to these studies of BPVs, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were found to cause cervical cancer resulting in intense research into papillomaviruses. During the past 50 years, the ways that HPVs and BPVs cause disease have been investigated, and both HPVs and BPVs have been associated with an increasingly diverse range of diseases. Herein, the biology, oncogenic mechanisms, and diseases associated with BPVs are compared with those of HPVs. As reviewed, there are currently significant differences between BPVs and HPVs. However, research 50 years ago into BPVs formed a prologue for the recognition that papillomaviruses have a significant role in human disease, and it is possible that future research may similarly reveal that BPVs are less different from HPVs than is currently recognized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...... duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful...

  16. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Freedom SOLO bovine pericardial stentless valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanger O

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olaf Stanger, Hendrik Tevaearai, Thierry Carrel Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Switzerland Abstract: The third-generation bovine pericardium Freedom SOLO (FS stentless valve emerged in 2004 as a modified version of the Pericarbon Freedom stentless valve and as a very attractive alternative to stented bioprostheses. The design, choice of tissue, and anticalcification treatment fulfill most, if not all, requirements for an ideal valve substitute. The FS combines the single-suture, subcoronary implantation technique with the latest-generation bovine pericardial tissue and novel anticalcification treatment. The design allows imitation of the native healthy valve through unrestricted adaption to the patient's anatomy, reproducing a normal valve/root complex. However, despite hemodynamic performance superior to stented valves, we are approaching a critical observation period as superior durability, freedom from structural valve deterioration, and nonstructural failure has not been proven as expected. However, optimal performance and freedom from structural valve deterioration depend on correct sizing and perfect symmetric implantation, to ensure low leaflet stress. Any malpositioning can lead to tissue fatigue over time. Furthermore, the potential for better outcomes depends on optimal patient selection and observance of the limitations for the use of stentless valves, particularly for the FS. Clearly, stentless valve implantation techniques are less reproducible and standardized, and require surgeon-dependent experience and skill. Regardless of whether or not stentless valve durability surpasses third-generation stented bioprostheses, they will continue to play a role in the surgical repertoire. This review intends to help practitioners avoid pitfalls, observe limitations, and improve patient selection for optimal long-term outcome with the attractive FS stentless valve. Keywords: aortic valve, bioprosthesis, cardiac

  19. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with [ 14 C]-galactose and [ 14 C]-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37 0 C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the [ 14 C]-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using [ 14 C]-glucose and [ 14 C]-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the [ 14 C]-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the [ 3 H]-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general

  20. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  1. LukMF? is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bo...

  2. Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for bovines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Authie, E.; Berg, C.; Bøtner, A.; Browman, H.; Capua, I.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Depner, K.; Domingo, M.; Edwards, S.; Fourichon, C.; Koenen, F.; More, S.; Raj, M.A.B.; Sihvonen, L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Thulke, H.H.; Vågsholm, I.; Velarde, A.; Willeberg, P.; Zientara, S.

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for bovines stunned with penetrative captive bolt or slaughtered without stunning. In particular, the opinion proposes welfare indicators together with their corresponding

  3. Detection of genes associated with developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Lucie; Jansová, Denisa; Vodičková Kepková, Kateřina; Vodička, Petr; Jeseta, M.; Machatková, M.; Kaňka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2016), s. 58-71 ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : oocyte * embryo * bovine * developmental competence * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2016

  4. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose human to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  5. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  6. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  8. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  9. Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Haidong Wang, Hailang Shi, Jie Pang, Xingfa Song, Caiyun Xu, Zengxian Sun ...

  10. The effect of antibiotics against bovine mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, R B; Ruhnke, H L

    1984-04-01

    A combination of lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin was tested against several strains of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas as might be encountered in bovine semen and shown to be effective against them. This combination as well as minocin , rosaramicin, rosoxacin, tiamulin, gentamicin and declomycin were tested in vitro against 58 isolates of ureaplasma from the bovine urogenital tract. The lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin combination, minocin , rosaramicin, tiamulin and declomycin were quite active, while rosoxacin and gentamicin were much less active against the test strains.

  11. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  12. No evidence for a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2017-05-08

    Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Nevertheless, a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) pathotype has been proposed suggesting virulence traits that differentiate MAEC from commensal E. coli. The present study was designed to investigate the MPEC pathotype hypothesis by comparing the genomes of MAEC and commensal bovine E. coli. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis cases and six fecal commensal isolates from udder-healthy cows. We analyzed the phylogenetic history of bovine E. coli genomes by supplementing this strain panel with eleven bovine-associated E. coli from public databases. The majority of the isolates originate from phylogroups A and B1, but neither MAEC nor commensal strains could be unambiguously distinguished by phylogenetic lineage. The gene content of both MAEC and commensal strains is highly diverse and dominated by their phylogenetic background. Although individual strains carry some typical E. coli virulence-associated genes, no traits important for pathogenicity could be specifically attributed to MAEC. Instead, both commensal strains and MAEC have very few gene families enriched in either pathotype. Only the aerobactin siderophore gene cluster was enriched in commensal E. coli within our strain panel. This is the first characterization of a phylogenetically diverse strain panel including several MAEC and commensal isolates. With our comparative genomics approach we could not confirm previous studies that argue for a positive selection of specific traits enabling MAEC to elicit bovine mastitis. Instead, MAEC are facultative and opportunistic pathogens recruited from the highly diverse bovine gastrointestinal microbiota. Virulence-associated genes implicated in mastitis are a by-product of commensalism with the primary function

  13. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  14. Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Kelling, Clayton L; Ambagala, Aruna

    2007-12-01

    Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and parinfluenza-3 virus. Bacteria that play prominent roles in this disease complex are Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis. Other bacteria that infect the bovine respiratory tract of cattle are Histophilus (Haemophilus) somni and Pasteurella multocida. Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. Like other pathogens, the viral and bacterial pathogens of this disease complex have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years. As much as the hosts have diversified and fine-tuned the components of their immune system, the pathogens have also evolved diverse and sophisticated strategies to evade the host immune responses. These pathogens have developed intricate mechanisms to thwart both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses of their hosts. This review presents an overview of the strategies by which the pathogens suppress host immune responses, as well as the strategies by which the pathogens modify themselves or their locations in the host to evade host immune responses. These immune evasion strategies likely contribute to the failure of currently-available vaccines to provide complete protection to cattle against these pathogens.

  15. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okagawa Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  16. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  17. Diffusion of fluoride in bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flim, G.J.; Arends, J.; Kolar, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of 18 F and the penetration of both F and 18 F in bovine enamel was investigated. Sodium fluoride solutions buffered at pH 7 were employed. The uptake of 18 F was measured by a method described by R. Duckworth and M. Braden, Archs. Oral. Biol., 12(1967), pp. 217-230. The penetration concentration profiles of fluoride (F, 18 F) in the enamel were measured by a sectioning technique. The 18 F uptake in enamel was proportional to approximately tsup(3/4); t being the uptake time. The 18 F concentration as a function of the position in the enamel can be described by: c*(x,t) = c 0 *(t)exp[-α*(t)x]. After correction for the initial fluoride concentration in enamel, for unlabelled fluoride the same dependency is obtained. A model based on simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction in the pores and diffusion into the hydroxyapatite crystallites will be presented. The results show that diffusion coefficients of the pores are approximately equal to 10 -10 cm 2 s -1 and in the apatite crystallites approximately equal to 10 -17 cm 2 s -1 . The limitations and the approximations of the model are discussed

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  19. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  2. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  3. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Kav, Aya; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-04-03

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses.

  4. Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Andrade Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Caldas S.A., Nogueira V.A., Lima A.E.S., Aragão A.P., d’Avila M.S., Santos A.M., Miranda I.C., Costa S.Z.R. & Peixoto T.C. [Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report.] Queilosquise bilateral em bovino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:55-59, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: saulocaldas@hotmail.com A case of bilateral queilosquise in a cattle two years old was reported. Clinically, there was cachexia, difficulty in grasping food and water intake. The clinical examination revealed that the nasal orifices were discontinuous with the upper lip, which allowed communication between the nostrils and mouth in its rostral portion, crowding of incisors (tweezers, as well as exposure of medium and the 2nd corner and of the tongue. In this case, the bilateral queilosquise was the result of flaws in fusion of the maxillary process and the medial nasal process and its surroundings, probably due to mineral deficiencies of pregnant cow. This pathogenesis was suggested by excluding other possible causes, the knowledge of the existence of mineral deficiencies in the region where the event occurred and bad nutritional status of pregnant female.

  5. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  6. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  7. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  8. Bovine xenograft failures in pediatric foot reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Cameron K; Nunley, James A; Viens, Nicholas A; Lark, Robert K

    2013-06-01

    Structural bone grafting serves an important and necessary role during pediatric foot reconstruction. Different bone grafts have been used for such reconstructions including corticocancellous autografts, allografts, and synthetic grafts. Bovine xenografts represent a novel option with multiple potential advantages; however, there are limited clinical data on the efficacy and success of such grafts. This retrospective case series was performed to review the anecdotally recognized high failure rate of bovine xenograft transplantation in pediatric foot reconstruction at a tertiary institution. Ten pediatric patients with 13 feet underwent reconstructive procedures involving implantation of bovine xenografts for various foot deformities. The mean age at time of surgery was 14.1 years with an average clinical follow-up of 21.6 months. All patients received lateral column lengthening with additional various other reconstructive procedures performed by 3 separate orthopaedic surgeons in a similar step-wise manner. Clinical outcomes were obtained through a retrospective chart review of standard preoperative and postoperative clinical and radiographic data. Seven of 13 (53.8%) bovine xenografts implanted resulted in clinical symptoms of failure with corresponding radiographic failed graft incorporation. The most common presenting symptom was foot pain with activity and each failure was easily identified on plain radiographs by lucency surrounding the graft sites. All 7 failures required a subsequent revision surgery to remove the bovine graft followed by placement of human iliac crest allograft. After revision surgery, each patient reported subjective improvement in pain and return to daily activity with radiographic evidence of complete incorporation of the graft. Bovine xenografts used as structural grafts in pediatric foot reconstruction resulted in unacceptably high rates of failure and the need for further revision surgery. For this reason, surgeons should be cautioned

  9. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  10. Bovine brucellosis trends in Malaysia between 2000 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar S; Hassan, Latiffah; Adzhar, Azri; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Zainal, Mohamed A

    2013-11-18

    Bovine brucellosis is an important disease affecting cattle characterised by abortion, still birth, reduced milk production, weak foetus and infertility in both males and females. There is wide distribution of the disease among cattle and several wildlife species. Bovine brucellosis is commonly caused by B. abortus and very occasionally B. melitensis and B. suis. The distribution of bovine brucellosis in cattle has not been described in Malaysia. In this paper we describe the distribution, pattern and trend of bovine brucellosis in Peninsular Malaysia between 2000 and 2008 based on serological data obtained from nationwide B. abortus serosurveillance activities in cattle populations. Brucella antibodies were detected in 21.8% of sampled herds (95% CI, 21.01-22.59) and 2.5% (95% CI; 2.45-2.55) of sampled cattle. The state of Pahang had the highest animal and herd-level seroprevalence of 5.3 and 43.6%, respectively. The herd-level seroprevalence varied but remained high (18-26%) over the period of study and generally increased from 2000 to 2008. Seropositive herds clustered around the central part of the peninsula within the period of the study. The months of September, October and November illustrated the highest rates with corresponding seroprevalences of 33.2, 38.4 and 33.9%, respectively. A noticeable variation was observed in the cattle-level seroprevalence, but the rate remained relatively low (Bovine brucellosis is widespread among herds in Peninsular Malaysia at a low within-herd seroprevalence rate.

  11. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  12. Characterisation of bovine leukocyte Ig-like receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hogan

    Full Text Available Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR are innate immune receptors involved in regulating both innate and adaptive immune functions. LILR show more interspecies conservation than the closely related Killer Ig-like receptors, and homologues have been identified in rodents, primates, seals and chickens. The murine equivalents, paired Ig-like receptors (PIR, contain two additional immunoglobulin domains, but show strong sequence and functional similarities to human LILR. The bovine genome was recently sequenced, with preliminary annotations indicating that LILR were present in this species. We therefore sought to identify and characterize novel LILR within the Bos taurus genome, compare these phylogenetically with LILR from other species and determine whether they were expressed in vivo. Twenty six potential bovine LILR were initially identified using BLAST and BLAT software. Phylogenetic analysis constructed using the neighbour-joining method, incorporating pairwise deletion and confidence limits estimated from 1000 replicates using bootstrapping, indicated that 16 of these represent novel bovine LILR. Protein structures defined using protein BLAST predict that the bovine LILR family comprises seven putative inhibitory, four activating and five soluble receptors. Preliminary expression analysis was performed by mapping the predicted sequences with raw data from total transcript sequence generated using Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina to provide evidence that all 16 of these receptors are expressed in vivo. The bovine receptor family appears to contain receptors which resemble the six domain rodent PIR as well as the four domain LILR found in other species.

  13. Characterisation of bovine leukocyte Ig-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Louise; Bhuju, Sabin; Jones, Des C; Laing, Ken; Trowsdale, John; Butcher, Philip; Singh, Mahavir; Vordermeier, Martin; Allen, Rachel L

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are innate immune receptors involved in regulating both innate and adaptive immune functions. LILR show more interspecies conservation than the closely related Killer Ig-like receptors, and homologues have been identified in rodents, primates, seals and chickens. The murine equivalents, paired Ig-like receptors (PIR), contain two additional immunoglobulin domains, but show strong sequence and functional similarities to human LILR. The bovine genome was recently sequenced, with preliminary annotations indicating that LILR were present in this species. We therefore sought to identify and characterize novel LILR within the Bos taurus genome, compare these phylogenetically with LILR from other species and determine whether they were expressed in vivo. Twenty six potential bovine LILR were initially identified using BLAST and BLAT software. Phylogenetic analysis constructed using the neighbour-joining method, incorporating pairwise deletion and confidence limits estimated from 1000 replicates using bootstrapping, indicated that 16 of these represent novel bovine LILR. Protein structures defined using protein BLAST predict that the bovine LILR family comprises seven putative inhibitory, four activating and five soluble receptors. Preliminary expression analysis was performed by mapping the predicted sequences with raw data from total transcript sequence generated using Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina) to provide evidence that all 16 of these receptors are expressed in vivo. The bovine receptor family appears to contain receptors which resemble the six domain rodent PIR as well as the four domain LILR found in other species.

  14. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  15. Biosynthesis of lipids by bovine meibomian glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolattukudy, P.E.; Rogers, L.M.; Nicolaides, N.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated bovine meibomian glands incorporated exogenous [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the lipids showed that wax esters and sterol esters contained 61% of the total label. Radio gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the acid and alcohol moieties of both ester fractions showed the label was distributed equally between the two portions of the ester in both cases. Cholesterol and 5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol were the major labeled sterols, and anteiso-C25, anteiso-C27 and anteiso-C23 were the most highly labeled alcohols. The major labeled fatty acids in the wax esters were anteiso-C15, n-C16, anteiso-C17 and n-C18:1, whereas anteiso-C25 and anteiso-C27 were the major labeled acids in the sterol esters. The diester region with 6% of the total label contained labeled fatty acids and fatty alcohols each with anteiso-C25 as the major component and omega-hydroxy acids in which n-C32:1 was the major labeled component. The triglyceride fraction which contained 8% of the total lipids was composed of labeled fatty acids similar to those found in both sterol and wax ester fractions. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled lipids derived from exogenous labeled isoleucine showed that anteiso-branched products were preferentially labeled. The labeled triglyceride fraction derived from [U- 14 C] isoleucine also contained esterified C15, C13, C11, C9, C7 and possibly shorter anteiso-branched acids

  16. In Vitro Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Milk as Potential Probiotic Strains to Prevent Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Matías S; Frola, Ignacio D; Natanael, Berardo; Gobelli, Dino; Nader-Macias, María E F; Bogni, Cristina I

    2018-01-02

    Bovine mastitis causes economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal health are an alternative tool to avoid antibiotic therapy on the prevention of bovine mastitis. In previous studies, 12 LAB isolated from bovine milk were selected taking into account some of the following characteristics: hydrophobicity, auto aggregative capability, inhibition of indicator pathogens, hydrogen peroxide, and capsular polysaccharide production. These LAB were considered because of their beneficial properties. In this work, we also analyzed the antimicrobial activity and the co-aggregation against mastitis causing bacteria, auto-inhibition, adhesion to bovine teat canal epithelial cells (BTCEC), and growth kinetic curves for the 12 LAB. Two of them, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1655 and Lactobacillus perolens CRL 1724, were selected because they had an interesting pattern of adhesion to BTEC, the inhibition of pathogens and the co-aggregation with the 100% of the assayed pathogens. They showed a predictable difference in the PFGE genomic pattern bands. The kinetic growth of these two strains was similar between them and with the rest of the assayed LAB. The strains selected in the present study showed indispensable characteristics for their inclusion in a probiotic formulation to be used at dry-off period for the prevention of bovine mastitis.

  17. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  18. Bovine brucellosis: epidemiological situation in Brazil and disease control initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio José Clementino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is present throughout Brazil, whose prevalence distribution shows variations among states and within the productive areas of the states, causing serious losses to cattle production and public health due to risk of transmission to humans. Therefore, since 2001, the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT is being implemented in all Federative Units of Brazil, based on the compulsory vaccination of bovine females, control of animal movement and certification of brucellosis-free herds. This review covers the current epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, issues related to public health and economic importance, as well as Brazilian initiatives to control the disease.

  19. Lentiviral modification of enriched populations of bovine male gonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-J; Cho, C M; Kim, B-G; Lee, Y-A; Kim, B-J; Kim, Y-H; Kim, C G; Schmidt, J A; Ryu, B-Y

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated germ cells have the capacity to develop into sperm capable of fertilizing oocytes and contributing genetic material to subsequent generations. The most primitive prepubertal undifferentiated germ cells include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Gonocytes, present in the testis at birth, differentiate into SSC, which maintain spermatogenesis for the remainder of the male's life. Because of their capacity to contribute to lifelong spermatogenesis, undifferentiated germ cells are attractive targets for genetic modification to produce transgenic animals, including cattle. To maximize the efficiency of genetic modification of bovine gonocytes and SSC, effective enrichment techniques need to be developed. Selection of bovine gonocytes using differential plating was improved 8-fold (P green fluorescent protein. Transduction efficiency was 17%. Collectively, these data demonstrate effective methods for the selection and genetic modification of bovine undifferentiated germ cells.

  20. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  1. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  3. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  4. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) among dairy cattle herds was ... Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis, Dairy cattle herd, Prevalence, Risk factor ..... Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test in Dairy Cattle in the North of Ecuador and Risk Factors Associated with Bovine. Tuberculosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg ...

  5. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  6. Efficacy and safety of Ban Huang oral liquid for treating bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of laboratory pathogen testing, analysis of clinical symptoms, and analysis of pathological anatomy were combined to diagnose bovine respiratory diseases in 147 Simmental cattle caused by mixed infections of M. bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and Mannheimia haemolytica.

  7. Synthesis of Natural Hydroxyapatite from Aceh’s Bovine Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fadhilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian yang mengkaji tentang sintesis hidroksiapatit berbasis tulang sapi lokal Aceh. Kandungan kalsium (CaO di dalam tulang sapi dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mensintesis hidroksiapatit. Pada penelitian ini, hidroksiapatit disintesis dari tulang sapi yang telah dicuci bersih dan dihilangkan dari lemak  dengan menggunakan NaOH. Tulang sapi dikeringkan dan dikalsinasi terlebih dahulu pada temperatur 1000oC selama 2 jam. Tulang sapi kering kemudian ditumbuk hingga dihasilkan serbuk. Untuk mendapatkan ukuran partikel yang seragam, serbuk tulang sapi dimilling dengan kecepatan putaran 250 rpm selama 5 jam sehingga dihasilkan serbuk tulang sapi murni yang berukuran nano. Kemudian serbuk dikarakterisasi menggunakan XRD (X-Ray Diffraction untuk membuktikan terbentuknya fasa CaO. Serbuk CaO yang telah terbentuk disintesa menjadi hidroksiapatit menggunakan metode solid statereaction dengan cara menambah asam posfat. Selanjutnya, serbuk CaO dan asam posfat disintering pada temperatur 900oC selama 2 jam. Penentuan fasa hidroksiapatit ini dilakukan dengan melakukan pengujian XRD. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian XRD, fasa CaO dan hidroksiapatit telah berhasil terbentuk sempurna.   The research that examines the synthesis hydroxyapatite of Aceh’s bovine bone has been done. Calcium oxide (CaO in bovine bone can be used to synthesized hydroxyapatite. In this research, hydroxyapatite synthesized from bovine bone that washed clearly and removed from the fat with adding NaOH. Bovine bone dried and calcined first at temperature of 1000oC for 2 hours. Then, dried-bovine bone is granulated become a powder. For uniformity particle size, bovine bone powder was milled with a 250 rpm rotation speed for 5 hours to produce pure bovine bone powder in nano-sized. Then, the bovine bone powder was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD to evidence that CaO phase has been formed. CaO powder will be syntehesized become hydroxyapatite using solid state reactiod

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated......Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...... proliferation, development, and reproduction could be derived. Proteins classified in these categories could be candidates for further functional studies to understand pluripotency and early mammalian development....

  10. Contamination of milk by enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagkli, D M; Vancanneyt, M; Vandamme, P; Hill, C; Cogan, T M

    2007-11-01

    To determine the contribution of enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces and teats to contamination of raw milk. Putative enterococci (n = 301) and coliforms (n = 365) were isolated from bovine faeces (n = 20), cows' teats (n = 20), the raw milk (n = 1) and the milking environment (n = 4) on one farm. The clonal relationships of each bacterial group were investigated using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of genomic macrorestriction fragments. Representatives of the different clusters of enterococci were identified by molecular techniques including rep-PCR, SDS protein profiling, Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) sequence analysis and/or 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Coliforms were identified by API 20E strips. The majority of the bovine faecal enterococcal isolates were identified as a potential new species of Aerococcus (100 isolates); E. faecium (28 isolates), and Aerococcus viridans (28 isolates) were also found. All coliform isolates from the bovine faeces were identified as Escherichia coli. The coliforms present in the milk were Hafnia alvei, Serratia liquefaciens, Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter amnigenus. No E. coli, Enterococcus or Aerococcus from the bovine faeces were found in the milk. A single clone of H. alvei was found in the water, the milking equipment and the milk, suggesting that the water was the source of the organism in the milk. No vancomycin-resistant aerococci or enterococci were found while most of the isolates tested showed the presence of at least one virulence gene. The milk-sock retained strains that adhered to particulate faecal material. Coliforms were present at approx. 2 orders of magnitude greater than enterococci in the bovine faeces. The results imply that bovine faeces are not an important source of contamination of raw milk with enterococci or coliforms. The results confirm those of two previous studies (Gelsomino et al. 2001, Int J Food Microbiol71, 177

  11. Bovine Pulmonary Tuberculosis At Bahir Dar Municipality Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une étude transversale a été menée de décembre 2005 à juin 2006 pour déterminer la prévalence de la tuberculose bovine chez 1441 bovins abattus et aussi pour valider la qualité de diagnostic de l'inspection de routine à l'abattoir de la municipalité de Bahir Dar, dans le nord-ouest de l'Ethiopie. On a aussi comparé la ...

  12. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-05-09

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while ROS generation and apoptosis was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that infection of P. zopfii genotype II (GTII) significantly changed bMECs morphology, increased apoptotic rate and MDA contents at 12 h (p < 0.05) and 24 h (p < 0.01) in comparison with control group, in time-dependent manner. LDH activity and ROS generation was also increased (p < 0.01) at 12 h and 24 h. However, SOD and CAT contents in bMECs infected with GTII were decreased (p < 0.05) at 12 h, while GPx (p < 0.01), SOD (p < 0.05) and CAT (p < 0.01) levels were reduced at 24 h. In case of GTI, only CAT and GPx activities were significantly decreased when the duration prolonged to 24 h but lesser than GTII. This suggested that GTII has more devastating pathogenic effects in bMECs, and the findings of this study concluded that GTII induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in bMECs via the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant defenses as well as the production of intracellular ROS.

  13. Prevalence of bovine papillomavirus and Treponema DNA in bovine digital dermatitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Sabine; Apprich, Veronika; Hackl, Verena; Tober, Reinhard; Danzer, Martin; Kainzbauer, Christina; Gabriel, Christian; Stanek, Christian; Kofler, Johann

    2011-03-24

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is a common infectious foot disease whose aetiology is not fully understood. Its origin is thought to be multifactorial, with treponemes being involved. Using PCR-based techniques, BDD samples from 45 affected cows and intact skin from 8 BDD-affected and 33 healthy cows were assessed for the presence of bovine papillomavirus and Treponema DNA. BPV DNA (mainly BPV-1/2) was detected in 22% of lesions and one skin sample from affected animals, and in 15% (BPV-1/-2) and 23% (BPV-3/4/6/9/10) of skin samples from healthy cows. Using quantitative PCR, Treponema DNA was demonstrated in 38/45 BDD lesions, with bacterial DNA loads ranging between 2 × 10(3) and 2.78 × 10(5) copies/40 ng of total DNA. Qualitative PCR confirmed this result and revealed Treponema DNA in 4 additional BDD samples, thus leading to an overall infection rate of 93.3%. Sequence analysis of amplified Treponema DNA revealed T. pedis sp. nov. in 51%, T. medium ssp. bovis in 37.7%, and T. phagedenis ssp. vaccae in 4.4% of lesions. T. brennaborense was not detected in any of the samples. Six BDD samples contained type IV oral Treponema strains, 6 other harboured so far unpublished Treponema sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing information on BPV infection in BDD-affected cattle, and the Treponema DNA load and occurrence of type IV treponemes in BDD samples. Our findings further support an etiologic association of treponemes, particularly T. pedis sp. nov., with BDD disease, yet indicate that BPVs do not directly contribute to BDD development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  15. The diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Arenas, Edgar; Guillen, Ana Teresa; Silva, Maglene

    1997-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis [es

  16. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonur, Leenadevi; Maley, Madeleine; Gilray, Janice; Crook, Tara; Laming, Ellie; Turnbull, Dylan; Nath, Mintu; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-03-28

    Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  17. Prevalence and financial losses associated with Bovine fasciolosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and financial losses of Bovine fasciolosis at SAAFI and Sumbawanga municipal abattoirs. Primary data was collected for one month (November/December 2012) through meat inspection. Secondary data was retrieved from the abattoir records for the period of five years ...

  18. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from. August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data.

  19. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid...

  20. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  1. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to animal phyla, algae, and in mollusk shells. 5. It has been found that supersaturation is critical in determining the calcium carbonate polymorph pre- ... in figure 1c: s (spherical), r (rhomboidal), f (filamentous). pure. The bovine serum albumin were extra pure. (more than 99%), and purchased from Sigma Chemi- cals.

  2. Bovine Hydatidosis in Eastern Part of Ethiopia | Mulatu | Momona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on bovine hydatidosis from November 2010 to March 2011 with the aims of investigating its occurrence, risk factors and economic losses in Dire Dawa municipality abattoir. The study revealed 20.05% occurrence of hydatidosis based on the postmortem examination of1536 cattle.

  3. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis at the SODEPA Douala abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology ... The paper therefore confirms that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Cameroon and suggests that systematic knowledge on the biodiversity of the causative agents, epidemiology and control of the disease as well as the interrelationship between animal and human tuberculosis ...

  4. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2008- March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the four districts and nine peasant associations (PAs). A total of 435 blood samples were ...

  5. Sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis and reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two selected was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 in North Gondar Zone. Sera from 780 cattle (571) local and (209) cross breed were screened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and RBPT positive reactors were further confirmed by Complement ...

  6. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...

  7. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  8. Serum antibody response to human and bovine IRBP in uveitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, R.; Hwan, S. B.; Rothova, A.; van Haren, M. A.; Donoso, L. A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) is a 136,000 molecular weight photoreceptor cell protein capable of inducing an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in susceptible animal strains. The occurrence of serum antibodies against human (Hu) or bovine (Bo) IRBP was investigated in

  9. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibodies are important tools in medical researches which have led to many advances in this field. Anti-bovine immunoglobulins and its conjugate with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) is used to diagnose cows' disease by ELISA or western blotting tests. In this study, the production, purification and horse radish peroxidase ...

  10. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the.

  11. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides small colonies and it is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia, such as at livestock farm of Bako Agricultural Research Center (BARC) an outbreak of contagious ...

  12. Short communication: Evaluation of the BovineSNP50 genotyping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BovineSNP50 genotyping array is a product with a wide range of applications in cattle such as genome-wide association studies, identification of copy number variation and investigation of genetic relationships among cattle breeds. It also holds potential for genomic selection, especially for traits that are expensive and ...

  13. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of different concentrations of melatonin on bovine oocytes in vitro maturation, varying concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.01, 1, 100 ìM), were included in the the maturation medium. Slaughterhouse derived oocytes were subjected to standard in vitro maturation procedures in high oxygen tension.

  14. Expanding the bovine milk proteome through extensive fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emoke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lonne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk is an agricultural product of tremendous value worldwide. It contains proteins, fat, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. It provides nutrition and immunological protection (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract) to the newborn and young calf. It also forms an important part of human nutrit...

  15. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium d...

  16. Short communication Evaluation of the BovineSNP50 genotyping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olga Qwabe

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... The successfulness of this chip for any of these applications depends on the degree of .... BeadChip v2 which features 54 609 SNP probes distributed across the whole bovine genome with an average ... Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), allele and genotype counts were calculated using the Quality Assurance.

  17. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of bovine Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, M G; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2008-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology and population structure of 30 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of Streptococcus uberis, collected from 6 Portuguese herds (among 12 farms screened) during 2002 and 2003, were examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isol...

  18. Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and Holstein cattle breeds in Kerman province of Iran using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... RFLPs in this segment were studied using AluI restriction enzyme.

  19. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of primary bovine extra-embryonic cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine A. Degrelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dataset described in this article pertains to the article by Hue et al. (2015 entitled “Primary bovine extra-embryonic cultured cells: A new resource for the study of in vivo peri-implanting phenotypes and mesoderm formation” [1]. In mammals, extra-embryonic tissues are essential to support not only embryo patterning but also embryo survival, especially in late implanting species. These tissues are composed of three cell types: trophoblast (bTCs, endoderm (bXECs and mesoderm (bXMCs. Until now, it is unclear how these cells interact. In this study, we have established primary cell cultures of extra-embryonic tissues from bovine embryos collected at day-18 after artificial insemination. We used our homemade bovine 10K array (GPL7417 to analyze the gene expression profiles of these primary extra-embryonic cultured cells compared to the corresponding cells from in vivo micro-dissected embryos. Here, we described the experimental design, the isolation of bovine extra-embryonic cell types as well as the microarray expression analysis. The dataset has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO (accession number GSE52967. Finally, these primary cell cultures were a powerful tool to start studying their cellular properties, and will further allow in vitro studies on cellular interactions among extra-embryonic tissues, and potentially between extra-embryonic vs embryonic tissues.

  1. Bovine Streptococcal Mastitis in Southwest and Northern States of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to identify the streptococci species isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Kwara, Kaduna and Oyo States of Nigeria. Milk samples from 200 clinically mastitic udders were bacteriological studied. A total of 130 streptococci isolate belonging to six species of streptococci, namely S.

  2. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  3. In vitro photoinactivation of bovine mastitis related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Gargano, Ronaldo Gomes; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio

    2016-03-01

    Bovine mastitis is considered the most important disease of worldwide dairy industry. Treatment of this disease is based on the application intramammary antibiotic, which favors an increase in the number of resistant bacteria in the last decade. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been investigated in different areas of Health Sciences, and has shown great potential for inactivating different pathogens, without any selection of resistant microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PDI in the inactivation of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. We tested the effectiveness of PDI against antibiotic resistant strains, isolated from bovine mastitis, from the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, and the alga Prototheca zopfii. Nine experimental groups were evaluated: control, no treatment; light only, irradiation of a red light-emitting diode (λ=662 (20) nm) for 180 s; exposure to 50 μM methylene blue alone for 5 min; and PDI for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s. S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, and C. bovis were inactivated after 30s of irradiation, whereas S. agalactiae was inactivated after 120 s and P. zopfii at 180 s of irradiation. These results show that PDI can be an interesting tool for inactivating pathogens for bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Ambo municipality abattoir from November 2007 to March 2008 with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity, fertility and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Stray dogs killed with strychnine baited meat piece were also ...

  5. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three ...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  7. Endocrine and exocrine function of the bovine testis. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is devoted to the endocrine and exocrine function of the normal bovine male testes. The discussion begins with a historical review of the literature dating back to Aristotle’s (300 BC) initial description of the anatomy of the mammalian testes. The first microscopic examination of the t...

  8. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically ...

  9. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis | Salm | Bulletin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... 350 cattle over 24 weeks were sampled for seroepidemiological survey and assessing endemic stability (100 from sporadic field cases and small holders randomly selected and 250 from intensive system farms).

  11. Relationship between Bovine Brucellosis and production systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bovine abortion among the 3 production systems and among breeds (p < 0.0001). The overall individual cow Brucella seroprevalence was 10.2%, but with a non significant difference (p = 0.404) across the production systems. Brucella antibodies were detected in 21.8% of cows that had aborted and in 5% of animals that ...

  12. Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine blood and rumen digesta meal. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... This study suggested that FBBRD meal when properly processed and at 10 % dietary level of inclusion, can be used in broiler finisher production without adverse effects on the ...

  13. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was

  14. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Ambo municipal- ity abattoir from November 2007 to March 2008 with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity, fertility and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Stray dogs killed with strychnine baited meat piece were also ...

  15. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consequence, it can be considered as a bio-functional mimic of enzyme SOD and has a promising application prospect in antioxidant drug field. Keywords. Bovine serum albumin; biopolymer metal complexes; superoxide; free radical; scavenging activity. 1. Introduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), natural byproducts.

  16. Epidemiology and public health importance of bovine cysticercosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-year (1997 – 2006) retrospective and one-year (2007) cross-sectional study of bovine cysticercosis in Makurdi were conducted using abattoir slaughter records, participatory meat inspection and interviews of abattoir workers. The incidence rates, sex and age of the animals infected and visceral organs affected were ...

  17. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  18. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the nanoparticle bioproducts. BSA nanoparticles have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery, since they are ...

  19. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed

  20. Epizootiological Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in Nomadic Pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...

  1. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chymosin (also known as rennin plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen.

  2. Histological exploration of follicular population of the Moroccan bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Follicular population and repartition in the ovarian cortex was investigated in the ovaries of the Oulmès- ... baths for 4 h each in alcohol at 70, 95 and 100%. The last step of dehydration is the incubation of the sample for 16 hours in toluol or butylic alcohol. .... similarity of this distribution between human and bovine has been ...

  3. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Carmen Alicia Daza; Paula, Carolina Lechinski de; Guerra, Simony Trevizan; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia

    2017-06-05

    Tuberculosis remains as the world's biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  4. Bovine in-vitro embryo production and its contribution towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine in-vitro embryo production and its contribution towards improved food security in Kenya. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... be low valued, it can be raised to higher reproductive potential using current reproductive technologies such as in-vitro embryo production and embryo transfer.

  5. Incidence and Economic Cost of Bovine Trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and economic cost of cases of bovine trypanosomosis in nomadic herds at the Jos Plateau from 1997 to 2001 were determined. These were done using records kept at the Plateau State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources headquarters at Jos, and the model described by Alonge et al. (1984). The incidence ...

  6. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival of adult rat cerebral cortex neurons in primary culture. ... Because the attack of anoxia and mechanical/chemical force in the course of the single neuron separated from the brain, the adult neocortex neurons may be edema. Since albumin can reduce edema ...

  7. Risk factors analysis and implications for public health of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a neglected zoonosis of cattle that is prevalent but under-investigated in Cameroon. Based on epidemiological data of the disease, this study was designed to assess the risks and public health implications for zoonotic M. bovis infection in cattle and humans in the highlands of Cameroon.

  8. Mechanism of 3D domain swapping in bovine seminal ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaccini, Roberta; Ercole, Carmine; Graziano, Giuseppe; Wechselberger, Rainer; Boelens, Rolf; Picone, Delia

    2014-01-01

    3D domain swapping (3D-DS) is a complex protein aggregation process for which no unique mechanism exists. We report an analysis of 3D-DS in bovine seminal ribonuclease, a homodimeric protein whose subunits are linked by two disulfide bridges, based on NMR and biochemical studies. The presence of the

  9. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  10. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... that ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG antibodies. Key words: Anti bovine immunoglobulins, horse radish peroxidase conjugation, ion-exchange chromatography, polyclonal ... diagnostic and therapeutic applications (Gallacher, 1993;. Gathumbi et al.

  11. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  12. Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7438542

  13. Bilaterally symmetrical foramina on the parietal bone of the bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different bovine skull developmental defects have been reported with variable frequency of occurrence. We hereby report a bilaterally symmetrical parietal foramina in a processed skull meant for osteological practical at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Jos, Nigeria. The depths of each of the foramina ...

  14. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food ... the disease in many areas of the country including Ambo in order to support the control and prevention ... of the animals was determined based on birth records and dentition (Payne,. 1990) and grouped as young ...

  15. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including...

  16. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...

  17. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  18. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  19. Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 In Amaro special District of SNNP region to determine the seroprevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia (CBPP) and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. In this study a total of 400 sera were examined for ...

  20. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data was ...

  1. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at the Ibadan Municipal Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the number of cattle slaughtered, prevalence, seasonal variation, and socio-economic consequence of bovine fasciolosis at the Ibadan Municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, between 1994 and 2004 based on retrospective abattoir meat inspection records and a perspective ...

  2. Incidence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cross River State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abattoir records base on typical tuberculosis lesions for ten year (1991-20000) were collated and analyzed to determine the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in three main abattoirs (Ogoja, Ikom and Bakoko) in the Northern, central and Southern senatorial zones of Cross River State. Out of the 66,680 ...

  3. Nuclear maturation of immature bovine oocytes after vitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second experiment, effectiveness of both vitrification methods was compared for cryopreservation of immature bovine oocytes. After warming, COCs were cultured in vitro for 24 h. The polar body (PB+) and metaphase-II (MII) stage rates differed significantly among treatment groups. Oocytes vitrified using cryotop ...

  4. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  5. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  6. Haplotype combination of the bovine PCSK1 gene sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haplotype combination of the bovine PCSK1 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Jiaxian cattle. JIAJIE SUN1,2, LIMIN SHAN2, CHUNLEI ZHANG2 and HONG CHEN1∗. 1College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology.

  7. Effect of cysteine supplementation on in vitro maturation of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parham

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... This study was aimed at determining the effect of cysteine supplement during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro in. Hepes-TCM 199 supplemented with 0.2 mM sodium pyruvate, 1 µg/ml 17-β-estradiol, 10% fetal calf.

  8. Outbreak of Bovine Rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya | Thaiyah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreak of Bovine Rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. A G Thaiyah, G K Gitau, J T Mugambi. Abstract. No Abstract The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21 2001: pp. 10-11. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/kenvet.v21i1.39501.

  9. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically healthy New ...

  10. Bovine cysticercosis and human teniasis with public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine statues of bovine cystiercosis and human taeniasis in Asella, Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Simple randomly sampling followed by detailed meat inspection for cyst distribution with cyst count and variability test was done at Asella Municipal Abattoir. Questionnaire ...

  11. Porcine and bovine surgical products: Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Catherine; Maddern, Guy

    2008-04-01

    To determine the acceptability of porcine and bovine surgical implants among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths whose beliefs prohibit them from consuming porcine and bovine products. An evaluation of current literature concerning religious beliefs among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths was undertaken to determine if animal-derived surgical implants are permitted for use in these religions. Because of the limited published literature about this topic, the opinions of religious leaders in Australia were sought. Religious and cultural beliefs can conflict with and limit treatment options, especially in surgery. Approximately 81 porcine and bovine surgical implants are regularly used in Australia. It is deemed acceptable for members of the Jewish faith to undergo surgery using porcine products. In dire situations and only after all other options have been exhausted, followers of the Muslim faith are permitted to use porcine surgical products. Hindu religious leaders did not accept the use of bovine surgical implants. Australia comprises a multicultural society; therefore, it is necessary to consider religious beliefs of all patients. As part of a surgeon's duty of care, the informed consent process should include a discussion about animal-derived surgical implants to avoid religious distress and possible litigation. A greater understanding of religious views would enhance the medical care of persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths.

  12. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  13. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  14. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its potential risk factors in selected sites of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. ... was high, This warrants the need of the institute to follow appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should ...

  15. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...

  16. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  17. Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Shield, J; Melville, C; Novelli, V; Anderson, G; Scheimberg, I; Gibb, D; Milla, P

    1993-01-01

    Lactobin-R is a commercial hyperimmune bovine colostrum with potent anticryptosporidial activity. It was administered to a 4 year old child with AIDS and severe diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis. There was significant clinical improvement in the diarrhoea and permanent elimination of the parasite from the gut as assessed through serial jejunal biopsy and stool specimens.

  18. Preliminary assessment of bovine trypanosomiasis and its vectors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiais and its vectors. Peasant farmers ﴾n=95﴿ were interviewed. Standard protocols for parasitological, hematocrit analysis as well as trypanosome identification were used. Acetone baited blue biconical traps ﴾n=5﴿ were used for entomological survey.

  19. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuri, Meha; Garg, Vivek; Mukherji, Chandan; Aggarwal, Divya; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow's milk or buffalo's milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%). Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81%) before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%), followed by water (49%), biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  20. Studies on inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in culture media and in bovine semen by photosensitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaglesome, M D; Bielanski, A; Hare, W C; Ruhnke, H L

    1994-01-01

    The application of three photosensitive agents for disinfection of bovine semen was investigated. Bovine microbial pathogens suspended in tissue culture medium and/or PBS and also added to bovine semen were exposed to the photosensitive agents followed by irradiation. Hematoporphyrin, hematoporphyrin derivative and thiopyronine were effective against bovine herpes virus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma canadense, and Ureaplasma diversum in culture media. In addition, thiopyronine was effective against Leptospira pomona. Similar treatments were not effective against Leptospira hardjo, Mycoplasma bovis, or Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. When microorganisms were added to bovine semen, only bovine herpes virus-1 was controlled by the photosensitive agents used at concentrations which did not appear harmful to sperm cells.

  1. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  2. Acidogenic potential of soy and bovine milk beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, S G; Saion, B N; Stacey, M A; Manton, D J; Cochrane, N J; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2012-09-01

    Soy beverages are water extracts of whole soybeans and are often promoted as a healthy alternative to bovine milk. Little analysis has been carried out to determine the effects of soy beverages on oral health, especially their potential acidogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the potential acidogenicity of a range of soy and bovine milk beverages. In vitro acid production by Streptococcus mutans was measured in soy and milk beverages at a constant pH of 6.5 or 5.5, as was the fall in pH over a 10 min period. The acid buffering capacity and calcium and phosphate concentrations (total and soluble) of the beverages were also determined. The rate of acid production by S. mutans in the milk beverages was five to six times lower at pH 6.5 than in the soy beverages and three to five times lower at pH 5.5. Whilst the pH fall in the presence of S. mutans over 10 min was negligible in the milk beverages there was a significant decrease in pH in the soy beverages. This was also reflected in the lower buffering capacity of the soy beverages. The levels of soluble calcium in the soy beverages were lower than those in the milk beverages although total calcium contents were similar. Soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk beverages. Patients consider soy beverages to be a healthy, low cariogenic alternative to other beverages, including bovine milk. This study shows that soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk and therefore may have a greater potential cariogenicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions

  4. LukMF' is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M; van Wigcheren, Glenn F; Koymans, Kirsten J; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  5. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  6. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  7. Severe bovine papillomatosis: detection of bovine papillomavirus in tumour tissue and efficacy of treatment using autogenous vaccine and parammunity inducer

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Nenad; Župančić, Željko; Starešina, Vilim; Kovač, Snježana; Babić, Tomislav; Kreszinger, Mario; Ćurić, Stipica; Barbić, Ljubo; Milas, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Two cases of severe bovine papillomatosis occurred in northwest Croatia during 2000 are described. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs, histopathological findings, and detection of the papillomavirus by transmission electron microscopy. Animals successfully recovered following treatment with the autogenous (non-purified) vaccine and a parammunity inducer. For the first time in Croatia we report the detection of papillomavirus by electron microscopy.

  8. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  9. A novel dynamic impact approach (DIA for functional analysis of time-course omics studies: validation using the bovine mammary transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bionaz

    Full Text Available The overrepresented approach (ORA is the most widely-accepted method for functional analysis of microarray datasets. The ORA is computationally-efficient and robust; however, it suffers from the inability of comparing results from multiple gene lists particularly with time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. To overcome such limitation a novel method termed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA is proposed. The DIA provides an estimate of the biological impact of the experimental conditions and the direction of the impact. The impact is obtained by combining the proportion of differentially expressed genes (DEG with the log2 mean fold change and mean -log P-value of genes associated with the biological term. The direction of the impact is calculated as the difference of the impact of up-regulated DEG and down-regulated DEG associated with the biological term. The DIA was validated using microarray data from a time-course experiment of bovine mammary gland across the lactation cycle. Several annotation databases were analyzed with DIA and compared to the same analysis performed by the ORA. The DIA highlighted that during lactation both BTA6 and BTA14 were the most impacted chromosomes; among Uniprot tissues those related with lactating mammary gland were the most positively-impacted; within KEGG pathways 'Galactose metabolism' and several metabolism categories related to lipid synthesis were among the most impacted and induced; within Gene Ontology "lactose biosynthesis" among Biological processes and "Lactose synthase activity" and "Stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase activity" among Molecular processes were the most impacted and induced. With the exception of the terms 'Milk', 'Milk protein' and 'Mammary gland' among Uniprot tissues and SP_PIR_Keyword, the use of ORA failed to capture as significantly-enriched (i.e., biologically relevant any term known to be associated with lactating mammary gland. Results indicate the DIA is a

  10. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  11. Short communication: Effects of β-lactoglobulin, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein gene allelic variants on milk production, composition, acidity, and coagulation properties of Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Maurmayr, A; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Macciotta, N P P; Mele, M; Secchiari, P; Pagnacco, G; Bittante, G

    2012-01-01

    Associations of allelic variants of the β-lactoglobulin (LGB), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) genes with milk production, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), acidity (pH and titratable acidity), and coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time and curd firmness) were investigated in Brown Swiss cows. In total, 294 animals (progeny of 15 sires) reared in 16 herds were milk-sampled once. The additive effects of LGB (rs109625649:C>T), SCD (ss469414220:C>T), and SREBP-1 (AB355704: g.101_185ins) polymorphisms on the aforementioned traits were analyzed through Bayesian linear models. The LGB genotype affected rennet coagulation time, with TT (or BB) alleles showing longer rennet coagulation time compared with CC (or AA) cows. The SCD gene allelic variants were found to be associated with protein and casein contents and curd firmness: CC animals had the lowest values for the aforementioned traits. An association was found between SREBP-1 alleles and fat content, with the highest values for cows carrying the 84-bp insertion (or L) allele. Results suggest a possible use of these loci in gene-assisted selection programs for the improvement of milk quality traits and coagulation properties in Brown Swiss cattle. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Waanders, Jennifer; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-02-01

    Chia seeds contain the essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). This study has assessed whether chia seeds attenuated the metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet [carbohydrates, 52% (wt/wt); fat, 24% (wt/wt) with 25% (wt/vol) fructose in drinking water] in rats. Diets of the treatment groups were supplemented with 5% chia seeds after 8 weeks on H diet for a further 8 weeks. Compared with the H rats, chia seed-supplemented rats had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity, decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis without changes in plasma lipids or blood pressure. Chia seeds induced lipid redistribution with lipid trafficking away from the visceral fat and liver with an increased accumulation in the heart. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 products were depleted in the heart, liver and the adipose tissue of chia seed-supplemented rats together with an increase in the substrate concentrations. The C18:1trans-7 was preferentially stored in the adipose tissue; the relatively inert C18:1n-9 was stored in sensitive organs such as liver and heart and C18:2n-6, the parent fatty acid of the n-6 pathway, was preferentially metabolized. Thus, chia seeds as a source of ALA induce lipid redistribution associated with cardioprotection and hepatoprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...

  14. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...... was developed and used to measure Michaelis-Menten kinetics towards a κ-casein derived peptide and to determine the inhibition constants of pepstatin towards the enzymes. In addition to this, the commercial products made by recombinant expression in Aspergillus niger (A. niger) were subjected to a detailed...

  15. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  17. Protein Composition of the Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1 Virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Kaley A; Daugherty, Hillary C; Ander, Stephanie E; Jefferson, Victoria A; Shack, Leslie A; Pechan, Tibor; Nanduri, Bindu; Meyer, Florencia

    2017-02-20

    Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known as the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). BoHV-1 latently infects the host for life and periodical stress events re-initiate BRD, translating into high morbidity and large economic losses. To gain a better understanding of the biology of BoHV-1 and the disease it causes, we elucidated the protein composition of extracellular virions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We detected 33 viral proteins, including the expected proteins of the nucleocapsid and envelope as well as other regulatory proteins present in the viral tegument. In addition to viral proteins, we have also identified packaged proteins of host origin. This constitutes the first proteomic characterization of the BoHV virion.

  18. Can established cultured papilloma cells harbor bovine papillomavirus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, S R C; Trindade, C; Ferraz, O P; Giovanni, D N S; Lima, A A; Caetano, H V A; Carvalho, R F; Birgel, E H; Dagli, M L Z; Mori, E; Brandão, P E; Richtzenhain, L J; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2008-10-21

    Papillomaviruses have been reported to be very difficult to grow in cell culture. Also, there are no descriptions of cell cultures from lesions of bovine cutaneous papillomatosis, with identification of different bovine papilloma virus (BPV) DNA sequences. In the present report, we describe primary cell cultures from samples of cutaneous lesions (warts). We investigated the simultaneous presence of different BPV DNA sequences, comparing the original lesion to different passages of the cell cultures and to peripheral blood. BPV 1, 2 and 4 DNA sequences were found in lesion samples, and respective cell cultures and peripheral blood, supporting our previous hypothesis of the possible activity of these sequences in different samples and now also showing how they can be maintained in different passages of cell cultures.

  19. Cytogenetic studies in peripheral blood of bovines afflicted by papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Campos, S R C; Ferraz, O P; Lindsey, C J; Rieger, T T; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2011-12-01

    Ten types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been described and there are reports of viral transmission via blood. The presence of viral DNA in lymphocytes was described to be associated with chromosome instability in these cells. This study presents an evaluation of chromosome instability in short-term peripheral lymphocyte cultures from cows presenting skin papillomatosis, compared with asymptomatic infected animals and non-infected healthy bovines. In a total of 2203 cells, 918 (42%) showed at least one chromosome aberration: 42.7 (± 7.8) in animals with papillomatosis (BPV + W), 40.2 (± 11) in asymptomatic animals (BPV-W) and 4 (± 2) in control animals. Significant differences were found between the infected group (with or without symptoms) and the control group (P < 0.0001). The increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations suggest an interaction between the virus and host cell chromatin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  1. DC and AC conductivity properties of bovine dentine hydroxyapatite (BDHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumludag, F.; Gunduz, O.; Kılıc, O.; Ekren, N.; Kalkandelen, C.; Ozbek, B.; Oktar, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Bovine dentine bio-waste may be used as a potential natural source of hydroxyapatite (BDHA), thus extraction of bovine dentin hydroxyapatite (BDHA) from bio-waste is significantly important to fabricate in a simple, economically and environmentally preferable. DC and AC conductivity properties of BDHA were investigated depending on sintering temperature (1000ºC - 1300°C) in air and vacuum (<10-2 mbar) ambient at room temperature. DC conductivity measurements performed between -1 and 1 V. AC conductivity measurements performed in the frequency range of 40 Hz – 100 kHz. DC conductivity results showed that dc conductivity values of the BDHA decrease with increasing sintering temperature in air ambient. It is not observed remarkable/systematic behavior for ac conductivity depending on sintering temperature.

  2. Characterization and identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J L

    1988-06-01

    A total of 317 gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine mammary glands were characterized and identified using current species descriptions. Two hundred eighty-seven isolates (90.5%) could be placed in 11 distinct species. Streptococcus uberis was the most frequently encountered species and could be separated into two previously described genetic types based upon sucrose utilization. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and a newly described species, Streptococcus saccharolyticus, were the most frequently isolated organisms from teat canal swabs. Thirty isolates could not be placed in currently described species. A proposed identification scheme based upon serological grouping and seven biochemical tests would permit 24 h identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

  3. Characterization and stabilization of suspension of bovine bone ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carus, L.A.; Bento, L.; Takimi, A.S.; Braganca, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The bovine bone powder is the main component in the production of bone china, which is known to be one of the finest and most expensive tableware. This special type of porcelain has unique aesthetic characteristics, among which stands out the whiteness, translucency and brightness. The properties of this porcelain, as well as its manufacture, depend on the characteristics of the bone ash. In this study the rheological properties of the suspensions using exclusively bovine bone ash were evaluated by testing the influence of the concentration of solids in suspension, the calcination temperature and the use of dispersing agents. It was found that the powder calcination temperature affects the rheology of the suspension by lowering the viscosity. (author)

  4. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  5. Immunochemical, biomolecular and biochemical characterization of bovine epithelial intestinal primocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainil Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultures of enterocytes and colonocytes represent valuable tools to study growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. In vitro models may be used to evaluate passage or toxicity of drugs, interactions of enteropathogenes bacteria strains with intestinal epithelium and other physiologic or pathologic phenomenon involving the digestive tract. Results Cultures of bovine colonocytes and jejunocytes were obtained from organoid-enriched preparations, using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical disruption of the intestine epithelium, followed by an isopicnic centrifugation discarding most single cells. Confluent cell monolayers arising from plated organoids exhibited epithelium typical features, such as the pavement-like structure, the presence of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Accordingly, cells expressed several markers of enterocyte brush border (i.e. maltase, alkaline phosphatase and fatty acid binding protein as well as an epithelial cytoskeleton component (cytokeratin 18. However, enterocyte primocultures were also positive for the vimentin immunostaining (mesenchyme marker. Vimentin expression studies showed that this gene is constitutively expressed in bovine enterocytes. Comparison of the vimentin expression profile with the pattern of brush border enzymes activities, suggested that the decrease of cell differentiation level observed during the enterocyte isolation procedure and early passages of the primoculture could result from a post-transcriptional de-repression of vimentin synthesis. The low differentiation level of bovine enterocytes in vitro could partly be counteracted adding butyrate (1–2 mM or using a glucose-deprived culture medium. Conclusion The present study describes several complementary approaches to characterize bovine primary cultures of intestinal cells. Cultured cells kept their morphologic and functional characteristics during several generations.

  6. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Renato L.; Martins,Telma M.; Borges,Álan M.; Paixão,Tatiane A.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infe...

  7. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

  9. In vitro exposure of bovine morulae to Ureaplasma diversum.

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, A P; Ruhnke, H L; Miller, R B; Johnson, W H; Leslie, K E; Rosendal, S

    1987-01-01

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in the cow experimentally and in naturally occurring cases. However, the pathogenic mechanism is undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ureaplasmas are pathogenic for bovine morulae in vitro. Twenty-one morulae were recovered from three superovulated, mature, Holstein cows six or seven days postestrus. The embryos were divided into three groups (A,B,C) and incubated for 16 hours at 37 degrees C in humidified ai...

  10. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  11. The distribution of multiple opiate receptors in bovine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Hunt, S.P.; Emson, P.C.; Iversen, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of μ and delta opiate receptors in bovine brain has been investigated using the selective radioligands [ 3 H]morphine and D-[ 3 H]Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 -enkephalin. Their distributions were found to vary independently through different brain areas with up to a 10-fold difference between the ratio of μ to delta binding sites for the substantia nigra and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (Auth.)

  12. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%, the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs and secretions (sputum, milk. In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  13. The isolation of demolybdo xanthine oxidase from bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ventom, A M; Deistung, J; Bray, R C

    1988-01-01

    It was deduced many years ago from indirect evidence that demolybdo xanthine oxidase is present in normal bovine milk. This has now been confirmed by isolation of this enzyme form by a method based on the folate-gel affinity-chromatography procedure described Nishino & Tsushima [(1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 11242-11246]. Enzymic and spectroscopic properties of demolybdo xanthine oxidase, which retains flavin and iron-sulphur centres, are generally in accordance with expectations. Like the norma...

  14. Prevalence des trypanosomoses bovines dans les cercles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif du projet TCP/MLI/3402 FAO est d'initier une campagne de protection efficace et durable des bovins contre la Trypanosomose Animale Africaine (TAA) et la résistance aux trypanocides par le contrôle de la mouche tsé-tsé combiné aux traitements stratégiques des animaux. Préalablement à la mise en oeuvre des ...

  15. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, K; Hussein, D; Asseged, B; Wondwossen, T; Gebeyehu, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by a comparative intradermal tuberculin test of 1,869 animals in 106 farms. Epidemiological information was also collected, taking into account factors chosen for their epidemiological significance and local livestock husbandry characteristics. In addition, milk samples were collected from tuberculin reactors for mycobacterial isolation and characterisation. Chi-square statistic, simple regression and multiple stepwise logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Of the 106 farms examined, 46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.8% to 53.4%) contained comparative skin test reactors. Of the 1,869 animals, 443 (95% CI: 21.8% to 25.7%) were comparative skin test reactors. Furthermore, about 8.5% of tuberculin sensitive cows (12 of a sample of 141) secreted acid-fast bacteria in their milk. The microbes are described in more detail in the paper. Factors identified as possibly increasing the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa were herd size (large herd), farming (housing) condition (poor), and age (older animals). Similarly, as body condition scores improved from poor to medium and then to good, the likelihood of positive results significantly decreased (OR = 0.54; p < 0.01). Other factors including breed, sex, and physiological status of animals did not seem to significantly contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large-size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis suggests that the significance of bovine tuberculosis is increasing in Addis Ababa parallel to an increasing dairy operation. If measures are not taken promptly, the impact on the economy and public health could be enormous.

  16. Preventive effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... In the present study, the anti-diabetic effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrum were evaluated in .... first day was collected from cows at parturition, cooled to 4oC, and ... that received ordinary skim milk powder at the dose of 133.40 mg/kg·bw and served as diabetic control mice, group 3 and 4 ...

  17. BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN EAST AFRICA ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    J.M. MUGAMBI, S.G. OMWENGA, H.O. WESONGA, P. MBATHA1, S. GATHOGO1, A.C. CHOTA2,. H.B. MAGWISHA2 ... In one area of Mwingi County, eastern Kenya, all the 161 cattle tested negative; while in the other ... Dans une zone de Mwingi a l'Est du Kenya, tous les 161 bovins ont été testes négative; tandis que dans.

  18. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) belongs to the genus of Varicellovirus and the family of Herpesviridae which contains three main gB, gC and gD genes. In order to cloning of the coding region of gD gene of. IBR virus , PCR product of the open reading frame of the gene from IBR virus isolated in Iran was.

  19. A Novel Genetic Group of Bovine Hepacivirus in Archival Serum Samples from Brazilian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV (genus Hepacivirus; family Flaviviridae is a major human pathogen causing persistent infection and hepatic injury. Recently, emerging HCV-like viruses were described infecting wild animals, such as bats and rodents, and domestic animals, including dogs, horses, and cattle. Using degenerate primers for detecting bovine pestiviruses in a 1996 survey three bovine serum samples showed a low identity with the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. A virus could not be isolated in cell culture. The description of bovine hepaciviruses (BovHepV in 2015 allowed us to retrospectively identify the sequences as BovHepV, with a 88.9% nucleotide identity. In a reconstructed phylogenetic tree, the Brazilian BovHepV samples grouped within the bovine HCV-like cluster in a separated terminal node that was more closely related to the putative bovine Hepacivirus common ancestor than to bovine hepaciviruses detected in Europe and Africa.

  20. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    to mastitis in a bovine subject for determining mastitis resistance in a bovine subject; for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of at least one genetic marker associated with resistance to mastitis; and for estimating breeding value in respect of susceptibility to mastitis in a bovine...... subject. The bovine subject is a member of Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red and White, or Danish Red cattle breed (claimed). ADVANTAGE - The method efficiently selects bovine subjects with increased resistance to mastitis and thereby avoiding economic losses in connection with animals suffering from mastitis....... The genetic predisposition for resistance to mastitis may be detected by the present method....

  1. Hot topic: Ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Myers, W A; Laub, D J; Davis, A N; Zeng, Q; McFadden, J W

    2018-04-01

    In nonruminants, the sphingolipid ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity by inactivating protein kinase B (AKT) within the insulin-signaling pathway. We have established that ceramide accrual develops with impaired systemic insulin action in ruminants during the transition from gestation to lactation, dietary palmitic acid supplementation, or controlled nutrient restriction. We hypothesized that ceramide promotes AKT inactivation and antagonizes insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes. Stromal-vascular cells were grown from bovine adipose tissue explants and cultured in differentiation media. To modify ceramide supply, we treated differentiated adipocytes with (1) myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, or (2) cell-permeable C2:0-ceramide. Insulin-stimulated AKT activation (i.e., phosphorylation) and 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose (2DOG) uptake were measured. Treatment of adipocytes with myriocin consistently decreased concentrations of ceramide, monohexosylceramide, and lactosylceramide. The insulin-stimulated ratio of phosphorylated AKT to total AKT was increased with myriocin but decreased with C2:0-ceramide. Moreover, adipocyte insulin-stimulated 2DOG uptake was decreased with C2:0-ceramide and increased with myriocin. We conclude that ceramide inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by downregulating AKT activation in primary bovine adipocytes. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  3. Inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, C; House, J A; Yedloutschnig, R J

    1990-10-01

    Cell culture origin or suckling mouse brain origin viruses of Akabane disease, Aino, bovine ephemeral fever, swine vesicular disease, hog cholera, bluetongue, and minute virus of mice were each suspended in bovine serum. Aliquots (1 mL) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source while at -68 degrees C. Aliquots (100-mL) of serum from a steer experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were similarly irradiated. The samples were assayed for infectivity in cell culture systems before and after irradiation, and the data points were analyzed by linear regression. The irradiation doses (in megarads) necessary to inactivate one log10 of viral infectivity (D10) was calculated for each virus. D10 is otherwise known as the slope of the regression line. The r2 value, a measure of association with 1.0 = perfect fit, was also calculated for each regression line. The values (D10, r2) for each virus were as follows: Akabane, 0.25, 0.998; Aino, 0.35, 0.997; bovine ephemeral fever, 0.29, 0.961; swine vesicular disease, 0.50, 0.969; foot-and-mouth disease, 0.53, 0.978; hog cholera, 0.55, 0.974; bluetongue, 0.83, 0.958; and minute virus of mice, 1.07, 0.935.

  4. [Program optimization for bovine somatic cells nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoling; Gao, Zhimin; Hu, Yongce; Sui, Jinqiang; Huang, Weiwei; Zan, Linsen; Dou, Zhongying

    2009-09-01

    To optimize program of bovine somatic nuclear transfer, we used two different enucleation procedures (by Spindle-view system & Hoechst 33342 staining), two different procedures to introduce donor nuclei (by ooplasm microinjection & electrofusion), and three different group electrofusion parameters (group 1: 1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two; group 2: 1.5 kV/cm, 25 micros, two; group 3: 0.6 kV/cm, 100 micros, one) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. The cleavation rates and blastocyst development rates of cloned embryos were used to assess the efficiency of different operational procedure. Finally, the best combination of operational procedure, that the spindle-viewer system was used for oocytes enucleating, and donor cell was electrofused into ooplasm by electrical pulse (1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. Then the excellent blastocysts were transferred to fosters for producing cloned cattle 80 high-quality cloned blastocysts were transferred into 33 fosters, two cloned calves were produced. According to the results, the optimized program could be used to produce cloned cattle.

  5. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

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    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  6. Antirotaviral Activity of Bovine and Ovine Dairy Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, José Antonio; Ripollés, Daniel; Pérez, María Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2017-05-31

    Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with significant morbidity in developed countries and a high rate of infant mortality in developing countries. Diverse studies have demonstrated that a wide range of milk-derived fractions exhibit antirotaviral activity. The present study shows the antirotaviral activity of some bovine and ovine dairy byproducts, buttermilk, butter serum, and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and evaluates the effect of cream washing and heat treatment on that activity. Furthermore, the rotavirus-neutralizing activity was evaluated for some MFGM proteins, such as xanthine oxidase and lactophorin. Ovine and bovine buttermilk reached rotavirus-neutralizing values of 51.3 and 32.2%, at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The cream washing process led to a significant decrease in the antirotaviral activity of fractions. This activity was also influenced by heat treatment. Treatment at 75 °C for 20 s caused 24.6 and 36.1% decreases of activity in bovine and ovine buttermilk, respectively, and 85 °C for 10 min caused decreases of 80.9 and 79.0% in both fractions, respectively.

  7. SCAFFOLD DARI BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE DENGAN POLY VYNIALCHOHOL COATING

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    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  8. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  9. Clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic studies on Bovine Papillomatosis in Northern Oases, Egypt in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Fayez Awadalla Salib 1 and Haithm Ali Farghali 2

    2011-01-01

    Bovine papillomatosis is a viral disease of cattle characterized clinically by development of multiple benign tumours termed warts. The diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis was confirmed by clinical and pathological examinations of the warts. The prevalence of bovine papillomatosis in Northern Oases was recorded as 4.86%. The prevalence was higher in the females (2.99%) than males (1.87%).The prevalence was the highest in cattle less than one year old (2.99%). The infected cattle were examined ...

  10. Les femmes prennent part à la lutte contre les maladies des bovins ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2016 ... Des chercheurs du Kenya et du Canada sont à mettre au point un nouveau vaccin contre une maladie pulmonaire des bovins et font participer activement des éleveuses de bovins Somalis au processus. Les femmes Somalis jouent un rôle crucial dans l'élevage des bovins, mais ce sont en général les ...

  11. Bovine papillomatosis: First detection of bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 in Italian cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, F; Mancini, S; Gallina, L; Donati, G; Casà, G; Peli, A; Scagliarini, A

    2016-04-01

    Limited information about the distribution of different bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types in Italy is available; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of BPVs in bovine lesions in the Emilia Romagna region. Sixty-four proliferative lesions were collected between december 2011 and december 2014, and subsequently analysed by qualitative PCR with genus- and type-specific primer pairs, as well as rolling circle amplification (RCA). The results demonstrated, for the first time in Italy, the presence of BPV 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 and also types previously described elsewhere. In addition, the high prevalence of viral co-infections in this sample set provides new information about viral tropism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell Infectivity in relation to bovine leukemia virus gp51 and p24 in bovine milk exosomes.

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    Tetsuya Yamada

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exosomes and BLV in bovine milk. BLV structural proteins, gp51 (Env and p24 (Gag, were detected in bovine milk exosomes from BLV-infected cattle by Western blot analysis. In cells inoculated with these milk exosomes, BLV DNA was not detected during three serial passages by nested PCR. Purification of exosomes from persistently BLV-infected cells was achieved by immuno-magnetic separation using an antibody against exosomes coupled to magnetic beads. Consistently, BLV gp51 and p24 proteins were detected in purified exosomes. Moreover, reverse transcriptase activity was observed in purified exosomes, meaning that exosomes also contain viral enzyme. However, BLV DNA was not detected in serially passaged cells after inoculation of purified exosomes, indicating that exosomes carrying BLV proteins appeared to be not infectious. These results suggest that BLV proteins are released with milk exosomes and could be transferred into recipient cells of calves via milk exosomes as an alternative route not requiring virus infection. Moreover it is also possible that bovine milk exosomes play a role in clearance of BLV proteins from infected cells.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is expressed by the bovine uterus and stimulates interferon-tau production in bovine trophectoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Donna D; Alvarez, Idania M; Ocón, Olga M; Powell, Anne M; Talbot, Neil C; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2006-07-01

    Uterine-derived factors are essential for conceptus development and secretion of the maternal recognition-of-pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), in ruminant species. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is expressed in the bovine uterus during early pregnancy in cattle and to determine whether FGF-2 supplementation affects IFNT mRNA and protein abundance in bovine trophectoderm. FGF-2 mRNA was present in endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and was localized to the luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium at d 17-18 after estrus in pregnant and nonpregnant cows. Immunoreactive FGF-2 protein was detected within the endometrium and in the uterine lumen at d 17-18 after estrus, and concentrations did not differ based on pregnancy status. In a bovine trophectoderm cell line, CT-1, supplementation of medium with at least 1 ng/ml FGF-2 increased the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine into DNA. Similarly, IFNT secretion from CT-1 cells increased after FGF-2 supplementation (1-100 ng/ml) for 72 h. Abundance of IFNT mRNA in CT-1 cells increased after 24 h exposure to 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml FGF-2. In bovine blastocysts, FGF-2 supplementation did not affect cell number after 72 h of culture but did stimulate IFNT protein concentrations in conditioned medium. In summary, FGF-2 is present in the uterine lumen during early pregnancy and increases IFNT mRNA and protein abundance in trophectoderm. The magnitude by which FGF-2 stimulates IFNT expression suggests that this uterine-derived factor plays an active role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in ruminants.

  14. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence and hygienic quality of retail bovine ground meat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Sivonen, K; Hänninen, M-L

    2014-05-01

    Detection of common genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni among Finnish human and bovine isolates, suggested that bovines may be a source for zoonotic Camp. jejuni infection. In addition, a Finnish epidemiological study implied the tasting and eating raw or undercooked beef as risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. We therefore performed a study on the occurrence of Camp. jejuni in retail bovine ground meat in Helsinki by the use of both cultivation and PCR. During 2011 and 2012, 175 bovine ground meat samples were collected. None of the samples were Campylobacter positive by cultivation, and only one sample (0.6%) was Camp. jejuni positive by the use of PCR on template extracted directly from ground meat. According to our findings, Finnish bovine ground meat is an unlikely source for human campylobacteriosis. Additionally, the hygienic quality of bovine ground meat at retail level was screened and found to be good when monitored by aerobic micro-organisms, total thermotolerant coliforms and Eshericha coli. This study provides the first data on the occurrence of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Finnish bovine ground meat. This knowledge is important as part of future Campylobacter risk assessment, management and monitoring programs, particularly when assessing the relative attribution of poultry, pork and bovine meat to the burden of human campylobacteriosis. According to our results, Finnish bovine ground meat at retail level is of good hygienic quality. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A; Barkema, Herman W; Naushad, Sohail; De Buck, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Non- aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species ( S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. saprophyticus , S. sciuri , S. simulans , S. warneri , and S. xylosus ) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro , 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. simulans , and S. xylosus , also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus ) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial

  17. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A.; Barkema, Herman W.; Naushad, Sohail

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species (S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri, and S. xylosus) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro, 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. simulans, and S. xylosus, also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

  18. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  19. Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed ω-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yi; Brooks, Amanda; Guo, Bin; Miskimins, Keith W; Qian, Steven Y

    2016-08-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, an ω-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream ω-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, -9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel ω-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Gene expression of desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) enzymes in peripheral blood: association with polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and atopic eczema in 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisaguano, Aida Maribel; Montes, Rosa; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Guerendiain, Marcela; Bustamante, Mariona; Morales, Eva; García-Esteban, Raquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Franch, Angels; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown if changes in the gene expression of the desaturase and elongase enzymes are associated with abnormal n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in children with atopic eczema (AE). We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children. AE (n=20) and non-AE (n=104) children participating in the Sabadell cohort within the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project were included in the present study. RT-PCR with TaqMan Low-Density Array cards was used to measure the mRNA-expression of FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5. LC-PUFA levels were measured by fast gas chromatography in plasma phospholipids. The relationship of gene expression with LC-PUFA levels and enzyme activities was evaluated by Pearson's rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression models were used to study its association with risk of developing AE. Children with AE had lower levels of several n-6 PUFA members, dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic (AA) acids. mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 strongly correlated with DGLA levels and with D6D activity. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA-expression levels were significantly lower in AE than in non-AE children (-40.30% and -20.36%; respectively), but no differences were found for FADS1. Changes in the mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 directly affect blood DGLA levels and D6D activity. This study suggests that lower mRNA-expressions of FADS2 and ELOVL5 are associated with higher risk of atopic eczema in young children.