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Sample records for bovine schistosomiasis background

  1. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

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    André Capron

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people throughout the world and causes about 500,000 deaths annually. Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease transmission. Since viable eggs are the cause of disease pathology, a reduction in worm fecundity whether or not accompanied by a reduction in parasite burden is a sufficient goal for vaccine induced immunity. We originally showed that IgE antibodies played in experimental models a pivotal role for the development of protective immunity. These laboratory findings have been now confirmed in human populations. Following the molecular cloning and expression of a protein 28 kDa protein of Schistosoma mansoni and its identification as a glutathion S-transferase, immunization experiments have been undertaken in several animal species (rats, mice, baboons. Together with a significant reduction in parasite burden, vaccination with Sm28 GST was recently shown to reduce significantly parasite fecundity and egg viability leading to a decrease in liver pathology. Whereas IgE antibodies were shown to be correlated with protection against infection, IgA antibodies have been identified as one of the factors affecting egg laying and viability. In human populations, a close association was found between IgA antibody production to Sm28 GST and the decrease of egg output. The use of appropriate monoclonal antibody probes has allowed the demonstration that the inhibition of parasite fecundity following immunization was related to the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the molecule. Epitope mapping of Sm28 GST has indicated the prominent role of the N and C terminal domains

  2. ELISA FOR BOVINE SCHISTOSOMIASIS VACCINE EVALUATION: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

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    Imadeldin Elamin Aradaib

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Six calves were immunized with schistosomula of Schistosoma bovis irradiated at 3 or 20 Kilorad (Krad and three calves were kept as controls. Twenty four weeks post immunization, three calves (one from the 20 Krad and two from the 3 Krad group were challenged with normal cercaria of S. bovis. The immune response was monitored by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA using adult worm antigen. Using AGID, precipitin lines were observed only with sera from challenged animals. Using ELISA, the immune response of the vaccinated calves was first detected by 2-3 weeks, peaking by 6-8 weeks post vaccination. The immune response of the three challenged calves was elevated by 2 weeks post challenge, peaking at 8-10 weeks post challenge and remained high throughout the experimental period. This study suggests that ELISA could be used for diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis.

  3. Standardization of dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis

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    Kommu Sudhakar; Sreenivasa Murthy, G. S.; Gaddam Rajeshwari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. This study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: A dot-ELISA was stand...

  4. Treatment of bovine schistosomiasis with medicinal plant Veronia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During present studies, buffalos naturally infected with Schistosomiasis were treated with Veronia anthelmintica (Kaliziri), with dose 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 225 mg/kg body weight respectively, and their impact on various parameters like eggs reduction, milk production, weight gain and feed intake was noted.

  5. Schistosomiasis

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    Husnawati, Eka; Lusiyana, Novyan

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a zoonosis disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma sp. There are a few species that can infect humans and animals, including Schistosoma aponicum, Schistosoma mansonia, Schistosoma hematobium, Schistosoma intercalatum Schistosoma guineensis and Schistosoma mekongi.1 This disease is endemic in 78 countries, in which 52 of them are countries with moderate-high level of endemicity. Schistosoma sp are very difficult to elim...

  6. Standardization of dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis

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    Kommu Sudhakar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. This study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: A dot-ELISA was standardized in the laboratory using whole worm antigen (WWA and excretory-secretory antigen (ESA of S. spindale. The standardized test was used for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis at field level. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was compared with counter current immunoelectrophoresis. In total, 288 sera (125 cattle and 163 buffalo were screened by dot-ELISA. Results: The dot-ELISA detected 32.63% of infection (94/288 using WWA and 40.62% of infection (117/288 using ESA. In cattle, the prevalence rate was 32.80% (41/125 using WWA and 40.80% (51/125 of infection. Similarly, in buffaloes, the prevalence rate was 32.51% (53/163 using WWA and 40.49% (66/163 of infection using ESA. The overall sensitivity of dot-ELISA was 76.74% and 80.48% with WWA and ESA, respectively, and specificity was 73.3% and 78.57% in WWA and ESA, respectively. Conclusion: As ante-mortem diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis is difficult in subclinical conditions, dot-ELISA can be used as a reliable immunodiagnostic test for diagnosis at field level.

  7. Standardization of dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis.

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    Sudhakar, Kommu; Murthy, G S Sreenivasa; Rajeshwari, Gaddam

    2017-05-01

    Bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. This study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around Hyderabad. A dot-ELISA was standardized in the laboratory using whole worm antigen (WWA) and excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) of S. spindale. The standardized test was used for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis at field level. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was compared with counter current immunoelectrophoresis. In total, 288 sera (125 cattle and 163 buffalo) were screened by dot-ELISA. The dot-ELISA detected 32.63% of infection (94/288) using WWA and 40.62% of infection (117/288) using ESA. In cattle, the prevalence rate was 32.80% (41/125) using WWA and 40.80% (51/125) of infection. Similarly, in buffaloes, the prevalence rate was 32.51% (53/163) using WWA and 40.49% (66/163) of infection using ESA. The overall sensitivity of dot-ELISA was 76.74% and 80.48% with WWA and ESA, respectively, and specificity was 73.3% and 78.57% in WWA and ESA, respectively. As ante-mortem diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis is difficult in subclinical conditions, dot-ELISA can be used as a reliable immunodiagnostic test for diagnosis at field level.

  8. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

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    Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.; Shi, F.H.; Shen, W.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Clarke, W.R.

    1984-09-01

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial in the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.

  9. Assessing the effect of an integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis japonica emphasizing bovines in a marshland area of Hubei Province, China: a cluster randomized trial.

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    Xi-Cheng Hong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P0.05 for all comparisons. Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001 and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405.

  10. Physiology of acid-base balance in bovines with diarrhea backgrounds from Monteria, Colombia

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    César Betancur H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the acid-base balance (ABB in bovines with diarrheic backgrounds in four areas of Montería, Colombia. Materials and methods. From a total of 300 pregnant cows, 60 were selected with their newborns. A direct inspection was performed of vital signs on the calves and the ABB indicators were determined using a gasometric method. Data were processed by means of descriptive statistics and the Duncan test was used to differentiate between the averages. The degree of association was established between the ABB indicators in cows and calves by using the Pearson correlation and a comparison of proportions was performed on the indexes of the newborns. Results. Regarding the cows, the ABB indicators were found within the reference values; however, in the calves the pH, pCO2, HCO3 - , the anion gap (AG and the bases excess (BE varied. A correlation was found between AG, BE and metabolic hydrogen ions (M*H. The AG in cows and calves showed notable differences (p<0.05 among the farms in the study. According to the numeric classification system, the suction reflect indicated a greater percentage of calves in group one. Conclusions. The ABB analyte measurement in cows was similar to the consulted reference; however, in calves some analytes did not coincide. This suggests metabolic acidosis in newborn calves due to the increase of AG and the decrease of BE. Additionally, its correlation with M*H opens the possibility of new proposals to determine ABB in bovines.

  11. Intestinal Schistosomiasis and the Associated Transmission Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, affecting populations living where water supply and sanitation are poor and inadequate. Pre-school aged children (PSAC) have ... Keywords: Intestinal schistosomiasis prevalence, Pre-school children, Rwanda. Background. Schistosomiasis is a .... facilities (Republic of Rwanda, 2012). Study design and population.

  12. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE Schistosomiasis and malignancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and colon carcinoma reviewed. SAfrMedJ1994; 84: 211-215. It has been estimated that over 250 million ... Historical background. Theodor Bilharz first found adult worms of the trema- tode, now known ..... A raised incidence of colorectal cancer in association with schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni has not been detected in ...

  14. Schistosomiasis and associated infections

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    Lambertucci JR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospital-based series viral hepatitis B has been frequently described in association with schistosomiasis whilst in field-based studies the association has not been confirmed. The association between schistosomiasis and Salmonella bacteraemia has been well documented. More recently, acute schistosomiasis has been shown to be a facilitating factor in the genesis of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus. New evidences indicate an interaction between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and schistosomiasis. In this paper, data on the association of schistosomiasis with other infections are updated.

  15. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN

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    Emery Aidan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL. This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE, resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities.

  16. Assessing the influence of water level on schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake region before and after the construction of Three Gorges Dam.

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    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a severe public health problem in the Dongting Lake region, and its distribution, prevalence, and intensity of infection are particularly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, the human and bovine schistosomiasis variations in the Dongting Lake region were studied from 1996 to 2010, and the relationships between schistosomiasis and water level were examined. Furthermore, based on these results, the potential effects of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis were investigated. Results showed an increase in human schistosomiasis and in the scope of seriously affected regions, along with a decrease in bovine schistosomiasis. Human schistosomiasis was negatively correlated with water level during wet season (from May to October), particularly the average water level in October. This finding indicated that the decreasing water level may be highly related to the increasing of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Based on this result and the variation of schistosomiasis before and after the construction and operation of TGD, the impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir is believed to decrease the water level and increase the contact between people and schistosomiasis. Therefore, the TGD, which is operated by regulating water and scheduling water operations, is not good for the control of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Although the extent of the influence of the TGD on schistosomiasis remains unclear, the influence of the TGD on preventing and controlling schistosomiasis should not be ignored.

  17. CASE REPORT Cerebral schistosomiasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0b013e3182704d1e]. 5. Sanelli PC, Lev MH, Gonzalez RG, Schaefer PW. Unique linear and nodular MR enhancement pattern in schistosomiasis of the central nervous system: Report of three patients. AJR 2001;177(6):1471-1474. Cerebral schistosomiasis.

  18. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    , social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher...... alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa - was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African...... countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...

  19. Community's awareness about intestinal schistosomiasis and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni(S. mansoni) infection is a widely distributed disease in several localities of Ethiopia. However, very limited information is available on the level of community's awareness about the disease. The aim of this study was to assess community's ...

  20. Schistosomiasis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makaula, Peter; Sadalaki, John R.; Muula, Adamson S.

    2014-01-01

    and Google Scholar using th keywords: "schistosomiasis", "Bilharzia", "Bulinus" and "Biomphalaria" in combination with "Malawi". These searche were supplemented by iterative reviews of reference lists for relevant publications in peer reviewed internationa scientific journals or other media. The recovered......Introduction: Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem that undermines social and economi development in tropical regions of the world, mainly Sub-Saharan Africa. We are not aware of any systematic revie of the literature of the epidemiology and transmission of schistosomiasis...... in Malawi since 1985. Therefore, w reviewed the current state of knowledge of schistosomiasis epidemiology and transmission in this country an identified knowledge gaps and relevant areas for future research and research governance Methods: We conducted computer-Aided literature searches of Medline, SCOPUS...

  1. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control

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    McCullough, F. S.; Gayral, Ph.; DUNCAN, J; Christie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Although mollusciciding can be a cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis transmission, only one organic molluscicide, niclosamide, is now being produced commercially, and only a few compounds are at present being tested in the laboratory. In future, improved cost-effective use of molluscicides will require more precise knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission patterns in each endemic area and improved application techniques. In snail control studies using controlled-release form...

  2. A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China

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    Li Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5. At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75% and bovine (100% incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from

  3. [Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China].

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    Luo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Franziska, Bieri; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Hou, Xun-Ya; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Li, Yi-Yi; Dong, Ru-Lan; Zeng, Jin-Yuan; She, Shu-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis-control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-economy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County improved dramatically, but the recurrence risk of schistosomiasis endemic still existed due to the retuning of out-going workers and the migrating population. Moreover, the introduction of exotic species of plants and animals may increase the risk. The low running cost of schistosomiasis control organization as well as the efficient and adequate resource allocation in the county was in line with the national requirement to strengthen the rural grass-roots public health system. The harmonious development of socio-economy and the scientific and efficient health system in Taoyuan County are the key factors for the sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis.

  4. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed.......Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well...

  5. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

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    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  6. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

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    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  7. implications for schistosomiasis control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of adult and 26% school children could relate hematuria to wading, a common means of exposure to urinary schistosomiasis. More than half ... energy malnutrition, and reduced mental and physiological performance [2]. Control measures ..... performance in Guatemala. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine ...

  8. Schistosomiasis control in China

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    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  9. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  10. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p

  11. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

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    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  12. Long-term effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control in China: a 10-year evaluation from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Wei; Wang, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease of great public health significance worldwide. Currently, mass drug administration with praziquantel remains the major strategy for global schistosomiasis control programs. Since 2005, an integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was implemented for the control of schistosomiasis japonica, a major public health concern in China, and pilot studies have demonstrated that such a strategy is effective to reduce the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in both humans and bovines. However, there is little knowledge on the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for controlling schistosomiasis japonica. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control following the 10-year implementation, based on the data from the national schistosomiasis control program released by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China. In 2014, there were 5 counties in which the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica had not been interrupted, which reduced by 95.2% as compared to that in 2005 (105 counties). The number of schistosomiasis patients and acute cases reduced by 85.5 and 99.7% in 2014 (115,614 cases and 2 cases) as compared to that in 2005 (798,762 cases and 564 cases), and the number of bovines and S. japonicum-infected bovines reduced by 47.9 and 98% in 2014 (919,579 bovines and 666 infected bovines) as compared to that in 2005 (1,764,472 bovines and 33,736 infected bovines), respectively. During the 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy, however, there was a minor fluctuation in the area of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats, and there was only a 5.6% reduction in the area of snail habitats in 2014 relative to in 2005. The results of the current study demonstrate that the 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source has greatly reduced schistosomiasis

  13. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, F S; Gayral, P; Duncan, J; Christie, J D

    1980-01-01

    Although mollusciciding can be a cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis transmission, only one organic molluscicide, niclosamide, is now being produced commercially, and only a few compounds are at present being tested in the laboratory. In future, improved cost-effective use of molluscicides will require more precise knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission patterns in each endemic area and improved application techniques. In snail control studies using controlled-release formulations only the organotins, especially tributyltin oxide (TBTO), have given satisfactory long-term results. However, large-scale field trials of organotin formulations have not been implemented and their use cannot be recommended as their chronic toxicity in mammals has not yet been determined. The development of molluscicides of indigenous plant origin deserves support. Endod, derived from the berries of the climbing plant Phytolacca dodecandra, is the most extensively tested plant molluscicide, but data on its chronic toxicity to non-target organisms are lacking. The mode of action of molluscicides has not been extensively studied, though knowledge of the properties required of molluscicidal molecules has contributed to the discovery and development of niclosamide and nicotinanilide. In general, molluscicides probably cause stress on the water balance system, which in gastropods in thought to be under neurosecretory control.

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schistosomes and geohelminths are highly prevalent causing serious health problem in the tropics. School children carry the heaviest burden of morbidity due to intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of the major intestinal ...

  15. Schistosomiasis mansoni in school attenders and non-attenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information on epidemiology of schistosomiasis in school age children and particularly non school attenders are scanty in northwestern Ethiopia. Objective: To assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in school attenders and non-attenders in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A parasitological survey was ...

  16. Schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are considerable medical and public health problems in Ethiopia. However, information is limited on the epidemiology of these infections in different localities even though it is needed to plan effective prevention and control measures.

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Background: Schistosomes and geohelminths are highly prevalent causing serious health problem in the tropics. School children carry the heaviest burden of morbidity due to intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of the major.

  18. [Effectiveness of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy in marshlands of Qixia District, Nanjing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ning; Hou, Kai; Hou, Ning; Gong, Yun-hua; Zhang, Qiu-ping; Ye, Jia-ming; Wang, Biao; Sun, Ji-ji

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy in marshlands of Qixia District from 2004 to 2013. The endemic situation and integrated control data of schistosomiasis in Qixia District from 2004 to 2013 were collected, and the morbidity and Oncomelania hupensis snail status before and after the implementa- tion of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy were compared. Following 10-year integrated schistosomiasis control, the human schistosome infection rate gradually decreased in Qixia District, and no infection was detected since 2007. A gradual reduction was observed in the infection rate of domestic animals, and all bovine was eliminated from the regions along the Yangtze River since 2006. In addition, the snail area and the density of living snails in 2013 reduced by 42.25% and 82.56% as compared to those in 2004, and no infected snails were found since 2009. In 2010, the district achieved schistoso- miasis transmission control. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy is effective to accelerate schistoso- miasis control process and achieve the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission control rapidly.

  19. Studies on heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. A.; Nelson, G. S.; Saoud, M. F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Previous studies on heterologous immunity in mice have indicated that Schistosoma bovis and S. mattheei could be used to limit the severity of infection resulting from subsequent challenge by S. mansoni. These observations have now been extended to study the immunizing effect in rhesus monkeys of both S. mattheei and S. bovis. The bovine schistosomes were shown to be relatively non-pathogenic in rhesus monkeys. Immunization with 1000-2000 cercariae resulted in a marked reduction in the pathogenic effect of subsequent challenge with S. mansoni. This effect was demonstrated by a decrease in the worm load and tissue egg densities in 10 immunized monkeys as compared with 5 control animals. There was no correlation between fluorescent antibody titres and the intensity of infection or the degree of acquired immunity. There was a cross-reaction between S. mansoni and the bovine schistosomes. It is suggested that natural heterologous immunity (zooprophylaxis) may be of considerable epidemiological importance in determining the severity of schistosomiasis in man. PMID:4970323

  20. Cerebral schistosomiasis | Ravi | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans, schistosomal infection of the nervous system is rare. This report is of an unusual case of primary cerebral schistosomiasis and describes its magnetic resonance imaging appearance.

  1. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The inclusion of health education package aimed at changing behavior of school children from adverse water contact practices was recommended. Keywords: prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, secondary school students.

  2. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  3. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and associated haemato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis was found to be associated with hematuria (97.3%) and proteinuria (79.6%). Conclusion: Haematuria and proteinuria have a potential value in the screening for community diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. Vesical schistosomiasis is recognized as a significant public health problem ...

  4. Association of Eumycetoma and Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Vonk, Alieke G.; de Vogel, Corné; Koelewijn, Rob; Vaessen, Norbert; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van Belkum, Alex; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a morbid chronic granulomatous subcutaneous fungal disease. Despite high environmental exposure to this fungus in certain regions of the world, only few develop eumycetoma for yet unknown reasons. Animal studies suggest that co-infections skewing the immune system to a Th2-type response enhance eumycetoma susceptibility. Since chronic schistosomiasis results in a strong Th2-type response and since endemic areas for eumycetoma and schistosomiasis do regionally overlap, we performed a serological case-control study to identify an association between eumycetoma and schistosomiasis. Compared to endemic controls, eumycetoma patients were significantly more often sero-positive for schistosomiasis (p = 0.03; odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.18–8.46), but not for toxoplasmosis, an infection inducing a Th1-type response (p = 0.6; odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.58–3.83). Here, we show that schistosomiasis is correlated to susceptibility for a fungal disease for the first time. PMID:23717704

  5. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  6. Mao Zedong's fight against schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kawai; Lai, Honkei

    2008-01-01

    In 1956, Mao Zedong began a mass campaign against schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China. The campaign, which integrated mass mobilization, science, agricultural production, local construction projects, and prophylactic measures, was fueled primarily by a determination to accelerate China's agricultural development. The initial success of this campaign encouraged Mao to embark on the next stage of socialism, the Great Leap Forward. As attention was diverted away from schistosomiasis, however, the disease has again become a major burden to the health of the country.

  7. Akut schistosomiasis (Katayama-feber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Rønne-Rasmussen, J O; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1995-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever) may present with a broad spectrum of symptoms three to six weeks after primary infection by Schistosoma (S) mansoni, S. japonicum or, more rarely, S. haematobium. The acute phase of schistosomiasis is frequently confused with other feverish diseases. It occurs...... almost exclusively in nonimmune visitors to endemic areas. We describe seven cases of acute S. mansoni infection. The pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are briefly discussed. Katayama fever should be considered in patients returning from endemic areas with fever and eosinophilia...

  8. Risk factors for human schistosomiasis in the Upper Benue valley, in northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndassa, A; Mimpfoundi, R; Gake, B; Paul Martin, M V; Poste, B

    2007-09-01

    The Upper Benue valley is inhabited by human populations of mixed background and socio-economic status. The area is an old and intense focus of both urinary schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal schistosomiasis (caused by S. mansoni). Most of the local villages have stand-pipes that provide clean drinking water but bathing, laundry, dishwashing and swimming are largely confined to nearby, snail-infested rivers, streams, irrigation canals and pools. The results of interviews and a multivariate analysis indicated that, in this region of Cameroon, a subject's age, knowledge of schistosomiasis, ethnic group and intensity of water contact (with rivers, streams and pools) were all significantly associated with schistosome infection. Curiously, a high level of knowledge about schistosomiasis was positively associated with infection.

  9. A case of vulval schistosomiasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the lesions on the left that may be lichen planus like, but not typical. The nodules. A case of vulval schistosomiasis. O'Mahony D, MBBCh, DCH, DTM&H, DPH, DIP MID COG (SA), FRCGP. Family Practitioner, Bridge Street, Port St Johns. Banach L, MD, PhD, MIAC. Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Faculty of ...

  10. Human schistosomiasis in Ngamiland, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Magnussen, Pascal; Wouters, J S

    1985-01-01

    To reassess the schistosomiasis problem in Ngamiland and especially in Maun area 552 primary school children and 213 adult labourers were examined with urinalysis and rectal snip. Of the pupils 80.3% were found positive for S. mansoni and 1.4% for S. haematobium; of the labourers 35.7% were...

  11. Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous and hilly regions with an integrated strategy: a longitudinal case study in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Zi-Song; Liang, Song; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Ma, Xiao

    2017-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China. Since 2004, an integrated strategy was developed to control the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. However, the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission remains unknown in the mountainous and hilly regions of China until now. This longitudinal study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy on transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province from 2005 through 2014. The data regarding replacement of bovines with machines, improved sanitation, access to clean water, construction of public toilets and household latrines, snail control, chemotherapy, and health education were captured from the annual report of the schistosomiasis control programmes in Sichuan Province from 2005 to 2014, and S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy. During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, a total of 536 568 machines were used to replace bovines, and 3 284 333 household lavatories and 15 523 public latrines were built. Tap water was supplied to 19 116 344 residents living in the endemic villages. A total of 230 098 hm 2 snail habitats were given molluscicide treatment, and 357 233 hm 2 snail habitats received environmental improvements. There were 7 268 138 humans and 840 845 bovines given praziquantel chemotherapy. During the 10-year study period, information, education and communication (IEC) materials were provided to village officers, teachers and schoolchildren. The 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy resulted in a great reduction in S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails. Since 2007, no acute infection was detected, and no schistosomiasis cases or infected bovines were identified since 2012. In addition, the snail habitats reduced by 62.39% in 2014 as compared to that in 2005, and no S

  12. A Hybrid Model for Predicting the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Humans of Qianjiang City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lu, Zhouqin; Tian, Lihong; Tan, Li; Shi, Yun; Nie, Shaofa; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Objective Schistosomiasis is still a major public health problem in China, despite the fact that the government has implemented a series of strategies to prevent and control the spread of the parasitic disease. Advanced warning and reliable forecasting can help policymakers to adjust and implement strategies more effectively, which will lead to the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Our aim is to explore the application of a hybrid forecasting model to track the trends of the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans, which provides a methodological basis for predicting and detecting schistosomiasis infection in endemic areas. Methods A hybrid approach combining the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NARNN) model to forecast the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the future four years. Forecasting performance was compared between the hybrid ARIMA-NARNN model, and the single ARIMA or the single NARNN model. Results The modelling mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ARIMA-NARNN model was 0.1869×10−4, 0.0029, 0.0419 with a corresponding testing error of 0.9375×10−4, 0.0081, 0.9064, respectively. These error values generated with the hybrid model were all lower than those obtained from the single ARIMA or NARNN model. The forecasting values were 0.75%, 0.80%, 0.76% and 0.77% in the future four years, which demonstrated a no-downward trend. Conclusion The hybrid model has high quality prediction accuracy in the prevalence of schistosomiasis, which provides a methodological basis for future schistosomiasis monitoring and control strategies in the study area. It is worth attempting to utilize the hybrid detection scheme in other schistosomiasis-endemic areas including other infectious diseases. PMID:25119882

  13. [Cost-effectiveness evaluation on comprehensive control measures carrying out in schistosomiasis endemic areas with regard to different layers of administrative villages stratified by infection situation of human and domestic animals. II Correlation analysis of costs and inputs with changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in inner embankment of marshland and lake regions from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, He-hua; Yu, Qing; Zhang, Xia; Cao, Chun-li; Li, Shi-zhu; Zhu, Hong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlations between inputs and costs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis in inner embankment, so as tb provide the references for the strategy optimization of schistosomiasis control. Jiangling County was selected as the study field. The correlatibn and regression analyses were applied to analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The methods of two-stages least squares and path analysis were applied to analyze the impacts between costs and inputs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis. The adjusted infection rate of population, number of bovines and Oncomelania hupensis snail areas reduced by 77.42%, 76.34% and 19.43%, respectively in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The correlations between the infection rate of snails and the population positive rates of blood and fecal exams, and the infection rate of bovines were significant (all P costs and the population positive rate of fecal exams and the infection rates of bovines and snails (all P costs and the population positive rate by blood exams (P > 0.05). The inputs at county level had an impact on the population positive rate of blood exams; the costs of comprehensive treatment had an impact on the population positive rate of fecal exams; the costs of human labor and measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infeiction rate of bovines; the inputs at national level and the costs of measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infection rate of snails (all P costs of schistosomiasis control were related to the epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013; therefore, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive surveillance system as substitute for the current indexes on schistosomiasis control.

  14. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  15. Interventions for treating schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saconato, H; Atallah, A

    2000-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasite that is carried by freshwater snails. The intestinal form infects the intestine, liver and spleen and can be fatal. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of oxamniquine or praziquantel for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Lilacs and reference lists of articles. The Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical and Brazilian Tropical Medicine Congress abstracts were handsearched Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing oxamniquine and/or praziquantel to placebo for the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Praziquantel and oxamniquine were effective in curing Schistosoma mansoni infection when compared to placebo. In Africa, praziquantel 40 mg/Kg is more effective than oxamniquine 15 mg/Kg in individuals older than 14 years (OR 3.54, 95%CI 1.70, 7.38), but no difference was found when compared with oxamniquine 30 mg/Kg (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.08, 1.01). In Brazil, praziquantel was equally effective when compared with oxamniquine in individuals older than 14 years (OR 1.70, 95%CI 0.83, 3.49). Both drugs appear safe. There was no difference in reinfection rate between zinc supplementation and placebo (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.47, 1.41). IPraziquantel and oxamniquine both appear to be effective for the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni, although lower doses of oxamniquine (less than 30 milligrams per kilogram) may not be as effective.

  16. schistosomiasis presenting as acute appendicitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-10

    Oct 10, 2006 ... Revista Do Institution De Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 1962; 8: 167-172. 5. Jones H.J.S., Ibrahim A.E.K. and Deroda J.K.. Schistosomiasis of the appendix in the UK. Brit. J. Clin. Pract. 1997; 51: 183. 6. Lee J.FY., Chung C.C. and Lau W.Y. A case of schistosomal appendicitis. IJCP 1997; 51: 518-519. 7.

  17. Schistosomiasis and malignancy | Lemmer | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that schistosomiasis, if not causative, is at least associated with malignancy. In this review, the epidemiology of schistosomiasis and bladder carcinoma, as well as the role of chronic bladder infection, are discussed together with known carcinogenic factors, possible abnormal vitamin metabolism ...

  18. Community perceptions of schistosomiasis transmission, prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most respondents were familiar with the snails' habitats, but had poor knowledge on aquatic plants harbouring snails, as 57% of the respondents did not know about aquatic plants being associated with schistosomiasis snails. Only 3% of the respondents associated snails with schistosomiasis transmission. Sixty percent ...

  19. The risk of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwean triathletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incidence of schistosomiasis was 64%. Exposure of triathletes to fresh-water dam swimming in Zimbabwe ... Humans may become infected with schistosomiasis by bathing, wading or immersing limbs in infested ... questionnaire enquiring about other recreational activities in fresh water, and whether they had recently (in the ...

  20. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    OpenAIRE

    Han Xiao; Shiyue Li; Xinguang Chen; Bin Yu; Mengting Gao; Hong Yan; Chukwuemeka N Okafor

    2014-01-01

    Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Surve...

  1. Human Schistosomiasis: Clinical Perspective: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad S. Barsoum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis pass by acute, sub acute and chronic stages that mirror the immune response to infection. The later includes in succession innate, TH1 and TH2 adaptive stages, with an ultimate establishment of concomitant immunity. Some patients may also develop late complications, or suffer the sequelae of co-infection with other parasites, bacteria or viruses. Acute manifestations are species-independent; occur during the early stages of invasion and migration, where infection-naivety and the host’s racial and genetic setting play a major role. Sub acute manifestations occur after maturity of the parasite and settlement in target organs. They are related to the formation of granulomata around eggs or dead worms, primarily in the lower urinary tract with Schistosoma haematobium, and the colon and rectum with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mekongi infection. Secondary manifestations during this stage may occur in the kidneys, liver, lungs or other ectopic sites. Chronic morbidity is attributed to the healing of granulomata by fibrosis and calcification at the sites of oval entrapment, deposition of schistosomal antigen-antibody complexes in the renal glomeruli or the development of secondary amyloidosis. Malignancy may complicate the chronic lesions in the urinary bladder or colon. Co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis viruses B or C may confound the clinical picture of schistosomiasis, while the latter may have a negative impact on the course of other co-infections as malaria, leishmaniasis and HIV. Prevention of schistosomiasis is basically geared around education and periodic mass treatment, an effective vaccine being still experimental. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of active infection by any species, with a cure rate of 80%. Other antischistosomal drugs include metrifonate for S. haematobium, oxamniquine for S. mansoni and

  2. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  3. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections : A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141315245; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive

  4. A novel colloidal gold immunochromatography assay strip for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Feng, Jintao; Hong, Yang; Lv, Chao; Zhao, Dengyun; Lin, Jiaojiao; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Liu, Jinming; Cao, Xiaodan; Wang, Tao; Zai, Jinli; Wang, Zhaozhe; Jia, Bingguang; Han, Qian; Zhu, Chuangang

    2017-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China and an epidemiological survey has revealed that schistosome-infected bovines and goats are the main transmission sources for the disease. Therefore, development of a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in domestic animals is necessary. A novel colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) strip was developed for detecting Schistosoma japonicum in domestic animals. The colloidal gold was conjugated with recombinant streptococcal protein G (rSPG). As the test and control lines, the schistosome soluble egg antigen and rSPG, respectively, were blotted on nitrocellulose membrane. The lowest detectable serum dilution was 1∶640 for schistosome-infected buffaloes. The cross-reaction rate of GICA was 14.29% with Paramphistomum sp. in buffaloes, 16.67% with Haemonchus sp. in goats, and 33.33% with Orientobilharzia sp. in goats. These results were slightly lower and similar to those obtained through ELISA. Moreover, the strips for detecting S. japonicum in mice, rabbits, buffaloes, and goats showed high sensitivity (100.00%, 100.00%, 100.00%, and 100.00%, respectively) and specificity (100.00%, 100.00%, 94.23%, and 88.64%, respectively). And the sensitivity or specificity of the GICA strips did not present any significant differences after storage for 12 months at room temperature. When compared with ELISA, the GICA strips exhibited similar sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in mice, rabbits, buffaloes, and goats. Besides, only 5 μl of serum are required for the test and the detection can be completed within 5 min. This study is the first to develop a GICA strip using gold-rSPG conjugate for the diagnosing of schistosomiasis in domestic animals, and preliminary results showed that the developed strip may be suitable for large-scale screening of schistosomiasis in endemic areas.

  5. Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodo, Eleanor A; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Spek, Bea; Reitsma, Johannes B; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polman, Katja; Lamberton, Poppy; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Leeflang, Mariska M G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnosing schistosomiasis include tests based on circulating antigen detection and urine reagent strip tests. If they had sufficient diagnostic accuracy they could replace conventional microscopy as they provide a quicker answer and are easier to use.

  6. [Radiculomyelopathy in schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzler, J; Backes, H; Guldner, J

    2017-11-16

    The increasing migration of people from their homeland in far distant regions to Europe in the last few years has strongly influenced the rise of previously rarely seen diseases. They not only originate from the respective homeland but also from the transit countries during the migration process. We report the case of a 27-year-old male migrant from Eritrea, who after months of flight as a refugee travelling through various African countries, presented at our hospital with a progressive, painful radiculopathy. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus located in the myelon, extending from T11 to the medullary conus. The differential diagnostic clarification ultimately revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni. After guideline-conform treatment with praziquantel for 3 days and additional administration of corticosteroids for 3 months, a slow regression of the findings and improvement of the symptoms could be shown clinically and by MRI. This case study shows the importance of taking the medical history and that a closer look at the potential exposure in the homeland and transit countries should be of great benefit in reaching the diagnosis, especially in patients with a migration background.

  7. A review of the biology and transmission ecology of African bovine species of the genus Schistosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, N O; Mutani, A; Frandsen, F

    1983-01-01

    The present paper reviews the information available concerning the biology and transmission ecology of the African bovine species Schistosoma bovis, S. mattheei, S. margrebowiei and S. leiperi. Criteria for species identification (egg morphology, intermediate host spectra, definitive host-parasite relationships, etc.) are listed and the geographical distribution of the four species and factors determining the relative occurrence within their overall distributional ranges are described. S bovis and S. mattheei occur north and south of 10 degrees S, respectively, and S. margrebowiei occurs mainly, and S. leiperi only, in southern central Africa. Definitive host-related factors (susceptibility, water contact pattern, ect.) providing the background for being a primary definitive host and the primary definitive host spectra for the four schistosome species are described. The primary definitive host spectrum for S. margrebowiei and S. leiperi comprise lechwe, puku and waterbuck, for S. mattheei lechwe, puku, waterbuck plus cattle, and for S. bovis cattle and possibly also some of the listed antelope species. In addition, wild bovines and cattle may provide a reservoir of S. mattheei and S. margrebowiei in humans, but wild bovines and domestic stock play no major role in the transmission of other human species of schistosomes. The intermediate snail host spectra of S. mattheei and S. leiperi only comprise members of the Bulinus africanus species complex; S. bovis is transmitted by members of the B. truncatus, B. africanus and B. forskalii species groups, and S. margrebowiei is transmitted by members of the B. forskalii species group and possibly also by members of the B. tropicus and B. truncatus species groups. Factors determining the transmission ecology of the four schistosome species, and thereby the epidemiology of bovine schistosomiasis, are discussed. Influential factors comprise environmental conditions mediated via the effect of these on the size of the snail

  8. Acute Schistosomiasis: Report on Five Singular Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertucci JR

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The cases of five patients with unusual manifestations of acute schistosomiasis mansoni are described in this paper. One patient developed skin lesions, three displayed diverse lung involvement, and one presented pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus

  9. Urinary schistosomiasis, perception and treatment-seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structured questionnaire. The degree of awareness stood at 94.75% though none of the respondents knew the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. The number of respondents that accepted involvement in one water-related activity or the ...

  10. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  11. Malnutrition and hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M Coutinho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, four different approaches attempting to reproduce the schistosomal liver fibrosis in undernourished mice are reported: shifting from a deficient to a balanced diet and vice-versa, repeated infections, influence of the genetic background, and immunological response. Infections were performed with 30 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and lasted at least four months. Undernourished mice were unable to reproduce the picture of "pipestem" fibrosis, except the C57 BL/10 inbred strain, four out of 21 mice developing the liver lesion. A link of this histological finding to the type of parasite strain can not be discarded at the moment. Repeated infections increased collagen deposition mainly in well nourished animals (seven out of 16 Swiss mice developed "pipestem"-like fibrosis. In undernourished infected Swiss mice the serum levels of soluble egg antigen specific antibodies IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 were two to four times lower than those detected for well nourished controls. The decreased humoral immune response coupled to the morphological, morphometric, and biochemical results reinforce the influence of the host nutritional status on the connective tissue changes of hepatic schistosomiasis.

  12. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    chemotherapy (PCT) with praziquantel (PZQ)? This paper describes the process SCORE used to transform this question into a harmonized research protocol, the study design for answering this question, the village eligibility assessments and data resulting from the first year of the study. METHODS: Beginning......-aged children. Seven studies are currently being implemented in five African countries. During the first year, villages were screened for eligibility, and data were collected on prevalence and intensity of infection prior to randomisation and the implementation of different schemes of PZQ intervention...... strategies. RESULTS: These studies of different treatment schedules with PZQ will provide the most comprehensive data thus far on the optimal frequency and continuity of PCT for schistosomiasis infection and morbidity control. CONCLUSIONS: We expect that the study outcomes will provide data for decision...

  13. [Ecological civilization and schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dong-Yun; Liu, Bu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the main approach of ecological civilization construction and great changes and achievements in the original schistosomiasis endemic areas, Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province. Ecological civilization is an important part of schistosomiasis control work.

  14. High rate of failure in treatment of imported schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Thybo, Sören

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing number of imported cases of schistosomiasis in Europe, but there are only few studies on the efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis in non-endemic settings.......There is an increasing number of imported cases of schistosomiasis in Europe, but there are only few studies on the efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis in non-endemic settings....

  15. Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to its preferred body part, depending on its species. These areas include the: Bladder Rectum Intestines Liver ... subtropical areas worldwide. Symptoms Symptoms vary with the species of worm and the phase of infection. Many ...

  16. Elimination of schistosomiasis: the tools required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Rollinson, David; Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta; Klohe, Katharina

    2017-11-20

    Historically, the target in the schistosomiasis control has shifted from infection to morbidity, then back to infection, but now as a public health problem, before moving on to transmission control. Currently, all endemic countries are encouraged to increase control efforts and move towards elimination as required by the World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for the global control of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and the WHA65.21 resolution issued by the World Health Assembly. However, schistosomiasis prevalence is still alarmingly high and the global number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to this infection has in fact increased due to inclusion of some 'subtle' clinical symptoms not previously counted. There is a need to restart and improve efforts to reach the elimination goal. To that end, the first conference of the Global Schistosomiasis Alliance (GSA) Research Working Group was held in mid-June 2016 in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. It reviewed current progress in schistosomiasis control and elimination, identified pressing operational research gaps that need to be addressed and discussed new tools and strategies required to make elimination a reality. The articles emanating from the lectures and discussions during this meeting, together with some additional invited papers, have been collected as a special issue of the 'Infectious Diseases of Poverty' entitled 'Schistosomiasis Research: Providing the Tools Needed for Elimination', consisting of 26 papers in all. This paper refers to these papers and discusses critical questions arising at the conference related to elimination of schistosomiasis. The currently most burning questions are the following: Can schistosomiasis be eliminated? Does it require better, more highly sensitive diagnostics? What is the role of preventive chemotherapy at the elimination stage? Is praziquantel sufficient or do we need new drugs? Contemplating these questions, it is felt that the heterogeneity

  17. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: studies on in vitro granuloma modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara C. Parra

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Schistosoma mansoni induces humoral and T cell mediated responses and leads to delayed hipersensitivity that results in granulomatous inflamatory disease around the parasite eggs. Regulation of these responses resulting in a reduction in this anti-egg inflamatory disease is appsrently determined by idiotypic repertoires of the patient, associated with genetic background and multiple external factors. We have previously reported on idiotype/anti-idiotype-receptor transactions in clinical human schistosomiasis. These findings support a hypothesis that anti-SEA cross-reactive idiotypes develop in some patients during the course of a chronic infection and participate in regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses. We repport here on experiments wich extend those observations to the regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity measured by an in vitro granuloma model. T cells from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients were stimulated in vitro with anti-SEA idiotypes and assayed in an autologous in vitro granuloma assay for modulation of granuloma formation. These anti-SEA idiotype reactive T cells were capable of regulating autologous in vitro granuloma formation. This regulatory activity, initiated with stimulatory anti-SEA idiotypic antibodies, was antigenically specific and was dependent on the present of intact (F(ab'2 immunoglobulin molecules. The ability to elicit this regulatory activity appears to be dose dependent and is more easily demonstrated in chronically infected intestinal patients or SEA sensitized individuals. These data support the hypothesis that anti-SEA cross reactive idiotypes are important in regulating granulomatous hypersensitivy in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients and these cross-reactive idiotypes appear to play a major role in cell-cell interactions which result in the regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses.

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on intestinal schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the Lake Victoria basin, Rorya District, north-western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Munisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally school-age children, adolescents and young adults bear the highest burden of schistosomiasis. When developing a specific intervention to improve community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs, existing KAPs must be taken into account. Therefore, this study was designed to determine schoolchildren’s KAPs on schistosomiasis in the study area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages involving 513 schoolchildren. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and to assess KAP on schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the study area. Results Of the 488 interviewed children, 391 (80.12% reported to have heard of schistosomiasis, with the majority 289 (73.91% citing school as the source of this knowledge. Swimming in the lake, worms, witchcraft, and mosquitoes were mentioned to be the cause for intestinal schistosomiasis. Fishing in the lake, drinking unboiled lake water, walking bare footed, and shaking hands were reported to be practices that may lead to contracting schistosomiasis. Only 156 (39.90% of the study respondents reported to know the signs of intestinal schistosomiasis. Avoiding swimming in the lake, drinking unboiled water and eating unwashed fruits were mentioned as preventive measures. Nearly 85% (412 reported understanding that there was a disease known as schistosomiasis; additionally, 419 (85.86% considered schistosomiasis as a dangerous disease and 418 (85.66% believed that schistosomiasis was treatable. Fishermen and schoolchildren were reported to be groups most at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Visiting the lake (for swimming and other gatherings was a common practice among study participants 471 (96.52%.Nearly 93% (451 of participants mentioned using lake water for domestic chores, and, although 407 (84.61% reported to own a toilet at home, only 229 (55.31% reported to always use a toilet for sanitation purposes

  19. Quantifying quality of life and disability of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Wu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the "EQ-5D plus", ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%, usual activities (87.9%, and anxiety or depression (80.9%. The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30-44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥ 60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patient-preference disability

  20. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN SCHISTOSOMIASIS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies of schistosomiasis in Indonesia were made in the late 1930's and the early 1940's. The first human case of S. japonicum was discovered by Muller and Tesch from the Lindu valley of Central Sulawesi (Celebes. Early epidemiological studies prior to World War II demonstrated that, in addition to man, wild deer and domestic dogs served as reservoir hosts, "and subsequent microscopic examination of adult worms from these mammals confirmed them to be S. japonicum. Although extensive snail surveys were conducted at that time, the molluscan host was not found. The schistosomiasis problem in Lindu Valley virtually remained dormant until the 1970's. In the 1970's there was a resurgence of interest in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Indonesia. A new schistosomiasis area in the Napu valley was discovered. During this period, the intermediate host, Oncomelania hupensis was found in the Lake Lindu valley. This confirmed that the uisease situation in Indonesia was, in fact, a form of classical oriental schistosomiasis similar in its biology and transmission to that found in the Philippines, Japan, and China. The molluscan host of S. japonicum in the Lake Lindu Valley was subsequently described as a new species, O. h. iindoensis, and is most similar to O. h. quadrasi, the vector host in the Philippines. The disease occurs now only in two very isolated areas, the Lake Lindu valley and Napu valley in Central Sulawesi.

  1. Enhancing control of schistosomiasis in Niger : assessing morbidity in preschool-aged children, praziquantel treatment efficacy and cost implication for control

    OpenAIRE

    Garba, Amadou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schistosomiasis, accounted among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), represents a major public health problem, particularly in Africa, where more than 95% of all the cases of the world are currently concentrated. The health consequences of Schistosoma infection are considerable. Apart from the known long-term complications of a chronic infection (e.g. portal hypertension, kidney failure, bladder cancer and sterility), schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease leading to anaemi...

  2. Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philbert Clouds

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to previous reports which indicated no transmission of schistosomiasis at altitude >1,400 m above sea level in Uganda, in this study it has been established that schistosomiasis transmission can take place at an altitude range of 1487–1682 m above sea level in western Uganda. Methods An epidemiological survey of intestinal schistosomiasis was carried out in school children staying around 13 high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. Stool samples were collected and then processed with the Kato-Katz technique using 42 mg templates. Thereafter schistosome eggs were counted under a microscope and eggs per gram (epg of stool calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information on risk factors. Results 36.7% of the pupils studied used crater lakes as the main source of domestic water and the crater lakes studied were at altitude ranging from 1487–1682 m above sea level. 84.6% of the crater lakes studied were infective with over 50% of the users infected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 27.8% (103/370 with stool egg load ranging from 24–6048 per gram of stool. 84.3%( 312 had light infections (400 egg/gm of stool. Prevalence was highest in the age group 12–14 years (49.5% and geometric mean intensity was highest in the age group 9–11 years (238 epg. The prevalence and geometric mean intensity of infection among girls was lower (26%; 290 epg compared to that of boys (29.6%; 463 epg (t = 4.383, p Conclusion and recommendations The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could

  3. Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Schistosomiasis Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.-R.; Tang, L.-L.; Niu, H.-B.; Zhou, X.-N.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Ma, L.-L.; Zhou, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that menaces human health. In terms of impact this disease is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease. Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma, and hence monitoring and controlling of the number of oncomelania is key to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Remote sensing technology can real-timely access the large-scale environmental factors related to oncomelania breeding and reproduction, such as temperature, moisture, vegetation, soil, and rainfall, and can also provide the efficient information to determine the location, area, and spread tendency of oncomelania. Many studies show that the correlation coefficient between oncomelania densities and remote sensing environmental factors depends largely on suitable and high quality remote sensing data used in retrieve environmental factors. Research achievements on retrieving environmental factors (which are related to the living, multiplying and transmission of oncomelania) by multi-source remote data are shown firstly, including: (a) Vegetation information (e.g., Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Moisture Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover) extracted from optical remote sensing data, such as Landsat TM, HJ-1A/HSI image; (b) Surface temperature retrieval from Thermal Infrared (TIR) and passive-microwave remote sensing data; (c) Water region, soil moisture, forest height retrieval from synthetic aperture radar data, such as Envisat SAR, DLR's ESAR image. Base on which, the requirements of environmental factor accuracy for schistosomiasis monitoring will be analyzed and summarized. Our work on applying remote sensing technique to schistosomiasis monitoring is then presented. The fuzzy information theory is employed to analyze the sensitivity and feasibility relation between oncomelania densities and environmental factors. Then a mechanism model of predicting oncomelania distribution and

  4. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Hodges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml, Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination

  5. Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment.......There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....

  6. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Wurukum, Makurdi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence 43.3%), while none of those who use pipe borne and bore-hole water exclusively was infected (p < 0.05). Key words: urinary schistosomiasis, prevalence, water sources. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science Vol.12(2) 2003: 47 - 51 ...

  7. Epidemiological survey on schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the current state of schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni) in Taïbong Sub Division, in Mayo-Kani Division, an epidemiological survey was conducted from September to November 2014 in four government primary schools, to determine the prevalence of these human ...

  8. Assessment of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following intestinal parasites were found in stools with various prevalence: Schistosoma mansoni 0.1% (95% CI: 0% - 0.3%) and Ancylostoma duodenale 0.1% (95% CI: 0% - 0.2%). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the Centre and Plateau Central regions had been greatly reduced from the previous level in ...

  9. Perceptions and practices on schistosomiasis among communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis was conducted among adult people in Ukerewe. Island, in north-western Tanzania where ... Symptoms such as swollen abdomen were associated with witchcraft and taboos such as smelling, seeing or killing a python. Treatment-seeking practices ...

  10. Intestinal Schistosomiasis and the Associated Transmission Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost, and simplicity. However, the sensitivity of this method is low particularly in areas of low endemicity, and low- infection intensities (e.g. in young children), and may be affected by day to day .... Schistosomiasis were assessed using logistic regression. ..... Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical. Medicine and ...

  11. Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human schistosomiasis, commonly called “bilharziasis” after a German pathologist, Theodor Bilharz (who first discovered the parasitic agent in Egypt in 1851) is caused by parasitic trematode of the genus, Schistosoma. There are at least 19 varieties of schistosomes, of which five are pathogenic parasites of man: S.

  12. Urinary schistosomiasis and concomitant urinary tract pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and concomitant urinary tract pathogens was carried out between August and December, 1998, among school children in Ibadan North Local Government Area. Terminal urine sample collected from only pupils in classes 3 to 6 for the study were analyzed accordingly ...

  13. community perceptions of schistosomiasis transmission, prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    91 No. 7 July 2014. COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS TRANSMISSION, PREVALENCE AND CONTROL IN RELATION ..... yacinth. & hippo grass. W ater H yacinth. & ambatch trees. W ater H yacinth. & reeds. W ater H yacinth h/grass & reeds. H ippo grass. A mbatch tree. A mbatch tree &. R eeds. R eeds.

  14. Index of Potential Contamination for Intestinal Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    deployedto assess associated risk factors among infected children. Out of the examined children, ... health problem, and to a great extent children of 10-14 years age group were responsible in the transmission and ... Although several epidemiological studies for intestinal schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni infection were ...

  15. Prevalence of schistosomiasis infection among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of schistosomiasis infection was carried out among primary schools pupils in Awgu LGA, Enugu State, Nigeria. The primary schools include; Central Primary School Agbaogugu, Akegbi Primary School, Ogbaku Primary School, Ihe Primary School and Owelli-Court Primary School between ...

  16. HIV and schistosomiasis : studies in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downs, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a helminthic worm infection that affects 260 million people worldwide, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, where the research in this thesis was conducted, two species of schistosomes are highly endemic (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), with more than 50%

  17. coinfection with malaria, hookworm and schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Introduction:A school based rapid survey was conducted th th from the 17 to the 19 of May 2011in Zambezi District of. Zambia to determine the prevalence and coinfection rate of malaria, hookworm and schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in other to inform decision maker. Methodology: The study design, sampling methods,.

  18. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, J; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M.C.; Arellano, J.L.Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA...

  19. Relationship between splenomegaly and hematologic findings in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease. Patients who develop hepatosplenic schistosomiasis have clinical findings including periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, cytopenia, splenomegaly and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze the hemostatic and hematologic findings of patients with schistosomiasis and correlate these to the size of the spleen. METHODS Fifty-five adults with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and 30 healthy subjects were selected through a history of contact with contaminated water, physical examination and ultrasound characteristics such as periportal fibrosis and splenomegaly in the Gastroenterology Service of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Blood samples were collected to determine liver function, blood counts, prothrombin (international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen and D-Dimer levels using the Pentra 120 hematological analyzer (HORIBA/ABX, Density Plus (test photo-optical Trinity Biotech, Ireland and COBAS analyzer 6000 (Roche. Furthermore, the longitudinal size of the spleen was measured by ultrasound (Acuson X analyzer 150, Siemens. The Student t-test, the Fisher test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze the results with statistical significance being set for a p-value < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age was higher for the Study Group than for the Control Group (54 ± 13.9 vs. 38 ± 12.7 years. The average longitudinal diameter of the spleen was 16.9 cm (Range: 12.3-26.3 cm. Anemia is a common finding in patients with schistosomiasis (36.3%. The mean platelet and leukocyte counts of patients were lower than for the Control Group (p-value < 0.001. Moreover, the international normalized ratio (1.42 vs. 1.04, partial thromboplastin time (37.9 vs. 30.5 seconds and D-Dimer concentration (393 vs. 86.5 ng/mL were higher for the Study Group compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSION This study suggests that hematological and hemostatic

  20. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy associated with tubal schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic in major parts of Africa and Middle East, Schistosoma haematobium is a common cause of recurrent urogenital infections and obstetric complications such as spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and low birth weight babies. The involvement of fallopian tubes is not rare in endemic areas and may predispose to ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Indian subcontinent is a very lowrisk region for schistosoma infection. Tubal schistosomiasis is not exceptional in endemic zones, but is rarely found in India. The species most often isolated is S. haematobium. Contamination occurs via vascular anastomoses between the bladder and the genital organs. We report a case of tubal schistosomiasis presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy discovered on a surgical specimen after salpingectomy.

  1. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear...... to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected...... countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41...

  2. The Scourge of Tropical Water Resources, Schistosomiasis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-13

    schistosomiasis, we are actually referring to three distinct diseases caused by three different species to helmninth parasites: Schistosoma mansoni, S...African dams in human terms, we need to consider the communities of people and animals that had to be resettled to make way for them: 75,000 people in the...the flies and mosquitoes that spread parasitic infections. Moved into new areas, people and their animals have been exposed to local disease-causing

  3. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Yemen: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, J A; Wright, S G

    1992-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Yemen. In 1922 Schistosomiasis mansoni was first reported to be found in Yemeni patients. In 1951 the first population survey was carried out in Taiz and revealed the presence of Biomphalaria biossyi arabica where 35% of the snails were heavily infected with S. mansoni and in San'a no snails were infected. Although S. mansoni and S. hematobium infections have been found in most parts of Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) it seems that the disease is not a public health problem in some parts of the country such as Hodeidah, Al-Beidah, Mareb, and Al-Gouff. The source of S. mansoni and S. hematobium in Yemen was attributed to the continual migration of infected persons from Eritrea and other countries of East Africa to Yemen. The prevalence of infection is higher in rural than in urban areas. The complications of S. mansoni, notably portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and hematemesis have become a major clinical problem. The availability of Praziquantel as a safe and effective treatment makes case findings and treatment an important part of schistosomiasis control. Control of the disease also requires field studies followed by mollusciding, improvement of water supply and sanitation and, perhaps most importantly, health education.

  4. Modelling within Host Parasite Dynamics of Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Chiyaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis infection is characterized by the presence of adult worms in the portal and mesenteric veins of humans as part of a complex migratory cycle initiated by cutaneous penetration of the cercariae shed by infected freshwater snails. The drug praziquantel is not always effective in the treatment against schistosomiasis at larvae stage. However, our simulations show that it is effective against mature worms and eggs. As a result, the study and understanding of immunological responses is key in understanding parasite dynamics. We therefore introduce quantitative interpretations of human immunological responses of the disease to formulate mathematical models for the within-host dynamics of schistosomiasis. We also use numerical simulations to demonstrate that it is the level of T cells that differentiates between either an effective immune response or some degree of infection. These cells are responsible for the differentiation and recruitment of eosinophils that are instrumental in clearing the parasite. From the model analysis, we conclude that control of infection is much attributed to the value of a function f, a measure of the average number of larvae penetrating a susceptible individual having hatched from an egg released by an infected individual. This agrees with evidence that there is a close association between the ecology, the distribution of infection and the disease.

  5. Sera of some urinary schistosomiasis subjects affect migration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucocyte migration- and bactericidal- indices were determined to establish the effect of sera from urinary schistosomiasis subjects on host defense mechanism. Both leucocyte migration and bacterial activity were diminished by sera from 66% of children with untreated urinary schistosomiasis subjects (uUSS), 25% of ...

  6. Immunological Aspects of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ibadan, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humans infected with Schistosoma parasite demonstrate substantial immune responses against both the ... Nigeria, urinary schistosomiasis is known to have. ~ existed from time immemorial and might have been .... larly elevated levels of IgG 1 , IgA and IgE in urinary schistosomiasis are associated with Th2 responses.

  7. Gastric Schistosomiasis Mimicking Gastric Cancer - A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These parasites cause hepatosplenic and hepatointestinal schistosomiasis associated with significant morbidity and mortality especially in children and young people. We report a case of middle aged northern Nigerian farmer who had gastric schistosomiasis that mimicked an ulcerated gastric tumor at endoscopy with good ...

  8. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  9. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio M. Olveda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40 mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  10. A cluster-randomised intervention trial against Schistosoma japonicum in the Peoples' Republic of China: bovine and human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Bovines, particularly water buffaloes, are thought to play a major role in the transmission of schistosomiasis to humans in China. Preliminary results (1998-2003 of a praziquantel (PZQ-based pilot intervention study we undertook provided proof of principle that water buffaloes are major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province.Here we present the results of a cluster-randomised intervention trial (2004-2007 undertaken in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, with increased power and more general applicability to the lake and marshlands regions of southern China. The trial involved four matched pairs of villages with one village within each pair randomly selected as a control (human PZQ treatment only, leaving the other as the intervention (human and bovine PZQ treatment. A sentinel cohort of people to be monitored for new infections for the duration of the study was selected from each village. Results showed that combined human and bovine chemotherapy with PZQ had a greater effect on human incidence than human PZQ treatment alone.The results from this study, supported by previous experimental evidence, confirms that bovines are the major reservoir host of human schistosomiasis in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, and reinforce the rationale for the development and deployment of a transmission blocking anti-S. japonicum vaccine targeting bovines.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000263291.

  11. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes.We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages of the three transmission modes below the TGD across four provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei and Anhui to determine whether there was any immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission. Eight sentinel villages were selected to represent both province and transmission mode. The primary end point measured was human incidence. Here we present the results of this five-year longitudinal cohort study. Results showed that the incidence of human S. japonicum infection declined considerably within individual villages and overall mode over the course of the study. This is also reflected in the yearly odds ratios (adjusted for infection risk that showed significant (P<0.01 downward trends in all modes over the follow-up period.The decrease in human S. japonicum incidence observed across all transmission modes in this study can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ chemotherapy. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that there has been virtually no immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission downstream of the dam.

  12. Reduction patterns of acute schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhu Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant, steady progress in schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China over the past 50 years, available data suggest that the disease has re-emerged with several outbreaks of acute infections in the early new century. In response, a new integrated strategy was introduced. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between Jan 2005 and Dec 2012, to explore the effectiveness of a new integrated control strategy that was implemented by the national control program since 2004. RESULTS: A total of 1,047 acute cases were recorded between 2005 and 2012, with an annual reduction in prevalence of 97.7%. The proportion of imported cases of schistosomiasis was higher in 2011 and 2012. Nine clusters of acute infections were detected by spatio-temporal analysis between June and November, indicating that the high risk areas located in the lake and marshland regions. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the new integrated strategy has played a key role in reducing the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

  13. Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shao-Hong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis japonica (schistosomiasis is a zoonosis that can seriously affect human health. At present, the immunodiagnostic assays for schistosomiasis detection are time-consuming and require well-trained personnel and special instruments, which can limit their use in the field. Thus, there is a pressing need for a simple and rapid immunoassay to screen patients on a large scale. In this study, we developed a novel rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA to detect anti-Schisaosoma japonicum antibodies in human serum. Results Using latex microspheres as a color probe, DLIA was established to test standard positive and negative sera, in comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of DLIA were 95.10% (97/102 and 94.91% (261/275, respectively. The cross-reaction rates with clonorchiosis, intestinal nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and paragonimiasis were 0, 0, 0 and 42.11% respectively. All the results showed no significant difference to the ELISA. In field tests, 333 human serum samples from an endemic area were tested with DLIA, and compared with ELISA and Kato-Katz method. There was no significant difference between DLIA and ELISA on positive and negative rates of detection; however, significant differences existed between DLIA and Kato-Katz method, and between ELISA and Kato-Katz method. The kappa value between DLIA and ELISA was 0.90. Conclusions This is the first study in which DLIA was used to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum antibody. The results show that DLIA is a simple, rapid, convenient, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and is therefore very suitable for large-scale field applications and clinical detection.

  14. Testing of Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-25

    2 UNCLASSIFIED DAMDi7-95-C-5209 F/ G 6/15 UL 11𔃿 j j . 11_. W-I - - % (*J~f ~ HP OlIC FILE COPY *AD "Testing of Compounds for Efficacy Against...Liang, Y.S., 1974. Cultivation of Bulinus (5hy Q pis) g2.kous (Morelet) and BiQmphalaria pfeiffri pfeifferi (Krauss), snail hosts of schistosomiasis...Digenea). flacQ1. g " 11:225:280. 10. Sandt, D.G., Bruce, H.I. and Radke, M.G., 1965. A system for mass producing the snail Ausatra1Qbjiz Lbi.atus and

  15. Studies on heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, J. M.; Nelson, G. S.; Saeed, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that when cattle are exposed to cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni they develop considerable resistance to subsequent challenge with S. mattheei. The present study showed that when sheep are immunized with S. mansoni cercariae they too develop a marked resistance to subsequent challenge with S. mattheei. A small proportion of the immunizing cercariae reached maturity and a few viable S. mansoni eggs were found in the faeces of the sheep. The results of this experiment provide further evidence that heterologous immunity may be of significance in limiting the severity of schistosomiasis in both man and domestic animals in areas where animal and human schistosomes occur together. PMID:4540678

  16. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  17. Examining the relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sabina Mbabazi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge.We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV.Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis, is an important public health priority. Our

  18. The Colposcopic Atlas of Schistosomiasis in the Lower Female Genital Tract Based on Studies in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norseth, Hanne M.; Ndhlovu, Patricia D.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S.; Jourdan, Peter M.; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Methodology/Principal findings Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. Significance This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice. PMID:25412334

  19. A mixed-methods approach to understanding water use and water infrastructure in a schistosomiasis-endemic community: case study of Asamama, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Claire Kosinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface water contaminated with human waste may transmit urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS. Water-related activities that allow skin exposure place people at risk, but public health practitioners know little about why some communities with access to improved water infrastructure have substantial surface water contact with infectious water bodies. Community-based mixed-methods research can provide critical information about water use and water infrastructure improvements. Methods Our mixed-methods study assessed the context of water use in a rural community endemic for schistosomiasis. Results Eighty-seven (35.2 % households reported using river water but not borehole water; 26 (10.5 % reported using borehole water but not river water; and 133 (53.8 % households reported using both water sources. All households are within 1 km of borehole wells, but tested water quality was poor in most wells. Schistosomiasis is perceived by study households (89.3 % to be a widespread problem in the community, but perceived schistosomiasis risk fails to deter households from river water usage. Hematuria prevalence among schoolchildren does not differ by household water use preference. Focus group data provides context for water preferences. Demand for improvements to water infrastructure was a persistent theme; however, roles and responsibilities with respect to addressing community water and health concerns are ill-defined. Conclusions Collectively, our study illustrates how complex attitudes towards water resources can affect which methods will be appropriate to address schistosomiasis.

  20. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  1. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  2. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  3. Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichmann Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ≥38.5°C and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ≥700/μl or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%. In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

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    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  5. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, G.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, E.H.; Fenwick, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive

  6. [A manufacture method of schistosomiasis epidemic maps based on Google Earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Zhan, Ti; Zhu, Ying-Fu

    2014-02-01

    To make various schistosomiasis epidemic maps based on Google Earth. The various elements for schistosomiasis epidemic maps were marked in the Google Earth platform by adding the place mark, path, polygon, overlay and so on. Various schistosomiasis epidemic maps were produced and saved, such as the schistosomiasis epidemic area map of the city, the map of Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in the town, and the schematic map of snail environments. The schistosomiasis epidemic maps based on Google Earth are clear and visual. The production process is very simple and easy to learn. It is suitable for the use in the grass-root schistosomiasis control stations.

  7. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2, .... In each local government, school children were screened during school hours. However, pre-school children in the communities were screened in the house of community heads. ..... Few studies have dealt with urinary schistosomiasis.

  8. The impact of irrigated rice on the transmission of schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivoire, from April to September. 2001 .... Those results indicated significant influence of irrigated rice growing on the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in savannah areas. (Niakaramandougou). .... Burkina Faso, Benin, Cape Verde, Côte.

  9. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  10. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review

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    Rashida M.R. Barakat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (Trematodes of the genus Schistosoma (S.. It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Ancient Egypt. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years old. Scott was the first to describe the pattern of schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60% both in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley South of Cairo in districts of perennial irrigation while it was low (6% in districts of basin irrigation. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the Nile Valley South of Cairo. The building of the Aswan High Dam -which was completed in 1967 – did not cause any increase in schistosomiasis prevalence. In 1990, a study conducted in nine governorates of Egypt confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper Egypt there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium except in Sohag, Qena, and Aswan governorates. However, foci of S. mansoni were detected in Giza, Fayoum, Menya and Assiut. All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Egypt from 1953 to 1985 adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. In 1997, the National Schistosomiasis Control Program (NSCP was launched in the Nile Delta. It adopted morbidity control strategy with Praziquantel mass treatment as the main component. In 1996, before the NSCP, 168 villages had S. mansoni prevalence >30%, 324 villages 20–30% and 654 villages 10–20%. By the end of 2010, in the whole country only 29 villages had prevalence >3% and none had

  11. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  12. Acute schistosomiasis mansoni: revisited and reconsidered

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    José Roberto Lambertucci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute schistosomiasis is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and eggs. A variety of clinical manifestations appear during the migration of schistosomes in humans: cercarial dermatitis, fever, pneumonia, diarrhoea, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, skin lesions, liver abscesses, brain tumours and myeloradiculopathy. Hypereosinophilia is common and aids diagnosis. The disease has been overlooked, misdiagnosed, underestimated and underreported in endemic areas, but risk groups are well known, including military recruits, some religious congregations, rural tourists and people practicing recreational water sports. Serology may help in diagnosis, but the finding of necrotic-exudative granulomata in a liver biopsy specimen is pathognomonic. Differentials include malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, kala-azar, prolonged Salmonella bacteraemia, lymphoma, toxocariasis, liver abscesses and fever of undetermined origin. For symptomatic hospitalised patients, treatment with steroids and schistosomicides is recommended. Treatment is curative in those timely diagnosed.

  13. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

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    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  14. [Application of high resolution remote sensing technology in research of schistosomiasis surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-bo; Zhang, Li-juan; Wang, Qiang; Lu, Yan-xin; Li, Shi-zhu

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is closely related to environmental factors, the changes of environmental factors, such as vegetation, temperature, hydrology and soil, could impact the transmission of the disease. The environmental factors associated with schistosomiasis could be extracted by remote sensing technology quickly and precisely, and be applied to monitor the schistosomiasis transmission. The studies on high resolution remote sensing technology applied in the research of schistosomiasis are reviewed in this paper.

  15. Utility of Schistosoma bovis adult worm antigens for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J; Carranza, C; Turrientes, M C; Pérez Arellano, J L; López Vélez, R; Ramajo, V; Muro, A

    2004-11-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive.

  16. Epidemiology of Urinary Schistosomiasis among School Children in the Alsaial Alsagair Village, River Nile State, Sudan

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    Yassir SULIEMAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease, infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. This study assessed the situation of the urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren of the Alsaial Alsagair village, Sudan.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2016, in the Alsaial Alsagair village, and 385 samples of urine were collected and processed using the centrifugation/sedimentation technique.Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of the disease among the pupils studied were 1.82% and 40.1 eggs/10ml urine, respectively. The prevalence of infection among male pupils was 3.1%, and for females was 0.52%, while the intensity among males was 42.3 eggs/10ml and for females was 27 eggs/10ml urine. No significant difference in the disease prevalence between the 7-10 yr age group and the 11-14 yr age group was found, while the over 14 yr age group was found to be free from infection. However, a considerably higher intensity of the parasite was found among the 7-10 yr age group compared to the other age group infected. A high prevalence and intensity of infection was observed among pupils who were active in swimming and working in the fields. Most of the pupils interviewed were found to be unaware of the disease and the prevalence and intensity of the infection was found to be higher among the group who were aware of the disease.Conclusion: Findings show the need for an integrated control program against urinary schistosomiasis including the treatment of all infected children and the implementation of a health education program.

  17. Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll, as a drug against neglected tropical disease Schistosomiasis mansoni.

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    Josué de Moraes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL. Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6% and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. CONCLUSIONS: The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy.

  18. Phytol, a Diterpene Alcohol from Chlorophyll, as a Drug against Neglected Tropical Disease Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Josué; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Costa, Jéssica P.; Junior, Antonio L. G.; de Sousa, Damião P.; Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods and findings In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL). Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL) reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg) administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6%) and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern) was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. Conclusions The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:24392173

  19. Urinary Schistosomiasis in Urban and Semi-Urban Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

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    Ogochukwu Caroline Okeke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investiga­tions on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in ur­ban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria.Methods: Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haemato­bium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails.Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 + 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infec­tion than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years had no infection. The preva­lence of micro-haematuria (6.2% was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r=0.65, P < 0.01 and intensity (r=0.50, P < 0.01 of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. How­ever, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells.Conclusion: The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main interme­diate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State

  20. A rare case of urinary schistosomiasis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, H Kirkoyun; Akgul, O; Aliyev, E; Tunc, M H; Oner, Y A

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic, parasitic disease and is endemic in some countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Asia. In some regions, Schistosoma haematobium is one of the principal causes of haematuria. In Turkey, due to the increasing amount of travel to and from endemic regions, the number of cases is also rising. We report a case of a 22-year-old Nigerian male who was admitted to our hospital with haematuria. Direct microbiological examination revealed S. haematobium eggs in his urine specimen. Schistosomiasis was diagnosed by pathology testing. Schistosomiasis has not been seen frequently in Turkey, and we therefore discuss the epidemiology, treatment options and clinical importance of S. haematobium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

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    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  2. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol

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    Seungman Cha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. Methods A school–based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. Discussion This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control

  3. Hemostatic dysfunction is increased in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and advanced periportal fibrosis.

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    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic parasitic disease and a public health problem in Northeast Brazil. In some patients, hepatic abnormalities lead to periportal fibrosis and result in the most severe clinical form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This study aimed to evaluate whether abnormal blood coagulation and liver function tests in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (n = 55 correlate with the severity of their periportal fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were used for liver function tests, hemogram and prothrombin time (International Normalized Ratio, INR. The blood coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa (ATIIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured by photometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined on the basis of PAI-1 levels and a D-dimer concentration greater than a standard cut-off of 483 ng/mL. Standard liver function tests were all abnormal in the patient group compared to healthy controls (n = 29, including raised serum transaminases (p<0.001 and lower levels of albumin (p = 0.0156. Platelet counts were 50% lower in patients, while for coagulation factors there was a 40% increase in the INR (p<0.001 and reduced levels of Factor VII and protein C in patients compared to the controls (both p<0.001. Additionally, patients with more advanced fibrosis (n = 38 had lower levels of protein C compared to those with only central fibrosis (p = 0.0124. The concentration of plasma PAI-1 in patients was one-third that of the control group (p<0.001, and D-dimer levels 2.2 times higher (p<0.001 with 13 of the 55 patients having levels above the cut-off. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that hemostatic abnormalities are associated with reduced liver function and increased liver fibrosis. Of note was the finding that a quarter of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and

  4. Drug resistance in Schistosomiasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance associated with the treatment of human schistosomiasis appears to be an emerging problem requiring more attention from the scientific community than the subject currently receives. Drug-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni have been isolated by various investigators as a result of laboratory experimentation or from a combination of field and laboratory studies. Review of this data appears to indicate that the lack of susceptibility observed for some of the isolated strains cannot be ascribed solely to previous administration of antischistosome drugs and thus further studies are required to elucidate this phenomena. Strains of S. mansoni have now been identified from Brazil which are resistant to oxamniquine, hycanthone and niridazole; from Puerto Rico which are resistant to hycanthone and oxamniquine; and from Kenya which are resistant to niridazole and probably oxamniquine. Strains derived by in vitro selection and resistant to oxamniquine and possibly to oltipraz are also available. All of these strains are currently maintained in the laboratory in snails and mice, thus providing for the first time an opportunity for indepth comparative studies. Preliminary data indicates that S. haematobium strains resistant to metrifonate may be occurring in Kenya. This problem could poise great difficulty in the eventual development of antischistosomal agents. Biomphalaria glabrata from Puerto Rico and Brazil were found to be susceptible to drug-resistant S. mansoni from each country.

  5. Immunity to schistosomiasis in animals: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Gabriel, S

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the available literature on the development of immunity to animal Schistosoma infections. The majority of the studies on animal schistosomiasis were performed in cattle and pigs and only Schistosoma mattheei, S. bovis and S. japonicum received particular attention, mainly because of their recognized veterinary significance or zoonotic aspect. Although it is an accepted fact that acquired resistance to Schistosoma is of major importance in the regulation of infection intensity in the field, almost nothing is yet known of either the nature of the antigens or of the immune mechanisms involved. The recent studies on immunity development focus in particular on the occurrence of maternal to foetal transfer of immunological substances related to animal Schistosoma infections and possible effects of these transfers on the immunity development of the foetus/newborn. Since congenital infections for Schistosoma species other than S. japonicum are extremely rare, the most plausible route for foetal contact is the transplacental or postnatal transfer of immunological substances. Prenatal transfers of specific antibodies and antigens via placental lesions and postnatal transfers via the colostrum were observed in cattle and pigs, and subsequent modifications of the immune response of the newborn were observed. Placental lesions induced by Schistosoma eggs could allow other pathogens to cross the placenta.

  6. Studies on heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, J.; Nelson, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in mice, cattle, and sheep to investigate the possibility that heterologous immune reactions may occur between the schistosomes prevalent in man and domestic animals in Iran. Immunization with Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from cattle produced a considerable degree of immunity in mice against challenge with Schistosoma bovis, S. haematobium, and S. mansoni. The results of immunizing cattle with O. turkestanicum, S. bovis, and S. haematobium were even more striking; there was a reduction of 30-40% in the number of adult worms and a proportionally greater reduction in the tissue egg counts. Sheep developed a less marked immunity. Supplementary experiments on homologous immunity showed that mice developed a considerable degree of immunity against S. bovis. The results of the heterologous immunity experiments with S. haematobium and S. bovis are of particular interest as both parasites often occur in the same area and are often transmitted by the same snail host, man and cattle being exposed to the cercariae of both species simultaneously. The reciprocal immunity produced by these infections may be mutually beneficial in limiting the severity of schistosomiasis in man and domestic animals in the endemic areas. PMID:4540679

  7. [Effect of comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy in Runzhou District, Zhenjiang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liu-Hua; Tao, Heng-Ye; Jiang, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy which relied mainly on Oncomelania snail control, schistosomiasis detection and chemotherapy in residents and livestock was carried out in Runzhou District, 2004-2011. There were no acute schistosomiasis patients for 7 years and no acute schistosomiasis occurred in livestock for 8 years. A total of 107 331 person-times were examined by the serological test and the number of positive cases was 843 (0.8%), and there were 796 person-times who received chemotherapy from 2004 to 2011. There were no infected snails for 2 successive years. Runzhou District achieved the criteria of schistosomiasis endemic control in 2007 and the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission interrupted in 2011. The comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy is very effective in Runzhou District.

  8. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  9. Uptake of preventive treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in Jinja district, Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Muhumuza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Uganda, the current national health sector strategic and investment plan underscores schistosomiasis as one of the diseases targeted for elimination by the year 2015. However, uptake of treatment among school children is unknown but suspected to be low. We estimated the uptake and predictors of preventive treatment with praziquantel. METHODS: In a cross sectional study carried out in Jinja district of Uganda, a random sample of 1,010 children in 12 primary schools was questioned about their uptake of praziquantel, knowledge and perceptions about schistosomiasis, support for taking preventive treatment and the dangers of taking praziquantel. The prevalence and mean intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni were determined. RESULTS: Self reported uptake of praziquantel at last mass treatment was 28.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 22.9%-33.6%. Overall prevalence and mean intensity of S. mansoni infection was 35% (95% CI: 25.4%-37.9% and 116.1 eggs per gram (epg of stool (95% CI: 98.3-137.1 respectively. Uptake of praziquantel was more likely if a child was from a school with high prevalence of infection, had knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, and reported teachers' support to take praziquantel. Of the 285 children who took praziquantel, 142 (49.8% developed side effects. Of the 725 children who did not take the drug, 522 (72.0% reported fear of side effects as a major reason for non-uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of praziquantel in this population is very low. Fear of side effects of praziquantel, lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention and lack of teacher support are some of the major factors associated with low uptake.

  10. Visceral schistosomiasis among domestic ruminants slaughtered in Wayanad, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, R; Lakshmanan, B; Ravishankar, C; Subramanian, H

    2007-11-01

    This short communication reports the prevalence of visceral schistosomiasis by worm counts from the mesentery of domestic ruminants of the hilly district of Wayanad, located in Kerala, one of the states in South India. We found 57.3, 50, and 4.7% of cattle, buffaloes and goats, respectively, had visceral schistosomiasis upon slaughter at a municipal slaughter house in Kalpetta. Our findings show that the prevalence of Schistosoma spindale infection is very high in Wayanad in comparison to previous reports from this and neighboring countries.

  11. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  12. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alexander Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil. METHODS Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. FINDINGS A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. CONCLUSIONS The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas.

  13. Reduced uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis control in absence of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sustaining high uptake of praziquantel is key for long-term control of schistosomiasis. During mass treatment in 2013, we randomized 12 primary schools into two groups; one group received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while...... the other, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. The uptake of praziquantel in the snack schools was 94 % compared to 79 % in the non-snack schools. During mass treatment in 2014, no snack was provided. We compared the uptake of praziquantel......, the difference in the geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni infection in both the snack and non-snack schools was not statistically significant; 38.3 eggs per gram of stool (epg) and 145.7 epg (p = 0.197) and 78.4 epg and 322.5 epg (p = 0.120), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results show that in absence of food...

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practices in relation to prevention and control of schistosomiasis infection in Mwea Kirinyaga county, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mwai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. Inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP on causative factors are some of the critical factors for the increased prevalence. The study assessed KAP on the control and prevention of schistosomiasis infection in Mwea division, Kirinyaga County-Kenya. Four hundred and sixty five house-hold heads were enrolled in this study by use of simple random sampling technique. Methods The study employed an analytical descriptive cross sectional design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A pretested structured questionnaire, Focus Group Discusions (FGDs and Key Informant Interviews (KII guides were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and Chi square tests and Fisher’s exact tests were computed where applicable. Data from the FGDs and KIIs were analyzed using NUID.IST NUIRO.6 software. Results Significant associations between knowledge and demographic factors i.e. age (p = 0.011, education level (p = 0.046, were reported. Handwashing after visiting the toilet (p = 0.001, having a toilet facility at home (p = 0.014; raring animals at home (p = 0.031, households being affected by floods (p = 0.005 and frequency of visits to the paddies (p = 0.037 had a significant association with respondents practices and schistosomiasis infection. Further significance was reported on households being affected by floods during the rainy season (p < 0.001, sources of water in a household (p < 0.047 and having a temporary water body in the area (p = 0.024 with increase in schistosomiasis infection. Results revealed that respondents practices were not significantly associated with gender (p = 0.060, marital status (p = 0.71, wearing of protective gear (p = 0.142 and working on the paddies (p = 0.144. Conclusions This study reveals that knowledge about the cause, transmission, symptoms and

  15. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Bergquist

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed, worldwide success of chemotherapy notwithstanding, schistosomiasis continues to defy control efforts in as much rapid reinfection demands repeated treatment, sometimes as often as once a year. There is thus a need for a complementary tool with effect for the longer term, notably a vaccine. International efforts in this direction have been ongoing for several decades but, until the recombinant DNA techniques were introduced, antigen production remained an unsurmountable bottleneck. Although animal experiments have been highly productive and are still much needed, they probably do not reflect the human situation adequately and real progress can not be expected until more is known about human immune responses to schistosome infection. It is well-known that irradiated cercariae consistently produce high levels of protection in experimental animals but, for various reasons, this proof of principle cannot be directly exploited. Research has instead been focussed on the identification and testing of specific schistosome antigens. This work has been quite successful and is already at the stage where clinical trials are called for. Preliminary results from coordinated in vitro laboratory and field epidemiological studies regarding the protective potential of several antigens support the initiation of such trials. A series of meetings, organized earlier this year in Cairo, Egypt, reviewed recent progress, selecteded suitable vaccine candidates and made firm recommendations for future action including pledging support for large-scale production according to good manufacturing practice (GMP and Phase I trials. Scientists at the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have drawn up a detailed research plan. The major financial support will come from USAID, Cairo, which has established a scientific advisory group of Egyptian scientists and representatives from current and previous international donors such as WHO, NIAID, the

  16. Some social determinants of urinary schistosomiasis in Northern Cameroon: implications for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takougang, Innocent; Meli, Jean; Fotso, Siméon; Angwafo, Fru; Kamajeu, Raoul; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the perceptions of hematuria, the most conspicuous sign of urinary schistosomiasis, in selected communities of the sudano-sahelian zone of Cameroon. Study questionnaires related to knowledge, beliefs and stigma associated with hematuria were administered to 964 pupils from 15 randomly selected schools. In order to ascertain children perceptions, we interviewed 143 adults living less than 2 kilometers from the target school. School children provided urine samples that were examined using the dip stick and sedimentation methods. Exposure to sun was the most reported cause of hematuria (53% adult and 62% children respondents), followed by drinking of dirty water (18% adults and 41% children). Only 15% of adult and 26% school children could relate hematuria to wading, a common means of exposure to urinary schistosomiasis. More than half of the school children stated that hematuria was a sign of disease (56%). Few pupils perceived hematuria to be a sign of strength (6%), while others related it to puberty (30%). Most pupils (80%) reported that hematuria was preventable while others (20% ) ascribed it to witchcraft. Pupils reported that hematuria could be cured in the hospital (65%), by the traditional healer (21%), or by reading Holy Scriptures (14%). Some respondents (35% of adult, and 40% of school children) stated that it was shameful to have blood in urine. Almost half of the adult respondents and 26% of the school children reported that hematuria was contagious. Boys and girls had similar levels of oviuria (OR=0.79 p>0.05), but boys were 4 times more likely to report hematuria (OR= 3.62, p<0.001). There was a poor understanding of the means of exposure, transmission and treatment of hematuria. Some aspects of the perceptions of hematuria reported herein corroborate with previous studies carried out in Cameroon, Niger, Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania. They should be considered, together with other socioeconomic and cultural

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-08-25

    Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis. A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P Yemen was inadequate, and that this could be a challenging obstacle to the elimination of schistosomiasis in these communities. Besides the current mass drug administration, school and community-based health education regarding schistosomiasis is imperative among these communities to significantly reduce the transmission and morbidity of schistosomiasis.

  18. The importance of animals in human schistosomiasis in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of animals in human schistosomiasis in South Africa. ... following exposureto animal or bird bilharzia are considered. it is concluded that, as regards animal schistosomes, at present only S. mattheei and a hybrid of S. mattheei and S. haematobium pose a potential threat to human health in South Africa.

  19. Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa: Efficacy of chemotherapeutic intervention since World Health ... for regular treatment of school children, development of alternative antihelminthic drugs and vaccines, environmental control measures and health education.

  20. Epidemiological survey of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In order to determine the presence of bilharzia parasites in the populations, an epidemiological study on urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis was conducted from 09 September 2012 to 14 June 2013 in three villages namely: Badadji, Ouro-Marey and Kakala in Mayo-Louti Sub-Division, North Region Cameroon.

  1. The role of snail aestivation in transmission of schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review assesses the possible impacts of climate change on the temporal and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis-transmitting snails with special emphasis on aestivation, and discusses the effect of schistosome infection on aestivation ability. The impacts of parasite development on snails, as well as physiological ...

  2. Schistosomiasis Morbidity and Management of Cases in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Werf (Marieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections and an important public health problem in many developing countries. The main early symptom if Schistosoma haematobium infection is hematuria, and S. mansoni infection causes bloody diarrhea. Current estimates of the

  3. Urinary schistosomiasis in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in six communities in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria, between February and July 2005. Centrifuge concentration technique was employed in the analysis of urine for the eggs of Schistosoma ...

  4. Epidemiological Study on Urinary Schistosomiasis in Oguta local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in seven communities in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. The standard centrifugation method of analysis of urine for the examination of schistosome ova was employed. Of the 997 urine specimens examined in ...

  5. human intestinal schistosomiasis in communities living near three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... snails (Biomphalaria pfeifferi and. Biomphalaria sudanica) are responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the country (6). The former is the most ..... G, VanLieshout L. Schistosomiasis mansoni in school attenders and non- attenders in Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J. Health Dev 2001; 15(2):117-23. 17.

  6. Metabolic changes reveal the development of schistosomiasis in mice.

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    Junfang Wu

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by small trematode worms called schistosomes, amongst which Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is endemic in Asia. In order to understand the schistosome-induced changes in the host metabolism so as to facilitate early diagnosis of schistosomiasis, we systematically investigated the dynamic metabolic responses of mice biofluids and liver tissues to S. japonicum infection for five weeks using (1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis. We were able to detect schistosomiasis at the third week post-infection, which was one week earlier than "gold standard" methods. We found that S. japonicum infection caused significant elevation of urinary 3-ureidopropionate, a uracil catabolic product, and disturbance of lipid metabolism, stimulation of glycolysis, depression of tricarboxylic acid cycle and disruption of gut microbiota regulations. We further found that the changes of 3-ureidopropionate and overall metabolic changes in both urinary and plasma samples were closely correlated with the time-course of disease progression. Furthermore, such changes together with liver tissue metabonome were clearly associated with the worm-burdens. These findings provided more insightful understandings of host biological responses to the infection and demonstrated that metabonomic analysis is potentially useful for early detection of schistosomiasis and comprehension of the mechanistic aspects of disease progression.

  7. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed ...

  8. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  9. Prevalence of Snail Vectors of Schistosomiasis in the Kpong Head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma sp. became a serious public health problem in Ghana after the Volta River was dammed in Akosombo in 1964. The formation of the Kpong head pond, about 25 km below the Akosombo dam, as a result of a second dam built at Kpong became an ...

  10. Some social determinants of urinary schistosomiasis in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to assess the perceptions of hematuria, the most conspicuous sign of urinary schistosomiasis, in selected communities of the sudano-sahelian zone of Cameroon. Study questionnaires related to knowledge, beliefs and stigma associated with hematuria were administered to 964 pupils from ...

  11. Urinary Schistosomiasis in a Rice- Farming Community in Biase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data indicates that there is a high prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the community and a poor knowledge of the disease and means of transmission. Health education is recommended along with provision of safe water and proper sanitation facilities for the community as a first step in eradication of the disease.

  12. Health care seeking-behaviour of people in Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the dynamics of health-care seeking-behaviour of people living in communities endemic for schistosomiasis was carried out in Borgu and Shagamu Local Government areas of Niger State and Ewekoro, Odeda and Abeokuta North Local Government Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were ...

  13. 5. Surveys for Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: The study confirmed that schistosomiasis and STH infections were endemic at the study sites, but also suggested that the prevalences had declined compared to earlier reports. There is need for more surveys to be carried out to assess the current distribution.

  14. Prevalence of Snail Vectors of Schistosomiasis in the Kpong Head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Introduction. Schistosomes (blood flukes) are digenetic trematodes of the super family Schistoso- matoidea. They cause the disease schistoso- miasis, which is commonly called bilharziasis. The parasites undergo part of their developmental phase into infective forms in water borne planorbid snails. Hence, schistosomiasis ...

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Ikpeshi, a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria showed that 195(65%) out of 300 volunteers harboured Schistosoma haematobium ova in their urine. Eosinophiluria was markedly significant > 5 eosinophilic leucocyturia/hpf and reported among 250 (83.3%) inhabitants. Of these ...

  16. Reversal of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety, pharmacological effect and mechanism of action of an antifibrotic compound, safironil (SAF)/praziquantel (PZQ) combination on reversal of liver fibrogenesis in chronic murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods: The antifibrotic effect of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml of SAF was evaluated in vitro ...

  17. Schistosomiasis: a case of severe infection with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases, stillconsidered of public health significance. Acute schistosomiasis is of difficultdiagnosis and therefore has been overlooked, misdiagnosed, underestimatedand underreported in endemic areas. The delay between the exposure tocontaminated water and the initial symptoms may explain this challengingdiagnosis. Acute schistosomiasis is frequently reported in non-immuneindividuals while reinfection cases occurring in endemic areas is scarcelydocumented. The later usually shows a benign course but fatal cases do exist.The authors report a case of a young female patient, in the late puerperium,with a three-month history of weight loss, intermittent fever, cough, thoracicand abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth. Physical examinationshowed a tachycardia, tachypnea and hypotension. Laboratory tests showeda mild anemia, eosinophilia, and a slightly elevation of liver enzymes. Thoraxand abdominal multidetector computed tomography evidenced a diffuseand bilateral pulmonary micronodules and peritoneal and intestinal wallthickening. The patient progressed rapidly to hepatic insufficiency, and deathafter respiratory insufficiency. An autopsy was performed and the findingswere compatible with acute Schistosomiasis in a patient previously exposedto Schistosoma mansoni.

  18. Investigation of the Risk of Infection of Urinary Schistosomiasis at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary schistosomiasis is of great public health importance in developing countries. It has adverse economic and health implications on residents living in endemic areas. Various factors including human behaviour are known to play key role in the transmission of the disease. The knowledge of the levels of risk of infection ...

  19. Decline in transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abaidani, Idris; Al-Abri, Seif; Shaban, Mahmoud; Ghugey, Satish L; Al Kathery, Salem; Al-Mashikhi, Khalid; Garba, Amadou; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2016-12-12

    Intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni was first reported in Oman in 1979. We describe the trend in parasitological and serological prevalence of human infection with S. mansoni in the endemic area over the period 1982-2014, and the compliance of data generated by the national monitoring and evaluation system with schistosomiasis elimination criteria set by the Ministry of Health of Oman. Parasitological and serological assessments were carried out on population (mainly children) living in the area at risk for schistosomiasis in Dhofar, the country's only endemic Governorate, for a period of over 30 years. Kato-Katz thick smear and Indirect Haemagglutination Assay were the techniques employed. Data indicate a progressive decline in prevalence of S. mansoni throughout the 1980s and the 1990s, a recrudescence in the early 2000s, and a more marked decrease following the implementation of six rounds of mass treatment with praziquantel from 2007 to 2013. Latest parasitological prevalence (2011) was 0%, while latest serological prevalence (2014) was 0.11%. Transmission of schistosomiasis has reached very low levels in Oman. Elimination criteria established by the Ministry of Health of Oman (parasitological prevalence ≤ 1% and serological prevalence ≤ 5%) have been met since 2008. Further investigations are required to assess whether interruption of transmission has been achieved in some or all foci, in view of the establishment of a formal verification process under the auspices of WHO.

  20. Urinary Schistosomiasis And Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, unlike malaria and hookworm infections, little is known on the role of urinary schistosomiasis in iron deficiency anemia. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and the effect of iron supplementation on hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) levels among school children ...

  1. Impact of iron supplementation on schistosomiasis control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Once weekly iron supplementation can decrease S haematobium reinfection after 6 months and should be incorporated into school based schistosomiasis control programs in highly endemic areas. Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT 00276224, sponsored by DBL-Institute for Health Research and Development, Denmark.

  2. Schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The overall infection rates of schistosomiasis mansoni, trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infection were 73.7%, 41.5%, 37.2% and 28.4%, respectively. Other parasitic infections observed were caused by Hymenolepis nana (1.7%), Taenia species (1.4%), and Enterobius vermicularis (1.4%). Children in the age ...

  3. Surveys for Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other more rare STH infections noted were Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: The study confirmed that schistosomiasis and STH infections were endemic at the study sites, but also suggested that the prevalences had declined compared to earlier reports. There is need for ...

  4. 111 . original article prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    humans. Although schistosomiasis is not found in the. United States, over 200 million people are infected worldwide (1). Schistosomes belong to the kingdom ..... Activities the communities include fishing, swimming, wash and bathing. Majority of these activities took place the shallower portion of the water bodies usua.

  5. Current status of intestinal Schistosomiasis and soil- transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Table 2: Prevalence and intensity of intestinal schistosomiasis and ascariasis using Kato-Katz method in 8 elementary schools in Adwa Town, northern Ethiopia, 2007. School. No. Examined. Positive for. Male. Female. Total no. examined. S. mansoni. A. lumbricoides. No. (%) epg. No. (%). Epg. May Guagua. 28. 22. 50.

  6. Schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2013-07-01

    To assess the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities of southwestern Nigeria. The present cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted during 2010-2011 among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically screened for infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Of 313 volunteer participants, 20.8% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The prevalence of infection was highest (31.5%) among women aged 20-24years. The infection intensity did not differ significantly between age groups (t=1.848, P=0.71). Primigravidae and women in the first trimester of pregnancy had the highest intensity of infection with 33.1 and 27.7 eggs/10mL of urine, respectively. There was an association between disease prevalence and parasite intensity across the age groups (χ(2)=68.82, P=0.02). The prevalence of S. haematobium was not associated with age or pregnancy trimester (P=0.06), but associations existed between intensity of infection and gravidity (P=0.001). The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in Nigeria was high, with younger women and primigravidae at the greatest risk. These data can be used to develop a schistosomiasis control program among pregnant women in the study area. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. urinary schistosomiasis infection in dumbin dutse, igabi local

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (16), 2773-2776. Uneke, C. J.; Oyibo, P. G.; Ugwuoru, C.D.C.; Nwanokwai, A. P.;. Iloegbunam, R. O. (2007): Urinary Schistosomiasis Among School. Age Children In Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of. Laboratory Medicine. 2(1):1. Clennon, J. A., King, C. H., Muchiri, E. M, Kariuki, H. C., ...

  8. Studies on Urinary Schistosomiasis in Selected Villages around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (September, 2012), 20(3): 189-194. ISSN 0794-5698. Studies on Urinary Schistosomiasis in Selected Villages around Gusau Dam Site, Zamfara State,. Nigeria. *1M.U Ladan, 1U. Abubakar, 1K. Abdullahi, 1M.

  9. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adema, Coen M; Hillier, Ladeana W; Jones, Catherine S

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biompha...

  10. The impact of irrigated rice on the transmission of schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,. Nigeria, Togo (Cunin et al., 2000; Audibert and Mathonnat, 2001; Moné et al., 2010;. Wallet et al., 2016). Many parts of West. African States have been a constant in the prevalence of malaria and schistosomiasis after six years of practice rice.

  11. Background Opacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.; Monier, R.; Smalley, B.; Wahlgren, G.; Stee, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    In NLTE computations of trace elements in stellar atmospheres, background opacities are generally treated in LTE. It is thus important to assess the impact of different methods of including this background opacity on the statistical equilibrium of the trace element and its resulting NLTE abundance.

  12. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  13. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  14. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the “bottom 500 million” inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  15. Safety and Immunogenicity of rSh28GST Antigen in Humans: Phase 1 Randomized Clinical Study of a Vaccine Candidate against Urinary Schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Riveau; Dominique Deplanque; Franck Remoué; Anne-Marie Schacht; Hubert Vodougnon; Monique Capron; Michel Thiry; Joseph Martial; Christian Libersa; André Capron

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of urinary schistosomiasis by chemotherapy remains challenging due to rapid re-infection and possibly to limited susceptibility to praziquantel treatment. Therefore, therapeutic vaccines represent an attractive alternative control strategy. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and tolerability profile of the recombinant 28 kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma haematobium (rSh28GST) in healthy volunteers, and to determine its immunogenicity. Metho...

  16. Decrease in Seminal HIV-1 RNA Load After Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Coinfection in HIV-Positive Men-An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mudenge, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment with the antihelmint...... targeting praziquantel as a supplementary preventive measure of sexual transmission of HIV-1 in S. haematobium endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa....

  17. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  18. [Development and application of information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuan-Hua; Li, Dong; Ning, An; Qiu, Ling; Xiong, Ji-Jie

    2011-04-01

    To develop the information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province. Based on Access 2003, the system was programmed by Visual Basic 6.0 and packaged by Setup Factory 8.0. In the system, advanced schistosomiasis data were able to be input, printed, indexed, and statistically analyzed. The system could be operated and maintained easily and timely. The information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province is successfully developed.

  19. [Schistosomiasis status of staff in Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Leng, Cheng-mei; Tang, Min; Yao, Wei-gang

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of schistosomiasis of staff in the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee and the Oncomelania hupensis snail condition of their work areas in 2013, so as to provide the evidences for the schistosomiasis control in the industry. The physical examination data about schistosomiasis of the staff from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed to understand the schistosomiasis prevalence condition of the staff and the changes of their liver parenchyma. Meanwhile, the snail status in the work areas was surveyed. There were 1,393 staff involved in the physical examinations of schistosomiasis in 2003, 197 of them were schistosomiasis patients, the prevalence rate was 14.14%, and no new acute schistosomiasis case occurred. The cases whose liver parenchyma were classified as Grade 0, I , II , III occupied 28.9%, 67.0%, 3.05% and 1.02%, respectively. A total of 24 work areas were involved in the snail survey, and 71 snails were captured. Among the whole snails captured, 39 were living snails, but no schistosome infected snails were found. The prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in staff of the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee is relatively high, so the schistosomiasis surveillance as well as the snail survey and control still should be carried out consistently.

  20. Evolution of schistosomiasis-induced pathology after therapy and interruption of exposure to schistosomes: a review of ultrasonographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J

    2000-10-23

    Ultrasonography (US) is suitable for diagnosing schistosomiasis-related organic pathology and is particularly useful to assess its evolution after therapy and/or interruption of exposure to the Schistosoma parasites. Evolution of pathology after treatment: Regression of hepatic abnormalities in Schistosma mansoni-infected children and adolescents has been observed already from 7 months post-therapy on. This does, however, not occur in all cases: individual differences are great ranging from spontaneous regression of pathology without treatment to persistence of pathology lasting for years after therapy even without re-infection. Intensity and duration of exposure, different parasite strains, patients' age and genetic background all influence the evolution of pathology. In communities at continuous exposure to S. mansoni infection, repeated re-treatment is required to control hepatosplenic morbidity. In Schistosoma japonicum infection, changes around the portal tree may regress, but characteristic diffuse abnormalities described as 'network pattern' abnormalities do not resolve. In Schistosoma haematobium infection bladder abnormalities and urinary tract obstruction frequently resolve after treatment. Clinically relevant pathology may resurge from 1 year after therapy on if exposure continues. Subjects with more advanced pathology before therapy, appear to be at higher risk of pathology re-appearance. Evolution of pathology after interruption of exposure to schistosomiasis: Knowledge on the evolution of pathology induced by S. mansoni is limited to some reports in emigrants and to the experience of ultrasonographists working in areas, where transmission has been partially interrupted. Due to the longevity of the parasite, infection may last for many years. Even after elimination of the parasites severe pathology may persist for long. In S. haematobium infection spontaneous healing after interruption of re-exposure may occur, but cases have been reported where

  1. Experimental bovine schistosomiasis in zebu calves Esquistossomose bovina experimental em bezerros zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadeldin Elamin Aradaib

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five calves were each experimentally infected with 30,000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis and three calves were kept as controls. S. bovis eggs first appeared in feces of the infected animals by week 5 post infection and all animals were shedding by week 6 post infection. Between week 7 and 9 post infection, where fecal egg counts were highest, the infected animals developed mucoid and then hemorrhagic diarrhoea and they became dull and depressed. Packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations of the infected animals showed progressive reductions compared to the uninfected control calves. The animals were necropsied and perfused at week 12 post infection and tissue egg densities and worm burden were determined.Cinco bezerros foram infectados experimentalmente com 30.000 cercarias de Schistosoma bovis e três bezerros foram usados como controle. Ovos de S. bovis apareceram inicialmente nas fezes dos animais infectados pela 5ª semana após infecção e todos os animais estavam eliminando ovos na 6ª semana após infecção. Entre as 7ª e 9ª semanas após infecção, nas quais a quantidade fecal de ovos era mais alta, os animais infectados manifestaram diarréia com muco seguida por disenteria e os animais apresentando-se morimbundos e depressivos. PCV e concentração da hemoglobina dos animais infectados demonstrou redução progressiva em comparação com os bezerros não infectados. Os animais foram necropsiados na 12ª semana para determinação da densidade de ovos nos tecidos e quantidade de parasitas.

  2. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  3. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  4. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  5. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  6. Genital manifestations of schistosomiasis mansoni in women: important but neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Feldmeier

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg-induced lesions in the upper and the lower female reproductive tract are important complications of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The understanding of the pathophysiology and pathology of genital lesions is only rudimentary, simple and reliable diagnostic tools are not at hand, epidemiological data do not exist and how to treat best the women affected, is not known. In view of recent advances in the understanding of genital lesions induced by S. haematobium the existing literature is critically analysized and possible consequences of female genital schistosomiasis are outlined. We estimate that 6 to 27 % girls and women with intestinal schistosomiasis, at least temporarily, suffer from pathology induced by eggs sequestered somewhere in their genital organs. This is a mattern of concern and warrants more research into the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and therapy of this disease entity.

  7. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  8. The situation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Brazil today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific chemotherapy against schistosomiasis together with environmental changes occurring in endemic areas of Brazil are causing a revolution in the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease when comparing to date from 10 to 15 years ago. To update the subject, an inquire was made among the most experienced Brazilian investigators in this field. They agree that a decrease of about 50 to 70% in prevalence, and an even higher decrease in incidence are taking place in Brazil today. The prevalence of schistosome-infection has decreased in some areas and increased in other, with spreading sometimes occurring to peri-urban regions, indicating that schistosomiasis control depends on the application of multiple measures. General clinical and pathological manifestations related to hepatosplenic disease, such as ascites, gastric hemorrhages, big-spleen syndrome, cor pulmonale, glomerulopathy, etc. are also less severe nowadays than they used to be in the past

  9. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreas N Mbah,1,2 Ousman Mahmud,1 Omotayo R Awofolu,2 Raphael D Isokpehi11Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions.Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum.Results: Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene.Conclusion: Given that the initial effects of

  10. Measuring Morbidity Associated with Urinary Schistosomiasis: Assessing Levels of Excreted Urine Albumin and Urinary Tract Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I. Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J. Russell

    2009-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. Methodology/Principal Findings In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (≥16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI95 28.5–45.0%) and 46.8% (CI95 32.1–61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI95 31.0–48.3%) and 64.4% (CI95 48.8–78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001). In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as ‘gold standard’). Conclusion/Significance This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography. PMID:19806223

  11. Vesical schistosomiasis in north eastern part of Imo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More females (30.8%) than males (24.1%) were infected in all the age groups and high rate of hematuria (56.6%) was observed among the infected subjects. Prevalence of vesical schistosomiasis was significantly higher (77.9%) among those in the age group 11-20 years than those of 41-50 years (p<0.05). The intensity of ...

  12. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  13. [Schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma intercalatum and urbanization in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripert, C

    2003-08-01

    The species name of Schistosoma intercalatum, Fischer 1934 is linked to the shape and the size of his eggs, which are intermediate between those of S. haematobium and S. bovis. S. intercalatum is the instrument of an intestinal form of schistosomiasis looking like the form induced by S. mansoni but characterized by a low location of the lesions, mainly situated at the rectum and sigmoid level. The spreading area of S. intercalatum is bound to Central Africa. The foci are often urban and of a size limited to a town district. Bulinus forskalii is the intermediate host mostly involved in transmitting S. intercalatum lower Guinea strain, which is the strain found in the largest number of foci. B. crystallinus too transmits the parasite in the area of Gamba in Gabon. The Central Basin congolese strain of S. intercalatum is transmitted by Bulinus globosus. The houses where inhabitants are voiding eggs of S. intercalatum are just in front of the river bank or stream which are snails'breeding places. S. intercalatum is expending at the present time because of the development of built-up areas which are characterized by a disorganized town-planning. The disease is due to the high faecal pollution of the environment, causing a contamination of the urban hydrographic network which is the setting of schistosomiasis transmission. Although primely linked to the forest area, S. intercalatum is spreading with deforestation. Coming from the savannah area, S. haematobium is now invading the forest area, entering into competition with S. intercalatum. But since Bulinus acting as intermediate hosts of S. haematobium are more heliophilous than Bulinus transmitting S. intercalatum, urinary schistosomiasis has a tendency to supplant recto-sigmoidal schistosomiasis, especially in foci where hybridization between the two species of schistosomes is occurring.

  14. Association between Schistosomiasis mansoni and hepatitis C: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva de Moraes Van-Lume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the prevalence of the HCV/ S. mansoni co-infection and associated factors in Schistosoma mansoni -infected populations. METHODS: The bibliographic search was carried out using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane Library and Ibecs databases. The criteria for the studies' selection and the extraction data were based on systematic review methods. Forty five studies were found, with nine being excluded in a first screening. Thirteen articles were used for data extraction. RESULTS: The HCV infection rates in schistosomiasis populations range from 1% in Ethiopia to 50% in Egypt. Several studies had poorly defined methodologies, even in areas characterized by an association between hepatitis C and schistosomiasis, such as Brazil and Egypt, which meant conclusions were inconsistent. HCV infection rates in schistosomotic populations were heterogeneous and risk factors for acquiring the virus varied widely. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations, this review may help to identify regions with higher rates of hepatitis C and schistosomiasis association. However, more studies are necessary for the development of public health policies on prevention and control of both diseases.

  15. Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JR Coura

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

  16. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  17. Identification and profiling of circulating antigens by screening with the sera from schistosomiasis japonica patients

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    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. The disease remains a serious public health problem in endemic countries and affects at least 207 million people worldwide. A definite diagnosis of the disease plays a key role in the control of schistosomiasis. The detection of schistosome circulating antigens (CAs is an effective approach to discriminate between previous exposure and current infection. Different methods have been investigated for detecting the CAs. However, the components of the schistosome CAs remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the CAs in sera of patients infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Methods The parasites were collected from the infected rabbits for preparing the adult worm antigen (AWA. The hyline hens were immunized subcutaneously with AWA to produce anti-AWA IgY. The IgY was purified by water-dilution and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and identified by ELISA and Western blotting. After purification and characterization, IgY was immobilized onto the resin as a capture antibody. The circulating antigens were immune-precipitated from patients′ serum samples by direct immunoprecipitation. The precipitated proteins were separated by one-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Results Firstly, the IgY against AWA was produced from the eggs of immunized hens by AWA, which gave a titer of 1:12800. The purified IgY was used as the capture antibody to enrich the CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients through immunoprecipitation. The CAs were determined by LC-MS/MS. There were four proteins, including protein BUD31 homolog, ribonuclease, SJCHGC06971 protein and SJCHGC04754 protein, which were identified among the CAs. Conclusions We developed a novel method based on IgY for identification and profiling CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients. Four new CAs were identified and have potential value for further development

  18. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  19. Integrated community-directed intervention for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in western Kenya – a pilot study

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    Mwinzi Pauline NM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are recognized as major global public health problems, causing severe and subtle morbidity, including significant educational and nutritional effects in children. Although effective and safe drugs are available, ensuring access to these drugs by all those at risk of schistosomiasis and STHs is still a challenge. Community-directed intervention (CDI has been used successfully for mass distribution of drugs for other diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A national control programme is yet to be instituted in Kenya and evidence for cost-effective strategies for reaching most affected communities is needed. This study evaluated the effectiveness and feasibility of the CDI strategy in the control of schistosomiasis and STHs, in East Uyoma location, Rarieda district, a community of western Kenya that is highly endemic for both infections. Results Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni averaged 17.4% (range 5-43% in the entire location. Treatment coverage in different villages ranged from 54.19 to 96.6% by community drug distributor (CDD records. Assessment from a household survey showed coverage of 52.3 -91.9% while the proportion of homesteads (home compounds covered ranged from 54.9-98.5%. Six months after one round of drug distribution, the prevalence levels of S. mansoni, hookworm and Trichuris trichura infections were reduced by 33.2%, 69.4% and 42.6% respectively. Conclusions This study shows that CDI is an accepted and effective strategy in the mass treatment of schistosomiasis and STH infections in resource constrained communities in Kenya and may be useful in similar communities elsewhere. A controlled trial comparing CDI and school based mass drug administration to demonstarte their relative advantages is ongoing.

  20. Epidemiology of malaria, schistosomiasis, geohelminths, anemia and malnutrition in the context of a demographic surveillance system in northern Angola.

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    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection are linked to maternal and child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowing the prevalence levels of these infections is vital to guide governments towards the implementation of successful and cost-effective disease control initiatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of 1,237 preschool children (0-5 year olds, 1,142 school-aged children (6-15 year olds and 960 women (>15 year olds was conducted to understand the distribution of malnutrition, anemia, malaria, schistosomiasis (intestinal and urinary and geohelminths in a north-western province of Angola. We used a recent demographic surveillance system (DSS database to select and recruit suitable households. Malnutrition was common among children (23.3% under-weight, 9.9% wasting and 32.2% stunting, and anemia was found to be a severe public health problem (i.e., >40%. Malaria prevalence was highest among preschool children reaching 20.2%. Micro-hematuria prevalence levels reached 10.0% of preschool children, 16.6% of school-aged children and 21.7% of mothers. Geohelminth infections were common, affecting 22.3% of preschool children, 31.6% of school-aged children and 28.0% of mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Here we report prevalence levels of malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminths; all endemic in this poorly described area where a DSS has been recently established. Furthermore we found evidence that the studied infections are associated with the observed levels of anemia and malnutrition, which can justify the implementation of integrated interventions for the control of these diseases and morbidities.

  1. Epidemiology of Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Geohelminths, Anemia and Malnutrition in the Context of a Demographic Surveillance System in Northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Gamboa, Dina; Pedro, João Mário; Fançony, Cláudia; Langa, António Justino; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Stothard, J. Russell; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection are linked to maternal and child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowing the prevalence levels of these infections is vital to guide governments towards the implementation of successful and cost-effective disease control initiatives. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study of 1,237 preschool children (0–5 year olds), 1,142 school-aged children (6–15 year olds) and 960 women (>15 year olds) was conducted to understand the distribution of malnutrition, anemia, malaria, schistosomiasis (intestinal and urinary) and geohelminths in a north-western province of Angola. We used a recent demographic surveillance system (DSS) database to select and recruit suitable households. Malnutrition was common among children (23.3% under-weight, 9.9% wasting and 32.2% stunting), and anemia was found to be a severe public health problem (i.e., >40%). Malaria prevalence was highest among preschool children reaching 20.2%. Micro-hematuria prevalence levels reached 10.0% of preschool children, 16.6% of school-aged children and 21.7% of mothers. Geohelminth infections were common, affecting 22.3% of preschool children, 31.6% of school-aged children and 28.0% of mothers. Conclusions Here we report prevalence levels of malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminths; all endemic in this poorly described area where a DSS has been recently established. Furthermore we found evidence that the studied infections are associated with the observed levels of anemia and malnutrition, which can justify the implementation of integrated interventions for the control of these diseases and morbidities. PMID:22493664

  2. From innovation to application: social-ecological context, diagnostics, drugs and integrated control of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; N'goran, Eliézer K; Caffrey, Conor R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Compared to malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, schistosomiasis remains a truly neglected tropical disease. Schistosomiasis, perhaps more than any other disease, is entrenched in prevailing social-ecological systems, since transmission is governed by human behaviour (e.g. open defecation and patterns of unprotected surface water contacts) and ecological features (e.g. living in close proximity to suitable freshwater bodies in which intermediate host snails proliferate). Moreover, schistosomiasis is intimately linked with poverty and the disease has spread to previously non-endemic areas as a result of demographic, ecological and engineering transformations. Importantly though, thanks to increased advocacy there is growing awareness, financial and technical support to control and eventually eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem at local, regional and global scales. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress made in innovation, validation and application of new tools and strategies for research and integrated control of schistosomiasis. First, we explain that schistosomiasis is deeply embedded in social-ecological systems and explore linkages with poverty. We then summarize and challenge global statistics, risk maps and burden estimates of human schistosomiasis. Discovery and development research pertaining to novel diagnostics and drugs forms the centrepiece of our review. We discuss unresolved issues and emerging opportunities for integrated and sustainable control of schistosomiasis and conclude with a series of research needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. commu ity's aware ess about i testi al schistosomiasis ad the prevale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on what the community knows about the infection and socio-cultural factors that influence community's perception about the disease, to make the control of schistosomiasis more effective and sustainable in endemic areas (6-12). In Ethiopia, a number of epidemiological studies showed that intestinal schistosomiasis due to ...

  4. The protective potentials of 4-chloro-3, 5-xylenol (Dettol) against Mansonian schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edungbola, L D

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the prophylactic effectiveness of 4-chloro-3, 5-xylenol (Dettol) against mammalian schistosomiasis. The findings showed that this antiseptic was capable of protecting the albino mice against Mansonian schistosomiasis and of acting as an effective miracidicide, cercaricide and molluscicide.

  5. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...... to receive praziquantel (40 mg/kg) at baseline or at the three-month follow-up. sTNF-rII and IL-8 were positively associated with schistosomiasis intensity as measured by circulating anodic antigen (CAA), regardless of HIV status. Interleukin-10 was positively associated with CAA in HIV-negative participants...

  6. Persistent Transmission of Schistosomiasis in Southwest Nigeria: Contexts of Culture and Contact with Infected River Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunlana, Adetayo; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Morenikeji, Olajumoke; Hassan, Adesola A; Nwuba, Roseangela I; Anumudu, Chiaka I; Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of schistosomiasis is aided by human behaviour. Globally, about 800 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Data exist on biomedical understanding of the disease transmission; there is a dearth of information from the social science perspective. Hence, this study explored the social and cultural context of schistosomiasis transmission among Yewa People in Nigeria. Qualitative methods were employed with purposive sampling, using the key informant interviews and focus group discussions, among 57 participants aged 17 to 54 years. The data were content-analyzed. River water was the most reported source of water supply among others. Participants drew from the cultural milieu the use of river water for "drinking" and "swimming" as part of the continual transmission of schistosomiasis. Transmission of schistosomiasis may not be abated without behavioural change.

  7. Proportion of Urinary Schistosomiasis among HIV-Infected Subjects in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Akinbo Frederick Olusegun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, and the effect of CD4+ T cell counts and demographics on its prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria.Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 2000 HIV-positive subjects. A wet preparation of the urine deposit was examined microscopically to identify ova of Schistosoma haematobium. The blood specimens were analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count.Results: An overall prevalence rate of 0.3% was reported. Gender and CD4 count <200 cells/µL did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, while HIV patients that were single had significantly higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (p=0.002.Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among HIV patients in Benin City is low. CD4+ count did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis.

  8. [Research of preferences and security management of tourists in Poyang Lake based on schistosomiasis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-hua

    2015-04-01

    To discuss the prevention of schistosomiasis in tourism of lake region. The seasonal distribution of tourism activities and spatial distribution of scenic spots, as well as the coupling between space and temporal of Oncomelania snail distribution and the transmission time of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region were analyzed. The travel preference of schistosomiasis susceptible population was surveyed by questionnaires and interviews. There were couplings of space and temporal between tourism activities in Poyang Lake region and transmission time of schistosomiasis as well as space distribution of snails, respectively. The most popular tourism items were Shuishangrenjia (overwater household) and fishing folk culture with property of participation and experience. The suggestion is to establish health records of tourists, carry out health education of schistosomiasis, and enhance the management of tourism and activities of tourists.

  9. A rationale for schistosomiasis control in elementary schools of the rainforest zone of pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Tereza C Favre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since its beginning in 1999, the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS has registered a cumulative coverage of just 20% of the population from the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP, northeast Brazil. This jeopardizes the accomplishment of the minimum goal of the Fifty-Fourth World Health Assembly, resolution WHA54.19, of providing treatment for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH to 75% of school-aged children at risk, which requires attending at least 166,000 residents in the 7-14 age range by year 2010 in that important endemic area. In the present study, secondary demographic and parasitological data from a representative municipality of the ZMP are analyzed to provide evidence that the current, community-based approach to control schistosomiasis and STH is unlikely to attain the WHA-54.19 minimum goal and to suggest that school-based control actions are also needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data available on the PCE-SUS activities related to diagnosis and treatment of the population from the study municipality were obtained from the State Secretary of Health of Pernambuco (SES/PE for 2002-2006, complemented by the Municipal Secretary of Health (SMS for 2003-2004. Data from a school-based stool survey carried out by the Schistosomiasis Reference Service of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (SRE/Fiocruz in 2004 were used to provide information on infection status variation among school-aged children (7-14 years. According to the SES, from 2004 to 2006, only 2,977 (19.5% of the estimated 15,288 residents of all ages were examined, of which 396 (13.3% were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Among these, only 180 (45.5% were treated. According to the SMS, of the 1,766 examined in the 2003-2004 population stool survey 570 (32.3% were children aged 7-14 years. One year later, the SRE/Fiocruz school survey revealed that the infection status among those children remained unchanged

  10. Sentinel surveillance of Lymphatic filariasis, Schistosomiasis, Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Baseline prevalence and knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) survey is a prerequisite for mass drug administration for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and other neglected tropical diseases. Methods: In preparation for the first mass drug administration for LF elimination, a baseline survey was ...

  11. STUDI KEBIJAKAN PENGENDALIAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KABUPATEN POSO DAN KABUPATEN SIGI PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2012

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    Ahmad Erlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan salah satu penyakit parasit terpenting dalam kesehatan masyarakat. Di Indonesiaschistosomiasis disebabkan oleh cacing Schistosoma japonicum dengan hospes perantara keong Oncomelaniahupensis lindoensis. Penyakit ini hanya ditemukan di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah di dua kabupaten yaitu Kabupaten Posodan Sigi. Selama ini pengendalian yang dilakukan masih bersifat rutin yaitu pengobatan, survei fokus keong,pengumpulan tinja, dan pengadaan tool kit. Belum pernah dilakukan penelitian dari aspek kebijakan pemerintah daerahdalam pengendalian schistosomiasis. Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan untuk memberikan opsi kebijakan bagipemerintah daerah dalam pengendalian schistosomiasis. Tujuan khusus yang ingin dicapai adalah menilai persepsistakeholder mengenai pengendalian schistosomiasis, menilai kebijakan yang selama ini dilakukan oleh pemerintahdaerah dalam pengendalian schistosomiasis dan merumuskan suatu opsi kebijakan. Metode penelitian yang dipakaiadalah studi kualitatif dengan wawancara mendalam kepada stakeholder di Kabupaten Poso, Kabupaten Sigi, danpemerintah daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Penentuan sampel dilakukan secara purposive sampling dimana sampeladalah stakeholder yang berkompeten mengeluarkan kebijakan tentang pengendalian schistosomiasis. Data primerdikumpulkan dengan wawancara mendalam, sedangkan data sekunder diperoleh dengan mengumpulkan dokumendokumenyang terkait dengan kebijakan pengendalian schistosomiasis. Hasil wawancara mendalam menunjukkanbahwa pada umumnya semua stakeholder sudah tahu kalau schistosomiasis adalah penyakit spesifik lokal yang diIndonesia cuma ada di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, apa penyebabnya dan bagaimana cara pengendaliannya. Tindaklanjut dari surat keputusan yang sudah dikeluarkan oleh Gubernur Sulawesi Tengah yang membentuk tim terpadupengendalian schistosomiasis sampai sekarang belum ada gerakan. Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (SKPD yangdiharapkan terlibat, belum tahu apa

  12. A candidate recombinant antigen for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jintao; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Han, Yu; He, Chuanchuan; Lu, Chao; Hong, Yang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jinming

    2017-08-30

    Domestic animals infected with Schistosoma japonicum are a major source of infection and play an important role in transmission to humans. A key strategy for the elimination of schistosomiasis is to control the sources of infection. In the present study, we identified a candidate diagnostic antigen-encoding gene, SjMRP1, the putative multidrug resistance protein 1 gene, by screening a cDNA phage display library from 44-day-old S. japonicum worms using IgGs from goat, cattle, and buffalo infected with S. japonicum. We cloned and expressed the fragment of SjMRP1 and subsequently evaluated the diagnostic potential of the recombinant protein rSjMRP1. In the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of rSjMRP1 (rSjMRP1-ELISA), the sensitivity in goat, cattle, and buffalo was 95.6% (86/90), 100% (22/22), and 90% (81/90), respectively, and the specificity was 100% (30/30) in goat and cattle and 96.67% (29/30) in buffalo. These results were not significantly different from soluble egg antigen (SEA)-ELISA results. Notably, rSjMRP1-ELISA has no cross reaction with Haemonchus contortus, a most common nematode seen in goat and bovine in China, in 13 infected goats, and with Orientobilhazia turkestanica, which is genetically under Schistosoma, in 36 infected goats; whereas SEA-ELISA showed false positive rate of 15.38% and 83.33% in the two respective animal groups. The results obtained here suggest that rSjMRP1 may be used for diagnosis of S. japonicum infection of domestic animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Challenges and countermeasures for water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in China in new era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Sheng, Wang; Jin-You, Lu; Feng-Yang, Min; Kong-Xian, Zhu

    2017-04-27

    The spread of schistosomiasis seriously threaten the health of people and hinder the economic and social development in China. The water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control effectively controlled the spread of schistosomiasis by controlling the spread of Oncomelania hupensis , the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum . This paper reviews the evolution of the strategy of schistosomiasis prevention and control in China and points out the historical role of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control. Furthermore, this article analyzes the problems and challenges of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in the new period. In response to the challenges, the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control is put forward, including: developing the research of the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, enhancing the research of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, improving the efficiency and applicability of water conservancy projects combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, strengthening the guidance of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, and perfecting the evaluation system.

  14. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

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    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  15. A Schistosoma haematobium-specific real-time PCR for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in serum samples of international travelers and migrants.

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    Lieselotte Cnops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis by microscopy and serological tests may be elusive in travelers due to low egg load and the absence of seroconversion upon arrival. There is need for a more sensitive diagnostic test. Therefore, we developed a real-time PCR targeting the Schistosoma haematobium-specific Dra1 sequence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PCR was evaluated on urine (n = 111, stool (n = 84 and serum samples (n = 135, and one biopsy from travelers and migrants with confirmed or suspected schistosomiasis. PCR revealed a positive result in 7/7 urine samples, 11/11 stool samples and 1/1 biopsy containing S. haematobium eggs as demonstrated by microscopy and in 22/23 serum samples from patients with a parasitological confirmed S. haematobium infection. S. haematobium DNA was additionally detected by PCR in 7 urine, 3 stool and 5 serum samples of patients suspected of having schistosomiasis without egg excretion in urine and feces. None of these suspected patients demonstrated other parasitic infections except one with Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba cyst in a fecal sample. The PCR was negative in all stool samples containing S. mansoni eggs (n = 21 and in all serum samples of patients with a microscopically confirmed S. mansoni (n = 22, Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1, Ancylostomidae (n = 1, Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1 or Trichuris trichuria infection (n = 1. The PCR demonstrated a high specificity, reproducibility and analytical sensitivity (0.5 eggs per gram of feces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The real-time PCR targeting the Dra1 sequence for S. haematobium-specific detection in urine, feces, and particularly serum, is a promising tool to confirm the diagnosis, also during the acute phase of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  16. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

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    Rashika A.F. El Ridi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating

  17. Schistosomiasis mansoni: novel chemotherapy using a cysteine protease inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic, debilitating parasitic disease infecting more than 200 million people and is second only to malaria in terms of public health importance. Due to the lack of a vaccine, patient therapy is heavily reliant on chemotherapy with praziquantel as the World Health Organization-recommended drug, but concerns over drug resistance encourage the search for new drug leads.The efficacy of the vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 was tested in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Disease parameters measured were worm and egg burdens, and organ pathology including hepato- and splenomegaly, presence of parasite egg-induced granulomas in the liver, and levels of circulating alanine aminotransferase activity as a marker of hepatocellular function. K11777 (25 mg/kg twice daily [BID], administered intraperitoneally at the time of parasite migration through the skin and lungs (days 1-14 postinfection [p.i.], resulted in parasitologic cure (elimination of parasite eggs in five of seven cases and a resolution of other disease parameters. K11777 (50 mg/kg BID, administered at the commencement of egg-laying by mature parasites (days 30-37 p.i., reduced worm and egg burdens, and ameliorated organ pathology. Using protease class-specific substrates and active-site labeling, one molecular target of K11777 was identified as the gut-associated cathepsin B1 cysteine protease, although other cysteine protease targets are not excluded. In rodents, dogs, and primates, K11777 is nonmutagenic with satisfactory safety and pharmacokinetic profiles.The significant reduction in parasite burden and pathology by this vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitor validates schistosome cysteine proteases as drug targets and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis.

  18. Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Luciana Santos Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25high T cells, and CD4+CTLA-4+ T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+CD25low cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.

  19. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  20. Epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis in ruminants of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. N.; Begum, N; Alam, M. Z.; M.A.A. Mamun

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence and seasonal variations of intestinal schistosomiasis in association with age, sex, breed and rearing system of cattle and goats in different districts of Bangladesh. Fecal samples from 240 cattle and 146 goats were examined. Schistosoma eggs were found in 47.5% cattle and 43.84% goats. Two species of schistosomes were identified. No mixed infection was recorded. Prevalence of Schistosoma indicum was higher in cattle (42.5%) than in goats (34.25%) whereas goats (9.5...

  1. The Potential of Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Ectopic Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Karin; Starink, Markus V.; Bart, Aldert; Nijhuis, Erik W. P.; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Gool, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with extensive erythematous lesions on her back after visiting Malawi. Skin biopsies showed ova, which could belong to Schistosoma spp. Sequencing of the Schistosoma 28S rRNA gene, extracted and amplified from paraffin biopsies, identified DNA of Schistosoma haematobium. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis can present with extensive lesions and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in returning travelers. Microscopy and serology are the classical methods to obtain a diagnosis. Alternatively, molecular methods can be a valuable new tool for diagnosis and species determination. PMID:20889899

  2. Host regulation of liver fibroproliferative pathology during experimental schistosomiasis via interleukin-4 receptor alpha.

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    Justin Komguep Nono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα is critical for the initiation of type-2 immune responses and implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental schistosomiasis. IL-4Rα mediated type-2 responses are critical for the control of pathology during acute schistosomiasis. However, type-2 responses tightly associate with fibrogranulomatous inflammation that drives host pathology during chronic schistosomiasis. To address such controversy on the role of IL-4Rα, we generated a novel inducible IL-4Rα-deficient mouse model that allows for temporal knockdown of il-4rα gene after oral administration of Tamoxifen. Interrupting IL-4Rα mediated signaling during the acute phase impaired the development of protective type-2 immune responses, leading to rapid weight loss and premature death, confirming a protective role of IL-4Rα during acute schistosomiasis. Conversely, IL-4Rα removal at the chronic phase of schistosomiasis ameliorated the pathological fibro-granulomatous pathology and reversed liver scarification without affecting the host fitness. This amelioration of the morbidity was accompanied by a reduced Th2 response and increased frequencies of FoxP3+ Tregs and CD1dhiCD5+ Bregs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that IL-4Rα mediated signaling has two opposing functions during experimental schistosomiasis depending on the stage of advancement of the disease and indicate that interrupting IL-4Rα mediated signaling is a viable therapeutic strategy to ameliorate liver fibroproliferative pathology in diseases like chronic schistosomiasis.

  3. [Gastroscopic and pathological characteristics of patients with or without schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiang-Qin; Xiong, Ping-Xiang; Ning, An; Xu, Li-Ping; Hu, Mei-Ying; Yang, De-Ping; Zu, Jing; Ai, You-Sheng; Zou, Jie-Xin; Zhou, Xian-Min; Xiong, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Min

    2011-04-01

    To understand the gastroscopic and pathological characteristics of patients with miasis in Poyang Lake area, and to explore the relationship between schistosomiasis and pathological changes of gastric mucosa. Volunteers with or without schistosomiasis were recruited and divided into a case group and a control group. All the objects were examined by electronic gastroscopy and pathological examinations. Two hundred and fifty-three volunteers diagnosed with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis in the case group showed different degrees of gastric mucosal changes, including 7 cases with schistosomal eggs deposited beneath the gastric mucosa (with an incidence of 2.77%) , 33 cases with dysplastic hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia (with an incidence of precancerous lesion of 13.04%), and 1 case with gastric cancer. While in the 200 volunteers without schistosomiasis in the control group, the results showed milder gastric mucosal changes, 33 cases were detected with dysplastic hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia (with an incidence of 7.50%), and 1 case was diagnosed gastric cancer. The difference between the incidences of precancerous lesion in the two groups had no statistic significance (P > 0.05). The incidence and extent of gastric mucosal changes in schistosomiasis patients are higher and more serious than those in non-schistosomiasis patients, and gastrointestinal schistosomiasis is not related to gastric cancer.

  4. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA.

  5. Association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis in young patients: a case report and literature review

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    Albert Bacelar

    Full Text Available This case report refers to a 47-year old patient with prostate cancer associated with schistosomiasis mansoni, who was submitted to radical prostatectomy. This is the third report published in the literature with respect to this association, and up to the present time it is still not known whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two pathologies. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well-documented in bladder cancer; however, there are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostatic neoplasia. In this report, a third documented case of prostatic adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis mansoni is described and a literature review is performed.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis in workers of the Movement of Landless Rural Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilde Gomes de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74 countries and is considered a serious public health problem in some locations. Methods A transverse study was performed of 13 landless settlements in southern Sergipe from February to December 2009. The study included 822 settlers, of whom 601 underwent stool testing. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis in landless workers was 4.3%. The population has a low education level, and basic sanitation services are not available to all residents. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis was low in the population and among different settlements, possibly because of different forms of water use by the settlers.

  7. The schistosomiasis problem in the Philippines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Bayani L; Rosales, Manuel I; Lipayon, Ignacio L; Yasuraoka, Kazuo; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Masataka

    2004-06-01

    A descriptive study was carried on the schistosomiasis problem in the Philippines from the time the disease was discovered in 1906 to the latter part of the 1990 s. Some research findings were reviewed including the nature of the disease itself. Based on the thrust of the control program which is centered mainly on selective mass treatment and progressed to disease stratification and mass treatment using praziquantel, a downward trend in the prevalence of the disease was observed-from an average of 10.4% in 1981-1985 to 4.1% in 1996. Recommended prospective action, among others, include the development of strategies on environmental sanitation and snail control/eradication in the thrust of the schistosomiasis control program. Other policy related concerns should be formulated subject to the results of further research activities such as on (a) chemotherapy; (b) drug delivery schemes; (c) diagnosis; (d) search for a safe, economical and effective chemical(s) for vector control; and (e) prophylaxis and vaccine production for protection against infection for disease modulation or reduction of pathology.

  8. Optimization of the Helmintex method for schistosomiasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Vivian; Frasca Candido, Renata Russo; De Marco Verissimo, Carolina; Jones, Malcolm K; St Pierre, Timothy G; Lindholz, Catieli Gobetti; Da Silva, Vinicius Duval; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    A diagnostic test that is reliable, sensitive, and applicable in the field is extremely important in epidemiological surveys, during medical treatment for schistosomiasis, and for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. The Helmintex (HTX) method is based on the use of magnetic beads to trap eggs in a magnetic field. This technique is highly sensitive, but the screening of fecal samples consumes lots of time, thus delaying the results, especially in field studies. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of incorporation of the detergent Tween-20 into the method in an attempt to decrease the final pellet volume produced by the HTX method as well as the use of ninhydrin to stain the Schistosoma mansoni eggs. We showed that these modifications reduced the final volume of the fecal sediment produced in the last step of the HTX method by up to 69% and decreased the screening time to an average of 10.1 min per sample. The use of Tween 20 and ninhydrin led to a high percentage of egg recovery (27.2%). The data obtained herein demonstrate that the addition of detergent and the use of ninhydrin to the HTX process can optimize the screening step and also improve egg recovery, thus justifying the insertion of these steps into the HTX method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Machado, Laís Fernanda; Bortoleti, Bruna Taciane da Silva; Sahd, Claudia Stoeglehner; Chagas, Alan Ferreira; Assolini, João Paulo; Oliveira, Francisco José de Abreu; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Costa, Idessania Nazareth; Melanda, Francine Nesello

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  11. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  12. Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qin-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Praziquantel has been used as first-line drug for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis since 1984. Besides praziquantel, artemether and artesunate have also been used for the control of this infectious disease since late 1990s. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the antischistosomal efficacy of different medication strategies including monotherapy or combination therapies of these drugs. Results A number of 52 trials from 38 articles published in peer-reviewed journals before July 2011 were selected for analysis after searching the following literature databases: the Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Our meta-analyses showed that a dosage of 30-60 mg/kg praziquantel compared with placebo produced a protection rate of about 76% (95% CI: 67%-83% for treating human schistosomiasis, which varied from 70% to 76% with no significant differences among the subspecies S. haematobium, S. japonicum or S. mansoni. Protection rates were higher when praziquantel doses were elevated, as concluded from the nRCTs results: the protection rate of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg was 52% (95% CI: 49%-55%, and it increased to 91% (95% CI: 88%-92% when the dosages were elevated to 60/80/100 mg/kg divided two or more doses. Multiple doses of artemether or artesunate over 1- or 2-week intervals resulted in protection rates of 65% to 97% for preventing schistosomiasis, and increased doses and shorter medication intervals improved their efficacies. Praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives (artemether or artesunate in combination resulted in a higher protection rate of 84% (95% CI: 64%-91% than praziquantel monotherapy for treatment. praziquantel and artesunate in combination had a great protection rate of 96% (95% CI: 78%-99% for preventing schistosomes infection. Conclusions According to the results, praziquantel

  13. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-Specific IgG and IgE Antibody Production and Clinical Schistosomiasis Status in a Rural Area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Fittipaldi, Juliana F.; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety-seven Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound analysis. IgG reactivity and IgE concentration against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) and adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) were evaluated by ELISA assay. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite-reactive antibodies and the co-variables investigated. The study population showed low parasite burden (median 30 eggs/g feces), constant re-infection, and signs of fibrosis was detected in more than 30% of individuals. Most infected individuals showed IgG reactivity, and the median concentrations of IgE anti-SEA and anti-SWAP antibodies were 1,870 and 1,375 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between parasite burden and antibody response or any parameter of disease severity. However, IgG anti-SWAP level was positively associated with morbidity parameters, such as spleen size and thickness of portal vein at the entrance and secondary branch. In contrast, the data also revealed independent inverse correlations between concentration of parasite-reactive IgE and gallbladder wall thickness, a marker of fibrosis in schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that IgG anti-SWAP is positively associated with severe

  14. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  15. [Effect of comprehensive measures on schistosomiasis control in an aquaculture zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong-Ping; Huang, Yong-Jun; She, Guang-son; Xie, Yang; Gao, Yang

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive measures on the control of schistosomiasis in an aquaculture zone, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis control strategy in special environments. From 2003 to 2012, the comprehensive control measures including individual prevention, detection and treatment of schistosomiasis patients, environmental modification, and health education were implemented in an aquaculture zone of Luyang Lake, Jiangdu District of Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province. The changes in human morbidity of schistosomiasis and the status of Oncomelania snails were investigated annually. No acute infection of Schistosoma japonicum was detected for successive 10 years, and only 5 cases of chronic infection were found in the latest 5 years in the aquaculture zone. Since 2007, no snail habitats were found. The comprehensive control measures are effective.

  16. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda yang lain. Survei dilakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah pada Bulan Juli 2013. Identifikasi keong dilakukan menggunakan kunci determinasi keong air tawar di Laboratorium Parasitologi, Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala. Jenis keong yang ditemukan meliputi Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Melanoides sp., Helicorbis sp., Indoplanorbis sp. yang merupakan hospes perantara trematoda parasit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa selain berpotensi dalam penularan schistosomiasis daerah tersebut juga berpotensi untuk terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda lain, seperti Echinostomiasis dan Paragonimiasis. Kata kunci: variasi, keong, schistosomiasis

  17. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord presenting as progressive myelopathy. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    The authors report on a case of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in an individual returning to Ireland after a 25-year residence in Africa, where the infection affects approximately 200 million people.

  19. [Analysis of projects of schistosomiasis sponsored by National Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-di, Zhou; Liang, Shi; Xue-Dan, Ke; Jie, Wang

    2017-07-27

    To summarize the present development by analysis of projects in schistosomiasis funded by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Based on the ISIS database of NFSC, the projects in the studies of schistosomiasis from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. The distributions of sponsored numbers, amounts, types, agencies, disciplines and changes in research topics by means of network profiles were described. During the study period, 198 projects were funded by NSFC totally with 76.05 million yuan in which the general and youth projects were main types. The main sponsored agencies were research institutes and medical colleges. The top three fields sponsored were medical pathogenic microbes and infection, veterinary and medical immunology. The funding on schistosomiasis researches has a downward trend, but studies are continuing in depth. In this situation, innovative and interdisciplinary researches need to be encouraged to promote the development of schistosomiasis.

  20. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas.

  1. Development and evaluation of a Western blot kit for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulahian, Annie; Garin, Yves Jean François; Izri, Arezki; Verret, Caroline; Delaunay, Pascal; van Gool, Tom; Derouin, Francis

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of Western blot (WB) analysis using commercially available antigen strips and compared the results with those of indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) for the serodiagnosis of human schistosomiasis. The antigen preparation was a crude

  2. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected

  4. [Impact of the three gorges dam construction on transmission of schistosomiasis in the reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-juan; Guo, Jia-gang

    2006-06-01

    Possible impact of ecological and social environmental changes due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the transmission of schistosomiasis draws great attention of the health authority and publics. This article reviews the situation and progress of research on schistosomiasis transmission in reservoir area from three aspects: the possibility of snail spreading and breeding, imported infection sources and social behavioral factors of the people.

  5. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  6. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  7. Serological studies on schistosomiasis mansoni in the northeast Brazil (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Okazaki, M; Okazaki, M; Kobayashi, S; Kaneko, N; Sekiguchi, T; Tateno, S; Motta, S R; Takeuchi, T

    1990-01-01

    Sera from the patients (N = 10) with schistosomiasis mansoni of the hospital of Federal University of Pernambuco, the Schistosoma mansoni egg-positive (N = 51) and -negative (N = 452) inhabitants in Cabo City area, out-patients (N = 37) of the IMIP hospital and Japanese immigrants (N = 127) in Petrolina City area of northeast Brazil as well as Japanese healthy subjects (N = 30) were examined by serological tests including an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with antigens prepared from eggs (ELISA-egg) and adult worms (ELISA-adult). The ELISA with egg or adult antigen correctly identified 100% of the uninfected individuals lived in non-endemic area of schistosomiasis. Moreover, when examined cross-reactivity of our ELISA with sera isolated from 78 subjects infected with various intestinal parasitic infections, only one of these sera reacted with the egg and adult antigens. On the examination of 51 sera from the egg-positive subjects, the ELISA-egg revealed the highest sensitivity (98.0%), whereas a large number of false negative reactions of ELISA-adult, Ouchterlony method using adult antigen, circumoval precipitation and immediate intradermal skin test were observed. A low sensitivity of these serologic tests except for ELISA-egg appears to be primarily due to their inability to detect antibody in the sera from egg-positive infantiles. There was no positive correlation between the absorbance values of these two types of ELISA among the sera isolated from ELISA-positive subjects. Rather, by the reactivity of these sera to egg or adult antigen, they could be divided into two subgroups; one reacted more positively with egg antigen and the other with adult antigen. Moreover, it was confirmed that the sera from young subjects (under 20 years old) appear to be highly reactive to the egg antigen than did aged ones. These data suggest that the ELISA with egg antigen, but not with the adult antigen, appears to be useful for the serological survey of schistosomiasis mansoni

  8. [Effect of health education of schistosomiasis control with Yi-Han bilingualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-Liang, Feng; Sha-Sha, Li; Jiao, Hua; Lin, Chen; Zi-Song, Wu; Cong-Min, Xu; Yu-Hua, Lai

    2016-07-12

    To evaluate the intervention effect of Yi-Han bilingual health education of schistosomiasis control. Baimiao Village in Daqing Town, Xichang City, where Yi Nationality inhabited, was chosen as a pilot to carry out Yi-Han bilingual health education of schistosomiasis control from 2012 to 2015. The villagers and students in the pilot area were investigated by questionnaires before and after the intervention to understand their awareness and correct behavior status on schistosomiasis control. After the intervention of Yi-Han bilingual health education of schistosomiasis control for 3 years, the awareness rate and the correct rate of behavior on schistosomiasis control of the villagers in the pilot area improved from 45.79% and 51.12% in 2012 to 97.80% and 98.78% in 2015. As for the students, the two rates mentioned above improved from 64.16% and 60.83% in 2012 to 100% and 98.89% in 2015 respectively, and all the differences between the rates before and after the intervention were statistically significant (all P bilingual health education of schistosomiasis control can obviously improve the knowledge awareness rates and the correct rates of behavior of the residents and students in the gathering area of Yi Nationality.

  9. Modelling the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails using Maxent in Ndumo area, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

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    Tawanda Manyangadze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa transmitted by freshwater snails. The distribution of schistosomiasis coincides with that of the intermediate hosts as determined by climatic and environmental factors. The aim of this paper was to model the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats for Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail species (intermediate hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. Methods Maximum Entropy (Maxent modelling technique was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitats for B. globosus and B. pfeifferi using presence-only datasets with ≥ 5 and ≤ 12 sampling points in different seasons. Precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI, pH, slope and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI were the background variables in the Maxent models. The models were validated using the area under the curve (AUC and omission rate. Results The predicted suitable habitats for intermediate snail hosts varied with seasons. The AUC for models in all seasons ranged from 0.71 to 1 and the prediction rates were between 0.8 and 0.9. Although B. globosus was found at more localities in the Ndumo area, there was also evidence of cohabiting with B. pfiefferi at some of the locations. NDWI had significant contribution to the models in all seasons. Conclusion The Maxent model is robust in snail habitat suitability modelling even with small dataset of presence-only sampling sites. Application of the methods and design used in this study may be useful in developing a control and management programme for schistosomiasis in the Ndumo area.

  10. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  11. Treatment and education reduce the severity of schistosomiasis periportal fibrosis

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    Paula Carolina Valenca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluates the factors associated with the development of severe periportal fibrosis in patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2012 involving 178 patients infected with S. mansoni who were treated in the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, Brazil. Information regarding risk factors was obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the patients' epidemiological history, clinical examination, and upper abdomen ultrasound evaluation, patients were divided into 2 groups: 137 with evidence of severe periportal fibrosis and 41 patients without fibrosis or with mild or moderate periportal fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using EpiInfo software version 3.5.5. Results Illiterate individuals (30.1% and patients who had more frequent contact with contaminated water in towns in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (33.2% were at greater risk for severe periportal fibrosis. Based on multivariate analysis, it was determined that an education level of up to 11 years of study and specific prior treatment for schistosomiasis were preventive factors for severe periportal fibrosis. Conclusions The prevailing sites of the severe forms of periportal fibrosis are still within the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, although there has been an expansion to urban areas and the state coast. Specific treatment and an increased level of education were identified as protective factors, indicating the need for implementing social, sanitary, and health education interventions aimed at schistosomiasis to combat the risk factors for this major public health problem.

  12. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  13. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

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    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  14. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  16. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

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    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  17. High prevalence and presumptive treatment of schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis among African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Drew L; Blackburn, Brian G; Weinberg, Michelle; Flagg, Elaine W; Ortega, Luis; Wilson, Marianna; Secor, W Evan; Sanders-Lewis, Kolby; Won, Kimberly; Maguire, James H

    2007-11-15

    Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis cause substantial morbidity and mortality among hundreds of millions of infected persons worldwide. In the United States, these infections are most commonly found among international travelers, immigrants, and refugees from areas of endemicity. Refugees resettled to the United States since 2000 include >3800 "Lost Boys and Girls" of Sudan and 8000 Somali Bantu. Many Lost Boys and Girls of Sudan reported chronic abdominal pain only since arrival, and some received diagnoses of schistosomiasis or strongyloidiasis. We assessed seroprevalence of these infections among these refugees and hypothesized an association between infection and abdominal pain. We offered a survey assessing chronic abdominal pain and serologic testing for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis to all 800 attendees of a Lost Boys and Girls of Sudan reunion in the United States. Serologic testing was performed on preimmigration specimens obtained from 100 United States-bound Somali Bantu refugees. Of the 462 Sudanese refugees (58%) tested, 44% and 46% were seropositive for schistosomiasis (primarily due to Schistosoma mansoni) and strongyloidiasis, respectively; 24% of those who tested positive for schistosomiasis had S. mansoni antigenemia. Forty-six percent reported chronic abdominal pain, which was not associated with either infection. Among 100 Somali Bantu, 73% and 23% tested seropositive for schistosomiasis (primarily due to Schistosoma haematobium) and strongyloidiasis, respectively. The high seroprevalence of schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis among Sudanese Lost Boys and Girls and Somali Bantu refugees supports presumptive treatment for these refugees. Current refugee resettlement policies inadequately address these diseases; our data support consideration of predeparture presumptive therapy for all refugees from areas of endemicity.

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  19. Building a global schistosomiasis alliance: an opportunity to join forces to fight inequality and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savioli, Lorenzo; Albonico, Marco; Colley, Daniel G; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fenwick, Alan; Green, Will; Kabatereine, Narcis; Kabore, Achille; Katz, Naftale; Klohe, Katharina; LoVerde, Philip T; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Waltz, Johannes; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-03-23

    Schistosomiasis, one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization, presents a substantial public health and economic burden. Of the 261 million people requiring preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis in 2013, 92% of them lived in sub-Saharan Africa and only 12.7% received preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, in 2010, the WHO reported that schistosomiasis mortality could be as high as 280 000 per year in Africa alone.In May 2012 delegates to the sixty-fifth World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 that called for the elimination of schistosomiasis, and foresees the regular treatment of at least 75% of school age children in at-risk areas. The resolution urged member states to intensify schistosomiasis control programmes and to initiate elimination campaigns where possible.Despite this, in June 2015, schistosomiasis was indicated to have the lowest level of preventive chemotherapy implementation in the spectrum of neglected tropical diseases. It was also highlighted as the disease most lacking in progress. This is perhaps unsurprising, given that it was also the only NTD with access to drug donations but without a coalition of stakeholders that collaborates to boost commitment and implementation.As a consequence, and to ensure that the WHO NTDs Roadmap Targets of 2012 and World Health Assembly Resolution WHA65.21 are met, the Global Schistosomiasis Alliance (GSA) has been set up. Diverse and representative, the GSA aims to be a partnership of endemic countries, academic and research institutions, international development agencies and foundations, international organizations, non-governmental development organizations, private sector companies and advocacy and resource mobilisation partners. Ultimately, the GSA calls for a partnership to work for the benefit of endemic countries by addressing health inequity and rural poverty.

  20. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  1. [Survey of schistosomiasis KAP and influencing factors of behaviors among residents in Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Rong, Hang; Yi-Xin, Huang; Yao-Bao, Liu; Xu, Zhang; Yi-Qing, Xie; Wei-Gang, Yin; Kai, Tang; Lian-Heng, Zhang; Dao-Kuan, Sun

    2017-05-05

    To understand the schistosomiasis control knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), and influencing factors of behaviors among residents in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for making effective health education and health promotion models. The probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS) and multi-stage sampling methods were adopted to sample the research objects. A questionnaire survey of schistosomiasis control KAP was conducted in the residents of 16 to 69 years old in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Jiangsu Province, and the results were statistically analyzed. The total awareness rate of the participants was 95.98% for schistosomiasis control knowledge. The correct rates of attitude and practice were 89.06% and 77.43%, respectively. The awareness/correct rates of knowledge, attitude and practice reduced in turns significantly ( χ 2 =1 282.96, P education level increasing, their practice correct rate rose, and the participants with the college degree or above had a higher correct rate compared to illeterate ones ( OR = 6.411, 95% CI : 4.896-8.395). The practice correct rate of the fisher-men and boatmen was only 5.1% of the rate of the farmers ( OR = 0.051, 95% CI : 0.029-0.091). The total awareness rate of basic knowledge of schistosomiasis prevention and control in the residents of Jiangsu Province has reached the requirements in the "National Schistosomiasis Control Long-term Planning Outline (2004-2015)", but the correct rate of behaviors is low. The education level, occupation and residential areas affect the health behaviors of schistosomiasis prevention and control. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out targeted health promotion activities to promote the formation of healthy lifestyle and behaviors.

  2. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  3. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe: systemic inflammation during co-infection and after treatment for schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C.; Kallestrup, P.; Zinyama-Gutsire, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...

  5. Evaluation of a 25-year-program for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana K Sarvel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies showed that chemotherapy can control schistosomiasis morbidity, but association of measures (water supply, sewage disposal and increase of socioeconomic conditions is necessary for transmission control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A survey dealing with socioeconomic conditions, snail survey, contact with natural waters, and clinical and stool examinations was undertaken at an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology used was the same for both evaluations (1981 and 2005. Four hundred and seventy-five out of 1,474 individuals studied in 1981 could be contacted. From these, 358 were submitted to stool examination, and 231 of them were clinically examined. Patients eliminating S. mansoni eggs in their stools were treated. The results showed that the prevalence rate in Comercinho, a municipality of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was substantially reduced to 70.4% and 1.7% in 1981 and 2005, respectively, as well as the frequency of the hepatosplenic form (7% to 1.3% after five treatments effectuated between 1981 and 1992. No other new case of this form was detected from 1981 onwards. Another important aspect to be considered was the improvement of people's living standard that occurred in the region after more than two decades' efforts (better housing, professional skill and adequate basic sanitation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The control of morbidity and very significant decrease of schistosomiasis transmission in an area until then considered as hyperendemic was possible by means of association of successive specific treatments of the local population, together with the construction of privies, water supply in the houses and improvement of socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Transmission Risks of Schistosomiasis Japonica: Extraction from Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Background The transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in a local setting is still poorly understood in the lake regions of the People's Republic of China (P. R. China), and its transmission patterns are closely related to human, social and economic factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We aimed to apply the integrated approach of artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China. By using the back-propagation (BP) of the ANN model, 16 factors out of 27 factors were screened, and the top five factors ranked by the absolute value of mean impact value (MIV) were mainly related to human behavior, i.e. integration of water contact history and infection history, family with past infection, history of water contact, infection history, and infection times. The top five factors screened by the logistic regression model were mainly related to the social economics, i.e. village level, economic conditions of family, age group, education level, and infection times. The risk of human infection with S. japonicum is higher in the population who are at age 15 or younger, or with lower education, or with the higher infection rate of the village, or with poor family, and in the population with more than one time to be infected. Conclusion/Significance Both BP artificial neural network and logistic regression model established in a small scale suggested that individual behavior and socioeconomic status are the most important risk factors in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica. It was reviewed that the young population (≤15) in higher-risk areas was the main target to be intervened for the disease transmission control. PMID:23556015

  7. [Regional difference of schistosomiasis knowledge and behavior of population in Mianzhu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong; Li, Da-Ming; Jiang, Jian; Ho, Chun; Tang, Chuan-Xing; Liu, Ke-Gang

    2012-04-01

    To understand the status of schistosomiasis knowledge and behavior and analyze the regional difference of population in Mianzhu City. Nine towns were divided into 3 groups, and each group had 3 towns. In Group I , there were 5 or more than 5 advanced schistosomiasis patients each town; in Group II , there were 1-4 advanced patients each town; in Group III, there was no advanced patient. A total of 2 743 residents were investigated with questionnaire in all the 9 towns. The overall awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge was 88.12%, and the awareness rates of schistosomiasis control knowledge were 94.55%, 88.21% and 81.10% in Group I , Group II and Group III respectively. The total formation rate of correct behavior was 68.10%, and the formation rates of correct behavior were 73.18%, 67.05% and 63.65% in Group I , Group II and Group III respectively. The awareness rates of schistosome transmission were 95.99%, 89.48% and 79.67%; the awareness rates of Oncomelania snails were 87.67%, 82.54% and 73.92%; the awareness rates of schistosomiasis harm were 95.68%, 93.99% and 80.88%; the rates of residents who thought that schistosomiasis patients did not affect others were 9.97%, 12.83% and 15.58%; the rates of residents who did not know the information of the snails should report to which department were 7.91%, 11.33%, 15.69%; the rates of residents who often had wild bowels were 6.17%, 8.79% and 11.38%; the rates of residents who often washed their hands and feet in ditches and ponds were 58.68%, 58.27%, 61.22%; the rates of residents who would not accept the schistosomiasis checks were 5.86%, 5.66%, 11.49% in Group I , Group II and Group III respectively. As a whole, the population of Mianzhu City has positive behaviors to schistosomiasis control. We should still enhance the schistosomiasis control education and interventions according to the characteristics of the different townships.

  8. A cross-sectional survey comparing a free treatment program for advanced schistosomiasis japonica to a general assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Beibei; Liu, Jiahua; Ning, An; Wu, Zhongdao

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis has dropped dramatically in China due to an effective integrated control program. However, advanced schistosomiasis is becoming a key challenge on the road to elimination. The aims of this study were to compare the disease condition between advanced cases under the general assistance program (GAP) and free treatment program (FTP) and to determine whether the FTP should be popularized to provide an objective reference for policymakers in China's advanced schistosomiasis control program. One hundred and ninety-four patients with schistosomiasis japonica who were enrolled in the GAP or FTP participated in this study. Little significant difference was observed in the potential confounders, including general characteristics, comorbidities, and lifestyle, indicating a similar effect on the pathology of liver damage caused by schistosome infection. There was no apparent difference in the incidence of common clinical symptoms. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the ultrasound findings, implying that the GAP and FTP groups shared a similar degree of liver lesion. With the exception of the abnormal rates of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hyaluronic acid (HA), the other serological indicators were comparable between the groups. Overall, the FTP is not a better option for controlling advanced schistosomiasis in China. It is important to reveal the precise mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of advanced schistosomiasis so that specific approaches to treating and preventing the development of advanced schistosomiasis can be developed and schistosomiasis can be eliminated in China.

  9. Treatment of acute experimental schistosomiasis Tratamento da esquistossomose aguda experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A model of acute schistosomiasis of the mouse was used to observe whether curative treatment would be followed by an enhancement of the hepatic and splenic lesions, as a consequence of the massive destruction of worms and eggs within the portal system. Mice infected with 50 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were treated with both oxamniquine and praziquantel on the 50th day of infection and submitted to a sequential histologic examination from the 2nd to the 45th day after treatment. Although severe focal lesions due to dead and disintegranting worms were present in the livers of the treated animals, no aggravation of the general changes (reative hepatitis and splenitis, or periovular granulomas was seen in comparison with a control non-treated group. Of 50 animals treated during the acute phase of schistosomiasis only one died espontaneously, while 16 ou of 30 infected controls died before the end of the experiment. The present investigation indicates that curative treatment during the acute phase of schistosomiasis does not enhance previous lesions at first and results in progressive disappearance of the lesions starting six days following chemotherapy.Foi utilizado um modelo de esquistossomose aguda do camundongo para testar se o tratamentop curativo da parasitose nesta fase poderia produzir uma exacerbação das lesões hepáticas e esplênicas, em virtude da destruição maciça de vermes e ovos nointerior do sistema porta. Camundongos infectados com 50 cercárias do Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados no 50º dia da infecção por uma combinação de oxamniquine e praziquantel e submetidos a exames histopatológicos seqüenciados desde o 2º até o 45º dia após o tratamento. Muito embora tenham sido encontrados lesões focais intensas causadas por vermes mortos no interior do fígado, não foi encontrada qualquer evidência de agravamento das lesões gerais (hepatite reacional e esplenite, ou nos granulomas periovulares quando se fez

  10. African schistosomiasis in mainland China: risk of transmission and countermeasures to tackle the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-08-28

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk.

  11. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour. PMID:24839538

  13. Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose E. Donohue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease endemic to Tanzania and other countries of the global south, which is currently being addressed through preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, there is growing recognition that chemotherapy strategies will need to be supplemented to sustainably control and eventually eliminate the disease. There remains a need to understand the factors contributing to continued transmission in order to ensure the effective configuration and implementation of supplemented programs. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire, to evaluate the biosocial determinants facilitating the persistence of schistosomiasis, among 1704 Tanzanian schoolchildren residing in two districts undergoing a preventive chemotherapeutic program: Rufiji and Mkuranga. A meta-analysis was carried out to select the diagnostic questions that provided a likelihood for predicting infection status. We found that self-reported schistosomiasis continues to persist among the schoolchildren, despite multiple rounds of drug administration.Using mixed effects logistic regression modeling, we found biosocial factors, including gender, socio-economic status, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH-related variables, were associated with this continued schistosomiasis presence. These findings highlight the significant role that social factors may play in the persistence of disease transmission despite multiple treatments, and support the need not only for including integrated technical measures, such as WASH, but also addressing issues of poverty and gender when designing effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control programs.

  14. Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: the era of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Donald P; Gray, Darren J; Li, Yuesheng; Feng, Zheng; Williams, Gail M; Stewart, Donald; Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen G

    2010-04-01

    The potential impact of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis transmission in China has invoked considerable global concern. The TGD will result in changes in the water level and silt deposition downstream, favoring the reproduction of Oncomelania snails. Combined with blockages of the Yangtze River's tributaries, these changes will increase the schistosomiasis transmission season within the marshlands along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The changing schistosome transmission dynamics necessitate a comprehensive strategy to control schistosomiasis. This review discusses aspects of the epidemiology and transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China and considers the pathology, clinical outcomes, diagnosis, treatment, immunobiology, and genetics of schistosomiasis japonica together with an overview of current progress in vaccine development, all of which will have an impact on future control efforts. The use of synchronous praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy for humans and domestic animals is only temporarily effective, as schistosome reinfection occurs rapidly. Drug delivery requires a substantial infrastructure to regularly cover all parts of an area of endemicity. This makes chemotherapy expensive and, as compliance is often low, a less than satisfactory control option. There is increasing disquiet about the possibility that PZQ-resistant schistosomes will develop. Consequently, as mathematical modeling predicts, vaccine strategies represent an essential component in the future control of schistosomiasis in China. With the inclusion of focal mollusciciding, improvements in sanitation, and health education into the control scenario, China's target of reducing the level of schistosome infection to less than 1% by 2015 may be achievable.

  15. A new mouse model for female genital schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L Richardson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over 112 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma haematobium, one of the most prevalent schistosome species affecting humans. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS occurs when S. haematobium eggs are deposited into the female reproductive tract by adult worms, which can lead to pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, genital disfigurement and infertility. Recent evidence suggests co-infection with S. haematobium increases the risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. The associated mechanisms remain unclear due to the lack of a tractable animal model. We sought to create a mouse model conducive to the study of immune modulation and genitourinary changes that occur with FGS.To model FGS in mice, we injected S. haematobium eggs into the posterior vaginal walls of 30 female BALB/c mice. A control group of 20 female BALB/c mice were injected with uninfected LVG hamster tissue extract. Histology, flow cytometry and serum cytokine levels were assessed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post egg injection. Voiding studies were performed at 1 week post egg injection.Vaginal wall injection with S. haematobium eggs resulted in synchronous vaginal granuloma development within 2 weeks post-egg injection that persisted for at least 6 additional weeks. Flow cytometric analysis of vaginal granulomata revealed infiltration by CD4+ T cells with variable expression of the HIV co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Granulomata also contained CD11b+F4/80+ cells (macrophages and eosinophils as well as CXCR4+MerTK+ macrophages. Strikingly, vaginal wall-injected mice featured significant urinary frequency despite the posterior vagina being anatomically distant from the bladder. This may represent a previously unrecognized overactive bladder response to deposition of schistosome eggs in the vagina.We have established a new mouse model that could potentially enable novel studies of genital schistosomiasis in females. Ongoing studies will further explore the

  16. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein,

  17. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis

  18. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N

    2014-10-01

    Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention

  19. [Essential issues for project management and quality control in the national schistosomiasis control programme of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Li, Shi-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Based on theoretic management and quality control of the project, this paper summarizes the 3 major management modes in the national schistosomiasis control programme of China, and the health system management mechanisms under the guidance of national legislation, national programme and national standard and regulation. It is revealed that scientific assessment and assurance of the quality of each control programme is one of the highlighted concerns in the management mode of schistosomiasis control in China after a case study on mollusciciding project. Therefore, it is recommended that the actions, including management of every step in the project management of schistosomiasis control, formulation of operation procedure for each control programme and standardization of the working flow for professional staff, are not only a prerequistite to achievment-based evaluation, but also the key to ensure the quality of every control intervention and present the actual control effect.

  20. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  1. The hidden epidemic of schistosomiasis in recent African immigrants and asylum seekers to Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Anna; Buonfrate, Dora; Gobbi, Federico; Angheben, Andrea; Marchese, Valentina; Monteiro, Geraldo Badona; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of schistosomiasis among recent refugees from sub-Saharan Africa in Italy is unknown. This is a retrospective review of African immigrants screened at Centre for Tropical Diseases of Negrar from March 2014 to February 2016. Of the 373 immigrants tested, 34% were positive at least at one schistosomiasis test. The proportion of positive ELISA serology was 103/373 (27.6%). At microscopy, infected subjects were 65/373 (17.4%), (51% Schistosoma haematobium, 38% Schistosoma mansoni, 11% both). CCA antigen for S. mansoni was positive in 47/373 individuals (12.6%). We found a particularly high positivity rate in subjects from Mali (72.1%) and Ivory Coast (48%). This "hidden epidemic" of schistosomiasis cannot be longer neglected, considering the risk of severe complications, and the effective and inexpensive treatment available.

  2. Simultaneous giant mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and intestinal schistosomiasis: 'case report and brief review'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changwei; Li, Xiaorong; Guo, Yihang; Hu, Gui; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Kaiyan; Gan, Yi; Zhou, Jianyu; Lv, Lv; Gao, Kai; Du, Juan

    2014-12-17

    Both mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and intestinal schistosomiasis are rare lesions. We report a rare case of simultaneous giant mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and intestinal schistosomiasis. A 64-year-old man from China presented with a one-year history of pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. There were no other pertinent historical findings, other than schistosomiasis. Imaging showed a large, tubular, mesenteric cystic structure extending downwards from the inferior wall of the cecum. Right hemicolectomy was performed for the appendiceal tumor. The final pathological diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma with calcified Schistosome eggs within the mucosa and submucosa of the appendix, small intestine, colon, and lymph nodes. We deduced that the pathogenesis of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma in our case was Schistosome eggs causing luminal obstruction, finally resulting in intraluminal accumulation of mucoid material. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well.

  3. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    the distribution of human schistosomiasis and biogeographical patterns of freshwater snail and mammal species richness in Uganda. We found that the association between estimated snail richness and human infection was best described by a negative correlation in non-spatial bi- and multivariate logistic mixed effect...... models. However, this association lost significance after the inclusion of a spatial component in a full geostatistical model, highlighting the importance of accounting for spatial correlation to obtain more precise parameter estimates. Furthermore, we found no significant relationships between mammal...... richness and schistosomiasis risk. We discuss the limitations of the data and methods used to test the decoy hypothesis for schistosomiasis, and highlight key future research directions that can facilitate more powerful tests of the decoy effect in snail-borne infections, at geographical scales...

  4. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Mukaratirwa, S.

    considered, on national scale, to be co-endemic with schistosomiasis. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database. We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number......). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects among people suffering from neurocysticercosis. Both diseases are presumed to be widely distributed on the continent, but the co-endemicity is unclear. We carried out a meta-analysis of the literature of T......This study investigates the number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa living in areas where two neglected tropical diseases, cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, are co-endemic. The World Health Organisation is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA...

  5. To reduce the global burden of human schistosomiasis, use ‘old fashioned’ snail control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand; Hsieh, Michael H.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2018-01-01

    Control strategies to reduce human schistosomiasis have evolved from ‘snail picking’ campaigns, a century ago, to modern wide-scale human treatment campaigns, or preventive chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite the rise in preventive chemotherapy campaigns, just as many people suffer from schistosomiasis today as they did 50 years ago. Snail control can complement preventive chemotherapy by reducing the risk of transmission from snails to humans. Here, we present ideas for modernizing and scaling up snail control, including spatiotemporal targeting, environmental diagnostics, better molluscicides, new technologies (e.g., gene drive), and ‘outside the box’ strategies such as natural enemies, traps, and repellants. We conclude that, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s stated goal to eliminate schistosomiasis, it is time to give snail control another look.

  6. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino, E-mail: marino.gatto@polimi.it; Casagrandi, Renato, E-mail: renato.casagrandi@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mari, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rinaldo, Andrea [Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile ed Ambientale, Università di Padova, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  7. Experimental schistosomiasis in the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus

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    Oliveira Ana Luna de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate Callithrix jacchus as an animal model for mansoni schistosomiasis, a group of 10 male animals were once percutaneously exposed to 250 cercariae of the Schistosoma mansoni SLM (São Lourenço da Mata strain. Animals were periodically bled for measuring serum level of enzymes and proteins and for blood cell counting. When comparing pre-infection to post-infection values, a significant increase was found for alkaline phosphatase at 15 to 120 days p.i., differential counts of eosinophil at 45 and 60 days, and total protein and global eosinophil counts at 120 days. No Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in stools. Adult worms of small size were recovered from five animals. At day 120, the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs/g of tissue was 0-289.7 (liver, 0-30.1 (large intestine and 0-171.4 (small intestine. These findings lead us to classify Callithrix jacchus as a non-permissive host to the SLM strain of Schistosoma mansoni.

  8. Oxamniquine, praziquantel and lovastatin association in the experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Neusa Araújo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of lovastatin associated with oxamniquine or praziquantel against schistosomiasis mansoni was evaluated in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Forty days after infection, mice were treated with lovastatin, 400 mg/kg for five consecutive days by oral route, and on the last day of this sequence with 50 mg/kg oxamniquine or with 200 mg/kg praziquantel, both by oral route, single dose. Fifteen days later, the animals were perfused in parallel with an untreated control group. Studies were carried out in vitro, using lovastatin in culture medium containing S. mansoni worms proceeding from experimentally infected mice. In the in vivo trials, the association of lovastatin with oxamniquine or praziquantel did not show any additive action, but there were oogram changes when lovastatin was associated with oxamniquine. In vitro lovastatin was able to interrupt the maturation of S. mansoni eggs, which remained at the 1st or 2nd stages, depending on the dose used. The total number of morphologically dead eggs found in culture of worms exposed to 2 µg/ml or 4 µg/ml concentrations of lovastatin was significantly higher than the number of viable eggs. Using the probe Hoescht 33258 it was observed that 70% of the eggs considered morphologically viable in the treated groups (against 16% in the control group were labeled, indicating that the majority of the viable eggs had membrane permeability increased due to lovastatin action.

  9. Development of a brazilian nanoencapsulated drug for schistosomiasis treatment

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    Laís Bastos da Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that, according to the World Health Organization, constitutes a major public health problem associated with severe morbidity, mostly children in preschool age. The administration of drugs in children always constitutes a difficult task, especially when formulations are not developed specifically for pediatric use, when high doses of drug are required and the drug has a bitter taste, as in the case of praziquantel. Polymer nanoparticles are promising systems for development of encapsulated drugs with low water solubility and bitter taste, due to the good physical and chemical stability, adequate biocompatibility and simple manufacturing processes. Moreover, they can enhance the bioavailabili-ty and reduce variability of treatment among patients. Poly (methyl methacrylate doped with praziquantel was produced through a miniemulsion polymerization pro-cess to compose a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. Nanoparticles were cha-racterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, toxicological properties and biological activity in mice, being concluded that obtained results were satisfactory. The results were encapsulation rate around 90%, absence of chemical interaction drug - polymer and the presence of biological activity. A collaborative approach was used for this development, involving national partnerships and independent funding mechanisms, a powerful pathway for development of drugs for neglected diseases.

  10. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by both Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetou, Konstantina; Astriti, Myrto; Delis, Vassilios; Moustakas, George; Choreftaki, Theodosia; Papaliodi, Eugenia; Sarri, Katerina; Adamis, George

    2010-05-01

    A case is presented of intestinal schistosomiasis due to both Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mansoni in a 30-year-old man from Senegal with discussion of diagnostic approach, species identification and determination of the effect of treatment. The patient was admitted to hospital for investigation of renal failure, arterial hypertension and hypereosinophilia. Repeated stool examinations for ova and parasites were negative. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed no abnormalities. US of the urinary tract showed kidneys of borderline size with increased echogenicity. Cystoscopy and histopathological examination of bladder biopsy specimens were normal. Flexible colonoscopy revealed numerous nodular lesions in the rectosigmoid region and a few similar lesions in the transverse colon, the histopathological examination of which showed deposition of Schistosoma ova with granuloma formation. Examination of multiple crush biopsy specimens from the rectosigmoid region revealed numerous granulomas formed around Schistosoma eggs which had a terminal spine and were identified as S. intercalatum (longer than Schistosoma haematobium and with a slightly curved terminal spine) and a very few S. mansoni eggs. Crush biopsies from the lesions in the transverse colon showed only S. mansoni eggs. In conclusion, the examination of multiple crush biopsy specimens is a very sensitive and specific technique for species identification of Schistosoma, especially in mixed infections, and for defining the location and extent of the granulomas evoked by each species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

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    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  12. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  13. Splice variants and promoter methylation status of the Bovine Vasa Homology (Bvh) gene may be involved in bull spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hua; Zhou, Yang; Li, Yingxia; Li, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Background Vasa is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. Bovine vasa homology (Bvh) of Bos taurus has been reported, however, its function in bovine testicular tissue remains obscure. This study aimed to reveal the functions of Bvh and to determine whether Bvh is a candidate gene in the regulation of spermatogenesis in bovine, and to illustrate whether its transcription is regulated by alternative sp...

  14. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; Poda, Jean-Noël; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health. We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI). The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children. Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire. A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and snail

  15. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

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    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health.We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI. The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children.Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire.A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and

  16. Some epidemiological and serological studies on schistosomiasis in Najran area, Saudi Arabia

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    El-Shahawy I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and has been estimated to infect over 200 million people. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis by detection of specific antibodies is likely to be more sensitive than the traditional method of diagnosis by detection of eggs in stool or urine. Therefore the present study was the first attempt to highlight the seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis among the general population of Najran City, southern of Saudi Arabia, as well as to achieve the performance of the diagnostic tests used. A total of 180 participants attending King Khaled hospital in Najran Province, Saudi Arabia, over a one year period, from September 2013 to September 2014 were screened for the presence of Schistosoma antibody in their blood serum using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Out of the 180 samples of sera tested using IHA, 32 (20 % were found to be positive with a titer ranging from 1:160 to 1:1280, while 42(23.2 % revealed Schistosoma IgG. A positive relationship was found between the seroprevalence of schistosomiasis and age of tested participants, especially in the age group of 20-40 years old. Additionally, prevalence of infection was more in males (36 % than females (7.5 %, and showed statistical significance (P < 0.001. Similarly, there was significant association between the presence of Schistosoma antibodies and the nationality of residence, and education of participants (P < 0.05. The current investigation reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of schistosomiasis among participants in Najran, southern region of Saudi Arabia and this supports an urgent need to re-evaluate the current control measures and implement an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control measures.

  17. A spectral analysis of the myoelectric activity of the left colon in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni

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    A.A.B. Ferraz

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to perform a spectral analysis of the electrical activity of the left colon of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Thirty patients were studied, divided into 2 groups: group A was composed of 14 patients (9 males and 5 females with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and group B was composed of 16 female patients without schistosomiasis mansoni. Three pairs of electrodes were implanted in the left colon at the moment of the surgical treatment. The signals of the electric activity of the colon were captured after postoperative recovery from the ileus and fed into a computer by means of a DATAQ data collection system which identified and captured frequencies between 0.02 and 10 Hz. Data were recorded, stored and analyzed using the WINDAQ 200 software. For electrical analysis, the average voltage of the electrical wave in the three electrodes of all patients, expressed as millivolts (mV, was considered, together with the maximum and minimum values, the root mean square (RMS, the skewness, and the results of the fast Fourier transforms. The average RMS of the schistosomiasis mansoni patients was 284.007 mV. During a long period of contraction, the RMS increased in a statistically significant manner from 127.455 mV during a resting period to 748.959 mV in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. We conclude that there were no statistically significant differences in RMS values between patients with schistosomiasis mansoni and patients without the disease during the rest period or during a long period of contraction.

  18. Predictive vs. empiric assessment of schistosomiasis: implications for treatment projections in Ghana.

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    Achille Kabore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mapping the distribution of schistosomiasis is essential to determine where control programs should operate, but because it is impractical to assess infection prevalence in every potentially endemic community, model-based geostatistics (MBG is increasingly being used to predict prevalence and determine intervention strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the accuracy of MBG predictions for Schistosoma haematobium infection in Ghana, school surveys were evaluated at 79 sites to yield empiric prevalence values that could be compared with values derived from recently published MBG predictions. Based on these findings schools were categorized according to WHO guidelines so that practical implications of any differences could be determined. Using the mean predicted values alone, 21 of the 25 empirically determined 'high-risk' schools requiring yearly praziquantel would have been undertreated and almost 20% of the remaining schools would have been treated despite empirically-determined absence of infection - translating into 28% of the children in the 79 schools being undertreated and 12% receiving treatment in the absence of any demonstrated need. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the current predictive map for Ghana as a spatial decision support tool by aggregating prevalence estimates to the district level was clearly not adequate for guiding the national program, but the alternative of assessing each school in potentially endemic areas of Ghana or elsewhere is not at all feasible; modelling must be a tool complementary to empiric assessments. Thus for practical usefulness, predictive risk mapping should not be thought of as a one-time exercise but must, as in the current study, be an iterative process that incorporates empiric testing and model refining to create updated versions that meet the needs of disease control operational managers.

  19. Schistosomiasis control using piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at different developmental stages.

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    Ludmila Nakamura Rapado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems. The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using (1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml. The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio. Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to

  20. Further development of the baboon as a model for acute schistosomiasis

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    Raymond T. Damian

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Baboons develop a syndrome, including eosinophilia and transient fever, after infection with carcariae of Schistosoma mansoni that is consistent with the human syndrome of acute schistosomiasis. Radiotelemetry can be used to follow the course of fever in infected baboons. Individual variations in intensity of disease were noted in baboons. These symptoms and signs were more closely linked to the onset of oviposition by the newly matured worms than they were to the presence of migrating schistosoma or maturing worms. The baboon is concluded to be a suitable and useful model for human acute schistosomiasis mansoni.

  1. On the use of plants and plant-derived compounds for the control of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettmann, K

    1984-05-01

    The rising costs of chemotherapy and synthetic molluscides have led to an increasing interest in plants which are lethal to the intermediate host of schistosomiasis (bilharzia). Over one thousand species have been tested but only a few have been phytochemically examined. Approximately fifty molluscicidal compounds have so far been isolated from plants, including saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and tannins. The saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra are the most active and have been successfully employed in field tests. The latest results in this area and the problems involved in the use of plants and natural products for the control of schistosomiasis are discussed here.

  2. Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekpo, Uwem F.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the cou......Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35...

  3. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  4. Impact evaluation of intervention models on schistosomiasis control into elimination in People’s Republic of China and African countries

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    Ernest Tambo, Jia Tei-Wu, Xiao Ning, Wei Hu, Zhou Xiao-Nong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evidence-based and innovative approaches aiming to reduce or eliminate the local and global burden of schistosomiasis are urgently needed. Local elimination has proved difficult and requires vigorous political and financial commitment for prolonged long-term benefits. Yet, available literature provides limited evidence on the impact and effectiveness of different local and national schistosomiasis programs and community interventions models. Integrated schistosomiasis control interventions models in P.R. China have provided hopes that elimination can be achievable goal both endemic areas in China and African countries, where most vulnerable children population lives. Methods: The paper overviewed to what extent and impact of various implemented models and programs, and provides an understanding of the robustness of schistosomiasis control towards elimination interventions in endemic communities in P.R. China and African countries. Results: It provides vital evidence to galvanize governments and global stakeholders in upholding cost-effective interventions models and research innovations in guiding sustainable decision-making policies and priorities towards achieving global schistosomiasis elimination in China and Africa. Conclusion: Successful Chinese lessons learnt and experiences from varied schistosomiasis models integration and policies practice holds immense promise when transfer and apply within an integrated trans-disciplinary and intersectorial sectors schistosomiasis approaches in ending schistosomiasis endemicity and epidemics episodes in both P.R. China and African countries. Furthermore ensuring community engagement and participation, health education and resilience towards community projects ownership are essential in sustained national schistosomiasis elimination programmes and eventual eradication benefits. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 104-118

  5. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis disseminated infection and schistosomiasis in an AIDS patient

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    Rodrigo Martins Brandão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is classically associated with impaired host response and implies in an overburden of larvae in its usual cycle. It has been recognized as a severe and potentially fatal condition in immunocompromised individuals, especially those using oral corticosteroids. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni not only increases the susceptibility to HIV infection, but also promotes progression to disease. The association of the most severe forms of strongyloidiasis and AIDS is scarcely described, even more when S. mansoni is also associated. The authors describe a case of a 34-year-old previously healthy male, admitted to the emergency department with a history of hematemesis associated with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and fever. He referred homosexual relations for 6 years. Physical examination showed an ill-looking patient, and was remarkable for tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, and pulse oximetry of 70% in room air. Lungs examination revealed the presence of rales in the left base. Chest radiography showed a diffuse and bilateral reticulo-nodular pattern. HIV serology was positive. Empirical antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids were initiated. On the third day of hospitalization, petechiae appeared over the periumbilical area, but no further investigation was undertaken because the patient died soon after. The autopsy findings were compatible with S. stercoralis disseminated infection, a hepatic intestinal chronic form of schistosomiasis, and septic shock as the primary cause of death. The authors call attention to this infrequent association.

  7. Exposure levels, determinants and IgE mediated sensitization to bovine allergens among Danish farmers and non-farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlünssen, V; Basinas, I; Zahradnik, E; Elholm, G; Wouters, I M; Kromhout, H; Heederik, D; Bolund, A C S; Omland, Ø; Raulf, M; Sigsgaard, T

    BACKGROUND: Bovine allergens can induce allergic airway diseases. High levels of allergens in dust from stables and homes of dairy farmers have been reported, but sparse knowledge about determinants for bovine allergen levels and associations between exposure level and sensitization is available.

  8. Use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin affinity chromatography in the structural analysis of the bovine lactoferrin N-linked glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Schoemaker, Ruud J. W.; Timmer, Christel J. A. M.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Background: Over the years, the N-glycosylation of both human and bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been studied extensively, however not all aspects have been studied in as much detail. Typically, the bovine LF complex-type N-glycans include certain epitopes, not found in human LF N-glycans, i.e.

  9. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a

  10. Recent advances in proteomic applications for schistosomiasis research: potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Doolan, Denise; Loukas, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Recent advances in the field of proteomics and the development of new and highly sensitive mass spectrometers and quantitative techniques have provided new tools for advancing the molecular biology, cell biology, diagnosis and vaccine development for public health threats such as schistosomiasis. Areas covered: In this review we describe the latest advances in research that utilizes proteomics-based tools to address some of the key challenges to developing effective interventions against schistosomiasis. We also provide information about the potential of extracellular vesicles to advance the fight against this devastating disease. Expert commentary: Different proteins are already being tested as vaccines against schistosomiasis with promising results. The re-analysis of the Schistosoma spp. proteomes using new and more sensitive mass spectrometers as well as better separation approaches will help identify more vaccine targets in a rational and informed manner. In addition, the recent development of new proteome microarrays will facilitate characterisation of novel markers of infection as well as new vaccine and diagnostic candidate antigens.

  11. Low transmission areas of schistosomiasis in Venezuela: consequences on the diagnosis, treatment, and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis low transmission areas as Venezuela, can be defined as those where the vector exists, the prevalence of active cases is under 25%, individuals with mild intensity of infection predominate and are mostly asymptomatic. These areas are the consequence of effective control programs, however, "silent" epidemiological places are difficult to trace, avoiding the opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected persons. Clinic and abdominal ultrasound have not shown to discriminate infected from uninfected persons in areas where besides Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites are the rule. Under these conditions, serology remains as a very valuable diagnostic tool, since it gives a closer approximation to the true prevalence. In this sense, circumoval precipitin test, ELISA-SEA with sodium metaperiodate, and alkaline phosphatase immunoassay joined to coprology allow the identification of the "schistosomiasis cases". In relation to public health, schistosomiasis has been underestimated by the sanitary authorities and the investment on its control is being transferred to other diseases of major social and political relevance neglecting sanitary efforts and allowing growth of snail population. Some strategies of diagnosis and control should be done before schistosomiasis reemergence occurs in low transmission areas.

  12. Urinary schistosomiasis in school aged children of two rural endemic communities in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriode, Rukeme M; Idowu, Emmanuel T; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A; Mafe, Margaret A

    2017-09-29

    Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted among school-aged children and health care providers, probing their knowledge, attitude and practices on on-going control activities. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school-aged children was 65.3%. The prevalence was generally higher among females (68.8%) and children in the age groups 10-14 (69.9%). The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 5044 (mean=449.8) eggs/10ml of urine with a higher proportion having heavy infections (76.8%, P<0.05). Water contact was attested by 123 (49.0%) of the children; of these 123, 74 (60.1%) were infected. The children's knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis was deficient. The high prevalences reported in these communities require integrated approach to control which essentially should incorporate the provision of safe water supply and sanitary facilities, and health education in addition to the annual mass praziquantel distribution, to reduce transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemic transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, C.C.; Ellery, W.N.; Byskov, Jens

    2008-01-01

    A well documented epidemic of human intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni occurred at Maun in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, building from very few cases in the 1950s and early 1960s to a peak prevalence of >80% in the 1980s. A retrospective analysis...

  14. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ...

  15. Increased IL-17, a Pathogenic Link between Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Hypothesis

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    Oswald Moling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system protects the organism from foreign invaders and foreign substances and is involved in physiological functions that range from tissue repair to neurocognition. However, an excessive or dysregulated immune response can cause immunopathology and disease. A 39-year-old man was affected by severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One question that arose was, whether there was a relation between the parasitic and the neurodegenerative disease. IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine, is produced mainly by T helper-17 CD4 cells, a recently discovered new lineage of effector CD4 T cells. Experimental mouse models of schistosomiasis have shown that IL-17 is a key player in the immunopathology of schistosomiasis. There are also reports that suggest that IL-17 might have an important role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is hypothesized that the factors that might have led to increased IL-17 in the hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni might also have contributed to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the described patient. A multitude of environmental factors, including infections, xenobiotic substances, intestinal microbiota, and vitamin D deficiency, that are able to induce a proinflammatory immune response polarization, might favor the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in predisposed individuals.

  16. Innate, adaptive and regulatory immune responses in human schistosomiasis in Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łabuda, Łucja

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is an investigation of the immune responses induced by chronic schistosomiasis in Gabonese schoolchildren. By investigating concurrently various aspects of the immune response, including innate, adaptive and regulatory responses, we are able to gain a more in-depth

  17. Improvement of a tissue maceration technique for the determination of placental involvement in schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Martha Charlotte; Neubauer, Heinrich; Groten, Tanja; El-Adawy, Hosny; Pastuschek, Jana; Richter, Joachim; Häussinger, Dieter; Pletz, Mathias Wilhelm; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Schistosomiasis in pregnancy may cause low birth weight, prematurity and stillbirth of the offspring. The placenta of pregnant women might be involved when schistosome ova are trapped in placental tissue. Standard histopathological methods only allow the examination of a limited amount of placental tissue and are therefore not sufficiently sensitive. Thus, placental schistosomiasis remains underdiagnosed and its role in contributing to schistosomiasis-associated pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Here we investigated an advanced maceration method in order to recover a maximum number of schistosome ova from the placenta. We examined the effect of different potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentrations and different tissue fixatives with respect to maceration success and egg morphology. Placental tissue was kept either in 0.9% saline, 5% formalin or 70% ethanol and was macerated together with Schistosoma mansoni infested mouse livers and KOH 4% or 10%, respectively. We found that placenta maceration using 4% KOH at 37°C for 24 h was the most effective method: placental tissue was completely digested, egg morphology was well preserved and alkaline concentration was the lowest. Ethanol proved to be the best fixative for this method. Here we propose an improved maceration technique in terms of sensitivity, safety and required skills, which may enable its wider use also in endemic areas. This technique may contribute to clarifying the role of placental involvement in pregnant women with schistosomiasis.

  18. RE-EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL. III. "NOROESTE DE MINAS" MESOREGION

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    CARVALHO Omar S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, João Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário. All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  19. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-03-13

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control. However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted.

  20. Exploring the potential of host-environment relationship in the control of schistosomiasis in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of human disease prevalences are supported by host-parasite-environment interactions. One such disease is schistosomiasis. Schistosoma parasites are transmitted between the snail intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts in an aquatic environment. This host-environment link

  1. Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) in a Ugandan child with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: coincidence or connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustinduy, Amaya L; Luzinda, Kenneth; Mpoya, Simon; Gothard, Philip; Stone, Neil; Wright, Stephen; Stothard, J Russell

    2014-10-01

    An association between late-stage hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) has been suggested but not proven. We present the case of a 12-year-old Ugandan boy with striking comorbidities, including advanced periportal fibrosis caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection and right ventricular EMF, and discuss the possible correlation between both diseases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis among primary school children in barrage, Magba sub-division of Cameroon

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    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity as well as the factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis (US in Barrage, a rural community around the Mape΄ dam, in the West region of Cameroon not previously documented for transmission. Methods In this cross sectional parasitological survey, 382 children were enrolled from three primary schools in the study area between March and May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, clinical and predisposing factors. The syringe filtration technique was used to analyse urine samples. Samples with visible or gross haematuria were recorded prior to filtration. The Pearson chi-square, the student T-test and logistic regression were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Results The overall prevalence of US was 41.1% (95% CI: 36.1–46.2. Infection was more common in children below 10 years (p = 0.009, in males (p = 0.029, and in children who frequently come into contact with water from the dam (p < 0.001. Furthermore, US was more common in children attending Ecole Public (EP Manbonko Bord (81.1%, p < 0.001 which is very close to the dam and in children from a fishing background (80.9%, p < 0.001. On the contrary, knowledge about schistosomiasis was not observed to be associated with prevalence. In this study, the intensity of infection was observed to be higher in children below 10 years (p < 0.001, in males (p = 0.001, and in children attending EP Manbonko Bord (p < 0.001. The intensity of infection was also highest in children presenting with haematuria (p < 0.001. Frequent contact with water from the dam and having parents whose occupation was fishing were identified as the associated factors for US. Conclusion A high prevalence of US was observed in school-aged children in the study area especially in those attending EP Manbonko Bord. Limiting contact with water from the dam

  4. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

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    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  5. [Risk assessment of schistosomiasis transmission on rescue workers involved in "Oriental Star shipwreck event"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhao-yu; Tan, Xiao-dong; Gao, Xu-dong; Ni, Zi-ling; Liu, Bei

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of the "Oriental Star shipwreck event" on the risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Jianli County, Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control. Based on the field observation and investigation, the data of the on-the-spot rescue and the historical endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jianli County were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, the focus group discussion and risk matrix were conducted to assess the risk of schistosome infection of the rescuers. Over 10 000 rescuers participated in the search operation, including the armed police forces, local people, reservists and so on. The armed police forces were the major components, which accounted for 39%. Jianli country was schistosomiasis endemic area with a high infection level in history, but the endemic situation had been mitigated significantly after years of positive prevention and treatment; the schistosome infection rate of population was 0.44% in 2014 and the Oncomelania hupensis snail area was only 6.6 hm2 around the rescue areas in the upstream and downstream. In addition, the snail density was not high, and no infected snails had been found for 11 years. The risk of schistosome infection was in the medium level. Though there exists the schistosome infection risk in the water area where the accident happened, the probability of occurrence is not high. In order to prevent the outbreak and endemic of schistosomiasis, the protection measures and health education to the rescuers as well as snail control and monitoring, and early-warning should be strengthened.

  6. [Evaluation of effectiveness of comprehensive schistosomiasis control project in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Feng, Xi-guang; Wu, Ming-shou; Xiong, Meng-tao; Shen, Mei-fen; Sun, Jia-yu

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive schistosomiasis control project in Yunnan Province after its implementation for ten years, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the future prevention and control strategy. The data of the schistosomiasis comprehensive control project and the endemic situation were collected and analyzed to evaluate the control effect of the project in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013. After the comprehensive control project implementation for ten years, the Oncomelania hupensis snail area in Yunnan Province decreased from 4,364.79 hm2 in 2004 to 1,528.50 hm2 in 2013, with a reduction rate of 64.98%, and the occurrence rate of frames with snails and the density of living snails decreased from 4.71% and 0.26 snails/0.1 m2 in 2004 to 1.35% and 0.04 snails/0.1 m2 in 2013, with the reduction rates of 71.34% and 84.62%, respectively. The schistosome infected snails were found only in 2011 and 2013 since 2008. In 2013, the infection rates of human (0.0021%) and cattle (0.0209%) decreased by 99.84% and 99.44%, respectively, compared to those in 2004, and no acute schistosome infection cases were found since 2008. The 212 villages with relatively serious endemic situation (Type One, Type Two and Type Three) all declined to the slight endemic villages (Type Four and Type Five), therefore, they reached the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or interrupted. The awareness rates of schistosomiasis control among villagers and students in endemic areas were above 90% and 98%, respectively. The effect of the comprehensive schistosomiasis control project is significant in Yunnan Province, but the task to consolidate and enlarge the control results still remains a challenge.

  7. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux.

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    James J Cody

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs, not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008.

  8. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

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    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  9. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Schistosomiasis at Niamey, Niger

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    Chippaux J-P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomes (CERMES is a research institute depending on the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies - a West African Organization for Public Health - devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. The staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. The activities of the CERMES involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a ecology of human and animal schistosomiasis transmission; the CERMES defined the different patterns of schistosomiasis transmission in Niger (involving African dry savana; in this field, we have shown, (i the existence of important variability in conditions of transmission of S. haematobium and, (ii natural hybridization between parasitic species of the ruminants (S. bovis and S. curassoni and genetic interaction between human and animal parasites; (b definition of morbidity indicators usable for rapid assessment methods, for appraisal of the severity of the disease and for the evaluation of the efficiency of control methods; we have established the correlation between ultrasonographic data and some cheap and simple field indicators; (c immune response and protective immunity induced by recombinant glutathion S-transferase (Sm28, Sb28 and Sh28 in homologous and heterologous animal models including goats, sheep and non human primates (Erythrocebus patas. In Niger, we participate in all control programs against schistosomiasis to define control strategies, to supervise operations and to participate in their evaluation with external experts. International collaborations constitute a frame including four laboratories in Africa and six laboratories in developed countries (Europe and USA

  10. Assessment of control and epidemiologic details of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study in the municipality of Bananal, state of São Paulo, Brazil, was to stop the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. Particular emphasis was given to such items as the active surveillance and eventual treatment of hosts, mapping parasite foci, and increasing the extent of basic sanitation in the municipality. Now, our records indicate that the eradication of schistosomiasis in the municipality of Bananal is attainable. However, as the vector Biomphalaria tenagophila can still be found in some water bodies within this municipality, it remains included in the area where schistosomiasis is endemic, which calls for very strict measures to avoid the human cases of schistososomiasis. The expansion of the coverage of the basic sanitation network and treatment of Schistosoma mansoni cases diagnosed during periodic surveys are part of the plans to eradicate schistosomiasis in Bananal.

  11. Serum And Tissue Enzymes And Trace Elements In Hamsters With Schistosomiasis Mansoni And/Or Protein Energy Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Al Nagdy, Sohair A. [سهير علي النجدي; Saoud, M. F. A.; Morcos, N. Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is mostly widespread in communities suffering from protein energy malnutrition. The development of an animal model for each condition is required for better understanding of changes in certain biochemical indices in pure schistosomiasis or pure energy malnutrition or both. Measurements of some enzymes as well as trace elements have been found to be valuable as diagnostic and prognostic indicators for tissue destruction. Accordingly, the present investigation reports measuremen...

  12. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, M G; C.; Perrini; Esposti, P.; Corradetti, B.; Bizzaro, D.; Riccaboni, P.; Fantinato, E.; Urbani, G.; Gelati, G.; Cremonesi, F.; Lange-Consiglio, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Methods Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5?% or 10?% PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-...

  13. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Pumipuntu, Natapol; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Santajit, Sirijan; Tunyong, Witawat; Kong-ngoen, Thida; Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method...

  14. [Development and application of communication materials for participatory health education of schistosomiasis in fishermen and boatmen of Poyang Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhao-jun; Qiu, Ling; Li, Dong; Chen, Jun-jiang; Xie, Hua; Liu, Yue-min; Hu, Fei; Yuan, Min; Lin, Dan-dan

    2016-02-01

    To design and develop new types of health education materials which are suitable for fishermen and boatmen in endemic areas of marshland and lake regions, and to observe their application effects. A total of 292 adult fishmen and boatmen who lived in Houshan Village, Yugan County, the schistosomiasis endemic area of Poyang Lake Region, were selected randomly and investigated by questionnaires to understand the status of their knowledge, attitudes, practices on schistosomiasis control as well as the channels for getting information on schistosomiasis control and the materials that they were willing to accept. Then the information and materials suitable for the target population were developed together by the researchers and the volunteers of the villagers through focus group discussions, personal interviews and the Delphi method. A series of participatory health education materials of schistosomiasis control targeted to the fishmen and boatmen were developed, including 2 live posters, 2 picture puzzles, 2 short opusculums and one song about schistosomiasis control. The field application showed that 98.97%, 84.38%, 78.35% and 80.93% of the participants considered those materials had scientificity, intelligibility, interestingness and practicability, respectively. The participatory health education materials of schistosomiasis control is suitable for fishmen and boatmen, which can be used for reference by other endemic areas in marshland and lake regions.

  15. [Research on competency building standards of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province I Investigation of institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-cheng; Zhong, Chen-hui; Liao, Si-qi; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the current situation of management of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province, so as to explore the probable competency building standards for these institutions at the county and township levels. By using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control at county and township levels were investigated for the institutional setup, staffing and fulfillment functions since the reform of 2004. Among 63 schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) of Hubei Province, there were 26 independent schistosomiasis control institutions (41.27%), there were 24 institutions which were incorporated into CDC (38.10%), and there were no institutions in 13 counties (20.63%). Among 518 endemic towns, there were 299 institutions (57.72%). The total staffing size were 1 932, but there were 1 586 (82.09%) people actually working in the post, and therefore there were 346 (17.91%) empty positions. The average rates of carrying out the six functions were 91.48%-71.19%, but only 19.23% of the institutions participated in the comprehensive schistosomiasis control management project and its effect assessment. According to the management model for schistosomiasis control institutions under the current institutional mechanisms, we need a rigorous industry standard to constrain, guide and standardize the management and capacity-building of the institutions in different historical periods.

  16. Three Gorges Dam and its impact on the potential transmission of schistosomiasis in regions along the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huai-Min; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Kun; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale hydroprojects have a propensity for incurring schistosomiasis epidemics by altering the environments of their vicinities. As the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, one of the world's largest hydroprojects to date, draws near its conclusion, an assessment of the dam's capacity in causing schistosomiasis becomes more urgent and pressing. This article reviews recent investigations into the possible effects of the dam on schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges region and areas along the Yangtze downstream from the dam. Data used in this article were extracted from peer-reviewed papers found in PubMed, Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control. Results indicate that the Three Gorges Dam is capable of inducing a wide variety of environmental and ecological changes both within the Three Gorges region and in downstream areas. These changes, however, carry ambivalent implications for the reproduction of Oncomelania snails and the spreading of schistosome infections. Furthermore, major changes in the demographics and agricultural practices of the Three Gorges and downstream Yangtze areas caused by the dam could also exert significant influence on the transmission of schistosomiasis in these regions. Major conclusions of this review include the need for further ecological simulations of the Three Gorges Dam and the need for deploying monitoring and intervention systems to provide successful prophylaxis of the Three Gorges Dam-associated schistosomiasis emergence.

  17. Schistosomiasis research in the dongting lake region and its impact on local and national treatment and control in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P McManus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC, where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50-60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised.

  18. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4%) were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1%) as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5%) as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails) followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails). As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails) compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs) (11 ± 32 snails) (F1, 79 = 38.8, P snails collected shed schistosome cercariae. Interestingly, the proportion of infected Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7%) compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3%) (P = 0.0109). B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of

  19. Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area

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    Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the

  20. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  1. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  2. Schistosomiasis of the central nervous system: clinical and radiologic correlation; Apresentacoes da esquistossomose no sistema nervoso central: correlacao clinica e radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Andreia Vasconcelos; Cerqueira, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de; Reis, Fabiano; Menezes Neto, Jose Ribeiro; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: andrea.vf@ig.com.br; Pirani, Clodoaldo; Damasceno, Benito Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia

    2002-02-01

    We report four cases of patients with schistosomiasis in the central nervous system and describe and correlate the radiologic findings with clinical manifestations. In one patient, cerebral involvement presented as a pseudotumoral lesion confirmed by autopsy. Three other patients had schistosomiasis in the spinal cord characterized by an intramedullary mass and radicular and leptomeningeal enhancement after administration of gadolinium. Our findings show the importance of considering schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intramedullary or cerebral lesions in patients of endemic areas of schistosomiasis. (author)

  3. Relationship between eosinophil cationic protein and infection intensity in a schistosomiasis endemic community in Ghana

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    Asuming-Brempong E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elias Asuming-Brempong,1–3 Ben Gyan,2 Abena Serwaa Amoah,3,4 William van der Puije,3,4 Langbong Bimi,1 Daniel Boakye,3 Irene Ayi3 1Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 2Immunology Department, 3Parasitology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Parasitology Department, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: Recent studies have shown the urine filtration and Kato-Katz techniques to significantly underestimate infection intensity in Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections, respectively. Infection intensity determination by these methods improves only with increasing number of samples collected per participant. This implies tedious and lengthy periods of sample processing and analysis by microscopy examination, hence the increased chances of experimental errors. This study sought to determine the relationship between levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and infection intensity by egg count both in S. haematobium and S. mansoni single and coinfections.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pakro, a periurban community in Ghana, involving a total of 308 participants. Each provided urine and stool samples, which were processed using the filtration and Kato-Katz techniques, respectively. Processed samples were examined by microscopy. Aliquots of urine from 73 participants were analyzed for levels of ECP using an ECP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Of the 308 urine samples examined, 59 (19.15% were positive for S. haematobium. Significant association was observed between sex and S. haematobium infection intensity by egg count (P<0.05 as well as between age and infection intensity (P<0.001. Mean ECP levels were higher in S. haematobium-positive samples than in S. haematobium-negative samples (P<0.001. There was also positive

  4. Rate of reversion of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis after specific therapy

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    Reynaldo Dietze

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis were treated with oxamniquine. The patients lived iti an endemic area and were evaluated 6, 18 and 24 months after treatment, during which time transmission in the area was interrupted. After treatment, clinical improvement occurred in 49 (70% of the patients, as seen by reduction in visceromegaly and reversion of liver nodules. Reversion of hepatosplenic disease occurred in 28 (40% patients and in liver nodularity in 26 (47.3%patients after 24 months. Reversion of hepatosplenic disease was seen in 12 (21% patients and liver nodules disappeared in 4 (8.5% as early as 6 months after treatment. In general, hepatosplenomegaly reverses earlier than liver nodularity. Itis notable that reversion of hepatosplenic disease occurred in many individuals with a history ofprevious treatment and also in some with advanced age. In four cases this clinical form of the disease had existed for 20 years. Therefore, there must exist factors other than age and duration of the condition which determine the reversibility of this clinical form. Ourresults reinforce the concept that, in patients with hepatosplenic disease without esophageal hemorrhages, specific treatment shouldpreceed surgical intervention even in those with a history of previous treatment. At least 18 months should be allowed for the ejfects of treatment to be manifest.Foram tratados com oxamniquine 70 esquistossomóticos, com a forma hepatosplênica. Os pacientes permaneceram na área endêmica e foram avaliados clinicamente antes, 6, 18, e 24 meses após o tratamento. Durante este período a transmissão foi interrompida na área. Após o tratamento específico ocorreu melhora clínica em 49(70% pacientes, traduzida por diminuição nas visceromegalias e reversão do fígado nodular. Houve reversão da forma hepatosplênica em 28(40% e do fígado nodular em 26(47.3% após 24 meses. A reversão da forma hepatosplênica já havia ocorrido após seis

  5. Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Gillespie, J S

    1983-01-01

    Field stimulation of isolated, perfused bovine or canine penile arteries produced dilatation, after the adrenergic motor component of the response had been blocked with guanethidine and the vessels had developed a background tone. The vasodilatation was blocked by tetrodotoxin but not by atropine. The vasodilator responses to field stimulation were compared with those produced by ATP, by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and by the inhibitory factor extracted from the bovine retractor penis muscle. Of the three putative transmitters, the inhibitory factor produced responses that most closely resembled those to field stimulation. Haemoglobin, which blocks non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory transmission in the bovine and canine retractor penis muscles, did not impair the vasodilatations produced by ATP or VIP, but slowly reduced or abolished those produced by field stimulation or by the inhibitory factor. Haemoglobin itself produced a powerful constriction of the isolated penile arteries. The results are compatable with the possibility that the inhibitory factor from the bovine retractor penis muscle (which may be the inhibitory transmitter in that muscle) is, or closely resembles, the transmitter of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic vasodilator fibres in the penile arteries of dog and ox. PMID:6684686

  6. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

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    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  7. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby

    2016-01-01

    models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni...... malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than...... the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor...

  8. First report of schistosomiasis on Serrambi beach, Ipojuca, State of Pernambuco

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    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION : The expansion of schistosomiasis to previously unaffected areas is being monitored by identifying new cases and georeferencing outbreaks of vector snails. METHODS : In 2014, the Laboratório de Esquistossomose began an epidemiological survey in Serrambi and registered 2,574 people living there. RESULTS : Of these subjects, 1,414 (54.9% underwent feces examination and 63 (4.5% were diagnosed with Schistosoma mansoni infection. At this locality, seven breeding sites each were identified for Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata. At two sites, B. glabrata were shedding cercariae. CONCLUSIONS : Implementing preventive measures is necessary to avoid the establishment of schistosomiasis in yet another tourist locality, Pernambuco.

  9. [Critical analysis of the estimated number of Schistosomiasis mansoni carriers in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, N; Peixoto, S V

    2000-01-01

    The number of carriers of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil was estimated based on the results of parasitological examinations of feces carried out by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS - National Health Foundation) in 1996 and 1997, as well as population data from 18 states collected by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). This information allowed the number of carriers of schistosomiasis mansoni to be estimated at 7.1 million in 1996 and 6. 3 million in 1997. These figures may not reflect the true situation since the population sample used was not originally selected for this purpose. The absence of precise data indicates the need for an adequate national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis, which continues to be an important endemic parasitic disease, justifying greater efforts for its control in Brazil.

  10. Bovine and porcine heparins: different drugs with similar effects on human haemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Heparins from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa differ in their structure and also in their effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. However, they are used as undistinguishable drugs. Methods We compared bovine and porcine intestinal heparin administered to patients undergoing a particular protocol of haemodialysis. We compared plasma concentrations of these two drugs and also evaluated how they affect patients and the dialyzer used. Results Compared with porcine heparin, bovine heparin achieved only 76% of the maximum plasma concentration as IU mL-1. This observation is consistent with the activities observed in the respective pharmaceutical preparations. When the plasma concentrations were expressed on weight basis, bovine heparin achieved a maximum concentration 1.5 fold higher than porcine heparin. The reduced anticoagulant activity and higher concentration, on weight basis, achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer used. The heparin dose is still in a range, which confers security and safety to the patients. Discussion Despite no apparent difference between bovine and porcine intestinal heparins in the haemodialysis practice, these two types of heparins should be used as distinct drugs due to their differences in structure and biological effects. Conclusions The reduced anticoagulant activity achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer. PMID:23763719

  11. Anti-schistosomiasis triterpene glycoside from the Egyptian medicinal plant Asparagus stipularis

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    Hesham R. El-Seedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided isolation using an in vitro assay testing for anti- schistosomiasis yielded a novel triterpene saponin, asparagalin A, from the n-butanol extract of the roots of Asparagus stipularis Forssk., Asparagaceae. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformations. Administration of asparagalin A resulted in a retardation of worm growth and locomotion at the first day and showed a significant activity of egg-laying suppression at 200 µg/mL concentration.

  12. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

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    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of the bladder in urogenital schistosomiasis reveals pathways of inflammatory fibrosis and urothelial compromise.

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    Debalina Ray

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, chronic infection by Schistosoma haematobium, affects 112 million people worldwide. S. haematobium worm oviposition in the bladder wall leads to granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and egg expulsion into the urine. Despite the global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, basic understanding of the associated pathologic mechanisms has been incomplete due to the lack of suitable animal models. We leveraged our recently developed mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis to perform the first-ever profiling of the early molecular events that occur in the bladder in response to the introduction of S. haematobium eggs. Microarray analysis of bladders revealed rapid, differential transcription of large numbers of genes, peaking three weeks post-egg administration. Many differentially transcribed genes were related to the canonical Type 2 anti-schistosomal immune response, as reflected by the development of egg-based bladder granulomata. Numerous collagen and metalloproteinase genes were differentially transcribed over time, revealing complex remodeling and fibrosis of the bladder that was confirmed by Masson's Trichrome staining. Multiple genes implicated in carcinogenesis pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor-, oncogene-, and mammary tumor-related genes, were differentially transcribed in egg-injected bladders. Surprisingly, junctional adhesion molecule, claudin and uroplakin genes, key components for maintaining the urothelial barrier, were globally suppressed after bladder exposure to eggs. This occurred in the setting of urothelial hyperplasia and egg shedding in urine. Thus, S. haematobium egg expulsion is associated with intricate modulation of the urothelial barrier on the cellular and molecular level. Taken together, our findings have important implications for understanding host-parasite interactions and carcinogenesis in urogenital schistosomiasis, and may provide clues for novel therapeutic

  14. Inhibition of Granulomatous Inflammation and Prophylactic Treatment of Schistosomiasis with a Combination of Edelfosine and Praziquantel.

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    Edward Yepes

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease worldwide caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. This parasitic disease is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Egg-released antigens stimulate tissue-destructive inflammatory and granulomatous reactions, involving different immune cell populations, including T cells and granulocytes. Granulomas lead to collagen fibers deposition and fibrosis, resulting in organ damage. Praziquantel (PZQ is the drug of choice for treating all species of schistosomes. However, PZQ kills only adult Schistosoma worms, not immature stages. The inability of PZQ to abort early infection or prevent re-infection, and the lack of prophylactic effect prompt the need for novel drugs and strategies for the prevention of schistosomiasis.Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have found that the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine kills schistosomula, and displays anti-inflammatory activity. The combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine during a few days before and after cercariae infection in a schistosomiasis mouse model, simulating a prophylactic treatment, led to seven major effects: a killing of Schistosoma parasites at early and late development stages; b reduction of hepatomegaly; c granuloma size reduction; d down-regulation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses at late post-infection times, thus inhibiting granuloma formation; e upregulation of IL-10 at early post-infection times, thus potentiating anti-inflammatory actions; f down-regulation of IL-10 at late post-infection times, thus favoring resistance to re-infection; g reduction in the number of blood granulocytes in late post-infection times as compared to infected untreated animals.Taken together, these data suggest that the combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine promotes a high decrease in granuloma formation, as well as in the cellular immune response that underlies granuloma development, with changes in the

  15. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis cases in the rural areas of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infections and schistosomiasis remain high in the rural areas of Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (ZMP, Brazil, where these parasites still represent a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to spatially assess the occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP. METHODS: The ZMP has a population of 1,132,544 inhabitants, formed by 43 municipalities. An ecological study was conducted, using secondary data relating to positive human cases and parasite loads of schistosomiasis and positive human cases of geohelminthiasis that were worked up in Excel 2007. We used the coordinates of the municipal headquarters to represent the cities which served as the unit of analysis of this study. The Kernel estimator was used to spatially analyze the data and identify distribution patterns and case densities, with analysis done in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Spatial analysis from the Kernel intensity estimator made it possible to construct density maps showing that the northern ZMP was the region with the greatest number of children infected with parasites and the populations most intensely infected by Schistosoma mansoni. In relation to geohelminths, there was higher spatial distribution of cases of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the southern ZMP, and greater occurrence of hookworms in the northern/central ZMP. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several surveys and studies showing occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP, no preventive measures that are known to have been effective in decreasing these health hazards have yet been implemented in the endemic area.

  16. Nearly 400 million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Jones, Isabel J; Jocque, Merlijn; La, Diana; Cords, Olivia; Knight, Anika; Lund, Andrea; Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; Hoover, Christopher M; Collender, Phillip A; Remais, Justin V; Lopez-Carr, David; Fisk, Jonathan; Kuris, Armand M; De Leo, Giulio A

    2017-06-05

    Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people. However, whether a similar cascade of effects (from dams to prawns to snails to human schistosomiasis) occurs elsewhere is unknown. Here, we examine large dams worldwide and identify where their catchments intersect with endemic schistosomiasis and the historical habitat ranges of large, migratory Macrobrachium spp. prawns. River prawn habitats are widespread, and we estimate that 277-385 million people live within schistosomiasis-endemic regions where river prawns are or were present (out of the 800 million people who are at risk of schistosomiasis). Using a published repository of schistosomiasis studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared infection before and after the construction of 14 large dams for people living in: (i) upstream catchments within historical habitats of native prawns, (ii) comparable undammed watersheds, and (iii) dammed catchments beyond the historical reach of migratory prawns. Damming was followed by greater increases in schistosomiasis within prawn habitats than outside prawn habitats. We estimate that one third to one half of the global population-at-risk of schistosomiasis could benefit from restoration of native prawns. Because dams block prawn migrations, our results suggest that prawn extirpation contributes to the sharp increase of schistosomiasis after damming, and points to prawn restoration as an ecological solution for reducing human disease

  17. Nearly 400 million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, S. H.; Jones, I. J.; La, D.; Cords, O.; Knight, A.; Lund, A.; Wood, C. L.; Lafferty, K. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Hoover, C.; Collender, P. A.; Remais, J.; Lopez-Carr, D.; De Leo, G.

    2016-12-01

    Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socioeconomic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people. However, whether a similar cascade of effects (from dams to prawns to snails to human schistosomiasis) occurs elsewhere is unknown. Here, we examine large dams worldwide and identify where their catchments intersect with endemic schistosomiasis and the historical habitat ranges of large, migratory Macrobrachium spp. prawns. River prawn habitats are widespread, and we estimate that 277 to 385 million people live within schistosomiasis-endemic regions where river prawns are or were present (out of the 800 million people who are at risk of schistosomiasis). Using a published repository of schistosomiasis studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared infection before and after the construction of 14 large dams for people living in: (1) upstream catchments within historical habitats of native prawns, (2) comparable undammed watersheds, and (3) dammed catchments beyond the historical reach of migratory prawns. Damming was followed by greater increases in schistosomiasis within prawn habitats than outside prawn habitats. We estimate that one third to one half of the global population-at-risk of schistosomiasis could benefit from restoring native prawns. Because dams block prawn migrations, our results suggest that prawn extirpation contributes to the sharp increase of schistosomiasis after damming, and points to prawn restoration as an ecological solution for reducing human disease.

  18. Nearly 400 million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Jones, Isabel J.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.; La, Diana; Cords, Olivia; Knight, Anika; Lund, Andrea; Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Collender, Phillip A.; Remais, Justin V.; Lopez-Carr, David; Fisk, Jonathan; Kuris, Armand M.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2017-01-01

    Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people. However, whether a similar cascade of effects (from dams to prawns to snails to human schistosomiasis) occurs elsewhere is unknown. Here, we examine large dams worldwide and identify where their catchments intersect with endemic schistosomiasis and the historical habitat ranges of large, migratory Macrobrachium spp. prawns. River prawn habitats are widespread, and we estimate that 277–385 million people live within schistosomiasis-endemic regions where river prawns are or were present (out of the 800 million people who are at risk of schistosomiasis). Using a published repository of schistosomiasis studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared infection before and after the construction of 14 large dams for people living in: (i) upstream catchments within historical habitats of native prawns, (ii) comparable undammed watersheds, and (iii) dammed catchments beyond the historical reach of migratory prawns. Damming was followed by greater increases in schistosomiasis within prawn habitats than outside prawn habitats. We estimate that one third to one half of the global population-at-risk of schistosomiasis could benefit from restoration of native prawns. Because dams block prawn migrations, our results suggest that prawn extirpation contributes to the sharp increase of schistosomiasis after damming, and points to prawn restoration as an ecological solution for reducing human disease.

  19. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis.In 2011, we conducted 35 children's discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes.Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys' disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students.Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child's well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

  20. [Application of health education path in advanced schistosomiasis patients with splenomegaly in perioperative period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Liu, Ling; Yan, Yi-hua; Shao, Zhi-wei; Li, Qin; Zhou, Rui-hong

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of health education path on advanced schistosomiasis patients with splenomegaly in perioperative period. A total of 60 advanced schistosomiasis patients with splenomegaly in perioperative period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group (30 cases each group). The patients in the observation group were intervened by the nursing and health education from admission to discharge according to the standardized process of health education path, while those in the control group were implemented with the conventional health education. Then the satisfaction of nursing work, hospital stays, hospitalization expenses and mastery of health knowledge of the patients in the two groups were investigated and the results were compared. The satisfaction rates of nursing work of patients in the observation group and the control group were 90% and 60%, respectively, the difference between them was statistically significant (χ2 = 7.57, P education path can promote the rehabilitation of advanced schistosomiasis patients with splenomegaly, and increase the satisfaction as well as improve the mastery of the health knowledge of the patients. Meanwhile, it also can cut down the hospital stays and save the hospitalization expenses.

  1. Schistosomiasis prevalence after administration of praziquantel to school children in Melela village, Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitange, H M; Swai, A B; McLarty, D G; Alberti, K G

    1993-12-01

    A study of the prevalence of schistosomiasis was carried out in 253 school children in Melela, Tanzania, one year after a single dose of praziquantel, 40 mg/kg body weight. The cure rate was 90.4%. However the new incidence estimate was 21.2% in children who were initially negative. The use of reagent strips in urine tests for the detection of urinary schistosomiasis was also evaluated. The presence of blood in the urine was highly sensitive (> 96%) and specific (87%). The sensitivity of proteinuria was less, but it was highly specific (94%). This study shows that chemotherapy will have to be combined with other measures to achieve lasting benefits and raises the question as to how often the population should be treated. It also confirms the value of urine test strips as an indirect diagnostic test for urinary schistosomiasis in an endemic area. Further follow-up is necessary to make useful predictions concerning incidence and reinfection rates in the community. This will also help in deciding how often chemotherapy should be given to the population.

  2. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  3. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  4. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice

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    Martina Sombetzki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples.

  5. Big-data-driven modeling unveils country-wide drivers of endemic schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Ciddio, Manuela; Dia, Elhadji D; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Casagrandi, Renato

    2017-03-28

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, where it represents a major health problem. We study the drivers of its geographical distribution in Senegal via a spatially explicit network model accounting for epidemiological dynamics driven by local socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and human mobility. The model is parameterized by tapping several available geodatabases and a large dataset of mobile phone traces. It reliably reproduces the observed spatial patterns of regional schistosomiasis prevalence throughout the country, provided that spatial heterogeneity and human mobility are suitably accounted for. Specifically, a fine-grained description of the socioeconomic and environmental heterogeneities involved in local disease transmission is crucial to capturing the spatial variability of disease prevalence, while the inclusion of human mobility significantly improves the explanatory power of the model. Concerning human movement, we find that moderate mobility may reduce disease prevalence, whereas either high or low mobility may result in increased prevalence of infection. The effects of control strategies based on exposure and contamination reduction via improved access to safe water or educational campaigns are also analyzed. To our knowledge, this represents the first application of an integrative schistosomiasis transmission model at a whole-country scale.

  6. [Surveillance of schistosomiasis epidemic situation after its transmission in- terrupted in Lufeng County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ming-gui; Jin, Hua-zhong; Liu, Jian-hua; Duan, Hong-mei; Xu, Xin-mini

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the schistosomiasis epidemic situation changes after its transmission interrupted in Lufeng County in 1986, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the interventions for schistosomiasis elimination. The surveillance of Oncomelania hupensis snail was performed by the systematic sampling, environmental sampling and special environmental comprehensive survey methods. The surveillance of human population was carried out by the sero logical screening method, and the positives were re-examined with the stool hatching method. The surveillance of livestock was performed by the plastic cup of pipe jacking hatching method. The living snails were detected in Lufeng County from 1987 to 2007 except in 1988 and 1994. The two import buffalo infected with schistosomes were detected in 2001 and ni local infected livestock were found. Since 2004, the comprehensive measures, including the social control strategy and surviv al snail elimination, were carried out, and no snails were detected and no schistosome infected persons or livestock were found for 7 consecutive years since 2008. The achievement of schistosomiasis transmission interrupted ha been consolidated in Lufeng County, but most of the historical snail environments have not been modified and there are stil snail breeding conditions. Therefore, we should continue to carry out the snail surveillance.

  7. A novel bacterial pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: a potential weapon for schistosomiasis control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Duval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects.In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs.This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field.

  8. Environmental control of schistosomiasis through community participation in a Moroccan oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelee, Eline; Laamrani, Hammou

    2004-09-01

    Summary Akka oasis, in the province of Tata, southern Morocco, is one of the oldest foci of urinary schistosomiasis in Morocco where transmission is still taking place. We report the results of two studies: a cross-sectional snail survey investigated the distribution of Bulinus truncatus in relation to habitat factors in the Akka traditional irrigation system. The presence of aquatic vegetation, especially Potamogeton sp. was identified as a key factor determining snail occurrence and abundance in canals, impoundments and isolated small puddles and streamlets in the Akka riverbed. In a participatory rapid appraisal, the community identified snail control as a way to reduce transmission of schistosomiasis. Without any further outside incentives, the local irrigation committee implemented repeated cleaning and vegetation removal in canals. A longitudinal study evaluated the effect of these measures on populations of B. truncatus. Snail and egg mass densities showed significant reductions after repeated vegetation clearing in the study sites. The participatory approach led to low-cost, environment-friendly schistosomiasis control measures that were effective and sustainable.

  9. Serological evidence of schistosomiasis among Orang Asli from three areas of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, G J; Anuar, H

    1984-09-01

    Using ELISA and COPT diagnostic tests, serological evidence of Malaysian schistosomiasis was discovered among Orang Asli populations from three areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples collected in 1975 indicated an ELISA-positive prevalence of 25% and a COPT prevalence of 11% from Pos Iskandar, Pahang and an ELISA prevalence of 13% and a COPT of 4% from Bukit Lanjan, Selangor. Resurveys at these site in 1982-1984 showed a continued presence of serological positive individuals but prevalence rates were markedly lower: 7% and 1% for ELISA and 4% and 2% for COPT at Pos Iskandar and Bukit Lanjan respectively. Snail hosts were not found at either site. The source of infection for persons living in these lowland areas remains unknown. In a third area, Kuala Tahan, Pahang, located in the foothills of the central mountain range, foci of transmission have been found near to Orang Asli settlements. The serological prevalence rate among Negrito Orang Asli in that study area was 9% for ELISA and 4% for COPT. Thirty-three of 36 COPT-positive sera produced vacuolated bleb precipates and in 31 these were the only reactions seen. The high percentage of positives producing only these precipates suggests that among Orang Asli schistosomiasis patients such reactions are not an indication of recently acquired infection as has been reported for schistosomiasis patients in the Philippines.

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis in urban and semi-urban communities in South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ogochukwu Caroline; Ubachukwu, Patience Obiageli

    2013-07-01

    In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investigations on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in urban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 ± 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years) had no infection. The prevalence of micro-haematuria (6.2%) was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r = 0.65, P < 0.01) and intensity (r = 0.50, P < 0.01) of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. However, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells. The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State.

  11. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  12. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  13. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fib......BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin......-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. RESULTS: The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied......PA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein....

  15. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  16. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  17. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  18. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth control in Niger: cost effectiveness of school based and community distributed mass drug administration [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Leslie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5-14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD. The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. CONCLUSIONS: The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process.

  19. Characterisation and application of a bovine U6 promoter for expression of short hairpin RNAs

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    Dalrymple Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III promoters of either mouse or human origin. Results To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The promoter was then used to express shRNAs, which resulted in the efficient knockdown of an exogenous reporter gene and an endogenous bovine gene. Conclusion We have mined data from the bovine genome sequencing project to identify a functional bovine U6 promoter and used the promoter sequence to construct a shRNA expression vector. The use of this native bovine promoter in shRNA expression is an important component of our future development of RNAi therapeutic and transgenic applications in bovine species.

  20. Quantitative assessment of the impact of partially protective anti-schistosomiasis vaccines.

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    Ramzi A Alsallaq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA of praziquantel has been the intervention of choice against schistosomiasis but with limited success in interrupting the transmission. The development of anti-Schistosoma vaccines is underway. Our objective is to quantify the population-level impact of anti-Schistosoma vaccines when administered alone and in combination with mass drug administration (MDA and determine factors in vaccine design and public health implementation that optimize vaccination role in schistosomiasis control and elimination.We developed a deterministic compartmental model simulation of schistosomiasis transmission in a high-risk Kenyan community, including stratification by age, parasite burden, and vaccination status. The modeled schistosomiasis vaccines differed in terms of vaccine duration of protection (durability and three biological efficacies. These are vaccine susceptibility effect (SE of reducing person's susceptibility to Schistosoma acquisition, vaccine mortality effect (ME of reducing established worm burden and vaccine fecundity effect (FE of reducing egg release by mature worms. We quantified the population-level impact of vaccination over two decades under diverse vaccination schemes (childhood vs. mass campaigns, with different age-targeting scenarios, different risk settings, and with combined intervention with MDA. We also assessed the sensitivity of our predictions to uncertainties in model parameters. Over two decades, our base case vaccine with 80% SE, FE, and ME efficacies, 10 years' durability, provided by mass vaccination every 10 years, reduced host prevalence, mean intensity, incidence, and patent snail prevalence to 31%, 20 eggs/10-ml sample/person, 0.87 worm/person-year, and 0.74%, from endemic-state values of 71%, 152, 3.3, and 0.98%, respectively. Lower impact was found when coverage did not encompass all potential contaminators, and childhood-only vaccination schemes showed delayed and lower impact. In lower

  1. Outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica (France): an epidemiological case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Jérôme; Grech-Angelini, Sébastien; Webster, Bonnie L; Allienne, Jean-François; Huyse, Tine; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Toulza, Eve; Barré-Cardi, Hélène; Rollinson, David; Kincaid-Smith, Julien; Oleaga, Ana; Galinier, Richard; Foata, Joséphine; Rognon, Anne; Berry, Antoine; Mouahid, Gabriel; Henneron, Rémy; Moné, Hélène; Noel, Harold; Mitta, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection. With the snails found, we carried out snail-parasite compatibility experiments by exposing snails to schistosome larvae recovered from the urine of a locally infected Corsican patient. Genetic analysis of both mitochondrial (cox1) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) DNA data from the Schistosoma eggs or miracidia recovered from the infected patients was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology of this outbreak. We identified two main infection foci along the Cavu River, with many Bulinus truncatus snails found in both locations. Of the 3544 snails recovered across all sites, none were naturally infected, but laboratory-based experimental infections confirmed their compatibility with the schistosomes isolated from patients. Molecular characterisation of 73 eggs or miracidia isolated from 12 patients showed infection with Schistosoma haematobium, S haematobium-Schistosoma bovis hybrids, and S bovis. Further sequence data analysis also showed that the Corsican schistosomes were closely related to those from Senegal in west Africa. The freshwater swimming pools of the Cavu River harbour many B truncatus snails, which are capable of transmitting S haematobium-group schistosomes. Our molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal. Hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak, showing how easily and rapidly urogenital

  2. Quantitative assessment of the impact of partially protective anti-schistosomiasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A; Gurarie, David; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison; King, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel has been the intervention of choice against schistosomiasis but with limited success in interrupting the transmission. The development of anti-Schistosoma vaccines is underway. Our objective is to quantify the population-level impact of anti-Schistosoma vaccines when administered alone and in combination with mass drug administration (MDA) and determine factors in vaccine design and public health implementation that optimize vaccination role in schistosomiasis control and elimination. We developed a deterministic compartmental model simulation of schistosomiasis transmission in a high-risk Kenyan community, including stratification by age, parasite burden, and vaccination status. The modeled schistosomiasis vaccines differed in terms of vaccine duration of protection (durability) and three biological efficacies. These are vaccine susceptibility effect (SE) of reducing person's susceptibility to Schistosoma acquisition, vaccine mortality effect (ME) of reducing established worm burden and vaccine fecundity effect (FE) of reducing egg release by mature worms. We quantified the population-level impact of vaccination over two decades under diverse vaccination schemes (childhood vs. mass campaigns), with different age-targeting scenarios, different risk settings, and with combined intervention with MDA. We also assessed the sensitivity of our predictions to uncertainties in model parameters. Over two decades, our base case vaccine with 80% SE, FE, and ME efficacies, 10 years' durability, provided by mass vaccination every 10 years, reduced host prevalence, mean intensity, incidence, and patent snail prevalence to 31%, 20 eggs/10-ml sample/person, 0.87 worm/person-year, and 0.74%, from endemic-state values of 71%, 152, 3.3, and 0.98%, respectively. Lower impact was found when coverage did not encompass all potential contaminators, and childhood-only vaccination schemes showed delayed and lower impact. In lower prevalence

  3. A case control study on the structural equation model of the mechanism of coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in chronic schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aiping; Zhang, Lunli; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaopeng; Ren, Jianwei; Ning, An

    2017-02-01

    A structural equation model was used for verification with chronic schistosomiasis to investigate the coagulation-anticoagulation system imbalance and to deduce the mechanism of D-dimer (D-D) level elevation in patients with advanced schistosome hepatic disease. We detected the plasma levels of tissue-type fiber plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), plasminogen (PLG), antithrombin (AT), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), D-D, factor VIII: C (FVIII:C), antithrombin-III (AT-III), PLG, protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) in the healthy people as control (69), patients with chronic schistosomiasis (150) or advanced chronic schistosomiasis (90). FVIII, PAP, D-D, tPA, and uPA plasma levels were significantly higher in the chronic group than in the control group and were also significantly higher in the advanced group. However, AT-III, PC, PS, AT, PLG, and PAI1 plasma levels in the advanced and chronic groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. With progression of disease in patients with schistosomiasis japonica, a hypercoagulable state is induced by the coagulation-anticoagulation imbalance, eventually leading to patients with high levels of D-D. Furthermore, we established a structural equation model path of a "chronic schistosomiasis disease stage-(coagulation-anticoagulation-fibrinolysis)-D-D." By using analysis of moment structures (AMOS), it was shown that the chronic schistosomiasis stage was positively related to factor VIII and had negative correlation with AT-III; a good positive correlation with PAP, tPA, and uPA; and a good negative correlation with PLG and PAI1. In addition, our results show that the path coefficient of anticoagulation-fibrinolysis system to the chronic stage of schistosomiasis or D-D levels was significantly higher than that of the coagulation system. In conclusion, the coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in patients with chronic

  4. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control...

  5. The Prevalence and Intensity of Urinary Schistoso-miasis Among School Children Living along the Bakalori Dam, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A S; Parakoyi, D B

    2005-09-01

    Children are known to be the major reservior of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic communities. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among school children living along the Bakalori dam. The study was a cross sectional assessment using a pre-tested standardised structured questionnaire interviews. A total of 240 pupils were recruited through a multistage sampling technique. Urine samples from the pupils were examined for the presence of ova of schistosoma haematobium. A total of 125(52.1%) of respondents were 11-12 years old with a mean age of 11.7 +/- 1.4 years. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among school children was found to be 42.1%. The highest age and sex specific prevalence rate was recorded among the 13-14 years age group for both males (43.1%) and females (50.0%). The age, sex, level of school attainment, occupation of respondents' father/guardian and source of water for domestic use were found to have a significant statistical association with the risk of being infected (P<0.05). It is concluded that the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis is high. To reverse the situation requires mass chemotherapy, community mobilisation and provision of portable water. Key words: schistosomiasis, prevalence, intensity, school children, dams.

  6. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, E.

    2011-03-01

    In these lectures I present the physical aspects of the Cosmic Microwave Background primary and secondary anisotropies; the characteristics of the CMB power spectra and their dependence on cosmological parameters. I also discuss the observational status and future perspectives.

  8. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  9. Background Studies for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  10. Modeling the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria using satellite derived environmental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajakaye, Oluwaremilekun G; Adedeji, Oluwatola I; Ajayi, Paul O

    2017-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease and its distribution, in space and time, can be influenced by environmental factors such as rivers, elevation, slope, land surface temperature, land use/cover and rainfall. The aim of this study is to identify the areas with suitable conditions for schistosomiasis transmission on the basis of physical and environmental factors derived from satellite imagery and spatial analysis for Akure North Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo State. Nigeria. This was done through methodology multicriteria evaluation (MCE) using Saaty's analytical hierarchy process (AHP). AHP is a multi-criteria decision method that uses hierarchical structures to represent a problem and makes decisions based on priority scales. In this research AHP was used to obtain the mapping weight or importance of each individual schistosomiasis risk factor. For the purpose of identifying areas of schistosomiasis risk, this study focused on temperature, drainage, elevation, rainfall, slope and land use/land cover as the factors controlling schistosomiasis incidence in the study area. It is by reclassifying and overlaying these factors that areas vulnerable to schistosomiasis were identified. The weighted overlay analysis was done after each factor was given the appropriate weight derived through the analytical hierarchical process. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the study area was also determined by parasitological analysis of urine samples collected through random sampling. The results showed varying risk of schistosomiasis with a larger portion of the area (82%) falling under the high and very high risk category. The study also showed that one community (Oba Ile) had the lowest risk of schistosomiasis while the risk increased in the four remaining communities (Iju, Igoba, Ita Ogbolu and Ogbese). The predictions made by the model correlated strongly with observations from field study. The high risk zones corresponded to known endemic communities. This

  11. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection were studied in Ukwelo-Obudu, and Abini communities of Cross River State, Nigeria. Aim: To screen for the presence of ova of S. haematobium in the urine of school children in the two communities. Method: Six hundred urine specimens ...

  12. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  13. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  14. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  15. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  16. From a weighing scale to a pole: a comparison of two different dosage strategies in mass treatment of Schistosomiasis haematobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nordin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical schistosomiasis in endemic countries is treated with a single dose of praziquantel per 40 mg/kg body weight. Treating according to weight, in resource-poor settings when thousands of doses are to be administered in mass treatment campaigns, is considered problematic. A calibrated dose-pole based on height was developed and is now used in mass treatment campaigns for determining the doses for schoolchildren. The dose-pole will generate dose errors since every child population contains individuals that are either short or tall for weight. The aim of this study is to explore whether the WHO praziquantel pole is a satisfactory dose instrument for mass treatment of S. haematobium. Methods: In 1996 and 2002, 1,694 children were surveyed in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We compared doses given by weight to doses given by height using descriptive statistics and regression. Conclusions and interpretation: The WHO dose-pole for praziquantel is based on height of the patient; however, children with the same height will differ in weight. Our study shows that children with the same weight could qualify for up to four different dose levels based on their height. The largest variation of doses based on the WHO dose-pole will be found in children below 20 kg of bodyweight. Using bodyweight and tablet halves as the smallest tablet division unit to determine the doses of praziquantel, one only has to identify every 6th kilogram of bodyweight; the doses will then vary a lot less than when using the WHO dose-pole.

  17. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C.; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, ?/? T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently i...

  18. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  19. [Strategy of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis and its effect in key areas of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Ping; Tian, Zeng-Xi; Yang, Kun; Hong, Qing-Biao; Gao, Yang; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Lian-Heng; Yang, Guo-Jing; Min, Jie; Ge, Jun; Wu, Hong-Hui; Huang, Yi-Xin; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis in key areas of Jiangsu Province. The basic data and the data of implementation of comprehensive control measures were collected from the key areas of Jiangsu Province, including 30 townships, 87 marshlands and 78 anchor points. A field survey was carried out to investigate the Oncomelania snail status by using the systematic sampling method and schistosomiasis morbidity in humans and animals in the 12 key counties (districts). The changes of snail status and morbidity of humans and animals were statistically analyzed in key counties (districts) where comprehensive control measures was implemented, and the effects of schistosomiasis control before and after the implementation of the comprehensive control were compared. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 84 100 harmless latrines were constructed, 339 600 persons were examined, 2.6938 million people received health education, 112 000 protective creams and 798 000 publicity materials were allocated, 9 085 domestic animals were reared in pens, 11 800 domestic animals were examined, 130 high-risk cattle were eliminated in 30 key townships of 12 countries (districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 19 640.78 hm2 were controlled with molluscicides, 798 warning tablets were placed, 116.07 hm2 of farmlands were ploughed up and planted, 306.80 hm2 were dug for fish culture, and 506.74 hm2 were planted with trees for snail control in 87 high-risk marshlands. A total of 118.83 million Yuan were invested into the water resources development projects, 39.82 km-long rivers were dredged, 70.04 km-long bank were concreted, 30 culvert gates were re-constructed, and 22 snail sedimentation tanks were built. In the 78 anchor points, 95 harmless public toilets were built, 3 192 stool container were allocated, 28 700 boatmen were examined, 71 600 protective creams and 53 200 publicity materials were allocated, and 46 600 persons received health education. Following the

  20. Mapping of the transcription start site (TSS) and identification of SNPs in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney Torres; Bahar Bojlul

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system which plays a vital role in the feed energy homeostasis in mammals. Mutations in the regulatory and coding regions of the bovine NPY gene can potentially affect the neuronal regulation of appetite and feeding behaviour in cattle. The objectives of this experiment were to: a) fully characterize the bovine NPY gene transcript and b) identify the SNP diversity in both coding and non-coding regions of the N...

  1. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  2. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Lin [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Su, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hai-Bo [Central Blood Bank in Yueyang, Yueyang, Hunan Province (China); Du, Kun; Yu, Ping [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Shi-Ping [Key Laboratory of Schistosomiasis in Hunan, Department of Parasitology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-03-02

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region.

  3. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  4. Inflammation, oxidative stress and L-fucose as indispensable participants in schistosomiasis-associated colonic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Nema Ali; Keshk, Walaa Arafa; Shoheib, Zeinab Salah; Ashour, Dalia Salah; Shamloula, Maha Moustafa

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease causing chronic ill health in humans with a serious consequences for socio-economic development in tropical and subtropical regions. There is also evidence linking Schistosoma mansoni to colonic carcinoma occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate some inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as L-fucose as linkers between intestinal schistosomiasis and colonic dysplasia development in mice. This study was conducted upon 80 mice that were divided the control group (10 non infected mice) and infected group which was subdivided into 7 sub-groups (10 mice each) according to the time of sacrifaction in the post infection (p.i.) period, 10 mice being sacrificed every two weeks from 6 weeks p.i. to 18 weeks p.i. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels were estimated by immunoassay. The L-fucose level, and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also evaluated in colonic tissue. The current study revealed statistically significant elevation in the studied biochemical markers especially at 16 and 18 weeks p.i. The results were confirmed by histopathological examination that revealed atypical architectural and cytological changes in the form of epithelial surface serration and nuclear hyper-chromatizia at 14, 16 and 18 weeks p.i. inflammation, oxidative stress and L-fucose together may form an important link between Schistosomal mansoni infection and colonic dysplasia and they can be new tools for prediction of colonic dysplasia development in experimental schistosomiasis.

  5. Absence of linkage between MHC and a gene involved in susceptibility to human schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarella J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred million people are at risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. MHC haplotypes have been reported to segregate with susceptibility to schistosomiasis in murine models. In humans, a major gene related to susceptibility/resistance to infection by S. mansoni (SM1 and displaying the mean fecal egg count as phenotype was detected by segregation analysis. This gene displayed a codominant mode of inheritance with an estimated frequency of 0.20-0.25 for the deleterious allele and accounted for more than 50% of the variance of infection levels. To determine if the SM1 gene segregates with the human MHC chromosomal region, we performed a linkage study by the lod score method. We typed for HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens in 11 informative families from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil, by the microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-DR typing by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP and HLA-DQ were confirmed by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP. The lod scores for the different q values obtained clearly indicate that there is no physical linkage between HLA and SM1 genes. Thus, susceptibility or resistance to schistosomiasis, as defined by mean fecal egg count, is not primarily dependent on the host's HLA profile. However, if the HLA molecule plays an important role in specific immune responses to S. mansoni, this may involve the development of the different clinical aspects of the disease such as granuloma formation and development of hepatosplenomegaly.

  6. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M Eissa

    Full Text Available Miltefosine (MFS is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD. This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%, good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs

  7. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maha M; El-Moslemany, Riham M; Ramadan, Alyaa A; Amer, Eglal I; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z; El-Khordagui, Labiba K

    2015-01-01

    Miltefosine (MFS) is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD). This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%), good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs, allowing targeting

  8. Climate change and institutional determinants of malaria and schistosomiasis In Gwanda District, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Peter; Chimbari, Moses; Makuratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    influence on the epidemiology of malaria and schistosomiasis in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe. Knowledge of these factors is crucial as they may be important confounders in the interpretation of the possible effects of climate change and variability on the two diseases. A detailed inventory and mapping...... of institutional factors was done with a view to analyse their role in past and present transmission patterns and manifestations in vulnerable population groups. Methods included stakeholder analyses, policy framework analyses, systems analyses and key-informant interviews targeting the sectors of health...

  9. Understanding low uptake of mass treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite attempts to control intestinal schistosomiasis through school-based mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel using school teachers in Uganda, less than 30% of the school children take the treatment in some areas. The aim of the study was to understand why the uptake of praziquantel...... among school children is low and to suggest strategies for improved uptake. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study in which 24 focus group discussions and 15 key informant interviews were conducted 2 months after MDA. The focus group discussions were held with school children in twelve primary...

  10. A rationale for schistosomiasis control in elementary schools of the rainforest zone of pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Tereza C; Pereira, Ana P B; Galvão, Aline F; Zani, Luciana C; Barbosa, Constança S; Pieri, Otávio S

    2009-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1999, the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS) has registered a cumulative coverage of just 20% of the population from the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP), northeast Brazil. This jeopardizes the accomplishment of the minimum goal of the Fifty-Fourth World Health Assembly, resolution WHA54.19, of providing treatment for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) to 75% of school-aged children at risk, which requires attending at least 166,000 residents in the 7-14 age range by year 2010 in that important endemic area. In the present study, secondary demographic and parasitological data from a representative municipality of the ZMP are analyzed to provide evidence that the current, community-based approach to control schistosomiasis and STH is unlikely to attain the WHA-54.19 minimum goal and to suggest that school-based control actions are also needed. Data available on the PCE-SUS activities related to diagnosis and treatment of the population from the study municipality were obtained from the State Secretary of Health of Pernambuco (SES/PE) for 2002-2006, complemented by the Municipal Secretary of Health (SMS) for 2003-2004. Data from a school-based stool survey carried out by the Schistosomiasis Reference Service of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (SRE/Fiocruz) in 2004 were used to provide information on infection status variation among school-aged children (7-14 years). According to the SES, from 2004 to 2006, only 2,977 (19.5%) of the estimated 15,288 residents of all ages were examined, of which 396 (13.3%) were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Among these, only 180 (45.5%) were treated. According to the SMS, of the 1,766 examined in the 2003-2004 population stool survey 570 (32.3%) were children aged 7-14 years. One year later, the SRE/Fiocruz school survey revealed that the infection status among those children remained unchanged at 14%-15% prevalence. By 2006, the school

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne; Dodelson,Scott

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary epoch. Future observations should test this mo...

  12. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper al...

  13. An interactomics overview of the human and bovine milk proteome over lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Background: Milk is the most important food for growth and development of the neonate, because of its nutrient composition and presence of many bioactive proteins. Differences between human and bovine milk in low abundant proteins have not been extensively studied. To better understand the

  14. Evaluation of ethanol vortex ELISA for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The use of serological assays for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied and use of specific antigens have aided in improving the diagnostic accuracy of the assays. In the present study, we report an in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), developed...

  15. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  16. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  17. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  18. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported...... or within macrophages. Two of the cows were around 30 days pp, while the third was 7 months pp. None of the cows had been treated with antibiotics. Culturing of the flush samples was unsuccessful, but Sanger sequencing of DNA extracted from an endometrial biopsy of one of the cows revealed the presence...

  19. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  20. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....

  1. Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  2. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  4. Strategy formulation for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings supported by spatial analysis: a case study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of exploring the usefulness of spatial analysis in the formulation of a strategy for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings, a population-based database was established in Dangtu county, China. This database, containing the human prevalence of schistosomiasis at the village level from 2001 to 2004, was analyzed by directional trend analysis supported with ArcGIS 9.0 to select the optimum predictive approach. Based on the approach selected, different strata of prevalence were classified and the spatial distribution of human infection with Schistosoma japonicum was estimated. The second-order ordinary kriging approach of spatial analysis was found to be optimal for prediction of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection. The mean prediction error was close to 0 and the root-mean-square standardised error was close to 1. Starting with the different environmental settings for each stratum of transmission, four areas were classified according to human prevalence, and different strategies to control transmission of schistosomiasis were put forward. We conclude that the approach to use spatial analysis as a tool to predict the spatial distribution of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection improves the formulation of strategies for schistosomiasis control in different environmental settings at the county level.

  5. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  6. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  7. Infection with schistosome parasites in snails leads to increased predation by prawns: implications for human schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Scott J; De Leo, Giulio A; Wood, Chelsea L; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments performed on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria glabrata snails to investigate: (i) rates of predation on schistosome-infected versus uninfected snails by a sympatric native river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and (ii) differences in snail behavior (including movement, refuge-seeking and anti-predator behavior) between infected and uninfected snails. In predation trials, prawns showed a preference for consuming snails infected with schistosome larvae. In behavioral trials, infected snails moved less quickly and less often than uninfected snails, and were less likely to avoid predation by exiting the water or hiding under substrate. Although the mechanism by which the parasite alters snail behavior remains unknown, these results provide insight into the effects of parasitic infection on predator-prey dynamics and suggest that boosting natural rates of predation on snails may be a useful strategy for reducing transmission in schistosomiasis hotspots. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. EpidEmiological SurvEy of urinary SchiStoSomiaSiS in SomE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-03

    Mar 3, 2012 ... Objective: to provide baseline epidemiological data (prevalence, intensity of infection and Knowledge) on urinary Schistosomiasis in a new focus behind mount cameroon. Design: longitudinal Study. Setting: Eight (8) primary Schools in munyenge health district, fako division, South west cameroon.

  9. The Behavioral Determinants of Intestinal Schistosomiasis Transmission: Water Contact, Hygienic Practices and Risk Prevention. A study in Northern Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sow (Seydou)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world, ranking second only to malaria in terms of its socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas (WHO, 1985; WHO, 2002). At least 200 million people are infected and 600 million

  10. Why did schistosomiasis disappear from the southern part of the Eastern Cape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbarani Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the early literature and maps of the occurrence of urogenital schistosomiasis (bilharzia in the Eastern Cape, South Africa from the 1860s until its decline from about 1900 and reappearance in 2002. Although this decline in transmission has received little attention to date, clinical descriptions of the disease over this period indicate that infection was common, probably patchy, although sometimes with severe morbidity. The long period of quiescence between 1900 and 2002 is thought to be as a result of several factors, but primarily because of the impact of the area’s cold winters and drought-prone climate on the survival and reproduction of both the snail intermediate host Bulinus africanus and the intramolluscan stages of the parasite. The concept of an outbreak area is invoked to describe the occurrence of intense urogenital schistosomiasis transmission in localised areas for relatively short periods of up to 35 years in this the southernmost part of its range in Africa, a suboptimal environment for transmission.

  11. Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C R; Kitikoon, V; Sornmani, S; Thirachantra, S

    1975-06-01

    Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island.

  12. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  13. Cerebral Schistosomiasis Caused by Schistosoma mansoni: a Case Report with Clinical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral nervous system involvement arising from schistosomiasis is uncommon. It may be produced most fre­quently by Schistosoma japonicum infection, but reports of S. mansoni presenting as an intracerebral mass lesion are particularly rare. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 3-month history of partial epilep­tic seizures and head­aches. She immigrated to Egypt 4 years ago and had worked in Iraq for 2 years after the immigration. The patient's gen­eral physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed an enhanc­ing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. A stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. S. mansoni was identified by stool examination. Prednisone (1 mg/kg per day for 1 week, with gradual with­drawal during the following 3 weeks and praziquantel (2 doses at 20 mg/kg per day therapy was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MR imaging yielded normal findings. This case is the rare imported case of cerebral schistosomiasis in China and the neuroschistosomiasis should be considered as the patient lived in a region in which this disease is endemic.

  14. Universal Stress Proteins as New Targets for Environmental and Therapeutic Interventions of Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Masamba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host. Just like any other organism, the worm possesses mechanisms that help them respond to environmental insults. It has been hypothesized that a special class of proteins known as Universal Stress Proteins (USPs are up-regulated during sudden environmental changes, thus assisting the worm to tolerate the unfavourable conditions associated with its developmental cycle. The position of praziquantel as the drug of choice against all schistosome infections has been deemed vulnerable due to mounting concerns over drug pressure and so the need for alternative treatment is now a matter of urgency. Therefore, this review seeks to explore the associations and possible roles of USPs in schistosomiasis as well as the functioning of these proteins in the schistosomulae stage in order to develop new therapeutic interventions against this disease.

  15. [Epidemic monitoring of schistosomiasis in Huangchang Village, Shashi District, from 2005 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xian-chao; Huang, Wen-hui; Wu, Guang-cui

    2013-10-01

    To understand the changes of epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in Shashi District, Jingzhou City. From 2005 to 2010, each year, from April to May, thestatus of Oncomelania snails were investigate by using the systematic sampling approach; in October, the inhabitants aged over 6 years were screened by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and the positive persons received the etiological examination (Kato-Katz technique). All the farm cattle in pens were examined by using the plastic cup jacking hatching method. The data of control measures, and the nature and society data were collected annually. All the data were analyzed systematically. From 2005-2010, the positive rate of blood tests was from 16.47% to 26.84%, assuming an ascend trend; the positive rate of stool examinations was from 2.13% to 4.44%, assuming a downward trend; the infection rate of cattle was from 1.56% to 18.00%, assuming a downward trend in volatility. The area with snails, the appearance rate of frames with living snails, and the average density of living snails assumed ascend trends. The prevalence of schistosomiasis presents a downward trend in volatility, and the snail status assumes a ascend trend. Therefore, the prevention and control measures still should be strengthened.

  16. Molecular and cellular basis of hepatic fibrogenesis in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Wyler

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni occurs primaryly as a result of the complications of hepatic fibrosis. Yet, the pathogenesis of schistosomal hepatic fibrosis is poorly understood. The fact that hepatic egg granuloma is the hallmark of this infection suggests a potential role for granulomatous inflamation in hepatic fibrogenesis. Our studies in a murine schistosomiasis model indicate that hepatic granuloma cells secrete a variety of fibrogenic cytokines that may initiate the scarring process. Among these cytokines, we identified a novel protein that we designated fibroplast stimulating factor-1 (FsF-1. FsF-1 is a lymphokine that can stimulate fibroplast growth and matrix synthesis. A notable feature of hepatic fibrosis in this model is that production of FsF-1 and other granuloma-derived fibrogenic cytokines is down-regulated in chronic infection, an event that may be under immunological control. The spontaneous reduction of FsF-1 secretion presumably accounts for reduced scar formation late in infection of mice. In the context of relevant clinical studies, our findings engender the hypothesis that Symmer's fibrosis may develop in a small suppopulation of individuals as a result of immunogenetically-determined dysregulation of fibrogenic cytokine production.

  17. An interactive perspective of health education for the tropical disease control: the schistosomiasis case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, V T

    1998-01-01

    Some municipalities in Brazil have been requesting orientation for the implementation of health education programs related to the control of schistosomiasis. This demand was based on experiences in the development of health education researches, strategies and materials for school-age children, involving the communities and secretaries of health and education. Motivated by this request and the recently implemented plan of health services (Unified Health System-Sistema Unico de Saúde-SUS) that gives autonomy to the municipalities to utilize health resources and services in Brazil, this paper presents an interactive perspective of planning health education research and programs. The purpose of this perspective is to stimulate a reflection on the needs and actions of institutions and people involved in health education research and/or programs to obtain sustainability, commitment and effectiveness--not only in the control of schistosomiasis, but also in the improvement of environmental conditions, quality of life and personal health. This perspective comprises interaction among three levels related to health education programs: the decision level, the executive level and the beneficiary level. The needs and lines of action at each of these levels are discussed, as well as the ways in which they can interact with each other. This proposal may lead to useful interactive ways of planing, organizing, executing and evaluating health education research and/or program, not only towards the prevention and control of the disease at stake, but also to promote health in general.

  18. An interactive perspective of health education for the tropical disease control: the schistosomiasis case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia T Schall

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Some municipalities in Brazil have been requesting orientation for the implementation of health education programs related to the control of schistosomiasis. This demand was based on experiences in the development of health education researches, strategies and materials for school-age children, involving the communities and secretaries of health and education. Motivated by this request and the recently implemented plan of health services (Unified Health System - Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS that gives autonomy to the municipalities to utilize health resources and services in Brazil, this paper presents an interactive perspective of planning health education research and programs. The purpose of this perspective is to stimulate a reflection on the needs and actions of institutions and people involved in health education research and/or programs to obtain sustainability, commitment and effectiveness - not only in the control of schistosomiasis, but also in the improvement of environmental conditions, quality of life and personal health. This perspective comprises interaction among three levels related to health education programs: the decision level, the executive level and the beneficiary level. The needs and lines of action at each of these levels are discussed, as well as the ways in which they can interact with each other. This proposal may lead to useful interactive ways of planing, organizing, executing and evaluating health education research and/or program, not only towards the prevention and control of the disease at stake, but also to promote health in general.

  19. Progress in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savioli, L; Albonico, M; Engels, D; Montresor, A

    2004-06-01

    In the last two decades important progress has been made in the understanding the epidemiology and the disease burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted nematodes infection. In addition, practical tools for disease control have been developed and a strategy for the prevention and control of morbidy of schistosomaisis and soil-transmitted nematodes infection has been endorsed by the World Health Organization. This paper presents the recent progress in the prevention and control of these infections: the estimates of chronic and subtle morbidity in high risk groups and the evidence that these chronic and severe sequelae of infections can be reversed by appropriate treatment; the use of anthelminthic drugs during pregnancy and lactation; the relevance to control morbidity due to these infections also in pre-school children; the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs and the possible threat of drug resistance; price, quality and accessibility of treatment by delivering drugs through the school system and ways of reaching also non-enrolled school-age children. Finally, the strategy, targets and recommendations of the World Health Organization for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted nematodes infection are described.

  20. Community participation as an interactive learning process: experiences from a schistosomiasis control project in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndekha, Addmore; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Mølgaard, Per; Woelk, Godfrey; Furu, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A schistosomiasis control project was undertaken from 1994 to 1998 in Guruve District, Zimbabwe, based on the active involvement of local communities in the growing and application of the molluscicidal plant Phytolacca dodecandra as a supplement to other control measures such as chemotherapy and health education. The berries of P. dodecandra are highly molluscicidal to the intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis and is rapidly degradable in water. It was observed that plant care fluctuated during the study period. Only a few households participated in snail control activities, although 97% of respondents in a baseline survey had stated a willingness to take part. This invoked an investigation to explore the reality from a user perspective. Focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews and observations were used to solicit information. In spite of a cultural inclination for collective work, many reasons for low-level involvement emerged, inter alia the low perceived value of the project, demands for tangible benefits, inaccessible fields and weak leadership. This study shows that community participation is a complex process upon which a multiplicity of social and cultural determinants have an impact. If community participation is to become successful in development programmes it ought to be viewed as a mutual learning process where obstacles are identified and discussed and solutions shared among community members and project staff.

  1. Prevalence of schistosomiasis among patients attending Qena General Hospital over the years 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Fatma Galal; Alsalahy, Mohammed; Abd-el-Kader, Mohammed Sayed; Abdalla, Osama Hussein; Ahmed, Samar S

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Egypt. To detect the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Qena Governorate, 1601 urine and stool samples of patients attending Qena General Hospital were examined of whom 1601 patients had urinary symptoms and 893 patients had dysentery and bloody stool. Sheets were filled out on each patient. Also, a total of 7590 Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were collected from water bodies in Qena Governorate. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium was 13.9%; with maximum among 6-18 year-old age group and higher in males than in females. Risk factors for S. haematobium infection were this age group; particularly males. However, males swim and play in water bodies and women wash cloths and utensils there, and children swimming or playing in canals. The S. haematobium peak of infection was in winter correlated with the highest prevalence in Dandara City, Qena City, Awlad-Amr and El Hijarat. S. mansoni were negative in the examined individuals. The infective rate among snails was 1.82% in B. truncatus and 0.0% among B. alexandrina and M. tuberculata.

  2. Atypical presentation of cerebral schistosomiasis four years after exposure to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Rose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the second most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease worldwide, affecting over 240 million people in 77 countries on 5 continents and killing 300,000 people annually in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Neuroschistosomiasis is caused by granuloma formation around eggs that lodge in the CNS, with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium usually affecting the spinal cord and Schistosoma japonicum causing most reported cerebral disease. We report a case of a previously healthy 25-year-old woman native to the United States who presented with a single generalized tonic–clonic seizure without other neurologic symptoms four years after spending a semester in Ghana where she went swimming once in a river. Brain MRI showed areas of signal abnormality and mottled nodular linear enhancement in the left temporal and right posterior temporal/parietal lobes and right cerebellum without mass effect. A biopsy of the left temporal lesion showed prominent granulomas with dense mixed inflammatory infiltrates composed of eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes surrounding refractile egg shells containing characteristic embryonal cells and von Lichtenberg's envelope and displaying the pathognomonic spine shape of S. mansoni. Serum ELISA and antibody immunoblots confirmed exposure to S. mansoni. In summary, we describe the atypical combination of cerebral schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni, after a prolonged interval of four years, from a single known exposure.

  3. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands) using an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Ali, Said M; Khamis, I Simba; Ame, Shaali M; Albonico, Marco; Gouvras, Anouk; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Colley, Daniel G; Utzinger, Jürg; Person, Bobbie; Rollinson, David

    2012-10-30

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3-5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg) biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will be annually tracked by standardized questionnaire

  4. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  5. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The expression and potential function of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 in bovine trophectoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington Kathleen A; Ealy Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were first described for their roles in bone formation, but they now also are known to possess additional activities, including those relating to embryogenesis. The objectives of this work were to 1) determine if peri-attachment bovine conceptuses and bovine trophoblast cells (CT1) contain transcripts for BMP2 and 4, an innate inhibitor noggin (NOG), and BMP2/4 receptors (BMPRII, ACVR1, BMPR1A, BMPR1B), and 2) determine if BMP2 or 4 suppl...

  7. TGF beta and IL13 in Schistosomiasis mansoni associated pulmonary arterial hypertension; a descriptive study with comparative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita de Cassia dos Santos; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Domingues, Ana Lucia Coutinho; Bandeira, Angela Pontes; Silveira, Carlos Antonio da Mota; Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pereira, Clara de Almeida; Fernandes, Izolda Moura; Mertens, Alessandra Brainer; Almeida, Milena Oliveira

    2014-05-21

    It is suggested that interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta play a role in the pulmonary vascular changes found in animal models of schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the serum levels of total TGF-beta and IL-13 of patients with schistosomiasis with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and patients with schistosomiasis without PAH. 34 patients from the schistosomiasis outpatient clinic of the Hospital das Clinicas, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, without PAH assessed by echocardiography and 34 patients from the Reference Centre of Pulmonary Hypertension of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil with PAH, confirmed by right heart catheterization, were enrolled on the study. Both groups presented with schistosomal periportal fibrosis after abdominal ultrasound. Serum levels of TGF-beta1 and IL-13 were determined by ELISA. Student t test to independent samples, Mann-Whitney test to nonparametric variables, Pearson correlation test for correlation analyses and Fisher Chi-squared test to compare categorical analyses were used. The median value of TGF-beta1 was significantly higher in patients with PAH (22496.9 pg/ml, interquartile range [IR] 15936.7 - 32087.8) than in patients without PAH (13629.9 pg/ml, IR: 10192.2- 22193.8) (p = 0.006). There was no difference in the median value of IL-13 in the group with Sch-PAH compared to patients without Sch-PAH (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that TGF-beta possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated PAH.

  8. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis and Usefulness of Indirect Diagnostic Tests in School-Age Children in Cubal, Central Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bocanegra

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a public health major problem and little is known in many areas, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa.To assess the burden and risk factors of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasitic helminthes in the children of Cubal, Angola, and to compare different diagnostic approaches for urinary schistosomiasis under field conditions.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Urine and faeces samples of school children were microscopically studied. A random sample of children was obtained from an alphabetically arranged list of children, taking one of two children. Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination. Possible risk factors for the infection were sex, age, distance to the river and previous treatment with praziquantel; the assessment was performed using Chi-square test.A total of 785 (61.18% children showed S. haematobium eggs in urine; children living within 500 meters from the river had a higher odds for infection: Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45-2.7 CI 95%; urine dipstick showed sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 61.3%, with a positive predictive value; colorimetric test showed sensitivity of 52.5%, specificity of 74.6% and a positive predictive value of 77%. Proteinuria was present in 653 (51.1% children, being more frequent in children with S. haematobium in urine (75.2%; 32 of 191 stool samples (16% showed the presence of other intestinal parasites and 8 (4% for S. haematobium.Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in our study area is much higher than the national average, considering it as a high-risk community. Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection. Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost. Proteinuria was a common finding, probably showing an early structural damage due to schistosomiasis in this group of children.

  9. Development and testing of Schisto and Ladders™, an innovative health educational game for control of schistosomiasis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Cynthia Uchechukwu; Oluwole, Akinola Stephen; Mogaji, Hammed Oladeji; Adeniran, Adebiyi Abdulhakeem; Alabi, Oladimeji Michael; Ekpo, Uwem Friday

    2017-06-28

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in many regions of the world, including Nigeria. Current control strategy involves mass drug administration with praziquantel to the endemic population. To complement and sustain on-going preventive chemotherapy, we developed a health educational game named Schisto and Ladders™ and tested its potential for the control of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren living in Imala-Odo, a highly endemic community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. One hundred school children were randomly selected and divided into intervention and control groups through balloting. Their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning schistosomiasis transmission, control and prevention were assessed using structured questionnaires. Schisto and Ladders™ game were given to the intervention group and the popular Snake and Ladders™ game to the control group. Both games were played for 2 months under the supervision of their class teachers. A post-KAP assessment was carried out in both groups, including focus group discussions (FGDs) to investigate knowledge and the impact of the games. Knowledge about urinary schistosomiasis and its transmission significantly improved (P = 0.000) in the intervention group (68.0%) compared to the control group (8.0%). FGDs showed that the frequency of visits to dam water also significantly reduced (P = 0.048) in the intervention group (18.0%) compared to the control group (40.0%). There was a significant increase in knowledge regarding risk behaviours, prevention and control of schistosomiasis among the intervention group, but no new knowledge gained in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential of the health education game Schisto and Ladders™ for teaching basic health education and promoting behavioural changes among schoolchildren in endemic communities.

  10. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  12. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

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    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  13. Genetical background of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Junkiert-Czarnecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2 genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP. Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine, polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine, CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor.

  14. Genetical background of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-06-13

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor.

  15. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis.Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care.We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed.There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  16. Introgressive hybridizations of Schistosoma haematobium by Schistosoma bovis at the origin of the first case report of schistosomiasis in Corsica (France, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moné, Hélène; Holtfreter, Martha C; Allienne, Jean-François; Mintsa-Nguéma, Rodrigue; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Boissier, Jérôme; Berry, Antoine; Mitta, Guillaume; Richter, Joachim; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the first urinary schistosomiasis case observed in Corsica (France, Europe) occurring in a 12-year-old German boy. The aim was to identify the relationship between this Schistosoma haematobium infection and other schistosomes of the Schistosoma group with terminal-spined ova. Morphological and molecular analyses were conducted on the ova. The results showed that the schistosome responsible for the emergence of schistosomiasis in Corsica was due to S. haematobium introgressed by genes from S. bovis.

  17. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  18. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2009-10-06

    Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95) 28.5-45.0%) and 46.8% (CI(95) 32.1-61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95) 31.0-48.3%) and 64.4% (CI(95) 48.8-78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, Palbumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'). This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  19. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs. Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar.In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95 28.5-45.0% and 46.8% (CI(95 32.1-61.9% (P = 0.14, and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95 31.0-48.3% and 64.4% (CI(95 48.8-78.1% (P = 0.006, respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070, but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001. In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013. Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'.This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  20. Reduction of Urogenital Schistosomiasis with an Integrated Control Project in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ha; Jeong, Hoo Gn; Kong, Woo Hyun; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Cho, Han-Ik; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Alla, Gibril Nouman Abd; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011. Methods The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done. Results The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933–6.891). Conclusions At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this

  1. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  3. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  4. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  6. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Müller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max as a proxy for physical fitness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1, respectively. The VO(2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1 min(-1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001 and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001, but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children

  7. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated. Results The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ. Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs

  8. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  9. [Potential impact of water transfer project from Yangtze River to Huaihe River on snail spread and schistosomiasis transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Wang, Tian-ping; Wu, Wei-duo; Zhang, Shi-qing; Lv, Da-bing; Fang, Guo-ren; Zhao, Feng; Ling, Xian-sheng; Sha, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-feng; Zhu, Lei

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the possibility of spread of snails and transmission of schistosomiasis japonica due to the construction of water transfer project from Yangtze River to Huaihe River. In order to understand the current endemic situation of schistosomiasis in the project area, the distribution of snails was surveyed by routine methods, level of anti-schistosome antibody in human sera was detected by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), and the prevalence of schistosomiasis in cattle was detected by egg hatching method. The snail survival and reproduction were observed in Chaohu Lake area(experimental area) and a control area for one year. Snail density was high in two starting points, from where the water in Yangtze River will be directed to Huaihe River. In counties of Wuwei and Hexian, through which the project will be built, the positive rate of anti-schistosome antibody in residents was 22.11% (168/760) and 18.59% (37/199), schistosomiasis prevalence in cattle was 2.42% (9/371) and 0.2% (2/997), respectively. Schistosomiasis was also endemic in Juchao District of Chaohu City. Snails respectively from grassland and hilly area were collected and put in Chaohu Lake for breed and newborn snails were found one year later. During the egg-laying season, the survival rate of snails from grassland in 2 experiment areas and a control area was 11.3%-16.7%, 3.0%-20.8% and 4.7%-14.7% respectively (chi2 = 0.093, 0.760, P > 0.05; chi2 = 0.647, 0, P > 0.05), and that of snails from hilly area was 24.1%-44.4%, 37.8%-67.3% and 86.3%-93.1% respectively (chi2 = 9.575, 5.302, P < 0.05; chi2 = 56.863, 36.218, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the experimental area and the control area on the number of eggs in the ovaries of the same type female snails. The one-year observation reveals that the construction of the project might result in spread of snails and transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in the relevant areas.

  10. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  11. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Urinary schistosomiasis in the Saharan mountain plateau of Air (Republic of Niger)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, F; Vera, C; Bremond, P; Devidas, A; Sellin, B

    1990-01-01

    In two villages of the Aïr (Republic of Niger) the authors have found a Schistosoma haematobium overall prevalence of 24.1% at Timia and 43.5% at El Meki. At El Meki, the distribution of prevalences by age group accords to that which is usually found. The maximum is found in the 5-14 years age group and highest in men than in women. At Timia, the prevalence among young pupils is low, this seems to be due to the application of sanitary education measures. At El Meki, Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, present in a permanent pool ("guelta") is the intermediate host of schistosomes. The role of this snail in the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis at Timia has not been demonstrated. The role of Bulinus senegalensis, found in both villages has yet to be proved.

  13. Considering treatment of male genital schistosomiasis as a tool for future HIV prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. METHODS: Pub...... association between MGS and HIV are urgently needed. Furthermore, field diagnostic tools should be developed and future mass treatment programs should include adults to reduce morbidity and prevent HIV acquisition. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015016252.......OBJECTIVES: Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is a neglected manifestation of Schistosoma haematobium infection with ignored implications on reproductive health and a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted infections in endemic regions. MGS may have associations with HIV transmission...

  14. Liver and serum soluble protein changes and pathomorphology in undernourished mice with acute Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Body, liver and spleen weights; histopathology of the liver, spleen and intestines; hepatic and serum soluble proteins changes were the parameters studied in undernourished Swiss albino mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. Non-infected deficient animab had lower liver/body weight and spleen/body weight ratios as compared to the controls (22.60% casein group. Infected mice showed higher values regardless the type of diet. Undernourished infected subgroup showed a persistent exudative periovular reaction in the liver. Soluble hepatic proteins content and serum protein fractions appeared to be lower in the deficient infected mice. A significant difference was detected in the gammaglobulin fraction between infected and non-infected animals fed the control diet with higher values for the former. Our data suggest that the effects of malnutrition, per se, are sometimes more detrimental to the host than those due to Manson 's schistosomiasis.

  15. Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanelli Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF, observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata populations. The superior competitor actually gives some benefit to the other species, whose population becomes unstable with progressively increasing oscillations, leading to extinction. A model of ACF using difference equations suggests initial dynamics distinct from traditional interspecific competition. The dynamics of two freshwater snails in the field and in laboratory experiments suggest ACF, and these relations should be considered in studies of schistosomiasis control. ACF could occur in natural populations, but might have gone undetected because the final result is similar to traditional interspecific competition.

  16. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection....... However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images....... In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P

  17. Factors influencing phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium by macrophages in murine schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz-Junqueira Maria Imaculada

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of Salmonella typhimurium load and specific antibodies on phagocytosis in schistosomiasis. Macrophages from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice showed depressed capacity to increase the phagocytosis in the presence of a high bacterial load, due to a reduced involvement of these cells in phagocytosis and to a deficient ability to increase the number of phagocytosed bacteria. Normal and Salmonella-infected mice increased their phagocytic capacity when exposed to a high bacterial load. Antibody to Salmonella increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice due to an increase in the number of bacteria phagocytosed but caused no modification in the number of macrophages engaged in phagocytosis. Our data indicate that macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice work close to their functional limit, since no increase in phagocytosis was observed after increasing the bacterial load. Specific antibodies can improve their phagocytic capacity and, therefore, could help clearing concurrent infection.

  18. Surgical indication in Schistosomiasis mansoni portal hypertension: follow-up from 1985 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The study had the objective to evaluate the benefits of surgical indication for portal hypertension in schistosomiasis patients followed from 1985 to 2001. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were confirmed by at least six stool examinations or rectal biopsy. Clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, and digestive endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal varices. A hundred and two patients, 61.3% male (14-53 years old were studied. Digestive hemorrhage, hypersplenism, left hypochondrial pain, abdominal discomfort, and hypogonadism were, in a decreasing order, the major signs and symptoms determining surgical indication. Among the surgical techniques employed, either splenectomy associated to splenorenal anastomosis or azigoportal desvascularization, esophageal gastric descompression and esophageal sclerosis were used. Follow-up of patients revealed that, independent on the technique utilized, a 9.9% of death occurred, caused mainly by digestive hemorrhage due to the persistence of post-treatment varices. The authors emphasize the benefits of elective surgical indication allowing a normal active life.

  19. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living......The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... diseases are presumed to be widely distributed on the continent, but the co-endemicity is unclear. We carried out a literature study of T. solium taeniosis/ cysticercosis in humans and porcine cysticercosis in pigs. Only epidemiological/clinical studies were included, qualitative questionnaire based...

  20. The spatial spread of schistosomiasis: A multidimensional network model applied to Saint-Louis region, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic, water-related disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, causing severe and chronic consequences especially among children. Here we study the spatial spread of this disease within a network of connected villages in the endemic region of the Lower Basin of the Senegal River, in Senegal. The analysis is performed by means of a spatially explicit metapopulation model that couples local-scale eco-epidemiological dynamics with spatial mechanisms related to human mobility (estimated from anonymized mobile phone records), snail dispersal and hydrological transport of schistosome larvae along the main water bodies of the region. Results show that the model produces epidemiological patterns consistent with field observations, and point out the key role of spatial connectivity on the spread of the disease. These findings underline the importance of considering different transport pathways in order to elaborate disease control strategies that can be effective within a network of connected populations.