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Sample records for bovine schistosomiasis background

  1. Workshop report: Schistosomiasis vaccine clinical development and product characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-02-17

    A schistosomiasis vaccine meeting was organized to evaluate the utility of a vaccine in public health programs, to discuss clinical development paths, and to define basic product characteristics for desirable vaccines to be used in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. It was concluded that clinical evaluation of a schistosomiasis vaccine is feasible with appropriate trial design and tools. Some basic Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for a human schistosomiasis vaccine and for a veterinary vaccine for bovine use were also proposed.

  2. Medullary schistosomiasis

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    Lia Pappamikail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomal infestation of the central nervous system is a rare cause of cord compression, although a predominant one in endemic areas. Case Description: A 38-year-old male, native of Ivory Coast, with a history of 1 month of progressive paraparesis, neurogenic bladder, diminished deep tendon reflexes of the lower limbs, and sensory level. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a medullary lesion at D4-D5 level, suggestive of an intramedullary tumor. Laminotomy of D3 to D5 and excision of a grayish white lesion according to a preliminary histopathologic review suggestive of a high grade glioma. Definitive histopathology review established the diagnosis of medullary schistosomiasis. Conclusion: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy should be considered in patients presenting with cord compression or features of transverse myelitis, especially in patients from endemic areas or low social economic settlements.

  3. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority question is: what are the most cost-effective strategies for delivering preventiv...

  4. Examining the relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Sabina Mbabazi; Olivia Andan; FITZGERALD, Daniel W.; Lester Chitsulo; Dirk Engels; Downs, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, ...

  5. Physiology of acid-base balance in bovines with diarrhea backgrounds from Monteria, Colombia

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    César Betancur H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the acid-base balance (ABB in bovines with diarrheic backgrounds in four areas of Montería, Colombia. Materials and methods. From a total of 300 pregnant cows, 60 were selected with their newborns. A direct inspection was performed of vital signs on the calves and the ABB indicators were determined using a gasometric method. Data were processed by means of descriptive statistics and the Duncan test was used to differentiate between the averages. The degree of association was established between the ABB indicators in cows and calves by using the Pearson correlation and a comparison of proportions was performed on the indexes of the newborns. Results. Regarding the cows, the ABB indicators were found within the reference values; however, in the calves the pH, pCO2, HCO3 - , the anion gap (AG and the bases excess (BE varied. A correlation was found between AG, BE and metabolic hydrogen ions (M*H. The AG in cows and calves showed notable differences (p<0.05 among the farms in the study. According to the numeric classification system, the suction reflect indicated a greater percentage of calves in group one. Conclusions. The ABB analyte measurement in cows was similar to the consulted reference; however, in calves some analytes did not coincide. This suggests metabolic acidosis in newborn calves due to the increase of AG and the decrease of BE. Additionally, its correlation with M*H opens the possibility of new proposals to determine ABB in bovines.

  6. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority question is: what are the most cost-effective strategies for delivering preventive...... chemotherapy (PCT) with praziquantel (PZQ)? This paper describes the process SCORE used to transform this question into a harmonized research protocol, the study design for answering this question, the village eligibility assessments and data resulting from the first year of the study. METHODS: Beginning......-aged children. Seven studies are currently being implemented in five African countries. During the first year, villages were screened for eligibility, and data were collected on prevalence and intensity of infection prior to randomisation and the implementation of different schemes of PZQ intervention...

  7. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well t...... trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed....

  8. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa - was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial...

  9. Examining the relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

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    Pamela Sabina Mbabazi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for

  10. Osteopontin Is Upregulated in Human and Murine Acute Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Syn, Wing-Kin; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Cunha, Pedro Henrique Diniz; Caporali, Julia Fonseca Morais; Trindade, Guilherme Vaz de Melo; Santos, Elisângela Trindade; Souza, Márcia Maria; Andrade, Zilton Araújo; Witek, Rafal P; Secor, William Evan; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum/plasma osteopontin levels were measured by ELISA in patients with acute (n = 28), hepatointestinal (n = 26), hepatosplenic (n = 39) schistosomiasis and in uninfected controls (n = 21). Liver osteopontin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in needle biopsies of 5 patients. Sera and hepatic osteopontin were quantified in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni during acute (7 and 8 weeks post infection, n = 10) and chronic (30 weeks post infection, n = 8) phase. Circulating osteopontin levels are increased in patients with acute schistosomiasis (p = 0.0001). The highest levels of OPN were observed during the peak of clinical symptoms (7–11 weeks post infection), returning to baseline level once the granulomas were modulated (>12 weeks post infection). The plasma levels in acute schistosomiasis were even higher than in hepatosplenic patients. The murine model mirrored the human disease. Macrophages were the major source of OPN in human and murine acute schistosomiasis, while the ductular reaction maintains OPN production in hepatosplenic disease. Soluble egg antigens from S. mansoni induced OPN expression in primary human kupffer cells. Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni egg antigens induce the production of OPN by macrophages in the necrotic-exudative granulomas characteristic of acute schistosomiasis mansoni. Circulating OPN levels are upregulated in human and

  11. Schistosomiasis control in China

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    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  12. Presentation and diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis : relevance of eosinophilia, microscopy for ova, and serology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, Wouter F W; Wetsteyn, José C F M; van Gool, Tom

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nonendemic countries a steady rise in cases of imported schistosomiasis has been observed. The objective of this study was to describe the presentation of patients diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the Outpatient Department (OPD) for Tropical Diseases in the Academic Medical Center, A

  13. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

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    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  14. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p

  15. Schistosomiasis and Cancer

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    Hussein Khaled

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30–50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine–cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the

  16. Acute human schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Ana Rabello

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The acute schistosomiasis is the toxemic disease that follow the Schistosoma cercariae active penetration trough screen in the immunologicaly naive vertebrate host. The clinical picture starts two to eight weeks after the first contact with the contaminated water. Susceptible patients present a syndrome comprising fever, diarrhea, toxemia and hepatosplenomegaly. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological and clinical features, presence of Schistosoma eggs in the feces, enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes by ultrasonography and by detection of high antibodies levels against the antigen keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Different rates of cure have been observed with specific medication and for the most severe clinical presentations the use of steroids reduces the systemic and allergic manifestations.

  17. Schistosomiasis and the Philippine campaign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristóbal S.Berry-Cabá

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infection with one of a series of related trematode parasites that are endemic to at least 76 tropical and subtropical countries.Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of South America,Africa and Asia.This paper reported more than 1500 soldiers of US troops and 560 men of Australian Air Force were affected schistosomiasis japonicum in the Leyte of the Philippines during the liberation of the Philippines from Octorber 1944 to the early months of 1945.Many troops there were affected by contaminated water with snail hosts.At first,the medical corps knew little about the situations of the schis-tosomiasis japonica in the Leyte,no preventive measure was adopted.On December 23,1944 CPT morris Goldberg discovered schistosomes first from the hospitalized soldiers while conducting a liver biopsy.Some sol-diers with markedly signs and symptoms were admitted to hospital for treatment.Preventive measure was taken since.The US sent a lot of experts to Philippines for the research of schistosomiasis japonicum,including epi-demiology,prevention,diagnosis,treatment and so on.Nineteen chemicals were used to control snail hosts. In clinical,schistosomiasis has acute and chronic stages,the manifestations are plenty and various,the liver, intestine,veins,spleen and skin etc are common sites of impingement.An extensive educational program was carried out in the troops through different means,which yielded remarkable effect,the new incidence of schis-tosomiasis dropped.Though hospitalized soldiers were a few,but there were scare and some morale and psy-chological problems among them and the other affected victims,they worried about their prognoses or being in-fected.Some patients were evacuated to United States for treatment after diagnosis,some patients were treated in Leyte.Before World War II,schistosomiasis was treated generally with trivalent antimony compounds,Fua-din and tartar emetic.In this event,no case died

  18. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

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    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  19. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  20. Akut schistosomiasis (Katayama-feber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Rønne-Rasmussen, J O; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1995-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever) may present with a broad spectrum of symptoms three to six weeks after primary infection by Schistosoma (S) mansoni, S. japonicum or, more rarely, S. haematobium. The acute phase of schistosomiasis is frequently confused with other feverish diseases. It occurs...... almost exclusively in nonimmune visitors to endemic areas. We describe seven cases of acute S. mansoni infection. The pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are briefly discussed. Katayama fever should be considered in patients returning from endemic areas with fever and eosinophilia...

  1. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

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    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. METHODS/FINDINGS: Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused

  3. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

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    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  4. Duplex sonography study in schistosomiasis portal hypertension: characterization of patients with and without a history of variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda,Severino Marcos Borba de; Barreto,Victorino Spinelli Toscano; Amaral,Fernando José do

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presinusoidal portal hypertension with frequent episodes of upper gastrointestinal variceal bleeding are hallmarks of hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis; a clinical form that affects about 5% of Brazilians who are infected by Schistosoma mansoni. AIMS: To evaluate duplex sonography findings in patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis with and without upper gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed whereby 27 consecutive pa...

  5. Diagnosing schistosomiasis: where are we?

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    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included. Publications were categorized according to the methodology applied (parasitological, immunological, or molecular and stage of development (in house development, limited field, or large scale field testing. The initial research generated 4,535 publications, of which only 643 met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority (537 of the publications focused on immunological techniques; 81 focused on parasitological diagnosis, and 25 focused on molecular diagnostic methods. Regarding the stage of development, 307 papers referred to in-house development, 202 referred to limited field tests, and 134 referred to large scale field testing. The data obtained show that promising new diagnostic tools, especially for Schistosoma antigen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection, which are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, are being developed. In combination with international funding initiatives these tools may result in a significant step forward in successful disease elimination and surveillance, which is to make efficient tests accessible and its large use self-sustainable for control programs in endemic countries.

  6. [Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

    2004-02-01

    Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a

  7. Health seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for schistosomiasis-related symptoms in ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Danso-Appiah (Anthony); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); K.M. Bosompem (Kwabena); J. Otchere (Joseph); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-s

  8. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear...

  9. Schistosomiasis in China: acute infections during 2005-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-zhu; Acosta Luz; WANG Xian-hong; XU Li-li; WANG Qiang; QIAN Ying-jun; WU Xiao-hua; GUO Jia-gang; XIA Gang; WANG Li-ying; ZHOU Xiao-nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Significant progress has taken place over the past 50 years in the control of schistosomiasis japonica in China. However, the available data suggested that schistosomiasis has re-emerged shortly after the World Bank Loan Project which was conducted from 1992 to 2001. The national control program with a revised strategy to control schistosomiasis by using integrated measures has been implemented since 2005. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the national program on schistosomiasis control from 2005 to 2008.Methods A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the epidemic patterns of acute infections with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), based on the number of acute cases annually collected from the web-based national communicable diseases reporting system from 2005 to 2008.Results A total of 564, 207, 83 and 57 acute cases infected with S. japonicum were reported nationwide in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively, with an average annual reduction rate of 46.35% during last four years. Six outbreaks of acute infection with S. japonicum were reported in 2005 but none in the period of 2006 to 2008. All acute cases that were reported mainly came from the lake regions and became infected during the higher risk periods from the 27th to 43rd weeks of the year. Most of these cases are students (44.87%), farmers (31.51%) and fishermen (7.79%) who got the infection by water contact mainly through swimming (41.49%) and production activities (40.25%). With time, the proportion of imported cases among all acute cases increased due to more frequent movement of people that has occurred with a more mobile population.Conclusions The national control program on schistosomiasis aliened with the revised control strategy has been effectively brought into effect. However, there is still a significant risk of infection among students, farmers and fishermen living in the lake regions. Therefore, it is important to strengthen control measures among risk

  10. Schistosomiasis: A Rare Cause of Acute Appendicitis

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    Faten Limaiem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a water-borne trematode infestation and is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosomiasis can affect any organ, but is rare in the appendix. In this paper, the authors report a new case of appendicular schistosomiasis that was incidentally discovered in a 27-year-old male patient from Mali who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Appendectomy specimens removed from patients with appendicular schistosomiasis often appear macroscopically normal, but histopathological analysis of these cases confirms the diagnosis by revealing schistosomal eggs. The authors strongly recommend that all appendectomy specimens be examined histopathologically regardless of whether the specimens are macroscopically normal. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 78-80

  11. Interaction between Salmonella and Schistosomiasis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Amber; Toy, Trevor; Marks, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium. The sequestration of the bacteria in the parasite leads to ineffective antibiotic treatment because the bacteria cannot be completely killed, and lingering infection may then lead to antimicrobial resistance. These manifestations are likely not just for those dually infected but also for those first infected with schistosomes and, later, Salmonella. More data are needed to better understand dual infection, particularly as it may impact treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis and Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27907208

  12. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by organisms from the genus Schistosoma. The disease is endemic in tropical areas, where there are currently millions of people living in areas with transmission risk. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease is not frequently described in literature. The disease has a chronic evolution, with variable severity. Glomerulonephritis is described in 10-12% in autopsy studies. Proteinuria is reported in 20% of patients with S. mansoni infection. Schis...

  13. Determination and control of schistosomiasis

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    Frederico Simões Barbosa

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the

  14. Discriminating acute from chronic human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lílian; Van-Lüme, Daniele S M; Souza, Joelma R; Domingues, Ana L C; Favre, Tereza; Abath, Frederico G C; Montenegro, Silvia M L

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG and IgM) responses to different antigen targets (soluble eggs antigen--SEA, soluble worm adult protein--SWAP and keyhole limpet hole--KLH) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis, as well as patients without schistosomiasis. SEA IgA and KLH IgM presented high discriminatory powers to distinguish acute from chronic schistosomiasis, with calculated areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.88 and 0.82, respectively, obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. On the other hand, these tests, particularly SEA IgA were not useful to distinguish schistosomiasis (including the acute and chronic forms) from individuals without this disease, but infected with other intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). By contrast, SWAP IgG and SEA IgG were able to discriminate schistosomiasis patients from healthy individuals and patients infected with other parasites (AUCs of 0.96 and 0.85, respectively). Thus, it is possible to use a combination of serological tests, such as SEA IgA and SWAP IgG, to simultaneously establish the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and discriminate the acute from the chronic forms of the disease.

  15. Determining treatment needs at different spatial scales using geostatistical model-based risk estimates of schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of neglect, schistosomiasis control is going to scale. The strategy of choice is preventive chemotherapy, that is the repeated large-scale administration of praziquantel (a safe and highly efficacious drug to at-risk populations. The frequency of praziquantel administration is based on endemicity, which usually is defined by prevalence data summarized at an arbitrarily chosen administrative level. METHODOLOGY: For an ensemble of 29 West and East African countries, we determined the annualized praziquantel treatment needs for the school-aged population, adhering to World Health Organization guidelines. Different administrative levels of prevalence aggregation were considered; country, province, district, and pixel level. Previously published results on spatially explicit schistosomiasis risk in the selected countries were employed to classify each area into distinct endemicity classes that govern the frequency of praziquantel administration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Estimates of infection prevalence adjusted for the school-aged population in 2010 revealed that most countries are classified as moderately endemic for schistosomiasis (prevalence 10-50%, while four countries (i.e., Ghana, Liberia, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone are highly endemic (>50%. Overall, 72.7 million annualized praziquantel treatments (50% confidence interval (CI: 68.8-100.7 million are required for the school-aged population if country-level schistosomiasis prevalence estimates are considered, and 81.5 million treatments (50% CI: 67.3-107.5 million if estimation is based on a more refined spatial scale at the provincial level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Praziquantel treatment needs may be over- or underestimated depending on the level of spatial aggregation. The distribution of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, Liberia, Mauritania, Uganda, and Zambia is rather uniform, and hence country-level risk estimates are sufficient to calculate treatment needs. On the

  16. Schistosomiasis transmission and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-03-01

    In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required.

  17. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  18. Schistosomiasis control and health education in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, D; Mpitabakana, P

    1989-06-01

    In Burundi, the intestinal parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, inhabits the waters of the Rusizi Plain (1 of the worst affected areas), the Capital Bujumbura, the Imbo-Sud, and around Lake Cohoha. It continues to cause illness in these regions. In 1985, the Lutte Contre la Schistosomiase project implemented a control program in these regions, chiefly involving chemotherapy. In addition, the European Development Fund had financed integration of safe water supply and environmental sanitation efforts into the program. To further reduce the incidence of schistosomiasis, the control program has introduced a training program for auxiliary health workers and health education campaigns. These efforts assist the program in decentralizing schistosomiasis control to health services and communities. Auxiliary health workers in primary schools, health centers, and subcommittees for sociosanitary development are responsible for educating the public about schistosomiasis. Program workers have developed educational material which allows the educators to address consistent messages to all audiences yet also allows for flexibility. The material consists of posters demonstrating how the disease is transmitted and other preventive measures, a film on schistosomiasis control, and a flip chart. Eventually health centers will be responsible for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis. Communal subcommittees for sociosanitary development play an important role in informing local authorities of needed actions to control the disease and in setting priorities.

  19. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: studies on in vitro granuloma modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara C. Parra

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Schistosoma mansoni induces humoral and T cell mediated responses and leads to delayed hipersensitivity that results in granulomatous inflamatory disease around the parasite eggs. Regulation of these responses resulting in a reduction in this anti-egg inflamatory disease is appsrently determined by idiotypic repertoires of the patient, associated with genetic background and multiple external factors. We have previously reported on idiotype/anti-idiotype-receptor transactions in clinical human schistosomiasis. These findings support a hypothesis that anti-SEA cross-reactive idiotypes develop in some patients during the course of a chronic infection and participate in regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses. We repport here on experiments wich extend those observations to the regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity measured by an in vitro granuloma model. T cells from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients were stimulated in vitro with anti-SEA idiotypes and assayed in an autologous in vitro granuloma assay for modulation of granuloma formation. These anti-SEA idiotype reactive T cells were capable of regulating autologous in vitro granuloma formation. This regulatory activity, initiated with stimulatory anti-SEA idiotypic antibodies, was antigenically specific and was dependent on the present of intact (F(ab'2 immunoglobulin molecules. The ability to elicit this regulatory activity appears to be dose dependent and is more easily demonstrated in chronically infected intestinal patients or SEA sensitized individuals. These data support the hypothesis that anti-SEA cross reactive idiotypes are important in regulating granulomatous hypersensitivy in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients and these cross-reactive idiotypes appear to play a major role in cell-cell interactions which result in the regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses.

  20. Recent situation of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Ali; Sinaga, R M; Sudomo, M; Wardiyo, N D

    2002-05-01

    Schistosomiasis in Indonesia is limited to two very isolated areas, the Napu and Lindu valleys, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The disease was initially found in 1937 in the village of Tomado. In 1940, a study on schistosomiasis in the Lake Lindu area was initiated and an infection rate of 56% among the people in the three villages of Anca, Tomado and Langko was found. Before a comprehensive control programme was initiated, the infection rate among the population of approximately 4000 people in the Napu valley was very high, e.g. 72% in the village of Winowanga. In 1982, more coordinated and intensive schistosomiasis control measures in the Napu and Lindu valleys were initiated. The average infection rate after control measures were greatly decreased-in Napu valley it was 1.83%, while in Lindu valley it was 0.46%, in 1999. The control approaches can be described over five phases, from 1982 to 1986, up to 1998 to present. In 1998, an agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Asian Development Bank was signed to develop the schistosomiasis endemic areas of Central Sulawesi into a better socio-economic condition. The objectives of the project are not only to control schistosomiasis, but mainly to protect the National Park which is located between the Lindu and Napu valleys. It is an integrated project named 'Central Sulawesi Integrated Area Development and Conservation Project' and many relevant sectors have been involved in the implementation of this project for the development of the area, including control of schistosomiasis. The implementation of the integrated project started in 1999.

  1. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  2. Schistosomiasis as a possible risk factor for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among Saudis

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    Arif Mohammed

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Background -Risk factors for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection have been elucidated in many developed countries but the picture is still not clear in many Middle Eastern Countries including Saudi Arabia. Aim -To investigate possible risk factors for acquiring HCV among Saudis. Methods -Various demographic and medical risk factors that might be associated with the spread of HCV among Saudis were investigated. The population studied included 20 anti-HCV-positive with chronic liver disease (CLD, 30 anti-HCV-positive patients without CLD and 272 anti-HCV-negative Saudi blood donors. All people investigated were of the same age group (>40 years of age. Results -None of the demographic parameters studied (type of job, type of housing, education was found to be significantly associated with acquiring HCV infection among our Saudi patients. On the other hand up to 40% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and irrespective of the condition of liver disease had a history of surgery, and 25% of them had a history of multiple injections. Furthermore, at least 20% of our anti-HCV-positive patients had a history of schistosomiasis which is significantly higher than schistosomiasis among the blood donors (P< 0.005. Conclusion -In addition to blood and blood products, schistosomiasis seems to be a possible risk factor for acquiring HCV among the Saudi population. The association between schistosomiasis and enhancement of HCV infection need to be further elucidated.

  3. Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia;

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment.......There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....

  4. HIV and schistosomiasis : studies in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downs, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a helminthic worm infection that affects 260 million people worldwide, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, where the research in this thesis was conducted, two species of schistosomes are highly endemic (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), with more than 50%

  5. Relationship between splenomegaly and hematologic findings in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

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    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease. Patients who develop hepatosplenic schistosomiasis have clinical findings including periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, cytopenia, splenomegaly and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze the hemostatic and hematologic findings of patients with schistosomiasis and correlate these to the size of the spleen. METHODS Fifty-five adults with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and 30 healthy subjects were selected through a history of contact with contaminated water, physical examination and ultrasound characteristics such as periportal fibrosis and splenomegaly in the Gastroenterology Service of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Blood samples were collected to determine liver function, blood counts, prothrombin (international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen and D-Dimer levels using the Pentra 120 hematological analyzer (HORIBA/ABX, Density Plus (test photo-optical Trinity Biotech, Ireland and COBAS analyzer 6000 (Roche. Furthermore, the longitudinal size of the spleen was measured by ultrasound (Acuson X analyzer 150, Siemens. The Student t-test, the Fisher test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze the results with statistical significance being set for a p-value < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age was higher for the Study Group than for the Control Group (54 ± 13.9 vs. 38 ± 12.7 years. The average longitudinal diameter of the spleen was 16.9 cm (Range: 12.3-26.3 cm. Anemia is a common finding in patients with schistosomiasis (36.3%. The mean platelet and leukocyte counts of patients were lower than for the Control Group (p-value < 0.001. Moreover, the international normalized ratio (1.42 vs. 1.04, partial thromboplastin time (37.9 vs. 30.5 seconds and D-Dimer concentration (393 vs. 86.5 ng/mL were higher for the Study Group compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSION This study suggests that hematological and hemostatic

  6. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaten, G.G.; Sonder, G.J.; van Gool, T.; Kint, J.A.; van den Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods: Visitors of a pre-travel health advi

  7. Community perceptions, attitude, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis in L. Victoria islands in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kabatereine, Narcis; Fleming, Fiona; Thuo, Wangechi; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Edridah M Tukahebwa; Fenwick, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 200,000 people, most of them infected with Schistosoma mansoni inhabit 150 islands in Lake Victoria in Uganda. Although a programme to control the disease has been ongoing since 2003, its implementation in islands is inadequate due to high transport costs on water. In 2011 and 2012, the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNNTD) through Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) provided financial support to ease treatment delivery on the islands and over the period,...

  8. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  9. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  10. Curse of schistosomiasis on Egyptian liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by a trematode blood fluke of the genus schistosoma that belongs to the schistosomatidae family.The ancient Egyptians contracted the disease more than 4 000 years ago.It was recognized through haematuria,the main sign of urinary bilharziasis was recorded in the Kahun papyrus 1900 B.C.as"a-a-a" disease[1].

  11. Duplex sonography study in schistosomiasis portal hypertension: characterization of patients with and without a history of variceal bleeding Dopplerfluxometria portal na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica com e sem antecedentes de hemorragia por varizes esofágicas

    OpenAIRE

    Severino Marcos Borba de Arruda; Victorino Spinelli Toscano Barreto; Fernando José do Amaral

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presinusoidal portal hypertension with frequent episodes of upper gastrointestinal variceal bleeding are hallmarks of hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis; a clinical form that affects about 5% of Brazilians who are infected by Schistosoma mansoni. AIMS: To evaluate duplex sonography findings in patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis with and without upper gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed whereby 27 consecutive pa...

  12. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveda, Remigio M; Tallo, Veronica; Olveda, David U; Inobaya, Marianette T; Chau, Thao N; Ross, Allen G

    2016-04-01

    Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS) risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  13. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio M. Olveda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40 mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  14. Reduction patterns of acute schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhu Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant, steady progress in schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China over the past 50 years, available data suggest that the disease has re-emerged with several outbreaks of acute infections in the early new century. In response, a new integrated strategy was introduced. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between Jan 2005 and Dec 2012, to explore the effectiveness of a new integrated control strategy that was implemented by the national control program since 2004. RESULTS: A total of 1,047 acute cases were recorded between 2005 and 2012, with an annual reduction in prevalence of 97.7%. The proportion of imported cases of schistosomiasis was higher in 2011 and 2012. Nine clusters of acute infections were detected by spatio-temporal analysis between June and November, indicating that the high risk areas located in the lake and marshland regions. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the new integrated strategy has played a key role in reducing the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

  15. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis among Villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan

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    Azzam AFIFI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is one of the major communicable diseases of public health and socioeconomic importance in developing countries. This study assessed the situation of schistosomiasis among villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan.Methods: An epidemiological survey was carried out in three randomly selected residential sites: Village 19, Village 26 and Talat shagrat Camp, from October to December 2013. Feces and urine samples were collected from 2433 individual (1195 male and 1238 female and examined for schistosomiasis infection. The prevalence and intensity of infection were calculated according to study sites and participants’ sex and age-group.Results: There was no infection with Schistosoma haematobium among the examined individuals, while the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 27.4% and the mean intensity among those infected was 261.1 eggs per gram (epg. A high preva­lence and intensity of infection was found among the residents of Talat shagrat Camp, followed by the other two villages. The prevalence of infection among males was 41.4%, and among females was 13.9%. On the other hand, the intensity of in­fection among females was 293.4 epg and among males 187.6 epg. A high preva­lence of infection was found in the age-groups 11-20 years and > 50 years. High intensity of infection was present in the age-groups 31-40 years and > 50 years.Conclusion: The finding of the study shows the need for an integrated control program against schistosomiasis. Mass treatment, provision of adequate clean-water supply and combating the intermediate snail host are suggested.

  16. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, a new in vivo diagnostic tool for schistosomiasis.

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    Carlos Fritzsche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is the detection of the parasite's characteristic eggs in urine, stool, or rectal and bladder biopsy specimens. Direct detection of eggs is difficult and not always possible in patients with low egg-shedding rates. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM permits non-invasive cell imaging in vivo and is an established way of obtaining high-resolution images and 3-dimensional reconstructions. Recently, CLSM was shown to be a suitable method to visualize Schistosoma mansoni eggs within the mucosa of dissected mouse gut. In this case, we evaluated the suitability of CLSM to detect eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in a patient with urinary schistosomiasis and low egg-shedding rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The confocal laser scanning microscope used in this study was based on a scanning laser system for imaging the retina of a living eye, the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II, in combination with a lens system (image modality. Standard light cystoscopy was performed using a rigid cystoscope under general anaesthesia. The CLSM endoscope was then passed through the working channel of the rigid cystoscope. The mucosal tissue of the bladder was scanned using CLSM. Schistoma haematobium eggs appeared as bright structures, with the characteristic egg shape and typical terminal spine. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We were able to detect schistosomal eggs in the urothelium of a patient with urinary schistosomiasis. Thus, CLSM may be a suitable tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in humans, especially in cases where standard diagnostic tools are not suitable.

  17. Health seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for schistosomiasis-related symptoms in ghana.

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    Anthony Danso-Appiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: A questionnaire-based study involving 2,002 subjects was conducted in three regions of Ghana to investigate health-seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for symptoms related to urinary (blood in urine and painful urination and intestinal schistosomiasis (diarrhea, blood in stool, swollen abdomen and abdominal pain. Fever (for malaria was included for comparison. RESULTS: Only 40% of patients with urinary symptoms sought care compared to >70% with intestinal symptoms and >90% with fever. Overall, about 20% of schistosomiasis-related symptoms were reported to a health facility (hospital or clinic, compared to about 30% for fever. Allopathic self-medication was commonly practiced as alternative action. Health-care seeking was relatively lower for patients with chronic symptoms, but if they took action, they were more likely to visit a health facility. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived severity was the main predictor for seeking health care or visiting a health facility. Age, socio-economic status, somebody else paying for health care, and time for hospital visit occasionally showed a significant impact, but no clear trend. The effect of geographic location was less marked, although people in the central region, and to a lesser extent the north, were usually less inclined to seek health care than people in the south. Perceived quality of health facility did not demonstrate impact. CONCLUSION: Perceived severity of the disease is the most important determinant of seeking health care or visiting a health facility in Ghana. Schistosomiasis control by passive case-finding within the regular health care

  18. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

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    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  19. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

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    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  20. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

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    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  1. Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis

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    Wichmann Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ≥38.5°C and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ≥700/μl or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%. In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

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    Chami, G.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, E.H.; Fenwick, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive chemotherapi

  3. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

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    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  4. Antibody response to Salmonella typhi lw human Schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response to Salmonella typhi O and H antigens was evaluated in 24 individuals with either hepatointestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni before and after typhoid vaccination, and compared with that of non-infected controls. Before vaccination, Schistosoma-infected patients showed a higher frequency of positive antibody to O antigen and the same frequency to H antigen when compared with that of healthy individuals. However, those with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis showed higher titres of antibody to H antigen than those with hepatointestinal disease or healthy individuals. Infected subjects, particularly those with hepatointestinal disease, showed a decreased response after typhoid vaccine. Tins diminished ability to mount an immune response towards typhoid antigens dining schistosomiasis may interfere ivith the clearance of the bacteria from blood stream and, therefore, play a role in the prolonged survival of salmonella as obsewed in some patients with chronic salmonellosis associated with schistosomiasis.

  5. Involvement of a community in schistosomiasis control: a Kenyan experience.

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    Katsivo, M N; Muthami, L N; Kimani, S; Karama, M; Kingori, F

    1993-08-01

    This paper illustrates how community participation was achieved in a study that was carried out between 1983-1988 whose general objective was to reduce the transmission of schistosomiasis in a rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. A community of 2,219 people was mobilized through health education, to effect changes in behaviour regarding water contact, water use and faecal disposal. Health education, alternative water sources, latrines and mass chemotherapy with praziquantel were the schistosomiasis control strategies utilized in this study. By the end of 2 years, the canals were cleared of their thick vegetation, water, sanitation, bathing and washing facilities were constructed, water contact with infective waters was reduced, faecal contamination of water was reduced, the people's knowledge on schistosomiasis increased and the rate and intensity of schistosomiasis infection was reduced. The study demonstrated that it is possible to fully involve the community in disease control efforts.

  6. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Virginia Noormahomed; Noémia Nhacupe; Carmen Mascaró-Lazcano; Manuel Natane Mauaie; Titos Buene; Carlos Abel Funzamo; Constance Ann Benson

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its...

  7. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe: the association of Retinol-binding protein with disease progression, inflammation and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Ranzi Kotzé; Rutendo Zinyama-Gutsire; Per Kallestrup; Christine Stabell Benn; Exnevia Gomo; Jan Gerstoft; Govert van Dam; Ole Hartvig Mortensen; Henrik Ullum; Christian Erikstrup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. Methods: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were inf...

  8. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwani, R.; Renganathan, E.; El Kwhsky, F.; Braga, C.; Abu Seif, H. H.; Abul Azm, T.; Zaki, A.; De Franceschi, S.; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between history of schistosomiasis and bladder cancer risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1994 and July 1996 in Alexandria, Egypt. Cases were 190 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed invasive cancer of the bladder, and controls were 187 subjects admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-urinary tract conditions. Eighty-six cases (45%) vs 69 controls (37%) reported a history of urinary schistosomiasis. The ...

  9. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

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    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  10. Schistosomiasis with special references to the mechanisms of evasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawras M El-Saghier Mowafy; Ekhlas Hamed Abdel-Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection withSchistosomaspp. It affects 200 million people worldwide, especially in the developing countries. There are five known species of Schistosoma which currently infect humans in various geographical locations. Infection with Schistosomaspp. leads to two forms of the disease: acute and chronic. Chronic infection can affect various organs within the human body including the brain, lungs, gut and the reproductive organs, which leads to neuroschistosomiasis, pulmonary schistosomiasis, hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis and urinary genital schistosomiasis, respectively. AllSchistosoma spp. have a common denominator that they have the ability to infect, invade and evade the host’s immune mechanism.Schistosoma sp. is a very complex organism that requires two hosts, mollusk and mammalian, to survive, propagate and complete its life cycle. Hence, it has developed specific immune evasion mechanisms for each of them. OnceSchistosoma sp. has infected and established itself within its mammalian host as an adult worm, it evades the immune mechanism of that host. However, the antigens released by the eggs can elicit an immune response with formation of granuloma around eggs. Granuloma formation is the main characteristic lesion in schistosomiasis, which in the liver can cause hepatomegaly in hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis. This paper will summarize various immune responses against the parasite as well as varieties of strategies which developed by theSchistosomaspp. to persist within human hosts.

  11. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

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    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  12. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

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    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  13. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malaŵi villages.

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    Madsen, Henry; Bloch, Paul; Makaula, Peter; Phiri, Happy; Furu, Peter; Stauffer, Jay R

    2011-06-01

    Historically, open shorelines of Lake Malaŵi were free from schistosome, Schistosoma haematobium, transmission, but this changed in the mid-1980s, possibly as a result of over-fishing reducing density of molluscivore fishes. Very little information is available on schistosome infections among people in lake-shore communities and therefore we decided to summarise data collected from 1998 to 2007. Detailed knowledge of the transmission patterns is essential to design a holistic approach to schistosomiasis control involving the public health, fisheries and tourism sectors. On Nankumba Peninsula, in the southern part of the lake, inhabitants of villages located along the shores of Lake Malaŵi have higher prevalence of S. haematobium infection than those living in inland villages. Overall prevalence (all age classes combined) of urinary schistosomiasis in 1998/1999 ranged from 10.2% to 26.4% in inland villages and from 21.0% to 72.7% in lakeshore villages; for school children prevalence of infection ranged from 15.3% to 57.1% in inland schools and from 56.2% to 94.0% in lakeshore schools. Inhabitants on the islands, Chizumulu and Likoma, also have lower prevalence of infection than those living in lakeshore villages on Nankumba Peninsula. This increased prevalence in lakeshore villages is not necessarily linked to transmission taking place in the lake itself, but could also be due to the presence of more numerous typical inland transmission sites (e.g., streams, ponds) being close to the lake. Temporal data witness of intense transmission in some lakeshore villages with 30-40% of children cleared from infection becoming reinfected 12 months later (also lakeshore village). The level of S. mansoni infection is low in the lakeshore communities. Findings are discussed in relation to fishing in the lake.

  14. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwani, R; Renganathan, E; El Kwhsky, F; Braga, C; Abu Seif, H H; Abul Azm, T; Zaki, A; Franceschi, S; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between history of schistosomiasis and bladder cancer risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1994 and July 1996 in Alexandria, Egypt. Cases were 190 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed invasive cancer of the bladder, and controls were 187 subjects admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-urinary tract conditions. Eighty-six cases (45%) vs 69 controls (37%) reported a history of urinary schistosomiasis. The corresponding multivariate odds ratio (OR) of bladder cancer -- after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, other urinary infections and high-risk occupations -- was 1.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.9). The ORs were 0.22 (95% CI 0.1-0.4) for intestinal schistosomiasis and 0.32 (95% CI 0.1-1.9) for schistosomiasis of other types. The OR for urinary schistosomiasis was higher in subjects who were younger at first diagnosis (OR of 3.3 for or = 35 years). The ORs were 15.8 for male ever-smokers with a history of urinary schistosomiasis, compared with never-smokers without such a history, and 3.2 for men ever-infected with urinary Schistosoma haematobium and ever-employed in high-risk occupations, compared with those never-infected and with no high-risk occupational history. This study confirms that clinical history of urinary schistosomiasis is significantly, but modestly, associated with increased bladder cancer risk, explaining some 16% of bladder cancer cases in this Egyptian population.

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  16. Urinary Schistosomiasis in Urban and Semi-Urban Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

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    Ogochukwu Caroline Okeke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investiga­tions on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in ur­ban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria.Methods: Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haemato­bium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails.Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 + 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infec­tion than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years had no infection. The preva­lence of micro-haematuria (6.2% was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r=0.65, P < 0.01 and intensity (r=0.50, P < 0.01 of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. How­ever, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells.Conclusion: The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main interme­diate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State

  17. Effect of School Based Treatment on the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Endemic Area in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrab, A; Salem, A; Algobati, F; Saleh, S; Shibani, K; Albuthigi, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil transmitted infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries including Yemen. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Yemen established in 2002 a programme for Schistosomal, soil transmitted infection control that aimed to reduce morbidity and prevalence rates of Schistosomiasis, and Soil transmitted helminthes to less than 5% by 2015. The study was conducted to assess the current prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of the Taiz governorate after 6 years of running National Control Programme. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Shara'b Al-Raona district of Taiz Governorate were examined for infections with Schistosoma mansoni using Modified Kato–Katz method and S. haematobium applying filtration method in 1998/1999, comparing the prevalence and intensity of infection with base line study, which was done 6 years ago. Results The S. mansoni prevalence in the study population was 31%, while the prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.6%. This result considerably is similar to the prevalence of base line study. The intensity of mild, moderate and severe infection for S. mansoni reached to 15.9%, 60.6% & 23.5% respectively. The severity of S. haematobium infection was 68.4%. It was exceptionally found that the prevalence of S. haematobium is increased. Conclusion The high prevalence of schistosomiasis and low effectiveness of control programme against schistosomal infection in the study area demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches. PMID:23914234

  18. Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll, as a drug against neglected tropical disease Schistosomiasis mansoni.

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    Josué de Moraes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL. Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6% and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. CONCLUSIONS: The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy.

  19. Phytol, a Diterpene Alcohol from Chlorophyll, as a Drug against Neglected Tropical Disease Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Josué; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Costa, Jéssica P.; Junior, Antonio L. G.; de Sousa, Damião P.; Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods and findings In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL). Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL) reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg) administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6%) and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern) was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. Conclusions The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:24392173

  20. A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

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    Khamis Simba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to schistosomiasis at the global level, it is often difficult to translate these estimates into local communities. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of Ungujan men and women living within either high or low endemic areas for urinary schistosomiasis was conducted. Using urine analysis with reagent strips, parasitological egg counts, portable ultrasonography and a qualitative case-history questionnaire. Data analysis used single and multiple predictor variable logistic regression. Results One hundred and sixty people were examined in the high endemic area (63% women and 37% men, and 101 people in the low endemic area (61% women and 39% men. In the high endemic area, egg-patent schistosomiasis and urinary tract pathology were much more common (p = 1 × 10-3, 8 × 10-6, respectively in comparison with the low endemic area. Self-reported frothy urine, self-reported haematuria, dysuria and urgency to urinate were associated with urinary tract pathology (p = 1.8 × 10-2, p = 1.1 × 10-4, p = 1.3 × 10-6, p = 1.1 × 10-7, respectively as assessed by ultrasonography. In a multi-variable logistic regression model, self-reporting of schistosomiasis in the past year, self-reporting of urgency to urinate and having an egg-positive urine sample were all independently associated with detectable urinary tract abnormality, consistent with schistosomiasis-specific disease. Having two or more of these features was moderately sensitive (70% as a predictor for urinary tract abnormality with high specificity (92%. Conclusion Having two

  1. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  2. Drug resistance in Schistosomiasis: a review

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    John I. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance associated with the treatment of human schistosomiasis appears to be an emerging problem requiring more attention from the scientific community than the subject currently receives. Drug-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni have been isolated by various investigators as a result of laboratory experimentation or from a combination of field and laboratory studies. Review of this data appears to indicate that the lack of susceptibility observed for some of the isolated strains cannot be ascribed solely to previous administration of antischistosome drugs and thus further studies are required to elucidate this phenomena. Strains of S. mansoni have now been identified from Brazil which are resistant to oxamniquine, hycanthone and niridazole; from Puerto Rico which are resistant to hycanthone and oxamniquine; and from Kenya which are resistant to niridazole and probably oxamniquine. Strains derived by in vitro selection and resistant to oxamniquine and possibly to oltipraz are also available. All of these strains are currently maintained in the laboratory in snails and mice, thus providing for the first time an opportunity for indepth comparative studies. Preliminary data indicates that S. haematobium strains resistant to metrifonate may be occurring in Kenya. This problem could poise great difficulty in the eventual development of antischistosomal agents. Biomphalaria glabrata from Puerto Rico and Brazil were found to be susceptible to drug-resistant S. mansoni from each country.

  3. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

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    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  4. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yufan; Qiao, Hongbin; Shi, Yanli; Han, Yu; Liu, Jinming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl) has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials. PMID:27957496

  5. Hypertensive portal colopathy in schistosomiasis mansoni: proposal for a classification

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    Maria Angelina C Miranda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension is a frequent complication of chronic liver disease, detected not only in schistosomiasis, but also in cirrhosis of any etiology. Vascular alterations in the colonic mucosa are a potential source for acute or chronic bleeding and have been observed in patients with portal hypertension. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe and propose a classification for the vascular alterations of portal hypertension in the colonic mucosa among patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. One or more alterations of portal colopathy were observed in all patients and they were classified according to their intensity, obeying the classification proposed by the authors. Portal colopathy is an important finding in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and might be the cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with severe portal hypertension.

  6. Hemostatic dysfunction is increased in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and advanced periportal fibrosis.

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    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic parasitic disease and a public health problem in Northeast Brazil. In some patients, hepatic abnormalities lead to periportal fibrosis and result in the most severe clinical form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This study aimed to evaluate whether abnormal blood coagulation and liver function tests in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (n = 55 correlate with the severity of their periportal fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were used for liver function tests, hemogram and prothrombin time (International Normalized Ratio, INR. The blood coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa (ATIIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured by photometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined on the basis of PAI-1 levels and a D-dimer concentration greater than a standard cut-off of 483 ng/mL. Standard liver function tests were all abnormal in the patient group compared to healthy controls (n = 29, including raised serum transaminases (p<0.001 and lower levels of albumin (p = 0.0156. Platelet counts were 50% lower in patients, while for coagulation factors there was a 40% increase in the INR (p<0.001 and reduced levels of Factor VII and protein C in patients compared to the controls (both p<0.001. Additionally, patients with more advanced fibrosis (n = 38 had lower levels of protein C compared to those with only central fibrosis (p = 0.0124. The concentration of plasma PAI-1 in patients was one-third that of the control group (p<0.001, and D-dimer levels 2.2 times higher (p<0.001 with 13 of the 55 patients having levels above the cut-off. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that hemostatic abnormalities are associated with reduced liver function and increased liver fibrosis. Of note was the finding that a quarter of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and

  7. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

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    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  8. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

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    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  9. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica SA; Kitron, Uriel; de Filippis, Thelma; de Alcântara, Marcelo H; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. METHODS Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. FINDINGS A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. CONCLUSIONS The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas. PMID:28327791

  10. Studies on the genomic association between schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus infection

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    Akram M Abou-Zied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are successful parasites, apparently as a result of prolonged co-evolution with their hosts. Studies done nationwide in Egypt found the highest risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection is in those infested with schistosome without history of blood transfusions. However, the association between schistosomiasis and HCV infection is incompletely understood. Aims: The overall aim of this study was to assess whether or not a genomic association between schistosomal infestation and HCV infection exists. Materials and Methods: Oligonucleotide specific primers of HCV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR diagnostics were used to screen the genomic DNA and cDNA library pool of Schistosoma mansoni as templates based on the end-point PCR approach. Results: Screening of schistosome DNA by PCR, lead to the detection of sequences similar to HCV. PCR products were obtained when adult worms genomic DNA were used as templates while no PCR products were amplified from S. mansoni λZAPII cDNA library pool. The resulting PCR products were sequenced and compared with the other closely related HCV sequence database at the website . Conclusions: This work demonstrates the existence of HCV and its replication in the genomic DNA of S. mansoni. In addition, it highlights the fact that the parasite can carry the virus genome and therefore, is considered as a nonhuman vector for the transmission of HCV infections.

  11. The NIH-NIAID schistosomiasis resource center.

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    Fred A Lewis

    Full Text Available A bench scientist studying schistosomiasis must make a large commitment to maintain the parasite's life cycle, which necessarily involves a mammalian (definitive host and the appropriate species of snail (intermediate host. This is often a difficult and expensive commitment to make, especially in the face of ever-tightening funds for tropical disease research. In addition to funding concerns, investigators usually face additional problems in the allocation of sufficient lab space to this effort (especially for snail rearing and the limited availability of personnel experienced with life cycle upkeep. These problems can be especially daunting for the new investigator entering the field. Over 40 years ago, the National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID had the foresight to establish a resource from which investigators could obtain various schistosome life stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycle on their own. This centralized resource translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are only vaguely, if at all, aware of the scope of materials and support provided by this resource. This review is intended to help remedy that situation. Following a short history of the contract, we will give a brief description of the schistosome species provided, provide an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describe some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators.

  12. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  13. Metabolic changes reveal the development of schistosomiasis in mice.

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    Junfang Wu

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by small trematode worms called schistosomes, amongst which Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is endemic in Asia. In order to understand the schistosome-induced changes in the host metabolism so as to facilitate early diagnosis of schistosomiasis, we systematically investigated the dynamic metabolic responses of mice biofluids and liver tissues to S. japonicum infection for five weeks using (1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis. We were able to detect schistosomiasis at the third week post-infection, which was one week earlier than "gold standard" methods. We found that S. japonicum infection caused significant elevation of urinary 3-ureidopropionate, a uracil catabolic product, and disturbance of lipid metabolism, stimulation of glycolysis, depression of tricarboxylic acid cycle and disruption of gut microbiota regulations. We further found that the changes of 3-ureidopropionate and overall metabolic changes in both urinary and plasma samples were closely correlated with the time-course of disease progression. Furthermore, such changes together with liver tissue metabonome were clearly associated with the worm-burdens. These findings provided more insightful understandings of host biological responses to the infection and demonstrated that metabonomic analysis is potentially useful for early detection of schistosomiasis and comprehension of the mechanistic aspects of disease progression.

  14. Treatment Effects and Integrated Morbidity Control of Schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Danso-Appiah (Anthony)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis is caused by the blood fl uke and leads to signifi cant ill-health and economic burden. The disease is common in the tropics and subtropics and acquired through contact with freshwater bodies infested with the infective cercariae shed from the intermediate host snail. Fro

  15. Schistosomiasis Morbidity and Management of Cases in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Werf (Marieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections and an important public health problem in many developing countries. The main early symptom if Schistosoma haematobium infection is hematuria, and S. mansoni infection causes bloody diarrhea. Current estimates of the numbe

  16. Schistosomiasis: a case of severe infection with fatal outcome

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    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases, stillconsidered of public health significance. Acute schistosomiasis is of difficultdiagnosis and therefore has been overlooked, misdiagnosed, underestimatedand underreported in endemic areas. The delay between the exposure tocontaminated water and the initial symptoms may explain this challengingdiagnosis. Acute schistosomiasis is frequently reported in non-immuneindividuals while reinfection cases occurring in endemic areas is scarcelydocumented. The later usually shows a benign course but fatal cases do exist.The authors report a case of a young female patient, in the late puerperium,with a three-month history of weight loss, intermittent fever, cough, thoracicand abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth. Physical examinationshowed a tachycardia, tachypnea and hypotension. Laboratory tests showeda mild anemia, eosinophilia, and a slightly elevation of liver enzymes. Thoraxand abdominal multidetector computed tomography evidenced a diffuseand bilateral pulmonary micronodules and peritoneal and intestinal wallthickening. The patient progressed rapidly to hepatic insufficiency, and deathafter respiratory insufficiency. An autopsy was performed and the findingswere compatible with acute Schistosomiasis in a patient previously exposedto Schistosoma mansoni.

  17. Preliminary study on immunotoxin for the prevention of Schistosomiasis japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To investigate the effects of immunotoxin (bio-missile) on the prevention of schistosomiasis. The monoclonal antibody NP11-4, located in out-layer membrane of adult worm, membrane of cercariae, membrane of schistosomula, shell of egg and membrane of miracidium in egg, was combined with artesunate (produced by Guilin Pharmaceutical Factory of China) by chemical method to fabricate immunotoxin.

  18. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  19. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  20. Genitourinary schistosomiasis: life cycle and radiologic-pathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebel, Haytham M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Abou El Atta, Heba M; Elguindy, Yehia M; El-Diasty, Tarek A

    2012-01-01

    Genitourinary schistosomiasis is produced by Schistosoma haematobium, a species of fluke that is endemic to Africa and the Middle East, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality in those regions. It also may be seen elsewhere, as a result of travel or immigration. S haematobium, one of the five fluke species that account for most human cases of schistosomiasis, is the only species that infects the genitourinary system, where it may lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs. In the early stages, it primarily involves the bladder and ureters; later, the kidneys and genital organs are involved. It rarely infects the colon or lungs. A definitive diagnosis of genitourinary schistosomiasis is based on findings of parasite ova at microscopic urinalysis. Clinical manifestations and radiologic imaging features also may be suggestive of the disease, even at an early stage: Hematuria, dysuria, and hemospermia, early clinical signs of an established S haematobium infection, appear within 3 months after infection. At imaging, fine ureteral calcifications that appear as a line or parallel lines on abdominopelvic radiographs and as a circular pattern on axial images from computed tomography (CT) are considered pathognomonic of early-stage schistosomiasis. Ureteritis, pyelitis, and cystitis cystica, conditions that are characterized by air bubble-like filling defects representing ova deposited in the ureter, kidney, and bladder, respectively, may be seen at intravenous urography, intravenous ureteropyelography, and CT urography. Coarse calcification, fibrosis, and strictures are signs of chronic or late-stage schistosomiasis. Such changes may be especially severe in the bladder, creating a predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. Genital involvement, which occurs more often in men than in women, predominantly affects the prostate and seminal vesicles.

  1. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

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    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. METHODOLOGY: Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72% and S. guineensis (0.14%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%. The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%, Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90% and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%, with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85% across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75% in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17% and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51% regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  2. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  3. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe: systemic inflammation during co-infection and after treatment for schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C.; Kallestrup, P.; Zinyama-Gutsire, R.B.;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II....... IL-8 levels were higher in S. mansoni-infected individuals. Treatment for schistosomiasis caused a decrease in levels of sTNF-rII (P treatment may attenuate HIV replication by decreasing systemic inflammation Udgivelsesdato...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...

  4. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear....... METHODS: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used...... to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected...

  5. Cytokine profile associated with human chronic schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Andréa Magalhães

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study objective was to evaluate the cytokines associated with early events of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis mansoni. Hepatic fibrosis was classified by ultrasonography in 94 patients. Immunological evaluation was performed by measurement of secreted cytokines (interleukin IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factors-beta in peripherl blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Schistosoma mansoni antigens. Significantly, higher levels of IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 were found in supernatants of SEA-stimulated PBMC from subjects with degree III hepatic fibrosis as compared to patients with degree I or II fibrosis, Significant increases in IL-5 and IL-13 levels were also observed in some of the subjects who remained untreated for one year following initial assessment and developed more serious fibrosis during this period. The data suggests a role for type 2 cytokines in early stages of hepatic fibrosis in human schistosomiasis mansoni.

  6. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  7. The situation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Brazil today

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    Zilton A Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific chemotherapy against schistosomiasis together with environmental changes occurring in endemic areas of Brazil are causing a revolution in the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease when comparing to date from 10 to 15 years ago. To update the subject, an inquire was made among the most experienced Brazilian investigators in this field. They agree that a decrease of about 50 to 70% in prevalence, and an even higher decrease in incidence are taking place in Brazil today. The prevalence of schistosome-infection has decreased in some areas and increased in other, with spreading sometimes occurring to peri-urban regions, indicating that schistosomiasis control depends on the application of multiple measures. General clinical and pathological manifestations related to hepatosplenic disease, such as ascites, gastric hemorrhages, big-spleen syndrome, cor pulmonale, glomerulopathy, etc. are also less severe nowadays than they used to be in the past

  8. [Variations in human parasitic diseases: malaria and schistosomiasis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, J P

    1981-01-01

    Until now, not any human vaccine against parasites can't be prepared. However, experimental researches are more and more numerous, with two major aims: Malaria and Schistosomiasis. Three vaccines are considered in Malaria: --sporozoite-vaccine, --merozoite-vaccine, --gametocyte-vaccine. Important advances were realized after the control of new techniques: --in vitro cultivation of malaria parasites, --production of monoclonal antibodies, --industrial breeding of anopheles. But the applications in men still remain a remote object. The vaccines against schistosomiasis can be killed vaccines or live vaccines; the use of radio-vaccines is full of promise. The difficulties of vaccination against protozoal or helminthic parasites are due in part to the misappreciation of real defensive means in the parasited host. A serious progress would be to devise artificial systems drawing near of physiological phenomenons.

  9. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

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    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  10. Tools to support policy decisions related to treatment strategies and surveillance of Schistosomiasis japonica towards elimination.

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    Xiao-Nong Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate diagnostics to monitor disease trends and assess the effectiveness and impact of interventions are essential for guiding treatment strategies at different thresholds of schistosomiasis transmission and for certifying elimination. Field validation of these assays is urgently needed before they can be adopted to support policy decisions of the national programme for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in P.R. China. We compared the efficacy and utility of different immunoassays in guiding control strategies and monitoring the endemic status of S. japonicum infections towards elimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven villages with different transmission intensities settings to assess the performance and utility of three immunoassays, e.g., an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA_JX, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA_SZ, and a dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA_SH. 6,248 individuals aged 6-65 years old who gave consent and supplied their stool and blood samples were included for data analysis. Results showed that ELISA_SZ performed significantly higher sensitivity (95.45%, 95%CI: 92.94-97.97% than IHA_JX (87.59%, 95%CI: 83.51-91.49% and DIGFA_SH (79.55%, 95%CI: 74.68-84.41%, especially in subgroups with very low infection intensity. The specificity of ELISA_SZ, IHA_JX, DIGFA_SH in 6-9 year olds with occasional exposure was nearly 90%. DIGFA_SH performed the highest screening efficacy for patients among three assays with overall positive predicative value of 13.07% (95%CI: 11.42-14.72%. We found a positive correlation of antibody positive rate of IHA_JX with results of stool examination in age strata (r = 0.70, P<0.001. Seropositivity of IHA_JX in children aged 6-9 years old showed an excellent correlation with prevalence of schistosome infection in the seven communities (r = 0.77, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies suggest that ELISA

  11. Tools to Support Policy Decisions Related to Treatment Strategies and Surveillance of Schistosomiasis Japonica towards Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Xu, Jing; Chen, Hong-Gen; Wang, Tian-Ping; Huang, Xi-Bao; Lin, Dan-Dan; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Tang, Li; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Feng, Ting; Chen, Jia-Xu; Guo, Jian; Chen, Shao-Hong; Li, Hao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate diagnostics to monitor disease trends and assess the effectiveness and impact of interventions are essential for guiding treatment strategies at different thresholds of schistosomiasis transmission and for certifying elimination. Field validation of these assays is urgently needed before they can be adopted to support policy decisions of the national programme for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in P.R. China. We compared the efficacy and utility of different immunoassays in guiding control strategies and monitoring the endemic status of S. japonicum infections towards elimination. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven villages with different transmission intensities settings to assess the performance and utility of three immunoassays, e.g., an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA_JX), an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA_SZ), and a dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA_SH). 6,248 individuals aged 6–65 years old who gave consent and supplied their stool and blood samples were included for data analysis. Results showed that ELISA_SZ performed significantly higher sensitivity (95.45%, 95%CI: 92.94–97.97%) than IHA_JX (87.59%, 95%CI: 83.51–91.49%) and DIGFA_SH (79.55%, 95%CI: 74.68–84.41%), especially in subgroups with very low infection intensity. The specificity of ELISA_SZ, IHA_JX, DIGFA_SH in 6–9 year olds with occasional exposure was nearly 90%. DIGFA_SH performed the highest screening efficacy for patients among three assays with overall positive predicative value of 13.07% (95%CI: 11.42–14.72%). We found a positive correlation of antibody positive rate of IHA_JX with results of stool examination in age strata (r = 0.70, P<0.001). Seropositivity of IHA_JX in children aged 6–9 years old showed an excellent correlation with prevalence of schistosome infection in the seven communities (r = 0.77, P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Studies suggest that ELISA

  12. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

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    Mbah AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreas N Mbah,1,2 Ousman Mahmud,1 Omotayo R Awofolu,2 Raphael D Isokpehi11Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions.Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum.Results: Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene.Conclusion: Given that the initial effects of

  13. Rural tourism: a risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil

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    Martin Johannes Enk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis among 38 tourists who rented a country house in the district of Igarapé, the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during a holiday period in 2006. A total number of 32 individuals were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Results of stool examinations revealed individual S. mansoni egg counts per gram of faeces (epg ranging from 4-768 epg with a geometric mean egg count of 45. The most frequent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (78.1%, headache (75%, fever (65.6%, dry cough (65.2% and both diarrhoea and asthenia (59.4%. A malacological survey of the area, where 22 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were collected, revealed three (13.6% specimens eliminating Schistosoma cercariae. This investigation re-confirms a recently described pattern of schistosomiasis infection, resulting in the acute form of the disease and connected to rural tourism, which contributes to the spread of the disease among the middle-class and into non-endemic areas. The lack of specific knowledge about acute schistosomiasis among health services causes an increased number of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment, resulting in considerable discomfort for the patients.

  14. Schistosomiasis mansoni in low transmission areas: abdominal ultrasound

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    R Ruiz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In endemic areas with low prevalence and low intensity of infection, the diagnosis of hepatic pathology due to the Schistosoma mansoni infection is very difficult. In order to establish the hepatic morbidity, a double-blind study was achieved in Venezuelan endemic areas, with one group of patients with schistosomiasis and the other one of non-infected people, that were evaluated clinically and by abdominal ultrasound using the Cairo classification. Schistosomiasis diagnosis was established based on parasitologic and serological tests. The increase of the hepatic size at midclavicular and midsternal lines (in hepatometry and the hard liver consistency were the clinical parameters able to differentiate infected persons from non infected ones, as well as the presence of left lobe hepatomegaly detected by abdominal ultrasound. The periportal thickening, especially the mild form, was frequent in all age groups in both infected and uninfected patients. There was not correlation between the intensity of infection and ultrasound under the current circumstances. Our data suggest that in Venezuela, a low endemic area of transmission of schistosomiasis, the hepatic morbidity is mild and uncommon. The Cairo classification seems to overestimate the prevalence of periportal pathology. The specificity of the method must be improved, especially for the recognition of precocious pathology. Other causes of hepatopathies must be investigated.

  15. Spatio-temporal transmission and environmental determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China.

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    Yi Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control.Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD, and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010.The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS, this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China.

  16. Inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E1 on activation of hepatic stellate cells in rabbits with schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Long Zou; Zhen Yang; Yun-Jin Zang; Dong-Jian Li; Zhi-Peng Liang; Zhong-Yang Shen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Liver ifbrosis is the result of an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins of the liver. At the cellular and molecular levels, this progressive process is mainly characterized by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Schistosoma japonica is one of the most prevalent causes of liver ifbrosis in China. It is characterized by hepatocyte damage, inlfammation, and chronic parasite egg-induced granuloma formation leading to ifbrosis. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on activation of HSCs and the alteration of type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen in rabbits with schistosomiasis. The study may promote the clinical application of praziquantel and PGE1 as a combined therapy to reverse hepatic ifbrosis caused by schistosomiasis. METHODS: Rabbits were percutaneously infected with cercaria of S. japonicum. Seven rabbits were subjected to intravenous injections of PGE1 (2.5 μg/kg daily) from days 60 to 120 after infection. The ultrastructural changes in activated HSCs were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The expression ofα-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Fibril-forming collagens were detected by picrosirius staining. RESULTS: Activation of HSCs was a characteristic alteration in schistosome-induced hepatic ifbrosis. The expression of contraction-related α-SMA and the content of collagens were increased. Exogenous PGE1 markedly inhibited the activation of HSCs and reduced the expression of α-SMA around the hepatic sinusoids (P CONCLUSIONS:Activation of HSCs may play a key role in the progress of schistosome-induced hepatic ifbrosis. PGE1 effectively protects rabbit liver from ifbrosis, at least in part by inhibiting the activation of HSCs.

  17. Nanoparticles as a vaccine adjuvant of anti-idiotypic antibody against schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯振卿; 钟石根; 李玉华; 李芸茜; 仇镇宁; 王祝鸣; 李军; 董莉; 管晓虹

    2004-01-01

    Background The development of new adjuvants for human use has been the focus of attention. This study's aim is to explore the possibility of using nanoparticle Ca nanoparticles (CA) as a vaccine adjuvant of anti-idiotypic antibody NP30 against schistosomiasis and its protective mechanisms. Methods Nanoparticle CA-NP30 conjugate (CA-NP30) was fabricated. BALB/c mice were immunized actively with CA-NP30 to evaluate its effects of protective immunity on mice. The serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against NP30 and the concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 in supernatant of splenocytes were determined via ELISA. Results Nanoparticle CA could enhance significantly the protective immunity of NP30 against infection of Schistosoma japonicum and the worm reduction rose from 36.0% (NP30 alone) to 52.6%. The serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against NP30 increased remarkably, as compared with those of the group immunized with NP30 alone. The concentration of IFN-γ in supernatant of splenocyte was drastically elevated [the groups immunized with CA-NP30 and NP30 alone were (493.80±400.74) pg/ml and (39.03±39.58) pg/ml, respectively], but the concentration of IL-4 showed no significant difference from that of NP30 alone [(27.94±9.84) pg/ml vs (27.28±14.44) pg/ml]. Conclusions Nanoparticle CA could act as a vaccine adjuvant of anti-idiotypic antibody NP30 against schistosomiasis. The mechanism could be that CA-NP30 enhances humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

  18. Identification and profiling of circulating antigens by screening with the sera from schistosomiasis japonica patients

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    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. The disease remains a serious public health problem in endemic countries and affects at least 207 million people worldwide. A definite diagnosis of the disease plays a key role in the control of schistosomiasis. The detection of schistosome circulating antigens (CAs is an effective approach to discriminate between previous exposure and current infection. Different methods have been investigated for detecting the CAs. However, the components of the schistosome CAs remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the CAs in sera of patients infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Methods The parasites were collected from the infected rabbits for preparing the adult worm antigen (AWA. The hyline hens were immunized subcutaneously with AWA to produce anti-AWA IgY. The IgY was purified by water-dilution and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and identified by ELISA and Western blotting. After purification and characterization, IgY was immobilized onto the resin as a capture antibody. The circulating antigens were immune-precipitated from patients′ serum samples by direct immunoprecipitation. The precipitated proteins were separated by one-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Results Firstly, the IgY against AWA was produced from the eggs of immunized hens by AWA, which gave a titer of 1:12800. The purified IgY was used as the capture antibody to enrich the CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients through immunoprecipitation. The CAs were determined by LC-MS/MS. There were four proteins, including protein BUD31 homolog, ribonuclease, SJCHGC06971 protein and SJCHGC04754 protein, which were identified among the CAs. Conclusions We developed a novel method based on IgY for identification and profiling CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients. Four new CAs were identified and have potential value for further development

  19. Current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Constança Simões; Araújo, Karina Conceição; Sevilla, Manuel Alexander Amarista; Melo, Fabio; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo

    2010-07-01

    Uncontrolled peripheral urbanisation coupled with environmental degradation has affected the status of schistosomiasis in Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. This endemic disease continues to perpetuate its transmission in rural areas and has also become a cause for concern in coastal towns of the state. The lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation and health programmes) to support the new urban areas leads to faecal contamination of natural aquatic environments, resulting in consequent infection of vector snails and the emergence of new sources of schistosomiasis transmission. In the present paper, we discuss the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in PE. We have consolidated and analysed information from parasitological, malacological and morbidity surveys undertaken by the group of researchers at the Laboratory of Schistosomiasis, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães-Fiocruz. The results of our analysis show: (i) the maintenance of the levels of schistosomiasis in the rural Zona da Mata, PE, (ii) the record of the human cases of schistosomiasis and the foci of infected snails detected along the coast of PE through 2007, (iii) the high record of the severe clinical form of schistosomiasis in the metropolitan region of Recife (RMR) and (iv) new breeding sites of schistosomiasis vector snails that were identified in a 2008 survey covering the RMR and the coastal localities of PE.

  20. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya...

  1. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  2. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

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    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  3. Proportion of Urinary Schistosomiasis among HIV-Infected Subjects in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Akinbo Frederick Olusegun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, and the effect of CD4+ T cell counts and demographics on its prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria.Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 2000 HIV-positive subjects. A wet preparation of the urine deposit was examined microscopically to identify ova of Schistosoma haematobium. The blood specimens were analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count.Results: An overall prevalence rate of 0.3% was reported. Gender and CD4 count <200 cells/µL did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, while HIV patients that were single had significantly higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (p=0.002.Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among HIV patients in Benin City is low. CD4+ count did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis.

  4. A rationale for schistosomiasis control in elementary schools of the rainforest zone of pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Tereza C Favre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since its beginning in 1999, the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS has registered a cumulative coverage of just 20% of the population from the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP, northeast Brazil. This jeopardizes the accomplishment of the minimum goal of the Fifty-Fourth World Health Assembly, resolution WHA54.19, of providing treatment for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH to 75% of school-aged children at risk, which requires attending at least 166,000 residents in the 7-14 age range by year 2010 in that important endemic area. In the present study, secondary demographic and parasitological data from a representative municipality of the ZMP are analyzed to provide evidence that the current, community-based approach to control schistosomiasis and STH is unlikely to attain the WHA-54.19 minimum goal and to suggest that school-based control actions are also needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data available on the PCE-SUS activities related to diagnosis and treatment of the population from the study municipality were obtained from the State Secretary of Health of Pernambuco (SES/PE for 2002-2006, complemented by the Municipal Secretary of Health (SMS for 2003-2004. Data from a school-based stool survey carried out by the Schistosomiasis Reference Service of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (SRE/Fiocruz in 2004 were used to provide information on infection status variation among school-aged children (7-14 years. According to the SES, from 2004 to 2006, only 2,977 (19.5% of the estimated 15,288 residents of all ages were examined, of which 396 (13.3% were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Among these, only 180 (45.5% were treated. According to the SMS, of the 1,766 examined in the 2003-2004 population stool survey 570 (32.3% were children aged 7-14 years. One year later, the SRE/Fiocruz school survey revealed that the infection status among those children remained unchanged

  5. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

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    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  6. A Schistosoma haematobium-specific real-time PCR for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in serum samples of international travelers and migrants.

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    Lieselotte Cnops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis by microscopy and serological tests may be elusive in travelers due to low egg load and the absence of seroconversion upon arrival. There is need for a more sensitive diagnostic test. Therefore, we developed a real-time PCR targeting the Schistosoma haematobium-specific Dra1 sequence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PCR was evaluated on urine (n = 111, stool (n = 84 and serum samples (n = 135, and one biopsy from travelers and migrants with confirmed or suspected schistosomiasis. PCR revealed a positive result in 7/7 urine samples, 11/11 stool samples and 1/1 biopsy containing S. haematobium eggs as demonstrated by microscopy and in 22/23 serum samples from patients with a parasitological confirmed S. haematobium infection. S. haematobium DNA was additionally detected by PCR in 7 urine, 3 stool and 5 serum samples of patients suspected of having schistosomiasis without egg excretion in urine and feces. None of these suspected patients demonstrated other parasitic infections except one with Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba cyst in a fecal sample. The PCR was negative in all stool samples containing S. mansoni eggs (n = 21 and in all serum samples of patients with a microscopically confirmed S. mansoni (n = 22, Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1, Ancylostomidae (n = 1, Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1 or Trichuris trichuria infection (n = 1. The PCR demonstrated a high specificity, reproducibility and analytical sensitivity (0.5 eggs per gram of feces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The real-time PCR targeting the Dra1 sequence for S. haematobium-specific detection in urine, feces, and particularly serum, is a promising tool to confirm the diagnosis, also during the acute phase of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  7. The Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) Dipstick: A Valid Substitute for Microscopy for Mapping and Point-Of-Care Diagnosis of Intestinal Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Betson, Martha; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization now recommends the provision of praziquantel treatment to preschool-aged children infected with schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis the current operational field diagnostic standard is examination of a thick Kato-Katz smear by microscopy prepared from a single stool specimen, and although pragmatic, this methodology has well-known shortcomings. Here, as a potential alternative, the performance of the urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick test was assessed in terms of disease-mapping and point-of-care diagnosis for intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Our manuscript reports on findings at baseline and at the end of a one-year longitudinal treatment study. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 925 children (mean age 2.8 years) were initially recruited from six lakeshore villages representative of high, moderate and low levels of disease transmission. At baseline, all children were tested for intestinal schistosomiasis by microscopic examination of duplicate Kato-Katz smears prepared from a single stool faecal, by antigen detection with the urine CCA dipstick test and by serology with a commercially available ELISA test (as ‘gold-standard’) that measures host antibody titres to soluble egg antigens. As a point-of-care diagnosis, the urine CCA dipstick test achieved sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 52.5–63.2% and 57.7–75.6%, respectively, with faecal microscopy achieving very high specificities (>87%) but sensitivities as low as 16.7% in the low transmission setting. Conclusion/Significance The urine CCA test was shown to be more effective than faecal microscopy especially in lower transmission settings. The diagnostic performance of this test was not significantly impacted by treatment history or co-infections with other intestinal helminths. PMID:23359826

  8. The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis.

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    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends the provision of praziquantel treatment to preschool-aged children infected with schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis the current operational field diagnostic standard is examination of a thick Kato-Katz smear by microscopy prepared from a single stool specimen, and although pragmatic, this methodology has well-known shortcomings. Here, as a potential alternative, the performance of the urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA dipstick test was assessed in terms of disease-mapping and point-of-care diagnosis for intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Our manuscript reports on findings at baseline and at the end of a one-year longitudinal treatment study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 925 children (mean age 2.8 years were initially recruited from six lakeshore villages representative of high, moderate and low levels of disease transmission. At baseline, all children were tested for intestinal schistosomiasis by microscopic examination of duplicate Kato-Katz smears prepared from a single stool faecal, by antigen detection with the urine CCA dipstick test and by serology with a commercially available ELISA test (as 'gold-standard' that measures host antibody titres to soluble egg antigens. As a point-of-care diagnosis, the urine CCA dipstick test achieved sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 52.5-63.2% and 57.7-75.6%, respectively, with faecal microscopy achieving very high specificities (>87% but sensitivities as low as 16.7% in the low transmission setting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The urine CCA test was shown to be more effective than faecal microscopy especially in lower transmission settings. The diagnostic performance of this test was not significantly impacted by treatment history or co-infections with other intestinal helminths.

  9. Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Luciana Santos Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25high T cells, and CD4+CTLA-4+ T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+CD25low cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.

  10. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  11. Antibody response to Salmonella typhi lw human Schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response to Salmonella typhi O and H antigens was evaluated in 24 individuals with either hepatointestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni before and after typhoid vaccination, and compared with that of non-infected controls. Before vaccination, Schistosoma-infected patients showed a higher frequency of positive antibody to O antigen and the same frequency to H antigen when compared with that of healthy individuals. However, those with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis showed higher titres of antibody to H antigen than those with hepatointestinal disease or healthy individuals. Infected subjects, particularly those with hepatointestinal disease, showed a decreased response after typhoid vaccine. Tins diminished ability to mount an immune response towards typhoid antigens dining schistosomiasis may interfere ivith the clearance of the bacteria from blood stream and, therefore, play a role in the prolonged survival of salmonella as obsewed in some patients with chronic salmonellosis associated with schistosomiasis.A resposta de anticorpos para os antígenos O e H da Salmonella typhi foi avaliada em 24 indivíduos com esquistossomose hepatointestinal ou hepatoesplênica antes e apôs vacinação antitifoídica, e comparada com a resposta de indivíduos controles normais. Antes da vacinação, pacientes esquistossomóticos mostraram uma maior frequência de anticoipos positivos para o antígeno O e a mesma frequência de anticoipos positivos para o antígeno H quando comparada com aquela de indivíduos controles normais. Porém, aqueles com esquistossomose hepatoesplênica mostraram títulos maiores de anticoipos para o antígeno H do que aqueles com a forma hepatointestinal da doença ou os indivíduos controles normais. Pacientes esquistossomóticos, particularmente aqueles com a forma hepatointestinal, mostraram uma menor resposta após a vacinação antitifoídica. Esta menor capacidade para apresentar uma resposta imune para ant

  12. Schistosomiasis mansoni in areas of low transmission: epidemiological characterization of Venezuelan foci

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    Alarcón de Noya B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe schistosomiasis is a rare event in Venezuela nowadays, after a successful national campaign by the Schistosomiasis Control Program. Unfortunately, this program has practically disappeared, and snail surveillance in field is not a priority, anymore. Thus, schistosomiasis has become a neglected disease in this country. However, surveys in different populations from the endemic area have shown particular epidemiological features described herein. In five communities we evaluated 2,175 persons and searched for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Some markers were used for classifying schistosomiasis foci: mean age of the persons with Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the stools, serological tests, presence of B. glabrata snails, and intensity of infection. Places without B. glabrata snails and with few schistosomiasis cases were defined as "past transmission sites"; a site with abundant snails but few cases was defined as "potential risk"; "new transmission" foci were characterized by the presence of infected snails and young people passing eggs in the stools. A "re-emergent" focus has shared these last features, showing in addition a place where schistosomiasis had been reported before. Recent evidences of active transmission with the increasing dispersion of B. glabrata snails, point out the necessity for the re-establishment of the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Venezuela.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis in workers of the Movement of Landless Rural Workers

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    Genilde Gomes de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74 countries and is considered a serious public health problem in some locations. Methods A transverse study was performed of 13 landless settlements in southern Sergipe from February to December 2009. The study included 822 settlers, of whom 601 underwent stool testing. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis in landless workers was 4.3%. The population has a low education level, and basic sanitation services are not available to all residents. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis was low in the population and among different settlements, possibly because of different forms of water use by the settlers.

  14. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Mukaratirwa, S.;

    This study investigates the number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa living in areas where two neglected tropical diseases, cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, are co-endemic. The World Health Organisation is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA...... literature. We found 110 reports of cysticercosis in Africa from 1970 to 2012. A total of 597 districts (admin level 4 or equivalent) in 29 countries were identified. According to the data published by WHO on the estimated burden of schistosomiasis, the 29 countries where cysticercosis was found, were...

  15. Association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis in young patients: a case report and literature review

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    Albert Bacelar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This case report refers to a 47-year old patient with prostate cancer associated with schistosomiasis mansoni, who was submitted to radical prostatectomy. This is the third report published in the literature with respect to this association, and up to the present time it is still not known whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two pathologies. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well-documented in bladder cancer; however, there are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostatic neoplasia. In this report, a third documented case of prostatic adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis mansoni is described and a literature review is performed.

  16. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    the distribution of human schistosomiasis and biogeographical patterns of freshwater snail and mammal species richness in Uganda. We found that the association between estimated snail richness and human infection was best described by a negative correlation in non-spatial bi- and multivariate logistic mixed effect...... richness and schistosomiasis risk. We discuss the limitations of the data and methods used to test the decoy hypothesis for schistosomiasis, and highlight key future research directions that can facilitate more powerful tests of the decoy effect in snail-borne infections, at geographical scales...

  17. Parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: fecal examination and rectal biopsy

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    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with all progress in the search of sensitive and methods for the immunological diagnosis of schistosomiasis, the microscopic detection of eggs of the parasite in the stool still remains the most widely used tool for the actual diagnosis of active infection. Among the coproscopic methods, Kato's technic modified by Katz et al (Kato/Katz has the advantages of higher sensitivity, the possibility of egg quantification, its low operational cost and its feasibility in areas with minimal infra-structure. The oorgram of the rectal mucosa is valuable in initial clinical trials of schistosomicides, when it is needed to observe egg morphology in tissue. It could be an alternative method for individual diagnosis, being more sensitive than a single stool exam in low intensity infection. However, the increased sensitivity of a higher number of fecal exams makes that invasiveprocedure unnecessary. In the assessment of cure of schistosomiasis, Kato/Katz method (three fecal samples in one, three and six months after treatment and the rectal biopsy four months after treatment, are equally reliable.

  18. A new global strategy for the elimination of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen G P; Chau, Thao N; Inobaya, Marianette T; Olveda, Remigio M; Li, Yuesheng; Harn, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Mass drug administration utilising a single oral dose of 40mg/kg of praziquantel (PZQ) has been endorsed and advocated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for the global control and elimination of schistosomiasis. However, this strategy is failing primarily because the drugs are not getting to the people who need them the most. The current global coverage is 20%, the drug compliance rate is less than 50%, and the drug efficacy is approximately 50%. Thus in reality, only about 5% of the reservoir human population is actually receiving intermittent chemotherapy. Despite claims that more of the drug will soon be made available the current strategy is inherently flawed and will not lead to disease elimination. We discuss the many practical issues related to this global strategy, and advocate for an integrated control strategy targeting the life cycle and the most at-risk. Moreover, we discuss how an integrated control package for schistosomiasis should fit within a larger integrated health package for rural and remote villages in the developing world. A holistic health system approach is required to achieve sustainable control and ultimately disease elimination.

  19. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  20. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  1. Unlocking the bovine genome

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    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  2. [Propagating the Culture of Schistosomiasis Control and Promoting Its Sustainable Development in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-ling

    2015-12-01

    Great achievements have been gained in schistosomiasis control in China due to the last half-century endeavor. These achievements not only indicate the success in disease control, but also represent a particularly successful social practice with a unique cultural property. Inspite of the accumulating reports on schistosomiasis prevention and control experience, there is a need to sublimate the experience to the "cultural" level, as historically the value of cultural and spiritual merits goes far beyond that of the achievements. Although the strategy and technology will be enriched with time, the cultural spirit remains especially important for the long- term promotion of schistosomiasis control. This paper materially dissected the meaning of "China's culture for schistosomiasis control", i.e., people-first, government-oriented, science-respected, collective wisdom and efforts, and diversity-embracing.

  3. [The limits and possibilities of the Schistosomiasis Information System (SISPCE) for surveillance and control activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Leila Maria Mattos de; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Magalhães, Rosely de Oliveira; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the Information System in the Schistosomiasis Control Program (SISPCE) for characterization and surveillance of the disease at the local level. The data were aggregated to calculate epidemiological indicators such as the program's coverage and intensity of mansoni schistosomiasis infection in the endemic municipalities (counties) in Bahia State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. The results indicate that few municipalities have the program activities properly in place, with insufficient records in the system and lack of reporting for characterizing the endemic or providing feedback for proper surveillance and control. However, the SISPCE is still a step forward in schistosomiasis surveillance, requiring systematic action by the municipalities and maintaining a continuous data flow to orient health system managers. It is necessary to incorporate local communities as units of analysis, given their unique characteristics in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis.

  4. Use of indicator kriging to investigate schistosomiasis in minas gerais state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Drummond, Sandra C; Tibiriçá, Sandra H C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  5. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  6. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou;

    2011-01-01

    ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis...

  7. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord presenting as progressive myelopathy. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    The authors report on a case of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in an individual returning to Ireland after a 25-year residence in Africa, where the infection affects approximately 200 million people.

  8. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda yang lain. Survei dilakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah pada Bulan Juli 2013. Identifikasi keong dilakukan menggunakan kunci determinasi keong air tawar di Laboratorium Parasitologi, Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala. Jenis keong yang ditemukan meliputi Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Melanoides sp., Helicorbis sp., Indoplanorbis sp. yang merupakan hospes perantara trematoda parasit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa selain berpotensi dalam penularan schistosomiasis daerah tersebut juga berpotensi untuk terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda lain, seperti Echinostomiasis dan Paragonimiasis. Kata kunci: variasi, keong, schistosomiasis

  9. Development of -omics research in Schistosoma spp. and omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel (PZQ based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those -omics researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal omics researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by omics researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by omics studies.

  10. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia.

  11. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  12. African schistosomiasis in mainland China: risk of transmission and countermeasures to tackle the risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With...

  13. Endoscopic findings and clinicopathologic characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis:A report of 46 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To make a retrospective analysis of endoscopy findings and clinicopathologic characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis in order to further improve our understanding of the disease and decrease its misdiagnosis. METHODS:Endoscopy findings and clinicopathologic characteristics of 46 intestinal schistosomiasis patients were retrospectively analyzed.All the patients underwent colonoscopy and all biopsy specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were observed under a light microscope. RESULTS:Of the 46 co...

  14. The Accuracy of Praziquantel Dose Poles for Mass Treatment of Schistosomiasis in School Girls in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baan, Marije; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Gagai, Silindile;

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 260 million people live with schistosomiasis and regular mass-treatment should be implemented to prevent morbidity. Praziquantel, dosed at 40 milligrams per kilogram bodyweight, is the drug of choice. During the last decades the WHO Tablet Pole-which estimates tablet need...... Pole were used to indicate the amount of praziquantel according to height and the dose in milligrams per kilogram bodyweight was calculated. The BMI correction was performed by adding 600 milligrams (1 tablet) to the indicated dose if a person was overweight/obese. Principal Findings 3157 female...

  15. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  16. Monitoring schistosomiasis risk in East China over space and time using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ward, Michael P; Xia, Congcong; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem and causes substantial economic impact in east China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. Disease forecasting and surveillance can assist in the development and implementation of more effective intervention measures to control disease. In this study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model to describe trends in schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997-2010. A computationally efficient approach-Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation-was used for model inference. A zero-inflated, negative binomial model best described the spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis risk. It predicted that the disease risk would generally be low and stable except for some specific, local areas during the period 2011-2014. High-risk counties were identified in the forecasting maps: three in which the risk remained high, and two in which risk would become high. The results indicated that schistosomiasis risk has been reduced to consistently low levels throughout much of this region of China; however, some counties were identified in which progress in schistosomiasis control was less than satisfactory. Whilst maintaining overall control, specific interventions in the future should focus on these refractive counties as part of a strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis from this region.

  17. Nephrotic syndrome associated with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis Síndrome nefrótica associada à esquistossomose hepatointestinal

    OpenAIRE

    H. Abensur; Nussenzveig,I.; L.B. Saldanha; M.S.C. Petalozzi; Barros,M.T.; M. Marcondes; R.T. Barros

    1992-01-01

    Schistosomal nephropathy has long been related to the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis. In the last few years, 24 patients with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis and the nephrotic syndrome were studied. Aiming at evaluating a possible etiologic participation of schistosomiasis in the development of the nephropathy, this group was comparatively studied with a group of 37 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Both groups had a different distribution of the histologic lesions. In the ...

  18. Performance and safety of praziquantel for treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ. Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months-7 years old in lakeshore settings of Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period, where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%. PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in

  19. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  20. Dot-dye-immunoassay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available A new serological assay dot-dye-immunoassay (dot-DIA was evaluated for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. This method consist of four steps: (a biding of antigens to a nitrocellulose membrane (NC; (b blocking of free sites of the NC; (c incubation in specific primary antibody; (d detection of primary antibody reactivity by color development using second antibody coupled to textile dyes. Sera from 82 individuals, 61 with Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the stool and 21 stool negative were tested by ELISA, dot-ELISA, and dotDIA. A high level of agreement between the methods tested was observed for all sera tested: ELISA x dot-ELISA: 95.1%, ELISA x dot-DIA: 92.7% and dot-ELISA x dot-DIA: 97.6%. In this study, dot-DIA proved to be a feasible, sensitive, rapid and practical test for the diagnosis of shcistosomiasis.

  1. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe: the association of Retinol-binding protein with disease progression, inflammation and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ranzi Kotzé

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: In HIV-infected individuals, RBP was negatively associated with levels of inflammatory markers, markers of HIV progression, infection with schistosomiasis and markers of schistosomal intensity.

  2. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  3. Treatment and education reduce the severity of schistosomiasis periportal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carolina Valenca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluates the factors associated with the development of severe periportal fibrosis in patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2012 involving 178 patients infected with S. mansoni who were treated in the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, Brazil. Information regarding risk factors was obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the patients' epidemiological history, clinical examination, and upper abdomen ultrasound evaluation, patients were divided into 2 groups: 137 with evidence of severe periportal fibrosis and 41 patients without fibrosis or with mild or moderate periportal fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using EpiInfo software version 3.5.5. Results Illiterate individuals (30.1% and patients who had more frequent contact with contaminated water in towns in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (33.2% were at greater risk for severe periportal fibrosis. Based on multivariate analysis, it was determined that an education level of up to 11 years of study and specific prior treatment for schistosomiasis were preventive factors for severe periportal fibrosis. Conclusions The prevailing sites of the severe forms of periportal fibrosis are still within the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, although there has been an expansion to urban areas and the state coast. Specific treatment and an increased level of education were identified as protective factors, indicating the need for implementing social, sanitary, and health education interventions aimed at schistosomiasis to combat the risk factors for this major public health problem.

  4. Cysteine peptidases as schistosomiasis vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashika El Ridi

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma and afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries in the developing world. Present disease control depends on treatment with the only available drug praziquantel. No vaccine exists despite the intense search for molecular candidates and adjuvant formulations over the last three decades. Cysteine peptidases such as papain and Der p 1 are well known environmental allergens that sensitize the immune system driving potent Th2-responses. Recently, we showed that the administration of active papain to mice induced significant protection (P<0.02, 50% against an experimental challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Since schistosomes express and secrete papain-like cysteine peptidases we reasoned that these could be employed as vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity to protect against these parasites. Here we demonstrate that sub-cutaneous injection of functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1, or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1, elicits highly significant (P<0.0001 protection (up to 73% against an experimental challenge worm infection. Protection and reduction in worm egg burden were further increased (up to 83% when the cysteine peptidases were combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP, without the need to add chemical adjuvants. These studies demonstrate the capacity of helminth cysteine peptidases to behave simultaneously as immunogens and adjuvants, and offer an innovative approach towards developing schistosomiasis vaccines.

  5. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months......; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P...

  6. Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendations

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    Fenwick Alan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis is often widespread among the populations living around Lake Victoria and on its islands. The Sesse Island group (containing some 84 islands, however, is typically assumed to be a low prevalence zone, with limited transmission, but has never been surveyed in detail. Here, we present a rapid mapping assessment, bringing together snail and parasite information, at 23 sites for the presence of intermediate host snails and at 61 sites for the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in school-aged children (N = 905. Two different diagnostic tools were used and compared at 45 of these sites: Kato-Katz thick faecal smears and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine dipsticks. Results Biomphalaria snails were found at 11 sites but in low numbers; none was found shedding schistosome cercariae. At 22 out of the 45 sites, local prevalence by urine and/or stool diagnostics was in excess of 50%, although mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis overall was 34.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI = 31.0-38.3% by Kato-Katz and 46.5% (95% CI = 42.7-50.4% by CCA if 'trace' reactions were considered infection-positive (if considered infection-negative, mean prevalence was 28.1% (95% CI = 24.7-31.7%. Diagnostic congruence between CCA and Kato-Katz was poor and significant discordance in estimated prevalence by location was found, with each often inferring different mass drug administration regimes. Conclusions Accurate estimation of schistosome prevalence is important for determining present and future treatment needs with praziquantel; the wide range of schistosome prevalence across the Sesse Island group requires a treatment regime largely tailored to each island. In high prevalence locations, further malacological sampling is required to confirm the extent of local transmission, especially on the northern islands within the group. The observation that different diagnostic tests can provide varying results in

  7. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  8. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabatereine Narcis B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely advocated that integrated strategies for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are cost-effective in comparison to vertical disease-specific programmes. A prerequisite for implementation of control interventions is the availability of baseline data of prevalence, including the population at risk and disease overlap. Despite extensive literature on the distribution of schistosomiasis on the mainland in Uganda, there has been a knowledge gap for the prevalence of co-infections with malaria, particularly for island communities in Lake Victoria. In this study, nine lakeshore and island districts were surveyed for the prevalence of NTDs and malaria, as well as educational and health infrastructure. Results A total of 203 communities were surveyed, including over 5000 school-age children. Varying levels of existing health infrastructure were observed between districts, with only Jinja District regularly treating people for NTDs. Community medicine distributors (CMD were identified and trained in drug delivery to strengthen capacity. Prevalence levels of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were assessed via Kato-Katz thick smears of stool and malaria prevalence determined by microscopy of fingerprick blood samples. Prevalence levels were 40.8%, 26.04% and 46.4%, respectively, while the prevalence of co-infection by Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium spp. was 23.5%. Socio-economic status was strongly associated as a risk factor for positive infection status with one or more of these diseases. Conclusions These results emphasise the challenges of providing wide-scale coverage of health infrastructure and drug distribution in remote lakeshore communities. The data further indicate that co-infections with malaria and NTDs are common, implying that integrated interventions for NTDs and malaria are likely to maximize cost-effectiveness and sustainability of disease control efforts.

  9. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms 'schistosomiasis', 'dosing' and 'praziquantel' and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays were, for S. mansoni, 69-91% cure after two doses vs. 42-79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46-99% cure after two doses vs. 37-93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count were also different for the two species-for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni-$211 (S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be

  10. DNA-sequence variation among Schistosoma mekongi populations and related taxa; phylogeography and the current distribution of Asian schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis in humans along the lower Mekong River has proven a persistent public health problem in the region. The causative agent is the parasite Schistosoma mekongi (Trematoda: Digenea. A new transmission focus is reported, as well as the first study of genetic variation among S. mekongi populations. The aim is to confirm the identity of the species involved at each known focus of Mekong schistosomiasis transmission, to examine historical relationships among the populations and related taxa, and to provide data for use (a priori in further studies of the origins, radiation, and future dispersal capabilities of S. mekongi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA sequence data are presented for four populations of S. mekongi from Cambodia and southern Laos, three of which were distinguishable at the COI (cox1 and 12S (rrnS mitochondrial loci sampled. A phylogeny was estimated for these populations and the other members of the Schistosoma sinensium group. The study provides new DNA sequence data for three new populations and one new locus/population combination. A Bayesian approach is used to estimate divergence dates for events within the S. sinensium group and among the S. mekongi populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The date estimates are consistent with phylogeographical hypotheses describing a Pliocene radiation of the S. sinensium group and a mid-Pleistocene invasion of Southeast Asia by S. mekongi. The date estimates also provide Bayesian priors for future work on the evolution of S. mekongi. The public health implications of S. mekongi transmission outside the lower Mekong River are also discussed.

  11. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-12

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  12. [Impact of water resource installations on the distribution of schistosomiasis and its intermediary hosts in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Jean-Noël; Sondo, Blaise; Parent, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Dams generally are a favourable biotope for the molluscs acting as intermediary hosts to schistosomiasis. The importance of the schistosomiasis endemic which follows depends on the interactions taking place between the parasites and their definitive (humans) and intermediary hosts. A preliminary sound knowledge of the prevailing epidemiological situations is therefore necessary to define an efficient programme to fight these infections. The extension of schistosomiasis following the installation of water resource facilities is significative of the part played by these hosts. In the hydroagricultural complex of Sourou, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis increased from 19% in 1954 to more than 70% in 1998-1999 in Guiédougou, the most ancient site. As to digestive schistosomiasis, almost unheard of until 1987, its prevalence ranged from 8% to 69% in 1998 in the villages located alongside the areas thus equipped. In the Kou Valley, the prevalence went up from 14% in 1957 to 80% in 1974 for urinary schistosomiasis and from 1.3% to 45% for intestinal schistosomiasis. The same tendencies are likely to appear in the hydraulic installations of Bagré, Ziga, and Kompienga. Dams thus constitute amplifying factors for the proliferation of species and for parasite-host interactions. All the actors (developers, populations and scientists) are faced with the challenge of finding a mean to control the development of schistosomiasis infections which are likely to seriously lessen the benefits expected from these hydraulic installations.

  13. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control...

  14. African schistosomiasis in mainland China: risk of transmission and countermeasures to tackle the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-08-28

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk.

  15. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite.

  16. Revisiting the concept of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and its challenges using traditional and new tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Lambertucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aspects of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis are revisited here. Manson's schistosomiasis causes periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension in approximately 6% of infected subjects, usually with preservation of their hepatic function. The assessment of liver involvement is of major importance in determining the prognosis and risk of complications from schistosomiasis, such as upper digestive bleeding secondary to variceal rupture. For many years, the diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and liver fibrosis was made by abdominal palpation and the finding of liver and/or spleen enlargement. However, there is no consensus regarding the clinical parameters of the liver and spleen to be considered in this physical evaluation. For the last three decades, abdominal ultrasound (US has become the best imaging technique to evaluate liver fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis mansoni. However, US is a subjective procedure and is therefore examiner-dependent. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings have provided valuable information in addition to ultrasound and clinical examination. The combination of a comprehensive history and physical examination, basic laboratory tests (a stool examination for Schistosoma mansoni eggs and a blood cell count, biomarkers for liver fibrosis/portal hypertension and imaging methods seem to offer the best approach for evaluating patients with this disease. In situations where research is involved or in patients with severe disease, MRI may be considered.

  17. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H.; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Background Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of ‘mapping resolution’, as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. Methods/Findings/Interpretation This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17 896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001) and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001) or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001). Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001). Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. Conclusion/Significance This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map

  18. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  19. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  20. Development of a brazilian nanoencapsulated drug for schistosomiasis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bastos da Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that, according to the World Health Organization, constitutes a major public health problem associated with severe morbidity, mostly children in preschool age. The administration of drugs in children always constitutes a difficult task, especially when formulations are not developed specifically for pediatric use, when high doses of drug are required and the drug has a bitter taste, as in the case of praziquantel. Polymer nanoparticles are promising systems for development of encapsulated drugs with low water solubility and bitter taste, due to the good physical and chemical stability, adequate biocompatibility and simple manufacturing processes. Moreover, they can enhance the bioavailabili-ty and reduce variability of treatment among patients. Poly (methyl methacrylate doped with praziquantel was produced through a miniemulsion polymerization pro-cess to compose a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. Nanoparticles were cha-racterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, toxicological properties and biological activity in mice, being concluded that obtained results were satisfactory. The results were encapsulation rate around 90%, absence of chemical interaction drug - polymer and the presence of biological activity. A collaborative approach was used for this development, involving national partnerships and independent funding mechanisms, a powerful pathway for development of drugs for neglected diseases.

  1. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  2. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino, E-mail: marino.gatto@polimi.it; Casagrandi, Renato, E-mail: renato.casagrandi@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mari, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rinaldo, Andrea [Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile ed Ambientale, Università di Padova, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  3. Clinical findings in female genital schistosomiasis in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutscher, P; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Raharisolo, C; Ramarokoto, C E; Rasendramino, M; Raobelison, A; Vennervald, B; Esterre, P; Feldmeier, H

    1998-04-01

    To assess the morbidity of S. haematobium infection in women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the western part of Madagascar, the village of Betalatala with a prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in women of 75.6% (95% confidence limit 69.3 to 81.9%) was compared with a neighbouring village with similar socio-economic characteristics and a prevalence of 5.0% (95% confidence limit 0 to 11.75%). The women were questioned in Malagasy about obstetrical history and urogynecological symptoms. They were examined gynaecologically, parasitologically and by ultrasonography. Important STDs were excluded by appropriate diagnostics. In Betalatala significantly more women reported a history of spontaneous abortion (P vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Treponema pallidum were found in similar frequencies in both villages. In 9.8% of the women in Betalatala abnormalities of the upper reproductive tract were revealed by ultrasonography versus none in the women from the control village (P < 0.05). Echographic abnormalities of the urinary tract were present in 24% and 3% of the women in the study village and in the control village, respectively (P < 0.0001). These findings were accompanied by an elevated frequency of haematuria (55% versus 20%) and proteinuria (70.4% versus 25%) in the study population (P < 0.0001). Our study indicates that S. haematobium infection in women may not only cause symptoms in the urinary tract, but also frequently in the lower and upper reproductive tract.

  4. Use of a saline gradient for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z Coelho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel methods for parasitological diagnosis that are both highly sensitive and low in cost has been strongly recommended by the World Health Organization. In this study, a new technique for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni is proposed based on the differential sedimentation of eggs when subjected to a slow continuous flux of 3% saline solution through a porous plaque. This influx suspends low-density faecal material, effectively cleaning the sample. The remaining sediment covering the porous plaque surface is then transferred to a glass slide and examined under a bright field microscope. Twelve Kato-Katz slides were used for comparison in the present study. Our results suggest that the saline gradient method detects a signifi-cantly higher number of eggs than the 12 Kato-Katz slides (p < 0.0001. We also found microscopic inspection to be quicker and easier with our newly described method. After cleaning the sample, the obtained sediment can also be conserved in a 10% formaldehyde solution and examined for at least 45 days later without statistically significant egg count differences.

  5. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  6. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Averaldo Guiguet Leal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.

  7. Acute schistosomiasis in brazilian traveler: the importance of tourism in the epidemiology of neglected parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.

  8. A spectral analysis of the myoelectric activity of the left colon in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.B. Ferraz

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to perform a spectral analysis of the electrical activity of the left colon of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Thirty patients were studied, divided into 2 groups: group A was composed of 14 patients (9 males and 5 females with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and group B was composed of 16 female patients without schistosomiasis mansoni. Three pairs of electrodes were implanted in the left colon at the moment of the surgical treatment. The signals of the electric activity of the colon were captured after postoperative recovery from the ileus and fed into a computer by means of a DATAQ data collection system which identified and captured frequencies between 0.02 and 10 Hz. Data were recorded, stored and analyzed using the WINDAQ 200 software. For electrical analysis, the average voltage of the electrical wave in the three electrodes of all patients, expressed as millivolts (mV, was considered, together with the maximum and minimum values, the root mean square (RMS, the skewness, and the results of the fast Fourier transforms. The average RMS of the schistosomiasis mansoni patients was 284.007 mV. During a long period of contraction, the RMS increased in a statistically significant manner from 127.455 mV during a resting period to 748.959 mV in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. We conclude that there were no statistically significant differences in RMS values between patients with schistosomiasis mansoni and patients without the disease during the rest period or during a long period of contraction.

  9. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health.We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI. The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children.Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire.A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and

  10. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  11. Mapping Soil Transmitted Helminths and Schistosomiasis under Uncertainty: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A. S.; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Stein, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Spatial modelling of STH and schistosomiasis epidemiology is now commonplace. Spatial epidemiological studies help inform decisions regarding the number of people at risk as well as the geographic areas that need to be targeted with mass drug administration; however, limited attention has been given to propagated uncertainties, their interpretation, and consequences for the mapped values. Using currently published literature on the spatial epidemiology of helminth infections we identified: (1) the main uncertainty sources, their definition and quantification and (2) how uncertainty is informative for STH programme managers and scientists working in this domain. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. We searched Web of Knowledge and PubMed using a combination of uncertainty, geographic and disease terms. A total of 73 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Only 9% of the studies did not address any element of uncertainty, while 91% of studies quantified uncertainty in the predicted morbidity indicators and 23% of studies mapped it. In addition, 57% of the studies quantified uncertainty in the regression coefficients but only 7% incorporated it in the regression response variable (morbidity indicator). Fifty percent of the studies discussed uncertainty in the covariates but did not quantify it. Uncertainty was mostly defined as precision, and quantified using credible intervals by means of Bayesian approaches. Conclusion/Significance None of the studies considered adequately all sources of uncertainties. We highlighted the need for uncertainty in the morbidity indicator and predictor variable to be incorporated into the modelling framework. Study design and spatial support require further attention and uncertainty associated with Earth observation data should be quantified. Finally, more attention

  12. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2).

  13. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein and hypercalcemia in two dogs with schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, J M; Braniecki, A M; Craig, T M; Ramiro-Ibanez, F; Rogers, K S; Zoran, D L

    2001-01-01

    Two adult dogs were evaluated for hypercalcemia. Diagnostic evaluation identified elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and presumptive humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. At necropsy, schistosomiasis was diagnosed. North American schistosomiasis is caused by Heterobilharzia americana. Clinical findings may include dermatitis, coughing, diarrhea, and anorexia. Clinicopathological findings may include hypercalcemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and eosinophilia. Diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult. Praziquantel or fenbendazole treatment may be curative or palliative. These are the first reported cases of hypercalcemia with elevated PTHrP in animals without diagnosed malignancy. Elevation of PTHrP has not been previously reported in hypercalcemic humans or in animals with granulomatous inflammation.

  14. A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Rapado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, “in silico” studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  15. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincón, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-04-23

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  16. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  17. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  18. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  20. Impact of schistosomiasis on increase incidence of occult hepatitis B in chronic hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanan H; Taha, Samaa A; Hassan, Wafaa H; Omar, Hamdy H

    2017-02-09

    Co-infection of schistosomiasis, HBV and HCV is common in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic. Occult hepatitis B occurs in patients at high risk for HBV infection (e.g., patients on hemodialysis, patients receiving blood transfusions). Schistosomal infection is a risk factor of HBV infection that can increase the incidence of occult hepatitis B. We aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B in chronic hepatitis C patients with and without schistosomiasis and to assess the effect of schistosomal infection on the increased risk of exposure to HBV infection and to occult hepatitis B. Two hundred chronic hepatitis C patients who were negative for HBsAg participated. All patients were tested for the following: Anti-schistosome antibodies, Anti-HBc, serum HBV DNA, CBC and liver function. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B in CHC patients with/without schistosomiasis were 12.8% and 8.5% (P=0.042), respectively. Next, 63.8% of CHC patients with schistosomiasis were exposed to HBV infection (Anti-HBc +ve) during their lifetime. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult hepatitis B is higher in CHC patients with schistosomiasis compared to those without schistosomiasis. Periodic laboratory investigations of Schistosoma mansoni, HBV and HCV are recommended for the early detection of the infection and, especially in endemic areas, to avoid infection complications.

  1. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis disseminated infection and schistosomiasis in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Brandão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is classically associated with impaired host response and implies in an overburden of larvae in its usual cycle. It has been recognized as a severe and potentially fatal condition in immunocompromised individuals, especially those using oral corticosteroids. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni not only increases the susceptibility to HIV infection, but also promotes progression to disease. The association of the most severe forms of strongyloidiasis and AIDS is scarcely described, even more when S. mansoni is also associated. The authors describe a case of a 34-year-old previously healthy male, admitted to the emergency department with a history of hematemesis associated with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and fever. He referred homosexual relations for 6 years. Physical examination showed an ill-looking patient, and was remarkable for tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, and pulse oximetry of 70% in room air. Lungs examination revealed the presence of rales in the left base. Chest radiography showed a diffuse and bilateral reticulo-nodular pattern. HIV serology was positive. Empirical antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids were initiated. On the third day of hospitalization, petechiae appeared over the periumbilical area, but no further investigation was undertaken because the patient died soon after. The autopsy findings were compatible with S. stercoralis disseminated infection, a hepatic intestinal chronic form of schistosomiasis, and septic shock as the primary cause of death. The authors call attention to this infrequent association.

  3. Low levels of awareness despite high prevalence of schistosomiasis among communities in Nyalenda informal settlement, Kisumu city, western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys O Odhiambo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal schistosomiasis is widely distributed around Lake Victoria in Kenya where about 16 million people in 56 districts are at risk of the infection with over 9.1 million infected. Its existence in rural settings has been extensively studied compared to urban settings where there is limited information about the disease coupled with low level of awareness. This study therefore assessed community awareness on existence, signs and symptoms, causes, transmission, control and risk factors for contracting schistosomiasis as well as attitudes, health seeking behaviour and environmental antecedents that affect its control so as to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to strengthen schistosomiasis control interventions in informal urban settings. METHODS: The study was carried out in an informal urban settlement where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was previously reported to be the highest (36% among the eight informal settlements of Kisumu city. The study adopted cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members and eight key informant interviews with opinion leaders. Data was audio recorded transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 6 software. RESULTS: Most respondents stated having heard about schistosomiasis but very few had the correct knowledge of signs and symptoms, causes, transmission and control of schistosomiasis. However, there was moderate knowledge of risk factors and at high risk groups. Their attitudes towards schistosomiasis and its control were generally indifferent with a general belief that they had no control over their environmental circumstances to reduce transmission. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Although schistosomiasis was prevalent in the study area, majority of the people in the community had low awareness. This study, therefore, stresses the need for health education to

  4. Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda

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    Stothard J Russell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was given to schoolchildren in endemic areas and to adults in selected communities where local prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren was high. Methods The impact of the treatment program was monitored through cohorts of schoolchildren and adults. Their infection status with S. mansoni and STH was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at annual follow-ups. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and STH before and after treatment were analyzed. Results Two rounds of treatment significantly reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in schoolchildren across three regions in the country from 33.4–49.3% to 9.7–29.6%, and intensity of infection from 105.7–386.8 eggs per gram of faeces (epg to 11.6–84.1 epg. The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 41.2–57.9% to 5.5–16.1%, and intensity of infection from 186.9–416.8 epg to 3.7–36.9 epg. The proportion of children with heavy S. mansoni infection was significantly reduced from 15% (95% CI 13.4–16.8% to 2.3% (95% CI 1.6–3.0%. In adults, significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and hookworm infections was also observed. More importantly, the prevalence and intensity of both S. mansoni and hookworm infections in the cohorts of newly-recruited 6-year-olds who had never previously received treatment decreased significantly over 2 years: 34.9% (95% CI 31.9–37.8% to 22.6% (95% CI 19.9–25.2% and 171.1 epg (95% CI 141.5–200.7 to 72.0 epg (95% CI 50.9–93.1 for S. mansoni; and 48.4% (95% CI 45.4–51.5 to 15.9% (95% CI 13.6–18.2 and 232.7 epg (95% CI 188.4–276.9 to 51.4 epg (95% CI 33.4–69.5 for hookworms, suggesting a general decline

  5. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a monoclo

  6. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby;

    2016-01-01

    cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe...

  7. Effect of Chinese herbal compound on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis by B-ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lu Liang; Jia-Ying Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of B-ultrasound on the evaluation of the effects of traditional Chinese medicine compound of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis, and TCM +praziquantel on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis. Methods: The hepatic fibrosis model in rabbits with schistosomiasis was established. The experimental animals (24 rabbits) were randomly divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D, n=6). Group A (control group) was only treated by praziquantel; Group B was treated by mixture of Radix astragali and Salvia miltiorrhiza +praziquantel; Group C was treated by mixture of Radix astragali and Angelica sinensis +praziquantel; Group D was treated by mixture of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis +praziquantel. Then B-ultrasonogram was used to evaluate the effects. Results: Each group showed certain curative effect on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis. The efficacy of group B, C and D was better than group A, and that of group D was the best. The differences in long diameter, thickness diameter, transverse diameter and portal vein inner diameter of liver before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). The liver function indexes and liver fibrosis indexes were significantly improved after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions:The mixture of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis combined with Western medicine treatment can obviously improve the efficacy on liver fibrosis of schistosomiasis.

  8. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou;

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years...

  9. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  10. Microgeographical patterns of schistosomiasis and water contact behavior; examples from Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of spatial (microgeographical water contact/schistosomiasis studies in two African (Egyptian and Kenyan and one Brazilian communities. All three studies used traditional cartographic and statistical methods but one of them emploeyd also GIS (geographical information systems tools. The advantage of GIS and their potential role in schistosomiasis control are briefly described. The three cases revealed considerable variation in the spatial distribution of water contact, transmission parameters and infection levels at the household and individual levels. All studies showed considerable variation in the prevalence and intensity of infection between households. They also show a variable influence of distance on water contact behavior associated with type of activity, age, sex, socioeconomic level, perception of water quality, season and availability of water in the home. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis were evaluated in the Brazilian village of Nova União within the context of water sharing between household and age/sex groups. Recommendations are made for further spatial studies on the transmission and control of schistosomiasis.

  11. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...

  12. RE-EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL. III. "NOROESTE DE MINAS" MESOREGION

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    CARVALHO Omar S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, João Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário. All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  13. Low transmission areas of schistosomiasis in Venezuela: consequences on the diagnosis, treatment, and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis low transmission areas as Venezuela, can be defined as those where the vector exists, the prevalence of active cases is under 25%, individuals with mild intensity of infection predominate and are mostly asymptomatic. These areas are the consequence of effective control programs, however, "silent" epidemiological places are difficult to trace, avoiding the opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected persons. Clinic and abdominal ultrasound have not shown to discriminate infected from uninfected persons in areas where besides Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites are the rule. Under these conditions, serology remains as a very valuable diagnostic tool, since it gives a closer approximation to the true prevalence. In this sense, circumoval precipitin test, ELISA-SEA with sodium metaperiodate, and alkaline phosphatase immunoassay joined to coprology allow the identification of the "schistosomiasis cases". In relation to public health, schistosomiasis has been underestimated by the sanitary authorities and the investment on its control is being transferred to other diseases of major social and political relevance neglecting sanitary efforts and allowing growth of snail population. Some strategies of diagnosis and control should be done before schistosomiasis reemergence occurs in low transmission areas.

  14. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, James J.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, André N.; Henein, Lucie; Mentink-Kane, Margaret M.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)–National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs), not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008. PMID:27764112

  15. Environmental Factors and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Adie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of many parasitic diseases are influenced by environmental factors. Schistosomiasis prevalence is governed by the suitability of environmental factors for snail vector survival. The availability of resources on environmental indices in the World Wide Web facilitated this study which determined the effect of environmental factors on schistosomiasis distribution in Cross River State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered in 778 primary schools to determine the schistosomiasis status of the pupils. Mean values of environmental factors (Vegetation, temperature, altitude, land use, soil type and rainfall corresponding to the coordinates of study schools were extracted from archived, satellite sources and public domain digital databases for a period April 2009 to March 2010. The values for each of the environmental factors were displayed spatially on the Cross River State Map using Microsoft, paint brush software. The effect of the environmental variables was measured by superimposing the schistosomiasis infection map on the map of each of the factors. The number of positive schools was thereafter calculated corresponding to variations in environmental factors across the entire study area. The results showed a negative correlation between infection, vegetation and altitude. Prevalence was highest in areas with less photosynthetic activity (less vegetation. Prevalence was zero in altitudes >500 m above sea level. Land use and temperature showed a positive correlation with infection. Infection increased with corresponding increases in temperature. Infection was more in areas where intensive agricultural practices were ongoing. Infection was more in areas with deep lateritic soil type. The present study will facilitate a rapid mapping of schistosomiasis using environmental factors as guide in Nigeria.

  16. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Schistosomiasis at Niamey, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chippaux J-P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomes (CERMES is a research institute depending on the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies - a West African Organization for Public Health - devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. The staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. The activities of the CERMES involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a ecology of human and animal schistosomiasis transmission; the CERMES defined the different patterns of schistosomiasis transmission in Niger (involving African dry savana; in this field, we have shown, (i the existence of important variability in conditions of transmission of S. haematobium and, (ii natural hybridization between parasitic species of the ruminants (S. bovis and S. curassoni and genetic interaction between human and animal parasites; (b definition of morbidity indicators usable for rapid assessment methods, for appraisal of the severity of the disease and for the evaluation of the efficiency of control methods; we have established the correlation between ultrasonographic data and some cheap and simple field indicators; (c immune response and protective immunity induced by recombinant glutathion S-transferase (Sm28, Sb28 and Sh28 in homologous and heterologous animal models including goats, sheep and non human primates (Erythrocebus patas. In Niger, we participate in all control programs against schistosomiasis to define control strategies, to supervise operations and to participate in their evaluation with external experts. International collaborations constitute a frame including four laboratories in Africa and six laboratories in developed countries (Europe and USA

  17. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  18. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  19. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  20. Ivermectin efficacy against Biomphalaria, intermediate host snail vectors of Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Naftale; Araújo, Neusa; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Linde-Arias, Ana Rosa; Yamada, Takeshi; Horimatsu, Yuki; Suzuki, Koh; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2017-03-15

    The impact of ivermectin on adult snails of the genus Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea), B. glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni, snail egg-masses cercariae and miracidia, as well as on guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) was examined and evaluated. Biomphalaria snails, egg-masses, parasite stages and guppies were all exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin for 24 h, followed by regular observations of mortality. The calculated lethal doses of ivermectin were around an LD50 of 0.03 μg ml(-1), and an LD90 of 0.3 μg ml(-1) for the three species of snails. Specimens of B. glabrata actually shedding parasite cercariae all died when exposed to ivermectin at a concentration of a mere 0.01 μg ml(-1). Ivermectin B1a, the major (80%) component of commercially available ivermectin, proved to be inactive, and it was the minor (20%) component, ivermectin B1b, which caused snail death. Snail egg-masses were not affected, even at the highest concentration of 100 μg ml(-1). With respect to S. mansoni parasite stages, 0.2 μg ml(-1) ivermectin killed 50% of cercariae and miracidia within five minutes, rising to 90% after 30 min. Mortality of guppy fish within 24 h of exposure to ivermectin at concentrations of 0.5 μg ml(-1) and 0.01 μg ml(-1), were 100% and 30%, respectively. The concentration of 0.01 μg ml(-1) that killed Schistosoma mansoni-infected snails only caused 30% mortality in guppy fish. Ivermectin can be considered a promising molluscicide, especially as it is more potent against infected snails than uninfected ones, although it has no impact on egg-masses. Ivermectin and its derivatives could be explored in the search for a new agent to help control schistosomiasis transmission.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.31.

  1. Esquistossomose mansônica em vesícula seminal Schistosomiasis mansoni in the seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Andrade Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Em regiões endêmicas, a esquistossomose mansônica é responsável por uma alta taxa de morbimortalidade por doenças associadas à infestação do sistema hepático. O acometimento genital pela schistosomiasis mansoni é raro. Nós relatamos o primeiro caso de esquistossomose mansônica em vesícula seminal diagnosticado, incidentalmente, pelo exame histopatológico da próstata e vesículas seminais removidos cirurgicamente.In endemic regions, Mansoni schistosomiasis is responsible for high morbidity-mortality rates due to diseases associated with infestation of the hepatic system. Genital involvement caused by Mansoni schistosomiasis is rare. We report the first case of Mansoni schistosomiasis in the seminal vesicle, which was diagnosed incidentally by means of histopathological study of the prostate and seminal vesicles after surgical removal.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  3. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  4. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein, κ-cas

  5. Schistosomiasis research in the dongting lake region and its impact on local and national treatment and control in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P McManus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC, where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50-60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised.

  6. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  7. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Ammon Fernandez; Aline Carvalho de Mattos; Elizangela Feitosa da Silva; Sonia Barbosa dos Santos; Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Powe...

  8. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Müller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max as a proxy for physical fitness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1, respectively. The VO(2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1 min(-1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001 and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001, but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children

  9. Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area

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    Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the

  10. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  11. Evaluation of WGA and Concanavalin A (Con A lectin as biomarkers of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in human biopsies with no evidence of egg-granuloma system

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    Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rêgo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonic lesions are predominant in patients with schistosomiasis. However, carbohydrate alterations in colonic schistosomiasis remain unclear. Lectin-ligands allow us to identify changes in the saccharide patterns of cells. Methods: Biopsies of descending and rectosigmoid colon of patients were submitted to WGA and Con A lectin histochemistry. Results: WGA stained stroma and gland cells of descending colon and rectosigmoid tissues in a granular strong cytoplasmatic pattern in schistosomiasis specimens differing from normal control and Con A failing to recognize all samples analyzed. Conclusions: WGA ligands are expressed differently in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and no evidence of egg-granuloma system.

  12. Schistosomiasis of the central nervous system: clinical and radiologic correlation; Apresentacoes da esquistossomose no sistema nervoso central: correlacao clinica e radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Andreia Vasconcelos; Cerqueira, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de; Reis, Fabiano; Menezes Neto, Jose Ribeiro; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: andrea.vf@ig.com.br; Pirani, Clodoaldo; Damasceno, Benito Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia

    2002-02-01

    We report four cases of patients with schistosomiasis in the central nervous system and describe and correlate the radiologic findings with clinical manifestations. In one patient, cerebral involvement presented as a pseudotumoral lesion confirmed by autopsy. Three other patients had schistosomiasis in the spinal cord characterized by an intramedullary mass and radicular and leptomeningeal enhancement after administration of gadolinium. Our findings show the importance of considering schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intramedullary or cerebral lesions in patients of endemic areas of schistosomiasis. (author)

  13. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  14. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  16. [Critical analysis of the estimated number of Schistosomiasis mansoni carriers in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, N; Peixoto, S V

    2000-01-01

    The number of carriers of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil was estimated based on the results of parasitological examinations of feces carried out by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS - National Health Foundation) in 1996 and 1997, as well as population data from 18 states collected by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). This information allowed the number of carriers of schistosomiasis mansoni to be estimated at 7.1 million in 1996 and 6. 3 million in 1997. These figures may not reflect the true situation since the population sample used was not originally selected for this purpose. The absence of precise data indicates the need for an adequate national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis, which continues to be an important endemic parasitic disease, justifying greater efforts for its control in Brazil.

  17. Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekpo, Uwem F.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the cou......Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35......% confidence interval (CI): 22.8-23.1%). The model suggests that the mean temperature, annual precipitation and soil acidity significantly influence the spatial distribution. Prevalence estimates, adjusted for school-aged children in 2010, showed that the prevalence is...

  18. [Risk assessment and control measures for import of African schistosomiasis into China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-06-01

    The habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been found in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen City of People's Republic of China. Currently, there is a sharp increase in the number of Africa-aid projects and workers moving to Africa, and more and more cases infected with S. mansoni or S. haematobium returning from African countries have been detected in China. The possibility of transmission of African schistosomiasis in Chinese mainland, in the context of global climate warming, has received much attention. This paper illustrates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China based on biological and epidemiological features, and proposes interventions to tackle the risk.

  19. Ineffectiveness of myrrh-derivative Mirazid against schistosomiasis and fascioliasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M M; El-Taweel, H A; Shehab, A Y; Farag, H F

    2010-09-01

    The present study assessed the schistosomicidal and fasciolicidal actions of the myrrh-derivative Mirazid in an area of low schistosomiasis transmission. A total of 27 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 16 with Fasciola spp. received the maximum recommended dose of Mirazid. Pretreatment egg counts in 4 Kato-Katz slides were compared with similar counts in stool samples collected 1 and 2 months after treatment. Standard procedures and quality control measures were followed. The results revealed that Mirazid used as schistosomicidal or fasciolicidal agent in the maximum recommended dose has a low cure rate and produced a negligible reduction in egg counts. Prescribing such an ineffective drug in Egypt might endanger the achievements of the schistosomiasis control strategy.

  20. Understanding low uptake of mass treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    for children, but also the economic and political aspects of drug distribution, including the school feeding policy. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution......, community and public policy factors. The individual and interpersonal factors underpinning the low uptake include inadequate information about schistosomiasis prevention, beliefs and attitudes in the community about treatment of schistosomiasis and shared concerns among children and teachers about the side......-effects of praziquantel, especially when the drug is taken on an empty stomach. The institutional, policy and community factors include inadequate preparation and facilitation of teachers and the school feeding policy, which requires parents to take responsibility for providing their children with food while at school...

  1. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population.

  2. Prolonged latent schistosomiasis diagnosed 38 years after infestation in a HIV patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Barry; Chaumentin, Gilles; Boyer, Michelle; Amaranto, Paula; Lemonon-Meric, Claire; Lucht, Frederic

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of Schistosoma mansoni bilharziasis in a HIV patient 38 y after leaving an endemic region. A viable S. mansoni egg on a liver biopsy sample was diagnostic. Despite severe concomitant immunodeficiency the effective treatment was a single dose of praziquantel. Worms' intravascular longevity and the role of immunodeficiency as a possible factor in eggs retention after such prolonged latent schistosomiasis are discussed.

  3. Inhibition of Granulomatous Inflammation and Prophylactic Treatment of Schistosomiasis with a Combination of Edelfosine and Praziquantel.

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    Edward Yepes

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease worldwide caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. This parasitic disease is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Egg-released antigens stimulate tissue-destructive inflammatory and granulomatous reactions, involving different immune cell populations, including T cells and granulocytes. Granulomas lead to collagen fibers deposition and fibrosis, resulting in organ damage. Praziquantel (PZQ is the drug of choice for treating all species of schistosomes. However, PZQ kills only adult Schistosoma worms, not immature stages. The inability of PZQ to abort early infection or prevent re-infection, and the lack of prophylactic effect prompt the need for novel drugs and strategies for the prevention of schistosomiasis.Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have found that the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine kills schistosomula, and displays anti-inflammatory activity. The combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine during a few days before and after cercariae infection in a schistosomiasis mouse model, simulating a prophylactic treatment, led to seven major effects: a killing of Schistosoma parasites at early and late development stages; b reduction of hepatomegaly; c granuloma size reduction; d down-regulation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses at late post-infection times, thus inhibiting granuloma formation; e upregulation of IL-10 at early post-infection times, thus potentiating anti-inflammatory actions; f down-regulation of IL-10 at late post-infection times, thus favoring resistance to re-infection; g reduction in the number of blood granulocytes in late post-infection times as compared to infected untreated animals.Taken together, these data suggest that the combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine promotes a high decrease in granuloma formation, as well as in the cellular immune response that underlies granuloma development, with changes in the

  4. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis cases in the rural areas of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infections and schistosomiasis remain high in the rural areas of Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (ZMP, Brazil, where these parasites still represent a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to spatially assess the occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP. METHODS: The ZMP has a population of 1,132,544 inhabitants, formed by 43 municipalities. An ecological study was conducted, using secondary data relating to positive human cases and parasite loads of schistosomiasis and positive human cases of geohelminthiasis that were worked up in Excel 2007. We used the coordinates of the municipal headquarters to represent the cities which served as the unit of analysis of this study. The Kernel estimator was used to spatially analyze the data and identify distribution patterns and case densities, with analysis done in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Spatial analysis from the Kernel intensity estimator made it possible to construct density maps showing that the northern ZMP was the region with the greatest number of children infected with parasites and the populations most intensely infected by Schistosoma mansoni. In relation to geohelminths, there was higher spatial distribution of cases of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the southern ZMP, and greater occurrence of hookworms in the northern/central ZMP. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several surveys and studies showing occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP, no preventive measures that are known to have been effective in decreasing these health hazards have yet been implemented in the endemic area.

  5. Lectin complement protein Collectin 11 (CL-K1 and susceptibility to urinary schistosomiasis.

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    Justin S Antony

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in many sub Saharan -African countries. Collectin Kidney 1 (CL-K1, encoded by COLEC11 on chromosome 2p25.3, a member of the vertebrate C-type lectin super family, has recently been identified as pattern-recognition molecule (PRR of the lectin complement pathway. CL-K1 is preferentially expressed in the kidneys, but also in other organs and it is considered to play a role in host defense to some infectious agents. Schistosome teguments are fucosylated and CL-K1 has, through its collagen-like domain, a high binding affinity to fucose.We utilized a Nigerian study group consisting of 167 Schistosoma haematobium infected individuals and 186 matched healthy subjects, and investigated the contribution of CL-K1 deficiency and of COLEC11 polymorphisms to infection phenotype. Higher CL-K1 serum levels were associated with decreased risk of schistosome infection (P corr = 0.0004. CL-K1 serum levels were differentially distributed between the COLEC11 genotypes and haplotypes observed. The non-synonymous variant p.R216H was associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.22-0.72, P corr = 0.0004. The reconstructed COLEC11*TCCA haplotypes were associated with higher CL-K1 serum levels (P = 0.002 and with decreased schistosomiasis (OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.23-0.63, P corr = 0.0001.In agreement with findings from our earlier published study, our findings support the observation that CL-K1 and their functional variants may be host factors associated with protection in schistosomiasis and may be a useful marker for further investigations.

  6. Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Ugandan schoolchildren: a rapid mapping assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J. Standley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Even with a national control programme in place, intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in school-aged children and other community members in Uganda. This is especially the case in the environments around the Great Lakes, where disease transmission is high, such as Lake Victoria. Moreover, in the most remote areas, some schools might periodically miss large-scale drug administrations owing to inaccessibility. To provide contemporary monitoring and surveillance data, 27 schools along the lakeshore were surveyed with a rapid assessment protocol to determine both prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections. In total, 25 (92.6% of schools were positive for S. mansoni, with an average prevalence across the surveyed children of 42% and average infection intensity of 634 eggs per gram of faeces. Mean prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was 12.9%, 9.3% and 2.4%, respectively. Results from questionnaire data revealed a high level of itinerancy among the children, and a total of 38.2% reported to have never received treatment for schistosomiasis, despite 96% living in districts targeted by the national control programme. A birthplace outside of Uganda was a significant predictor for increased risk of schistosomiasis infection (odds ratio (OR = 9.6, and being resident at a school for less than a year was significantly associated with absence of praziquantel treatment (OR = 0.3. Univariate regression analysis showed a trend of increasing schistosomiasis towards the eastern region of Uganda, while semivariograms of infection prevalence demonstrated a range of spatial autocorrelation of ~78 km. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were more common in the Western region. Our results emphasise how social and demographic variables such as migration may affect epidemiological trends and confound the impact of existing treatment regimes.

  7. Production of interferon-γ by natural killer cells and aging in chronic human schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Speziali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNG: Aging is associated with several alterations in the phenotype, repertoire and activation status of lymphocytes as well as in the cytokine profile produced by these cells. As a lifelong condition, chronic parasitic diseases such as human schistosomiasis overlaps with the aging process and no systematic study has yet addressed the changes in immune response during infection with Schistosoma mansoni in older individuals.

  8. Cross-sectional study and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis among children in Northeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Soumay Houmsou; Sam Mao Panda; Sambo Obadiah Elkanah; Liatu Columbus Garba; Binga Emmanuel Wama; Elizabeth Une Amuta; Santaya Larit Kela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine schistosomiasis level and risk factors that exposed school-aged children to infection as well as to model schistosomiasis map in relation to altitude and rainfall in Gashaka Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2014. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 1 080 school-aged children and processed using the filtration and formol–ether concentration techniques, respectively. Results: Irrespective of the schistosomes species, a point prevalence of 10.18% was reported out of the 1 080 children examined. Males were significantly infected than their female counterparts (11.75%vs. 8.43%) (c2=4.86;P=0.027), as well as children aged 6–10 (11.65%, 72/618) and 11–15 years (10.29%, 35/340) than the other age groups (c2 = 9.274; P = 0.026). No significant difference was observed in schistosomiasis be-tween children whose parents were educated (11.11%, 57/513) and not educated (9.88%, 53/536) (c2=1.342;P=0.247) and those whose parents are farmers (9.74%, 53/544) and non-farmers (10.63%, 57/536) (c2 = 0.787; P = 0.375). Proximity to water bodies (distance Conclusions: This study reported a moderate level of infection among school-aged chil-dren with proximity to water bodies and fishing as the main risk factors. The spatial dis-tribution of schistosomiasis in the area will guide in efficient and effective control programmes at local level. It is recommended that continued efforts be made to scale-up distribution of praziquantel to high risk areas so as to curb the progression of the disease.

  9. Climate change and institutional determinants of malaria and schistosomiasis In Gwanda District, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Peter; Chimbari, Moses; Makuratirwa, Samson;

    2016-01-01

    , environment, agriculture and education. Important sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, responsibilities and health interventions that may mask the direct effects on disease transmission of climate change and variability and thereby hamper our full understanding of the specific effects of climate......The spatial and temporal distribution of malaria and schistosomiasis are determined by a series of environmental, biological and social factors including institutional determinants of health. A gap in knowledge exists for some specific institutional determinants and their direct or indirect...

  10. Schistosomiasis as a disease and its prevalence in Sudan: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassir Sulieman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in the developing world. In Sudan, since the year 1919, the disease has been discovered in the northern part of the country, and later it was reported from different parts including Eastern and Western Sudan, Lake Nasser area, and many agricultural schemes such as Gezira Scheme, Rahad Scheme and Gunaid Sugar Cane Scheme.

  11. Endothelial P2X7 receptors’ expression is reduced by schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Suellen D’Arc dos Santos; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells control vascular tone, permeability and leukocyte transmigration and are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease associated with inflammation, therefore altering endothelial cells’ phenotype. Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) play an important role in inflammation; however, the impact of the disease upon endothelial P2X7R function or expression has not been explored. Using ethidium bromide uptake to investigate P2X7R function, we ...

  12. Does mass drug administration for the integrated treatment of neglected tropical diseases really work? Assessing evidence for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about mass drug administration [MDA] for neglected tropical diseases [NTDs] than is suggested by those so vigorously promoting expansion of the approach. This paper fills an important gap: it draws upon local level research to examine the roll out of treatment for two NTDs, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, in Uganda. Methods Ethnographic research was undertaken over a period of four years between 2005-2009 in north-west and south-east Uganda. In addition to participant observation, survey data recording self-reported take-up of drugs for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and, where relevant, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis was collected from a random sample of at least 10% of households at study locations. Data recording the take-up of drugs in Ministry of Health registers for NTDs were analysed in the light of these ethnographic and social survey data. Results The comparative analysis of the take-up of drugs among adults revealed that although most long term residents have been offered treatment at least once since 2004, the actual take up of drugs for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths varies considerably from one district to another and often also within districts. The specific reasons why MDA succeeds in some locations and falters in others relates to local dynamics. Issues such as population movement across borders, changing food supply, relations between drug distributors and targeted groups, rumours and conspiracy theories about the 'real' purpose of treatment, subjective experiences of side effects from treatment, alternative understandings of affliction, responses to social control measures and historical experiences of public health control measures, can all make a huge difference. The paper highlights the need to adapt MDA to local circumstances. It also points to specific generalisable issues, notably with respect to health education, drug distribution and

  13. The Estrada Real project and endemic diseases: the case of schistosomiasis, geoprocessing and tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Omar S; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Drummond, Sandra C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Dutra, Luciano V; Oliveira, Guilherme; Massara, Cristiano L; Enk, Martin J

    2010-07-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is a tool that has recently been applied to better understand spatial disease distributions. Using meteorological, social, sanitation, mollusc distribution data and remote sensing variables, this study aimed to further develop the GIS technology by creating a model for the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and to apply this model to an area with rural tourism in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG). The Estrada Real, covering about 1,400 km, is the largest and most important Brazilian tourism project, involving 163 cities in MG with different schistosomiasis prevalence rates. The model with three variables showed a R(2) = 0.34, with a standard deviation of risk estimated adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected for modelling were summer vegetation, summer minimal temperature and winter minimal temperature. The results confirmed the importance of Remote Sensing data and the valuable contribution of GIS in identifying priority areas for intervention in tourism regions which are endemic to schistosomiasis.

  14. Perception of a schistosomiasis control project in rural Kenya by the beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsivo, M N; Muthami, L N; Karama, M; Kingori, F

    1993-10-01

    A schistosomiasis control project was implemented in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme in Central Kenya between late 1983 and December 1988 by Kenya Medical Research Institute scientists in collaboration with the National Irrigation Board. The aim of the project was to control schistosomiasis through provision of alternative water sources, bath and laundry units, latrines, chemotherapy and health education. The community participated fully. Five years later in December 1988, 203 household heads were interviewed on their perception of the control project in terms of purpose, project ownership and management, benefits, continuity and their knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission cycle. 61% of the respondents were females and 39% males. 92% of them said that the purpose for the project was to treat, control and prevent bilharzia from spreading, and to promote good health. Slightly over 50% said that the project belonged to them but that they would have liked to be more involved in its management. 74% said that they are able to save time because the facilities are now nearer to them; whilst 79% felt that they were saving money because they did not have to buy drugs since they felt healthier. 99% said that they thought that bilharzia has been controlled, and 82% said that their children looked healthier. 95% said that they could see the project surviving for a long time period suggesting that it was self sustaining and they were willing to start a maintenance of facilities fund. Overall, the community appreciated the social, economic and health benefits derived from the control project.

  15. A novel bacterial pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: a potential weapon for schistosomiasis control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Duval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects.In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs.This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field.

  16. The Estrada Real project and endemic diseases: the case of schistosomiasis, geoprocessing and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information System (GIS is a tool that has recently been applied to better understand spatial disease distributions. Using meteorological, social, sanitation, mollusc distribution data and remote sensing variables, this study aimed to further develop the GIS technology by creating a model for the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and to apply this model to an area with rural tourism in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG. The Estrada Real, covering about 1,400 km, is the largest and most important Brazilian tourism project, involving 163 cities in MG with different schistosomiasis prevalence rates. The model with three variables showed a R² = 0.34, with a standard deviation of risk estimated adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected for modelling were summer vegetation, summer minimal temperature and winter minimal temperature. The results confirmed the importance of Remote Sensing data and the valuable contribution of GIS in identifying priority areas for intervention in tourism regions which are endemic to schistosomiasis.

  17. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombetzki, Martina; Koslowski, Nicole; Doss, Sandra; Loebermann, Micha; Trauner, Michael; Reisinger, Emil C.; Sauer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae) and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae) infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples. PMID:27376078

  18. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silveira-Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group. Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA, increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.

  19. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  20. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  1. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  2. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  3. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  4. Occurrence of schistosomiasis in Divinópolis-MG based on study of schoolchildren and surveys of disease notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Talita de Oliveira Santana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a neglected chronic disease that affects mainly underdeveloped regions, including Brazil. Objective: To evaluate the distribution profile of the schistosomiasis in Divinópolis-MG. Material and methods: It is characterized as a descriptive and analytical epidemiological study. A parasitological study performed in schoolchildren of public municipal schools; simultaneously, a survey of schistosomiasis cases reported in the city between 2005 and 2011 years was performed with the Municipal Department of Health. Data related to the characteristics of the infection were observed, such as: affected areas, age, gender, and professional occupation. Results: This survey showed 33 cases of schistosomiasis in the city during this period, which the most of them (84.8% were between 20-59 years of age. The results of the study with the schoolchildren are in agreement with those obtained through the reporting forms, both indicating no occurrence of schistosomiasis in individuals between 6-14 years of age in Divinópolis. Conclusion: The absence of the disease in children and adolescents analyzed and the presence in adults is a strong evidence of exogenous contamination in the city, especially as a result of immigration or rural tourism, and possible changes in habits, related to risk factors.

  5. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  6. Linfomas em pacientes com a forma hepatoesplênica da esquistossomose mansônica Lymphoma in patients harboring hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Cada vez mais se estabelece a correlação entre agentes infecciosos e doenças linfoproliferativas, sobretudo vírus e bactérias, através da ativação de linfócitos. OBJETIVO: Descrever 6 novos casos, de uma série de 254 pacientes (2,36% com esquistossomose mansônica na forma hepatoesplênica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: São descritos 6 pacientes, dentre os 254 portadores de esquistossomose mansônica na forma hepatoesplênica, acompanhados nos últimos 13 anos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE. RESULTADOS: Todos os seis casos ocorreram em mulheres. Os exames histopatológicos evidenciaram dois casos de linfomas de zona marginal esplênica, um de linfoma de grandes células com imunoblastos, um de linfoma difuso de grandes células, um de linfoma maligno de grandes células não clivadas, e um outro caso de doença de Hodgkin. Metade das seis pacientes evoluiu para o óbito entre 4 a 15 meses após o diagnóstico. As outras três persistem em acompanhamento no Serviço de Oncologia da mesma instituição. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de linfoma nos 254 pacientes acompanhados foi de 2,36%. Pretende-se chamar a atenção para a ocorrência de linfomas nos baços de pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica, na forma hepatoesplênica.BACKGROUND: Correlation between infectious agents and linfoproliferative diseases are more stablished, over all virus and bacteria, through the activation of linfocytes. AIM: To describe six new cases, of a series of 254 patients (2,36% with mansonic schistosomiasis, in the hepatosplenic form. METHODS: Six patients will be described, amongst the 254 carriers of mansonic schistosomiasis, in the hepatosplenic form, followed in the last 13 years. RESULTS: All the six cases had occurred in women. The histopathologic examinations had evidenced two cases of marginal splenic zone lymphomas, one of great cells with immunoblasts lymphomas, one

  7. Evidence of increasing risk of schistosomiasis among school-age children in municipality of Calatrava, Province of Negros Occidental, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belizario VY Jr; Erfe JM; Naig JRA; Chua PLC

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk of school-age children being infected with schistosomiasis in selected villages in the municipality of Calatrava, province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. Methods:As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the helminth control program in the province of Negros Occidental, parasitological monitoring, through the use microscopy of stool samples processed using Kato-Katz technique, was conducted to describe the baseline and follow-up parasitological status of school-age children in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Seven villages from the municipality of Calatrava were selected as study sites.Results:During baseline assessment, only one case of schistosomiasis was reported from the village of Marcelo. During follow-up assessment, 32 cases (6.9%) of schistosomiasis were reported and the prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity infection was 1.3% in six villages. Among the seven villages included in the follow-up, Minapasuk had the highest prevalence at 14.6%, while San Isidro reported no case of schistosomiasis.Conclusions:Non-endemic villages, which have reported positive cases in school-age children, may need to be assessed for possible endemicity for schistosomiasis. Transmission of the disease may need to be determined in these villages through active parasitological and malacological surveillance. Other non-endemic villages adjacent to or share river networks with endemic villages in Calatrava may need to be explored for possible introduction of the disease, especially after typhoons and flooding. Establishing endemicity for schistosomiasis in these villages will help infected and at risk individuals to receive yearly treatment to reduce morbidities caused by this disease.

  8. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  9. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Lin [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Su, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hai-Bo [Central Blood Bank in Yueyang, Yueyang, Hunan Province (China); Du, Kun; Yu, Ping [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Shi-Ping [Key Laboratory of Schistosomiasis in Hunan, Department of Parasitology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-03-02

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region.

  10. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP and sequencing-based typing (SBT were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females. Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027 showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05. In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc 0.05. This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region.

  11. The Last Fifteen Years of Schistosomiasis in Venezuela: Features and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón de Noya Belkisyolé

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of schistosomiasis in Venezuela has been a topic of major interest and controversy among the metaxenic parasitosis. A small area of transmission of approximately 15,000 km2 was thought to be eradicated some years ago. However, some epidemiological characteristics of our transmission area have limited the success on the way toward eradication. Since 1945, when the Schistosomiasis Control Program started, the prevalence in the endemic area has decreased from 14% in 1943 to 1.4% in 1996. Until 1982, the surveillance of active cases was based on massive stool examination. Since then, the Schistosomiasis Research Group (SRG recommended the additional use of serologic tests in the Control Program and the selective or massive chemotherapy depending on serological and parasitological prevalence of each community. At present, the real prevalence is underestimated due to the fact that approximately 80% of the individuals eliminate less than 100 eggs/g of feces. Those persons could be responsible for the maintenance of the foci going on and therefore limiting the impact of the control measures. Efforts of the SRG are being oriented toward improvement of immunodiagnostic tests by using defined antigens (enzymes and chemically synthesized peptides, derived from relevant molecules of the parasite, either for antibodies or antigens search. On the other hand, introduction of snail competitors has been a biological weapon in the control of the intermediate host in certain areas. However, the recent reinfestation of water courses by Biomphalaria glabrata, the increased prevalence in some areas, together with important administrative changes at the Control Program of the Minister of Health, have arisen new questions and doubts, challenging the eradication strategy proposed during the last decade.

  12. Galectin-3, histone deacetylases, and Hedgehog signaling: Possible convergent targets in schistosomiasis-induced liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Carneiro, Katia; Brito, José Marques; Cabanel, Mariana; Pereira, Jonathas Xavier; Paiva, Ligia de Almeida; Syn, Wingkin; Henderson, Neil C.; El-Cheikh, Marcia Cury

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects approximately 240 million people in the world. Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the liver induce periportal fibrosis and hepatic failure driven by monocyte recruitment and macrophage activation, resulting in robust Th2 response. Here, we suggested a possible involvement of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling with macrophage activation during Th1/Th2 immune responses, fibrogranuloma reaction, and tissue repair during schistosomiasis. Gal-3 is highly expressed by liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) around Schistosoma eggs. HDACs and Hh regulate macrophage polarization and hepatic stellate cell activation during schistosomiasis-associated fibrogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated an abnormal extracellular matrix distribution in the liver that correlated with atypical monocyte–macrophage differentiation in S. mansoni-infected, Gal-3-deficient (Lgals3-/-) mice. New findings explored in this review focus on the chronic phase, when wild-type (Lgals3+/+) and Lgals3-/- mice were analyzed 90 days after cercariae infection. In Lgals3-/- infected mice, there was significant inflammatory infiltration with myeloid cells associated with egg destruction (hematoxylin and eosin staining), phagocytes (specifically Kupffer cells), numerically reduced and diffuse matrix extracellular deposition in fibrotic areas (Gomori trichrome staining), and severe disorganization of collagen fibers surrounding the S. mansoni eggs (reticulin staining). Granuloma-derived stromal cells (GR cells) of Lgals3-/- infected mice expressed lower levels of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and eotaxin and higher levels of IL-4 than Lgals3+/+ mice (real-time PCR). The relevant participation of macrophages in these events led us to suggest distinct mechanisms of activation that culminate in defective fibrosis in the liver of Lgals3-/- infected mice. These aspects were discussed in this review, as well as the possible interference between Gal-3, HDACs

  13. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

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    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  14. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  15. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  16. Verrucous carcinoma of the bladder with koilocytosis unassociated with vesical schistosomiasis

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    Fabio Lewin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Verrucous carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare malignant neoplasm, histologically similar to condyloma acuminatum. Usually it shows association with vesical schistosomiasis (bilharziasis. Only 13 cases unrelated to bilharziasis have been reported to date, and none of them reported koilocytosis, a typical finding in human papillomavirus infection. CASE REPORT: We report a case of verrucous carcinoma of the bladder that was unrelated to bilharziasis, with koilocytosis and absence of human papillomavirus. The literature relating to the topic is discussed.

  17. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    . Peak production times in both species were between 12.00 and 14.00h indicating greatest infection risk from lake water exposure is during the early afternoon. Laboratory-bred snails were exposed to locally hatched miracidia and susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. was confirmed experimentally......) were culled and S. mansoni adult worms were retrieved from 10 animals. Taken as a whole, these observations highlight the local importance of B. stanleyi in transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis and clearly demonstrate the risk of infection on the Lake Albert shoreline. To mitigate this risk local...

  18. Epidemic transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, C.C.; Ellery, W.N.; Byskov, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    A well documented epidemic of human intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni occurred at Maun in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, building from very few cases in the 1950s and early 1960s to a peak prevalence of >80% in the 1980s. A retrospective analysis was per...... with a lag period of 5-6 years between the rise and fall of discharge and the rise and fall of transmission. Since the hydrological events in the delta follow a cyclical pattern, another epidemic around 2020 appears likely....

  19. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan John C; Brauning Rudiger; McWilliam Sean; Barris Wesley; Ratnakumar Abhirami; Snelling Warren M; Dalrymple Brian P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in...

  20. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  1. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  2. Strategy formulation for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings supported by spatial analysis: a case study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of exploring the usefulness of spatial analysis in the formulation of a strategy for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings, a population-based database was established in Dangtu county, China. This database, containing the human prevalence of schistosomiasis at the village level from 2001 to 2004, was analyzed by directional trend analysis supported with ArcGIS 9.0 to select the optimum predictive approach. Based on the approach selected, different strata of prevalence were classified and the spatial distribution of human infection with Schistosoma japonicum was estimated. The second-order ordinary kriging approach of spatial analysis was found to be optimal for prediction of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection. The mean prediction error was close to 0 and the root-mean-square standardised error was close to 1. Starting with the different environmental settings for each stratum of transmission, four areas were classified according to human prevalence, and different strategies to control transmission of schistosomiasis were put forward. We conclude that the approach to use spatial analysis as a tool to predict the spatial distribution of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection improves the formulation of strategies for schistosomiasis control in different environmental settings at the county level.

  3. Rapid mapping of schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases in the context of integrated control programmes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, S; Kabatereine, N B; Gyapong, J O; Stothard, J R; Utzinger, J

    2009-11-01

    There is growing interest and commitment to the control of schistosomiasis and other so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Resources for control are inevitably limited, necessitating assessment methods that can rapidly and accurately identify and map high-risk communities so that interventions can be targeted in a spatially-explicit and cost-effective manner. Here, we review progress made with (1) mapping schistosomiasis across Africa using available epidemiological data and, more recently, climate-based risk prediction; (2) the development and use of morbidity questionnaires for rapid identification of high-risk communities of urinary schistosomiasis; and (3) innovative sampling-based approaches for intestinal schistosomiasis, using the lot quality assurance sampling technique. Experiences are also presented for the rapid mapping of other NTDs, including onchocerciasis, loiasis and lymphatic filariasis. Future directions for an integrated rapid mapping approach targeting multiple NTDs simultaneously are outlined, including potential challenges in developing an integrated survey tool. The lessons from the mapping of human helminth infections may also be relevant for the rapid mapping of malaria as its control efforts are intensified.

  4. The Behavioral Determinants of Intestinal Schistosomiasis Transmission: Water Contact, Hygienic Practices and Risk Prevention. A study in Northern Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sow (Seydou)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world, ranking second only to malaria in terms of its socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas (WHO, 1985; WHO, 2002). At least 200 million people are infected and 600 million a

  5. Impact of Climate Variability on Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis over Sunyani in the Transition Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S. K.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Tagoe, G.

    2012-04-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the impact of climate variability on Schistosoma haematobium infection among patients and school children in Sunyani between 2006 and 2009. Urine samples from the subjects were collected and examined in the laboratory using the filtration technique for the detection and quantification of Schistosomiasis haematobium eggs. The prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis at the Sunyani Regional Hospital for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 were found to be 0.24%, 0.55%, 0.55% and 0.75% respectively while that for Methodist Junior High School in 2008 and 2009 were 60.1% and 60.3% respectively. A decrease in the relative humidity and average annual rainfall were identified as factors contributory to the increase in urinary Schistosomiasis prevalence rate. The temperature values obtained throughout the study period did not have any significant effect on the prevalence rate. The temperature values, however, were those that enhanced cercarial incubation (15-35˚C) with a resultant increase in shedding of cercariae leading to more infections among water contacts. The infection rate due to stream Amama was 20.1%, while that due to river Tano was 36.6%. The highest risk group was children aged 15-19 years. Praziquantel was administered to treat the infection, producing a cure rate of 93%. Recognition of urinary Schistosomiasis as a public health problem in Ghana is the main challenge to prevention and control of the disease.

  6. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index in hepatitis C virus and Schistosomiasis coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbala, Moutaz; Elbadri, Mohammed Elshiekh; Amer, Aliaa Mohamed; AlKaabi, Saad; Sultan, Khaleel Hassan; Kamel, Yasser Medhat; Elsayed, Eman Hassan Satti; Avades, Tony Yervant; Chandra, Prem; Shebl, Fatma M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, of aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) alone and with antischistosomal antibody (Ab) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomiasis coinfection. METHODS: This retrospective study included medical records of three hundred and eighty three Egyptian men patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy between January 2006 to April 2014 in tertiary care hospital in Qatar for diagnosis or monitoring purpose were selected. Data of patients > 18 years of age were included in the study. The values of HCV RNA titer and antischistosomal antibody titer were also taken into consideration. Patients were excluded from the study if they had any other concomitant chronic liver disease, including; history of previous antiviral or interferon therapy, immunosuppressive, therapy, chronic hepatitis B infection, human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, autoimmune hepatitis, decompensated liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, prior liver transplantation, and if no data about the liver biopsy present. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 46 years. About 7.1% had no fibrosis, whereas 30.4%, 37.5%, 20.4%, and 4.6% had fibrosis of stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. In bivariate analysis, APRI score, levels of AST, platelet count and age of patient showed statistically significant association with liver fibrosis (P schistosomiasis as compared to biopsy. The addition of antischistosomal Ab to APRI did not improve sensitivity for predicting the degree of cirrhosis. PMID:26674154

  7. Gastro-intestinal manifestations of the initial phase of schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M O; Pedroso, E R; Lambertucci, J R; Greco, D B; Rocha, R L; Rezende, D F; Neves, J

    1995-06-01

    Clinical gastro-intestinal manifestations were studied in 34 patients in the initial phase of schistosomiasis mansoni. The patients, all men, were of similar age and in similar nutritional condition and had been infected simultaneously at the same transmission site. Most (85%) showed some gastro-intestinal sign or symptom, generally of light or moderate intensity; 56% had liquid or pasty diarrhoea, 41% abdominal pain, 29% hepatomegaly, 21% dysentery, 15% anorexia, 12% pain on colon palpation and 9% nausea and/or vomiting. High worm burden was associated with blood in faeces but apparently not with any other clinical manifestation. There was no apparent association between any clinical manifestation and peripheral-blood eosinophil counts or titres of IgE specific for Schistosoma mansoni (evaluated by the area of immediate intradermal reaction to injected adult worm antigen). The absence of association between worm burden and nearly all the clinical gastro-intestinal manifestations strengthens the concept that factors other than worm burden, such as host reactivity, constitute important pathogenetic elements in the initial phase of schistosomiasis mansoni.

  8. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Oguwuike, Uche; Nwoke, Bertram; Asor, Joe; Ikpeama, Chidinma; Nwosu, Dennis; Ogbusu, Fidelia

    2006-01-01

    Studies on vesical schistosomiasis and its snail vectors were carried out between October 2001-May 2002 among rural Ezza farmers inhabiting the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The people are predominantly farmers. Of the 2,104 urine specimens examined in 10 communities, 466 (22.1%) comprising 305 (23.7%) men and 161 (19.7%) women were infected with visible haematuria as the predominant presenting symptom. Ezza people associate bloody urine with sexually transmitted diseases. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates amongst various villages and sexes (p > 0.05). There was a gradual increase in the disease prevalence as the subjects' age increases. About 78.3% of the infected persons are aged 0-20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, intensity and visible haematuria were significantly more ( p infected population, 183 (39.3%) and 283 (60.7%) were excreting 50 eggs/10 ml urine and above 50 eggs/10 ml urine respectively. Lack of visible haematuria is a more valid indicator of the absence of vesical schistosomiasis. Of the various snails collected during malacological survey, mainly B. globosus were infected. Possible control measures are discussed.

  9. New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vlassoff

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

  10. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  11. A geoprocessing approach for studying and controlling schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are tools that have been recently tested for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution of disease. The objective of this paper was to further develop the GIS technology to model and control schistosomiasis using environmental, social, biological and remote-sensing variables. A final regression model (R² = 0.39 was established, after a variable selection phase, with a set of spatial variables including the presence or absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, winter enhanced vegetation index, summer minimum temperature and percentage of houses with water coming from a spring or well. A regional model was also developed by splitting the state of Minas Gerais (MG into four regions and establishing a linear regression model for each of the four regions: 1 (R² = 0.97, 2 (R² = 0.60, 3 (R² = 0.63 and 4 (R² = 0.76. Based on these models, a schistosomiasis risk map was built for MG. In this paper, geostatistics was also used to make inferences about the presence of Biomphalaria spp. The result was a map of species and risk areas. The obtained risk map permits the association of uncertainties, which can be used to qualify the inferences and it can be thought of as an auxiliary tool for public health strategies.

  12. Circulating cathodic antigen cassette test versus haematuria strip test in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghareeb, Azza S; Abd El Motaleb, Ghada S; Waked, Nevien Maher; Osman Hany Kamel, Nancy; Aly, Nagwa Shaban

    2016-12-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium constitutes a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. This study was conducted to evaluate circulating cathodic antigen cassette test and haematuria strip test for detection of S. haematobium in urine samples and to evaluate their screening performance among the study population. Microscopy was used as a gold standard. A total of 600 urine samples were examined by microscopy for detection of S. haematobium eggs, screened for microhaematuria using Self-Stik reagent strips and screened for circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) using the urine-CCA cassette test. The specificity of CCA, microhaematuria and macrohaematuria was 96.4, 40.6 and 31.2 % respectively while the sensitivity was 88.2, 99.3 and 100 % respectively which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that using of urine-CCA cassette test in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis is highly specific (96.4 %) compared with the highly sensitive haematuria strip test (100 %). The degree of agreement between microscopic examination and CCA detection was 99.3 % with highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The combination of two techniques could potentially use for screening and mapping of S. haematobium infection.

  13. High fat diet has a prominent effect upon the course of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros Alencar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether a long-term high-fat diet has an effect on the outcome of chronic murine schistosomiasis mansoni compared to a standard diet. Swiss Webster female mice (3 weeks old were fed each diet for up to six months and were then infected with 50 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Their nutritional status was assessed by monitoring total serum cholesterol and body mass. Infected mice were examined 6-17 weeks post infection to estimate the number of eggs in faeces. Mice were euthanised the next day. Total serum cholesterol was lower in infected mice in comparison to uninfected controls (p = 0.0055. In contrast, body mass (p = 0.003, liver volume (p = 0.0405, spleen volume (p = 0.0124, lung volume (p = 0.0033 and faecal (p = 0.0064 and tissue egg density (p = 0.0002 were significantly higher for infected mice fed a high-fat diet. From these findings, it is suggested that a high-fat diet has a prominent effect on the course of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in mice.

  14. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings in Schistosomiasis mansoni: expanded gallbladder fossa and fatty hilum signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is no study relating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to ultrasound (US findings in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Our aim was to describe MRI findings inpatients with schistosomal liver disease identified by US. METHODS: Fifty-four patients (mean age 41.6±13.5years from an area endemic for Schistosomiasis mansoni were selected for this study.All had US indicating liver schistosomal fibrosis and were evaluated with MRI performed witha 1.5-T superconducting magnet unit (Sigma. RESULTS: Forty-seven (87% of the 54 patientsshowing signs of periportal fibrosis identified through US investigation had confirmed diagnosesby MRI. In the seven discordant cases (13%, MRI revealed fat tissue filling in the hilar periportalspace where US indicated isolated thickening around the main portal vein at its point of entryto the liver. We named this the fatty hilum sign. One of the 47 patients with MRI evidence ofperiportal fibrosis had had his gallbladder removed previously. Thirty-five (76.1% of the other46 patients had an expanded gallbladder fossa filled with fat tissue, whereas MRI of the remainingeleven showed pericholecystic signs of fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Echogenic thickening of thegallbladder wall and of the main portal vein wall heretofore attributed to fibrosis were frequentlyidentified as fat tissue in MRI. However, the gallbladder wall thickening shown in US (expandedgallbladder fossa in MRI is probably secondary to combined hepatic morphologic changes inschistosomiasis, representing severe liver involvement.

  15. Universal Stress Proteins as New Targets for Environmental and Therapeutic Interventions of Schistosomiasis

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    Priscilla Masamba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host. Just like any other organism, the worm possesses mechanisms that help them respond to environmental insults. It has been hypothesized that a special class of proteins known as Universal Stress Proteins (USPs are up-regulated during sudden environmental changes, thus assisting the worm to tolerate the unfavourable conditions associated with its developmental cycle. The position of praziquantel as the drug of choice against all schistosome infections has been deemed vulnerable due to mounting concerns over drug pressure and so the need for alternative treatment is now a matter of urgency. Therefore, this review seeks to explore the associations and possible roles of USPs in schistosomiasis as well as the functioning of these proteins in the schistosomulae stage in order to develop new therapeutic interventions against this disease.

  16. Induction of protective immune responses against schistosomiasis using functionally active cysteine peptidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashika eEl Ridi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Each year schistosomiasis afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries, predominantly in the developing world. Yet we depend on a single drug, praziquantel, for its treatment and control. There is no vaccine available but one is urgently needed especially since praziquantel-resistant parasites are likely to emerge at some time in the future. The disease is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma. These express several classes of papain-like cysteine peptidases, cathepsins B and L, in various tissues but particularly in their gastrodermis where they employ them as digestive enzymes. We have shown that sub-cutaneous injection of recombinant and functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1, or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1, elicits highly significant protection (up to 73% against an experimental challenge worm infection in murine models of schistosomiasis. The immune modulating properties of this subcutaneous injection can boost protection levels (up to 83% when combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP. This cysteine-treatment can also protect mice from S. haematobium infection. Here, we discuss these data in the context of the parasite’s biology and development, and provide putative mechanism by which the native-like cysteine peptidase induce protective immune responses.

  17. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  19. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  1. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis.

  2. KONTRIBUSI HEWAN MAMALIA SAPI, KERBAU, KUDA, BABI DAN ANJING DALAM PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KECAMATAN LINDU KABUPATEN SIGI PROPINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik jaringan yang terabaikan. Schistosomiasis adalah penyakit parasitik yang bersifat zoonosis, selain menginfeksi manusia juga menginfeksi hewan mamalia lainnya. Ada 13 mamalia yang diketahui dapat terinfeksi oleh schistosomiasis antara lain sapi(Bos sundaicus, kerbau (Bubalus bubalis, kuda (Equus cabalus, anjing (Canis familiaris, babi (Sus sp, musang (Vivera tangalunga, rusa (Carvus timorensis, dan berbagai jenis tikus (Rattus exulans, R. hoffmani, R. chysomomusrallus, R. marmosurus, R norvegicus, R palallae. Di Indonesia schistosomiasis disebabkan oleh cacing Schistosoma japonicum dan hanya ditemukan endemik di Sulawesi Tengah yaitu di dataran tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi reservoir dalam penularan schistosomiasis di Kecamatan Lindu, Kabupaten Sigi, Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Metode penelitian ini adalah deskriptif observational dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengumpulan data primer dilakukan dengan mengobservasi mamalia yang berisiko,dengan pengambilan dan pemeriksaan sampel tinja hewan mamali tersebut. Sejumlah 219 sampel tinja hewan mamalia yang terdiri dari sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda diperiksa dengan menggunakan metode sentrifugasi formalin-eter. Dari hasil pemeriksaan tinja yang dilakukan dilaboratorium Parasitologi Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala sebanyak 54 sampel tinja hewan mamalia (sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda positif terinfeksi S.japonicum.Kata kunci : Schistosomiasis, hewan mamalia, Schistosoma japonicumAbstractSchistosomiasis is one of neglected parasitic diseaseds and also a zoonosic disease, in addition to humans it also infect mammals. There were 13 known mammals that can be infected by schistosomiasis, i.e. cattle (Bos sundaicus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, horse (Equus Cabalus, dog (Canis familiaris, pig(Sus sp, civet cat(Vivera tangalunga, deer (Cervus timorensis, and various types of rat (Rattus exulans, R

  3. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  4. HEALTH EDUCATION AND THE CONTROL OF UROGENITAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE JUMA NA KICHOCHO COMIC-STRIP MEDICAL BOOKLET IN ZANZIBAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Khamis, A N; Khamis, I S; Neo, C H E; Wei, I; Rollinson, D

    2016-09-01

    Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0.0 to 5.0) measured children's understandings of schistosomiasis and malaria, with the latter being a neutral comparator against specific changes for schistosomiasis. In 2006, the average score from 751 children (328 boys and 423 girls) was 2.39 for schistosomiasis and 3.03 for malaria. One year later, the score was 2.43 for schistosomiasis and 2.70 for malaria from 779 children (351 boys and 428 girls). As might be expected, knowledge and attitudes scores for schistosomiasis increased (+0.05), but not as much as originally hoped, while the score for malaria decreased (-0.33). According to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, neither change was statistically significant. Analysis also revealed that 75% of school children misunderstood the importance of reinfection after treatment with praziquantel. These results are disappointing. They demonstrate that it is mistaken to assume that knowledge conveyed in child-friendly booklets will necessarily be interpreted, and acted upon, in the way intended. If long-term sustained behavioural change is to be achieved, health education materials need to engage more closely with local understandings and responses to urogenital schistosomiasis. This, in turn, needs to be part of the development of a more holistic, biosocial approach to the control of schistosomiasis.

  5. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-03-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a

  6. Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths Distribution in Benin: A Baseline Prevalence Survey in 30 Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boko, Pelagie M.; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Onzo-Aboki, Ablawa; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Sissinto, Yollande; Batcho, Wilfrid; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothe; Kabore, Achille

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district. The schools were selected mainly according to their proximity to lakes or any bodies of water that were likely to have been used by the children. Samples of faeces and urine were collected from each pupil. Urinary schistosomiasis was identified using the urine filtration technique while STH and intestinal schistosomiasis were identified through the Kato Katz method. Overall a total of 7500 pupils were surveyed across 150 schools with a gender ratio of 1:1. Hookworm was identified in all 30 districts with a prevalence ranging from 1.2% (95%CI: 0.0–2.5) to 60% (95%CI: 53.9–66.1). Ascaris lumbricoides was detected in 19 districts with a prevalence rate between 1% (95%CI: 0.0–2.2) and 39% (95%CI: 32.9–45.0). In addition to these common STH, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at low prevalence. Only 16 districts were endemic to Schistosoma mansoni, while 29 districts were endemic to S. haematobium. The S. haematobium prevalence ranged from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.9) to 56% (95% CI: 50.2–62.5) while the prevalence of S. mansoni varied from 0.4% (95%CI: 0.0–1.2) to 46% (95% CI: 39.8–52.2). The 22 districts, where LF was successfully eliminated, still require mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole indicating that school-based MDA would be needed even after LF elimination in districts co-endemic to LF and STH in

  7. Hepatic stereology of schistosomiasis mansoni infected-mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Heisler Neves

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets induce weight gain and fatty liver in wild-type mice. Schistosomiasis mansoni infection also promotes hepatic injury. This study was designed to quantify hepatic alterations in schistosomiasis mansoni-infected mice fed a high fat-rich chow compared to mice fed a standard rodent chow, using stereology. Female SW mice fed each either high-fat diet (29% lipids or standard chow (12% lipids over 8 months, and then were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Four experimental groups were studied: infected mice fed a high-fat diet (IHFC or standard chow (ISC, uninfected mice fed a high-fat diet (HFC or standard chow (SC. Mice were sacrificed during early infection (9 weeks from exposure. The following hepatic biometry and the stereology parameters were determined: volume density (hepatocytes [h], sinusoids [s], steatosis [st] and hepatic fibrosis [hf]; numerical density (hepatocyte nuclei - Nv[h]; absolute number of total hepatocyte N[h], normal hepatocyte N[nh], and binucleated hepatocyte N[bh], percentage of normal hepatocyte P[nh] and binucleated hepatocyte P[bh]. IHFC and HFC groups exhibited TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and body mass significantly greater (p < 0.05 than control group. No significant differences were found regards liver volume (p = 0.07. Significant differences were observed regards P[nh] (p = 0.0045, P[bh] (p = 0.0045, Nv[h] (p = 0.0006, N[h] (p = 0.0125, N[bh] (p = 0.0164 and N[nh] (p = 0.0078. IHFC mice group presented 29% of binucleated hepatocytes compared to HFC group (19%, ISC group (17% and SC (6%. Volume density was significantly different between groups: Vv[h] (p = 0.0052, Vv[s] (p = 0.0025, Vv[st] (p = 0.0004, and Vv[hf] (p = 0.0007. In conclusion, schistosomiasis mansoni infection with concurrent high-fat diet promotes intensive quantitative changes in hepatic structure, contributing to an increasing on hepatic regeneration.

  8. Acute schistosomiasis diagnosis: a new tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a group of travelers recently infected in a new focus of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni on early stages of infection is important to prevent late morbidity. A simple, cheap, sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection based on the detection of specific IgG for schistosomula tegument antigens (ELISA-SmTeg was developed by our group. Methods We describe here an acute outbreak involving a travel group of 80 individuals from a non-endemic area of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These individuals were in contact with a freshwater pool where Biomphalaria glabrata was found. Results obtained from our new methodology were compared to IgG antibody titers against soluble worm antigenic preparation (SWAP by ELISA and, also to parasitological examination, nuclear magnetic resonance and clinical findings. Results ELISA-SmTeg was capable of detecting 64 positive cases among the 80 individuals participating at the survey with a positivity ratio of 80% and a higher sensitivity than ELISA-SWAP that was only sensitive for 56% of positive cases. Besides, a significant correlation was found for the severity of the infection and the specific IgG titers against SmTeg. Conclusions Our data showed that ELISA-SmTeg might serve as the initial diagnostic tool for acute stages of the infection in community-based helminth control programs or for the surveillance of individuals from non-endemic areas.

  9. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided.

  10. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  12. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  13. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated. Results The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ. Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs

  14. Effect of artemether on cytokine profile and egg induced pathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen A. Madbouly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemether (ART, the methylated derivative of artemisinin, is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg body weight of ART in comparison with PZQ treatment (42 days PI. ART administration was 7, 14, 21 and 45 days PI. ART effect was studied parasitologically, histopathologically and immunologically. It was found that maximum effect was reached when ART treatment interfered with 14 or 21 days old schistosomula. ART treatment 14 or 21 days PI was associated with shift from Th2 to Th1 predominancy (decrease in IL-4 and upgrading of serum IFN-γ levels. In conclusion, ART is a promising drug in control of schistosomiasis mansoni due to its reductive effect on worm burden and its role in improvement of hepatic granulomatous lesions.

  15. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal;

    countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living......The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... surveys were discarded. The presence of T. solium was georeferenced with an online gazetteer using information on place names in the published literature. We found 117 reports of T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis in Africa from 1970 to 2012. A total of 538 districts (admin level 4 or equivalent) in 25...

  16. Schistosomiasis-induced squamous cell bladder carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Lis Høy; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2015-01-01

    The burden of Schistosoma haematobium-associated bladder cancer is very high in Africa; nevertheless the disease can pose considerable diagnostic challenges in low prevalence countries. We present the case of a 40-year-old HIV co-infected woman, originally from Mozambique, who had persisting...... haematuria for more than a year. Investigations revealed invasive S. haematobium-associated squamous cell bladder cancer. If her origin had been taken into account, the diagnosis might have been made earlier. Awareness of the disease prevalence among HIV co-infected patients from endemic areas and timely...... screening of such patients is important for the early diagnosis of schistosomiasis and related complications, such as S. haematobium-associated squamous cell bladder cancer....

  17. Factors influencing phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium by macrophages in murine schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz-Junqueira Maria Imaculada

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of Salmonella typhimurium load and specific antibodies on phagocytosis in schistosomiasis. Macrophages from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice showed depressed capacity to increase the phagocytosis in the presence of a high bacterial load, due to a reduced involvement of these cells in phagocytosis and to a deficient ability to increase the number of phagocytosed bacteria. Normal and Salmonella-infected mice increased their phagocytic capacity when exposed to a high bacterial load. Antibody to Salmonella increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice due to an increase in the number of bacteria phagocytosed but caused no modification in the number of macrophages engaged in phagocytosis. Our data indicate that macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice work close to their functional limit, since no increase in phagocytosis was observed after increasing the bacterial load. Specific antibodies can improve their phagocytic capacity and, therefore, could help clearing concurrent infection.

  18. Reduced uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis control in absence of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2015-01-01

    effects attributable to praziquantel and prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis infection. Differences in the demographic and descriptive variables between the 2013 and 2014 samples were compared using chi squared tests for categorical variables and student's t-test for geometric mean intensity of S......, the difference in the geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni infection in both the snack and non-snack schools was not statistically significant; 38.3 eggs per gram of stool (epg) and 145.7 epg (p = 0.197) and 78.4 epg and 322.5 epg (p = 0.120), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results show that in absence of food...

  19. Glutathione S-transferases of 28kDa as major vaccine candidates against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Riveau

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available For the development of vaccine strategies to generate efficient protection against chronic infections such as parasitic diseases, and more precisely schistosomiasis, controlling pathology could be more relevant than controlling the infection itself. Such strategies, motivated by the need for a cost-effective complement to existing control measures, should focus on parasite molecules involved in fecundity, because in metazoan parasite infections pathology is usually linked to the output of viable eggs. In numerous animal models, vaccination with glutathione S-transferases of 28kDa has been shown to generate an immune response strongly limiting the worm fecundity, in addition to the reduction of the parasite burden. Recent data on acquired immunity directed to 28GST in infected human populations, and new development to draw adapted vaccine formulations, are presented.

  20. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection. How...... statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS........ However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images....... In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P

  1. Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanelli Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF, observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata populations. The superior competitor actually gives some benefit to the other species, whose population becomes unstable with progressively increasing oscillations, leading to extinction. A model of ACF using difference equations suggests initial dynamics distinct from traditional interspecific competition. The dynamics of two freshwater snails in the field and in laboratory experiments suggest ACF, and these relations should be considered in studies of schistosomiasis control. ACF could occur in natural populations, but might have gone undetected because the final result is similar to traditional interspecific competition.

  2. Surgical indication in Schistosomiasis mansoni portal hypertension: follow-up from 1985 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The study had the objective to evaluate the benefits of surgical indication for portal hypertension in schistosomiasis patients followed from 1985 to 2001. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were confirmed by at least six stool examinations or rectal biopsy. Clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, and digestive endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal varices. A hundred and two patients, 61.3% male (14-53 years old were studied. Digestive hemorrhage, hypersplenism, left hypochondrial pain, abdominal discomfort, and hypogonadism were, in a decreasing order, the major signs and symptoms determining surgical indication. Among the surgical techniques employed, either splenectomy associated to splenorenal anastomosis or azigoportal desvascularization, esophageal gastric descompression and esophageal sclerosis were used. Follow-up of patients revealed that, independent on the technique utilized, a 9.9% of death occurred, caused mainly by digestive hemorrhage due to the persistence of post-treatment varices. The authors emphasize the benefits of elective surgical indication allowing a normal active life.

  3. Decay of antibody isotypes against early developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni after treatment of schistosomiasis patients

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    Herminia Yohko KANAMURA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to a number of parasite antigens are found in schistosomiasis patients, and antibodies to early developmental stages were demonstrated to be efficient immunologic markers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. In the present study, decay patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies against cercariae and schistosomula were investigated, in comparison to antibodies against worms and eggs in schistosomiasis patients after chemotherapy, for an investigation of seroepidemiologic aspects. Data obtained in the study of 359 serum samples from patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection, noninfected individuals, and patients followed-up for a period of 12 to 15 months after treatment provided the basis to postulate a general pattern for the kinetics of antibody decay. Before treatment, the antibody pattern was represented by a unimodal curve, which shifted to a bimodal curve after treatment, and ended with a unimodal curve similar to that for the noninfected group. Different types of antibodies were classified into four categories according to their decay features, and anti-schistosomulum IgM was classified into the moderate-decay caterogy, whereas other antibodies to early parasite stages were classified into the slow-decay category. The present methodology permits the identification of the most suitable antibodies to be detected in field control programs for schistosomiasis or other parasitosesEm pacientes com esquistossomose, são encontrados anticorpos contra grande número de antígenos parasitários, e aqueles contra formas evolutivas jovens do parasita demonstraram que eram eficientes marcadores imunológicos para o diagnóstico da esquistossomose. Padrões de queda de anticorpos IgM e IgG contra cercária e esquistossômulo foram aqui estudados, comparativamente aos dos anticorpos contra verme e ovo, em pacientes esquistossomóticos após quimioterapia, abordando aspectos soroepidemiológicos. Dados obtidos no estudo de 359 amostras de soros

  4. Application of synthetic peptides in development of a serologic method for laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Edward José de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of seven peptides synthesized from Schistosoma mansoni proteins, was evaluated by dot-blot and ELISA assays using two different sensitization methodologies. The best results were obtained on wells of the Costar 3590 microplates coated with peptides P1, P2, P3, P6, and P7 using conventional methodology. The signals increased considerably (p < 0.0003 on wells sensitized with P1 to P6 using alternative methodology. In contrast, the well coated with peptide P7 presented lower signal when compared with conventional methodology (p = 0.0019. These results, establish the basis for the application of synthetic peptides for laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni.

  5. Economic evaluation in schistosomiasis: valuation of health states preferences. A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M

    1998-09-01

    Poor countries can ill-afford ineffective health care. An effective disease intervention is one which produces a net improvement in beneficiaries' quality of life and/or increases life expectancy. Unlike developed countries, very little research has been done in developing countries on the measures of the ultimate output of health care. The objectives of this study were to: (i) apply the existing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) methods in eliciting health state valuations from farmers, teachers and health professionals living and working in the schistosomiasis endemic Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya; (ii) determine whether there is significant difference between average health states valuations from the three main groups of people at risk of schistosomiasis infection; and (iii) assess the relative effect of different respondent characteristics and health states prognosis on valuations. The instrument consists of seven health state descriptions-each defined along six functional dimensions: self-care, mobility, livelihood activities, energy, social participation and pain. Cardinal health state values were measured using a visual-analogue-scale (VAS). Values were elicited from three random samples of farming general public, medical professionals and teachers. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test showed that there is significant difference in the average health state values (for mild, moderate, severe, very severe and comatose states) obtained from the three samples. Generally, except for the valuation of the immediately following state, the other explanatory variables are not statistically significant determinants of valuations for the mild, moderate, severe and very severe states. The results suggest that VAS valuations are primarily affected by prognosis. There is urgent need for more representative and systematic HRQoL studies to test the relevance of the Western-based generic instruments in African countries contexts, with a view to developing more

  6. Performance of POC-CCA® in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in individuals with low parasite burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Maria Vidal Siqueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is a public health concern in Brazil. However, the most popular diagnostic method, the Kato-Katz technique, exhibits low sensitivity in low-endemicity areas. We aimed to compare the performance of an immunological assay, the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA® test, with that of two parasitological techniques in a low-endemicity population. METHODS: Our study included 141 individuals living in Estreito de Miralta, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fecal samples were obtained from all participants and analyzed for schistosomiasis using two parasitological techniques: the Kato-Katz technique and the saline gradient technique. Additionally, POC-CCA® strips were utilized for testing urine samples. The results obtained by the different techniques were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of two or 24 slides using the Kato-Katz technique resulted in a positivity rate of 10.6% (15/141 or 19.1% (27/141, respectively. The saline gradient technique yielded a positivity rate of 17.0% (24/141. The prevalence according to both parasitological techniques was 24.1% (34/141. The POC-CCA® test yielded a positivity rate of 22.7% (32/141; however, the positivity rate was merely 2.1% if trace results were considered negative. The agreements observed between POC-CCA® and the parasitological techniques were good (Kappa indexes > 0.64. The POC-CCA® test was more sensitive than the two-slide Kato-Katz technique (p < 0.05 in detecting cases of S. mansoni infection when trace results were considered positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the importance of using multiple diagnostic techniques in low-endemicity areas for effective control of disease.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni; Ressonancia magnetica na esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Bruno Perocco; Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (BRazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive. Laboratory findings revealed a leukocyte count of 10,000/mL, a normal red blood cell count and no eosinophilia. The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules (Figures A and B: axial and coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images showed the nodular - yellow arrows - enhancement pattern of a left cerebellar intraxial lesion). The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla. There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum (Figure C). After surgery, treatment with praziquantel (50 mg/kg/dia, single dose) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was offered and the patient improved quickly. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: he was asymptomatic and with no neurological impairment. This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images. (author)

  8. Immunization of mice with cells from juvenile worms of Schistosoma japonicum provides immunoprotection against schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To validate the protective efficacy against schistosomiasis by immunization with cells from juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model and to analyze possible factors related to protection, in this study, two independent repeated vaccination trials were performed. After three subcutaneous vaccinations, in trial one, in the absence of adjuvant, primary juvenile worm cells (pJCs) from S. japonicum induced remarkable average reductions in worm burden (54.3%), liver eggs per gram (LEPG) load (59.8%) as well as egg granulomas size (66.5%) compared to PBS control group (P<0.01), which were significantly higher than those elicited by fractions of juvenile worm cells (JCFs) or fractions of juvenile worms (JWFs) (P<0.05). Non-cell components of worms (WNCs) showed no significant protection. In trial two, compared to PBS control group, significant protective effect was also observed for cultured juvenile worm cells (cJCs) from S. japonicum with 58.4% worm reduction and 68.1% LEPG reduction (P<0.01). However, cultured adult worms cells (cACs) showed significantly higher worm burden (P<0.05) and egg burden (P<0.01) when compared to cJCs. Immunological analysis of trial two revealed that cJCs engendered a Th1-biased mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response while cACs elicited a Th2-type response. Our data indicated that immunization with both primary and cultured cells from S. japonicum juvenile worms provided high immunoprotection, for which the physical character of immunogens, stage-specific parasite and the type of immune response induced might be responsible, suggesting that vaccination with whole cells from S. japonicum larvae is a promising approach to produce protective immunity against schistosomiasis.

  9. Schistosomiasis epidemiology and control: how did we get here and where should we go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Sturrock

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a disease of great antiquity, scientific studies of schistosomiasis began only 150 years ago. The complete life-cycle was not described until just before the First World War, making it possible at last to plan proper community control programmes. Inadequate tools prevented their effective implementation until well after the Second World War when new tools became available, thanks to the newly formed World Health Organization. Molluscicides spearheaded control programmes until the late 1970s but were then replaced by the newly developed, safe drugs still used today. Whatever the method used, the initial goal of eradication was, in the light of experience and cost, gradually replaced by less ambitious targets; first to stop transmission and then to reduce morbidity. The most successful programmes combined several methods to minimise reinfection after chemotherapy. Comparisons between different programmes are difficult without using appropriate, standardised diagnostic techniques and the correct epidemiological measurements. Some examples will be presented, mainly from our studies on Schistosoma mansoni in Kenya. Drug resistance on a scale comparable with malaria has not occurred in schistosomiasis but the likely withdrawal of all drugs except praziquantel leaves its control extremely vulnerable to this potential problem. An effective, affordable vaccine for use in endemic countries is unlikely to be ready for at least 5 years, and developing strategies for its use could take a further decade or more, judging from experience with drugs and molluscicides. In the interim, by analogy with malaria, the most cost-effective approach would the use of drugs combined with other methods to stop transmission, including molluscicides. The cost of molluscicides needs to be reduced and fears allayed about their supposedly adverse ecological effects.

  10. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

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    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  11. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  12. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  13. Chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni: magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, A.S.; D' Ippolito, G.; Caldana, R.P.; Cecin, A.O.; Ahmed, M.; Szejnfeld, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Federal Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the hepatosplenic manifestations and the portal venous system in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 28 patients with chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the abdomen. Images were interpreted independently by two radiologists to determine the reproducibility of image interpretation and who evaluated the presence of morphological alterations in the liver and spleen, such as hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic fissure widening, periportal fibrosis, and the presence of siderotic nodules. Interobserver and intra-observer agreement were measured with the kappa and intraclass correlation tests. Evaluation of venous collateral pathways and portal and splenic veins was done in consensus by both examiners. Results: Observers identified enlargement of the left lobe (78.5-92.8%) and caudate-to-right-lobe ratio (78.5-92.8%), irregularity of hepatic contours (89.2-96.4%), fissure widening (89.2-100%), and splenic siderotic nodules (84.2%). Splenomegaly, heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, peripheral hepatic vessels, and periportal fibrosis were observed in 100% of patients. MRI findings presented almost perfect interobserver (kappa 0.65-1) and intra-observer (kappa = 0.73-1 for observer 1, and kappa = 0.65-1 for observer 2) agreement for the variables analyzed. MRA showed the presence of collateral pathways in the majority of patients (71.4%) along with widening of portal and splenic veins. Conclusion: Using MRI, hepatosplenic alterations in schistosomiasis are characterized by heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, presence of peripheral perihepatic vessels, periportal fibrosis, splenomegaly, siderotic nodules, and the presence of venous collateral pathways.

  14. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

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    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  15. Evaluation of a Urine Pooling Strategy for the Rapid and Cost-Efficient Prevalence Classification of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A key epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is its focal distribution, which has important implications for the spatial targeting of preventive chemotherapy programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a urine pooling strategy using a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detection of Schistosoma mansoni, and employed simulation modeling to test the classification accuracy and efficiency of this strategy in determining where preventive chemotherapy is needed in low-endemicity settings. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study involving 114 children aged 6–15 years in six neighborhoods in Azaguié Ahoua, south Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA cassette test with urine samples that were tested individually and in pools of 4, 8, and 12. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate test characteristics for individual POC-CCA and quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears on stool samples. We then developed a microsimulation model and used lot quality assurance sampling to test the performance, number of tests, and total cost per school for each pooled testing strategy to predict the binary need for school-based preventive chemotherapy using a 10% prevalence threshold for treatment. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the urine pooling strategy for S. mansoni diagnosis using pool sizes of 4, 8, and 12 was 85.9%, 79.5%, and 65.4%, respectively, when POC-CCA trace results were considered positive, and 61.5%, 47.4%, and 30.8% when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative. The modeled specificity ranged from 94.0–97.7% for the urine pooling strategies (when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative). The urine pooling strategy, regardless of the pool size, gave comparable and often superior classification performance to stool microscopy for the same number of tests. The urine pooling strategy with a pool size of 4 reduced the number of tests and total

  16. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  17. 江苏省血吸虫病疫情监测与风险评估系统的研究Ⅲ扬州市沿江地区血吸虫病传播风险监测评估%Surveillance and risk assessment system of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Prov-inceⅢRisk of schistosomiasis transmission in the area along the Yangtze River in Yang-zhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左引萍; 张进; 孙乐平; 朱道建; 杜广林; 唐恺; 马玉才; 张正球; 陈韶洲; 王福彪; 汤洪萍

    2016-01-01

    the area along the Yangtze River in Yangzhou City in 2015. A total of 1 500 sentinel mice were placed,after breeding,their overall sur⁃vival rate was 99.33%;1 490 were dissected,with no schistosome infection. Of the 5 576 floating boatmen and fishermen exam⁃ined,no schistosome infection was observed,and among the 3 566 domestic animals(including 171 cattle,1 895 sheep and 1 500 pigs),no infections were detected. During the period between January and March,2016,there were 3 200 mouse traps placed on 8 marshlands,and 62 wild mice were captured from 6 marshlands,with a capture rate of 1.94%,and no schistosome⁃infected wild mice were seen. In addition,there were 35 pieces of fresh wild feces captured from 7 marshlands,including 11 pieces of bovine feces(31.43%),17 pieces of sheep feces(48.57%),2 pieces of dog feces(5.71%)and 5 pieces of other feces (14.29%),and no infections were detected. Conclusions There is a low risk of schistosomiasis transmission in the area along the Yangtze River in Yangzhou City. However,the contamination of feces from bovine and sheep that are freely pastured on marshlands is a big threat to schistosomiasis control.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of bovine leukemia virus associated with enzootic bovine leukosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Keiko; Inoue, Emi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been increasing yearly in Japan although several European countries have successfully eradicated the infection. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis on the env gene obtained from 64 tumor samples found in different regions in Japan was carried out in order to define the genetic background of BLV strains prevailing in the country. Most of the Japanese isolates were found to reside in the consensus cluster or genotype 1 of BLV strains (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Out of them, 21 isolates and 10 isolates exhibited the identical sequences, respectively. Only one isolate was classified into the different genotype related to the US isolates. Analysis on the deduced amino acids of gp51 demonstrated the sequence diversity in the neutralizing domain. These data may indicate that two major populations of BLV prevailed throughout Japan, whereas antigenic variants also exist. It was further proved that multiple invasion of the genetically different BLV strains have occurred in Japan.

  19. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  20. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  1. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  2. Estimating the cost of the mass treatment campaign for schistosomiasis in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maphumulo, Andile A; Gagai, Silindile; Lothe, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    by consumables (9%), transport (4%) and capital items (1%) respectively. The highest cost proportion by activity was Treatment costs (74%) followed by administration (19%), school visits (4%) and advocacy (3%) respectively. Conclusions: The praziquantel tablets and personnel contribute the highest costs....... The evidence shows that there is a need for implementation of a schistosomiasis Mass Treatment Campaign (MTC) but information about the cost of such a programme is unknown in South Africa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional descriptive costing study for a schistosomiasis MTC was conducted......, from a provider perspective. Costs were classified by cost inputs and activity. Financial records were reviewed for all 60 randomly selected schools participating in the MTC in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal. An Excel database was used for data analysis. Preliminary Findings: Forty five percent (16 239...

  3. Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  4. Macrophage P2X7 Receptor Function Is Reduced during Schistosomiasis: Putative Role of TGF-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D’arc Santos Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease whose macrophages are involved in immunopathology modulation. Although P2X7 receptor signaling plays an important role in inflammatory responses mediated by macrophages, no reports have examined the role of P2X7 receptors in macrophage function during schistosomiasis. Thus, we evaluated P2X7 receptor function in peritoneal macrophages during schistosomiasis using an ATP-induced permeabilization assay and measurements of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. ATP treatment induced significantly less permeabilization in macrophages from S. mansoni-infected mice than in control cells from uninfected animals. Furthermore, P2X7-mediated increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels were also reduced in macrophages from infected mice. TGF-β1 levels were increased in the peritoneal cavity of infected animals, and pretreatment of control macrophages with TGF-β1 reduced ATP-induced permeabilization, mimicking the effect of S. mansoni infection. Western blot and qRT-PCR data showed no difference in P2X7 protein and mRNA between uninfected, infected, and TGF-β1-treated groups. However, immunofluorescence analysis revealed reduced cell surface localization of P2X7 receptors in macrophages from infected and TGF-β1-treated mice compared to controls. Therefore, our data suggest that schistosomiasis reduces peritoneal macrophage P2X7 receptor signaling. This effect is likely due to the fact that infected mice have increased levels of TGF-β1, which reduces P2X7 receptor cell surface expression.

  5. An interactomics overview of the human and bovine milk proteome over lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Background: Milk is the most important food for growth and development of the neonate, because of its nutrient composition and presence of many bioactive proteins. Differences between human and bovine milk in low abundant proteins have not been extensively studied. To better understand the differ

  6. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Christensen, Knud Arnbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a poss...

  7. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  8. Implications of Changing Temperatures on the Growth, Fecundity and Survival of Intermediate Host Snails of Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Kalinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs. This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost and PubMed databases using predefined medical subject heading terms, Boolean operators and truncation symbols in combinations with direct key words. The final synthesis included nineteen published articles. The studies reviewed indicated that temperature rise may alter the distribution, optimal conditions for breeding, growth and survival of IH snails which may eventually increase the spread and/or transmission of schistosomiasis. The literature also confirmed that the life history traits of IH snails and their interaction with the schistosome parasites are affected by temperature and hence a change in climate may have profound outcomes on the population size of snails, parasite density and disease epidemiology. We concluded that understanding the impact of temperature on the growth, fecundity and survival of IH snails may broaden the knowledge on the possible effects of climate change and hence inform schistosomiasis control programmes.

  9. Implications of Changing Temperatures on the Growth, Fecundity and Survival of Intermediate Host Snails of Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinda, Chester; Chimbari, Moses; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-01-13

    Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs). This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost and PubMed databases using predefined medical subject heading terms, Boolean operators and truncation symbols in combinations with direct key words. The final synthesis included nineteen published articles. The studies reviewed indicated that temperature rise may alter the distribution, optimal conditions for breeding, growth and survival of IH snails which may eventually increase the spread and/or transmission of schistosomiasis. The literature also confirmed that the life history traits of IH snails and their interaction with the schistosome parasites are affected by temperature and hence a change in climate may have profound outcomes on the population size of snails, parasite density and disease epidemiology. We concluded that understanding the impact of temperature on the growth, fecundity and survival of IH snails may broaden the knowledge on the possible effects of climate change and hence inform schistosomiasis control programmes.

  10. Scrotal Swelling and Testicular Atrophy due to Schistosomiasis in a 9-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Rambau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a communicable disease which commonly involves urinary bladder causing hematuria, or large bowel causing bloody stool. The common species encountered in this lake region surrounding Lake Victoria in Tanzania are Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Complications can lead to portal hypertension due portal fibrosis in liver, and fibrosis in lung can lead to pulmonary hypertension; this commonly seen with S. mansoni. Major complications of S. maeametobium are chronic cystitis with squamous metaplasia with subsequent development of squamous cell carcinoma. Involvement of spinal cord causing paraplegia has been observed in S. haematobium. Other unusual pathology of schistosomiasis has been described, such as involvement of the appendix, ovary, prostate, and cervix. Here, we present a case of schistosomiasis in a 9-year-old boy who presented with left scrotal pain for one year which was accompanied by scrotal swelling; surgical exploration was done, and the finding was hydrocele and atrophic testes with nodules on the surface. Histological examination reveals atrophic testis and heavy active granulomatous inflammation with schistosoma eggs consistent with Schistosoma haematobium in the tunica vaginalis.

  11. Hydrology and density feedbacks control the ecology of intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis across habitats in seasonal climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-06-07

    We report about field and theoretical studies on the ecology of the aquatic snails (Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) that serve as obligate intermediate hosts in the complex life cycle of the parasites causing human schistosomiasis. Snail abundance fosters disease transmission, and thus the dynamics of snail populations are critically important for schistosomiasis modeling and control. Here, we single out hydrological drivers and density dependence (or lack of it) of ecological growth rates of local snail populations by contrasting novel ecological and environmental data with various models of host demography. Specifically, we study various natural and man-made habitats across Burkina Faso's highly seasonal climatic zones. Demographic models are ranked through formal model comparison and structural risk minimization. The latter allows us to evaluate the suitability of population models while clarifying the relevant covariates that explain empirical observations of snail abundance under the actual climatic forcings experienced by the various field sites. Our results link quantitatively hydrological drivers to distinct population dynamics through specific density feedbacks, and show that statistical methods based on model averaging provide reliable snail abundance projections. The consistency of our ranking results suggests the use of ad hoc models of snail demography depending on habitat type (e.g., natural vs. man-made) and hydrological characteristics (e.g., ephemeral vs. permanent). Implications for risk mapping and space-time allocation of control measures in schistosomiasis-endemic contexts are discussed.

  12. A call to strengthen the global strategy against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Addiss, David G; Hotez, Peter J; King, Charles H; Stothard, J Russell; Evans, Darin S; Colley, Daniel G; Lin, William; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Raso, Giovanna; Bendavid, Eran; Bogoch, Isaac I; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David; Utzinger, Jürg; Andrews, Jason R

    2017-02-01

    In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy. In this Personal View, we highlight recent advances that, taken together, support a call to revise the global strategy and guidelines for preventive chemotherapy and complementary interventions against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. These advances include the development of guidance that is specific to goals of morbidity control and elimination of transmission. We quantify the result of forgoing this opportunity by computing the yearly disease burden, mortality, and lost economic productivity associated with maintaining the status quo. Without change, we estimate that the population of sub-Saharan Africa will probably lose 2·3 million disability-adjusted life-years and US$3·5 billion of economic productivity every year, which is comparable to recent acute epidemics, including the 2014 Ebola and 2015 Zika epidemics. We propose that the time is now to strengthen the global strategy to address the substantial disease burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

  13. Information and education in schistosomiasis control: an analysis of the situation in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schall Virgínia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main ideas discussed in the round-table "Social and Educacional Aspects of Schistosomiasis Control", during the VII International Symposium of Schistosomiais. Considering the perspectives of schistosomiasis control in Brazil, it is described the example of the State of Minas Gerais , where the disease has been registered for more than seven decades. The importance of an extensive evaluation is now more important, considering the recent change in the Brazilian health system, since the Federal responsibility for the tropical diseases control programs have been replaced by the municipalities coordination. In this way, it is urgent to develop effective alternatives to assist the municipal staffs in the control task. In the specific case of health education, one observes a wide gap between the planned objectives and what is in fact carried out. Instant objectives and the utilization of traditional techniques prevail, which do not take into account the active participation of the population involved. Based on the authors' experience in the scientific and health education, the paper analyzes: (1 some data from a case study in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which presents the social representation and perception of schistosomiasis by the population; (2 an analysis of 35 different informative and educative materials used in Brazil since the sixties, and (3 some recommendations resulted from the studies that were carried out.

  14. Implications of Changing Temperatures on the Growth, Fecundity and Survival of Intermediate Host Snails of Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinda, Chester; Chimbari, Moses; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs). This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost and PubMed databases using predefined medical subject heading terms, Boolean operators and truncation symbols in combinations with direct key words. The final synthesis included nineteen published articles. The studies reviewed indicated that temperature rise may alter the distribution, optimal conditions for breeding, growth and survival of IH snails which may eventually increase the spread and/or transmission of schistosomiasis. The literature also confirmed that the life history traits of IH snails and their interaction with the schistosome parasites are affected by temperature and hence a change in climate may have profound outcomes on the population size of snails, parasite density and disease epidemiology. We concluded that understanding the impact of temperature on the growth, fecundity and survival of IH snails may broaden the knowledge on the possible effects of climate change and hence inform schistosomiasis control programmes.

  15. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  16. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  17. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  18. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  19. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -cultural construction of identity, and, as a matter of fact, that their role might be quite important. I argue that the DDAs are backgrounded but not peripheral, i.e. marginal or insignificant. And I introduce the notion of “contextualization cue” in this argument (Levinson, 2003a, Gumperz, 1992)....

  20. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  1. Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two

  2. Nephrotic syndrome associated with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis Síndrome nefrótica associada à esquistossomose hepatointestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abensur

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomal nephropathy has long been related to the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis. In the last few years, 24 patients with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis and the nephrotic syndrome were studied. Aiming at evaluating a possible etiologic participation of schistosomiasis in the development of the nephropathy, this group was comparatively studied with a group of 37 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Both groups had a different distribution of the histologic lesions. In the group with schistosomiasis there was a statistically significant prevalence of proliferative mesangial glomerulonephritis (33.3%, whereas in the control group there was prevalence of membranous glomerulonephritis (32.4%. On immunofluorescence, IgM was positive in 94.4% of the patients with schistosomiasis versus 55.0% in the control group (pA nefropatia esquistossomótica está classicamente vinculada à fornia hepatoesplênica da esquistossomose. Ao longo dos últimos anos 24 casos de pacientes esquistossomóticos hepato-intestinais e portadores de síndrome nefrótica foram estudados. Com o objetivo de verificar a possível participação etiológica da esquistossomose na gênese da nefropatia, analisamos este grupo comparativamente ao grupo de 37 doentes portadores de síndrome nefrótica idiopática. Ambos os grupos apresentaram distribuição distinta dos tipos histológicos de glomerulopatia. No grupo de esquistossomóticos houve predomínio estatisticamente significante de glomerulonefrite proliferativa mesangial (33.3%, enquanto no grupo controle houve predomínio da glomerulonefrite membranosa (32.4%. A positividade para IgM à imunofluorescência foi de 94.4% nos doentes esquistossomóticos versus 55.0% no grupo controle (p<0.01. No grupo de esquistossomóticos 8 pacientes evidenciaram glomerulonefrite proliferativa mesangial e 5, glomerulonefrite membranoproliferativa. Em ambos os tipos histológicos a imunofluorescência mostrou dep

  3. Análise de cartazes sobre esquistossomose elaborados por escolares Schistosomiasis and its portrayal on elementary school students posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lefèvre

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita análise de cartazes produzidos por escolares da região nordeste do Brasil, para o II° Concurso Nacional de Cartazes sobre Esquistossomose promovido pelo Programa Especial de Controle de Esquistossomose (PECE do Ministério da Saúde. A análise revelou 4 grandes tipos de cartazes que configuram atitudes distintas diante do problema da Esquistossomose: os cartazes que apresentavam uma atitude puramente negativa diante do problema; os que apresentavam uma atitude puramente positiva; os mistos (combinação dos 2 primeiros tipos, divididos em 2 sub-tipos, que apresentavam: o primeiro, o comportamento indesejado e uma alternativa para este comportamento e o segundo, os elementos do problema sem os relacionar em forma alternativa; e os que apresentavam explicações didáticas ou técnicas sobre esquistossomose. Concluiu-se que as propostas para enfrentar o problema da esquistossomose apresentadas através das mensagens educativas oficiais, refletidas nos cartazes dos escolares, configuraram uma estratégia de mudança radical e, a curto prazo, de comportamentos "primitivos". Sugeriu-se estratégia mais gradual que respeitasse os hábitos e valores culturais vigentes nas comunidades afetadas pela esquistossomose.Posters prepared by students in the northeast of Brazil for the III National Schistosomiasis Poster Contest, sponsored by the Health Ministry's Special Schistosomiasis Control Program, produced four major types of posters expressing different attitudes toward the problem of Schistosomiasis: posters showing a purely negative attitude (ex.; "Do not bathe in contaminated rivers"; those showing a purely positive attitude "Use the latrine"; and the mixed posters, a combination of the first, divided into two subtypes. The first of these subtypes projected a message about an undersirable behavior and an alternative to it; whereas, the second subtype presented the problem's elements but without relating them to alternatives. The last

  4. The Three Gorges Dam: Does it accelerate or delay the progress towards eliminating transmission of schistosomiasis in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-07-05

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in the largest endemic area of schistosomiasis in China, is one of the world's largest hydroelectric projects to date. Some large-scale hydro projects have resulted in schistosomiasis emergence or re-emergence. Therefore, the dam's potential impact on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum has raised concerns from medical researchers worldwide. A systematic literature review, coupled with an analysis of data on the water level and snail density in the Yangtze River was conducted to assess the impact of the dam on schistosomiasis transmission after more than 10 years of operation. The dam has significantly altered the water levels in the Yangtze River according to different seasons. These changes directly impact the ecology of the schistosome snail host. Due to the dam, there has been a reduction in the density of Oncomelania snails and/or changes in the distribution of snails. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum has decreased in the downstream areas of the dam, including in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum in humans has decreased from 6.80 % in 2002 (before the dam began operating) to 0.50 % in 2012, and the number of people infected with S. japonicum have decreased from 94 208 in 2002 to 59 200 in 2011 in the Poyang Lake region. The presence of the dam does not seem to affect snail breeding or the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Overall, the Three Gorges Dam has significantly contributed to changes in hydrology after more than 10 years of the dam operating. The changes caused by the dam, together with integrated control of schistosomiasis, might be accelerating the progress towards eliminating the transmission of S. japonicum in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite the positive effect the dam is having in controlling S. japonicum transmission, continued surveillance is required to monitor the future ecological impacts of the

  5. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and

  6. Histomorphometry of hepatic portal fibrosis in patients with surgical schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual histology report of hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni presents no association with hemodynamic and clinical liver parameters. Histomorphometry is adding a new tool of investigation for measuring density of portal fibrosis in these patients. This investigation was set up for assessing a possible agreement between the well-accepted international classification and the fibrosis density grades measured by histomorphometry. Thirty-five children and equal number of adults were included in this study. All patients underwent splenectomy and ligature of the left gastric vein. Histology findings were assessed in surgical liver biopsy stained with Masson trichrome. The official histology report was used as reference. The histomorphometric studies were done by semi-automatic morphometry. The mean percentage (X of portal fibrosis plus or minus one standard deviation (SD was classified as grade II (7.06% up to 34.72%; grade I was up to 7.06%; and grade III above 34.72%. Although, not reaching statistical significance, there is a tendency of the fibrosis to be more intense in children than adults (X±SD - 22.02±13.46% versus 20.63%±15.33% "t" = 0.379 p>0.05. Seven out of nine (77.8% patients classified as grade I, by morphometry, had the same result on the official report, however, two (22.2% were described as grade III. Sixteen out of forty-four (36.4% classified as grade II on morphometry had the same classification as the histology grade, but, twenty seven (61.4% were classified as grade III and one (2.3% as grade I. Fifteen (21.4% out of 70 patients had grade III on both classifications, but, two (11.8% out of seventeen G III on morphometry were grade II. The kappa (k measurement of agreement between both classification was k = 0.319, showing a fair strength of association. The histomorphometric measurements of Symmers fibrosis in surgical patients with mansonic schistosomiasis partially support the report

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  8. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  9. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  10. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  11. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  12. Use of a new glass microfibre histamine release method to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Individuals with different degrees of exposure to the disease show differing antibody biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Ebbesen, F.; Vennervald, B.;

    1996-01-01

    A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood b...... basophils sensitized with sera from Sudanese individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni was measured. Schistosomiasis sera (n=113) were able to passively sensitize basophils and induce a positive histamine release in response to whole worm homogenate (WWH)(chi(2)=40.5, P......A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood...

  13. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  15. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    , abundance and location of bacteria, and inflammation markers were investigated. Results NEC severity and interleukins (IL)-1β and -8 protein concentrations were lower, while villus height, galactose absorption, and brush-border enzyme activities were increased in the distal small intestine in COLOS......Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...

  16. Duplex sonography study in schistosomiasis portal hypertension: characterization of patients with and without a history of variceal bleeding Dopplerfluxometria portal na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica com e sem antecedentes de hemorragia por varizes esofágicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Marcos Borba de Arruda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Presinusoidal portal hypertension with frequent episodes of upper gastrointestinal variceal bleeding are hallmarks of hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis; a clinical form that affects about 5% of Brazilians who are infected by Schistosoma mansoni. AIMS: To evaluate duplex sonography findings in patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis with and without upper gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed whereby 27 consecutive patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis were divided into two groups: group I (six men and six women; mean age 48.7 years with a past history of bleeding and group II (four men and eight women; mean age 44.7 years without a past history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, underwent duplex sonography examination. All patients underwent the same upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory examinations. Those with signs of mixed chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis (three cases were excluded. RESULTS: Group I showed significantly higher mean portal vein flow velocity than group II (26.36 cm/s vs 17.15 cm/sec. Although, as a whole it was not significant in all forms of collateral vessels (83% vs 100%, there was a significantly higher frequency of splenorenal collateral circulation type in group II compared with group I (17% vs 67%. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly lower in group I than in group II (0.057 cm vs 0.073 cm/sec. CONCLUSION: Our duplex sonography findings in hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis support the idea that schistosomotic portal hypertension is strongly influenced by overflow status, and that collateral circulation seems to play an important role in hemodynamic behavior.RACIONAL: Hipertensão portal pré-sinusoidal com freqüentes episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta são aspectos característicos da esquistossomose hepatoesplênica, forma clínica que acomete cerca de 5% dos

  17. Reduced uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis control in absence of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    the other, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. The uptake of praziquantel in the snack schools was 94 % compared to 79 % in the non-snack schools. During mass treatment in 2014, no snack was provided. We compared the uptake of praziquantel...... effects attributable to praziquantel and prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis infection. Differences in the demographic and descriptive variables between the 2013 and 2014 samples were compared using chi squared tests for categorical variables and student's t-test for geometric mean intensity of S....... mansoni infection. RESULTS: Uptake of praziquantel reduced from 93.9 to 78.0 % (p = 0.002) in the snack schools but was unchanged in the non-schools 78.7 and 70.4 % (p = 0.176). The occurence of side-effects attributable to praziquantel increased from 34.4 to 61.2 % (p = 0.001) in the snack schools...

  18. Efficacy of oxamniquine, praziquantel and a combination of both drugs in schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zwingenberger

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare the efficacy of a low-dosage combination of oxamniquine (7.5 mg/kg plus praziquantel (20 mg/kg against either agent, oxamniquine (15 mg/kg or praziquantel (40 mg/kg alone, in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in the Brazilian north-east. The drugs were randomly administered per os to 91 patients. Six and twelve months after treatment 89% of those admitted to the trial were reexamined by Kato-Katz method (ten slides and MIF technique (one gram of stool The achieved cure rates, as defined by absence of S. mansoni eggs in the faeces of individual patients at all points during the parasitological follow-up, were 81.8%, 81.2% and 67.6% for praziquantel, oxamniquine and the combination respectively. The reduction of eggs excretion in non cured patients six months after therapy ranged from 93.8-96.8% with praziquantel, 32.5-97% with oxamniquine and 76.9-99.5% with the combination. It is concluded that, at the used dosages, the three therapeutical regimens give similar and satisfactory results in the treatment of uncomplicated S. mansoni infection in Brazil.

  19. [Environmental and social determinants in schistosomiasis mansoni in Ravena, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura-Filho, P; Farah, M W; Rezende, D F; Lamartine, S S; Carvalho, O S; Katz, N

    1995-01-01

    This study identified the role of biological and social determinants in the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ravena, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1980. This data was used to characterize the clinical and epidemiological profiles of the endemic desease in the population, allowing for the determination of the efficacy of the potable water supply and the specific treatment of those infected with S. mansoni. The district contains three locations, Ravenopolis, Ravena and Lavapes, where the prevalence of the endemic disease was, 20.1%, 42.6% and 63.9%, respectively. The prevalence in the district was statistically higher in men. The age brackets that displayed differences by gender were 10-14 and 15-19 years. Severity of infection was statistically different among individuals within the 10-14 year bracket in ali three locations, and in the 15-19 year bracket among individuals from Ravenopolis and Ravena. The hepatointestinal form was associated with age, and individuals under 15 years of age presented risk of infection 8.85 times higher than adults. Multivariable analysis of the factors involved in transmission of the disease showed that Lavapes was independently associated with infection. In that area, poor sanitary conditions and the proximity of houses to streams infested with S. marsoni cercariae facilitated infection of neighborhood women while performing domestic activities, as well as men digging sand from the streams for construction. These results show the focal nature of transmission of the endemic requiring specific intervention for effective control of disease.

  20. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  1. Prophylactic effect of artemether on human schistosomiasis mansoni among Egyptian children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorshedy, Hala; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert N; Sharaf, Soraya; Barakat, Rashida

    2016-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in an endemic focus for Schistosoma mansoni in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt, to evaluate the prophylactic effect of artemether (ART) given in conjunction with praziquantel (PZQ). The study encompassed 913 primary school children randomly assigned to two treatment groups PZQ/ART and PZQ/ART-placebo. At baseline, both groups received 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ twice four weeks apart, after which one group received 6 mg/kg body weight of ART every 3 weeks in 5 cycles during the transmission season and the other group received ART-placebo. At the end of the study, prevalence of infection among the PZQ/ART was approximately half that of the PZQ/ART-placebo group, i.e. 6.7% versus 11.6%, and incidence of new infections for the PZQ/ART was 2.7% versus 6.5% for the PZQ/ART-placebo. In conclusion, PZQ/ART combined therapy might be considered as an adjunct measure against human schistosomiasis, by specifically reducing transmission and therefore contribute to disease elimination.

  2. Hepatitis B and C virus markers among patients with hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO Renata Telles Rudge de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency and the consequences of the co-infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS. METHODS: B and C serologic markers, exposure to risk factors, biochemical assays, upper gastrointestinal endoscopies, and abdominal ultrasonograms were evaluated in 101 patients with HSS from 1994 to 1997. Whenever possible, PCR was tested and histopathological studies were reviewed. RESULTS: At least one HBV virus marker was found in 15.8%, and anti-HCV was detected in 12.9% of the subjects. The seropositive subjects tended to be older than the seronegative ones. A history of blood transfusion was significantly related to the presence of anti-HCV. Three (18.75% out of 16 subjects exposed to B virus were HBsAg positive. Eleven (84.6% out of thirteen patients who were anti-HCV positive demonstrated viral activity. Patients with ongoing viral infection presented a higher average level of liver aminotransferases, a higher frequency of cell decompensation and a higher rate of chronic hepatitis. Portal hypertension parameters were not influenced by viral exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of hepatitis B and C viruses serologic markers observed in the patients with HSS was higher than the control group. The co-infection was responsible for a higher frequency of cell decompensation.

  3. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica with interfacial co-assembly-based multi-channel electrochemical immunosensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wangping; Xu, Bin; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Wei; Song, Shiping; Feng, Zheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis control remains to be an important and challenging task in the world. However, lack of quick, simple, sensitive and specific sero-diagnostic test is still a hurdle in the control practice. The commonly employed enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the native soluble egg antigen (SEA) that is limited in supply. Here we developed an electrochemical immunosensor array (ECISA) assay with an interfacial co-assembly strategy. A recombinant Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) calcium-binding protein (SjE16) was used as a principal antigen, while the SEA as a minor, co-assembling agent, with a ratio of 8:1 (SjE16: SEA, Sj16EA), which was co-immobilized on a disposable 16-channel screen-printed carbon electrode array. A portable electrochemical detector was employed to detect antibodies in serum samples. The sensitivity of ECISA reached 100% with minimal cross-reactions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that this rapid, sensitive and specific ECISA technique has the potential to perform large-scale on-site screening of Sj infection.

  4. Pathology of the spleen in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Morphometric evaluation and extracellular matrix changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rangel Leite Freitas

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Histological, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunohistochemical data obtained from the study of spleens removed by splenectomy from 34 patients with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis revealed that the main alterations were congestive dilatation of the venous sinuses and diffuse thickening of the splenic cords. Splenic cord thickening was due to an increase of its matrix components, especially type IV collagen and laminin, with the conspicuous absence of interstitial collagens, either of type I or type III. Deposition of interstitial collagens (types I and III occurred in scattered, small focal areas of the red pulp, but in the outside of the walls of the venous sinuses, in lymph follicles, marginal zone, in the vicinity of fibrous trabeculae and in sidero-sclerotic nodules. However, fibrosis was not a prominent change in schistosomal splenomegaly and thus the designation "fibro-congestive splenomegaly" seems inadequate. Lymph follicles exhibited variable degrees of atrophy, hyperplasia and fibrous replacement, sometimes all of them seen in different follicles of the same spleen and even in the same examined section. Changes in white pulp did not seem to greatly contribute to increasing spleen size and weight, when compared to the much more significant red pulp enlargement.

  5. Coupling hydrologic and infectious disease models to explain regional differences in schistosomiasis transmission in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Liang, Song; Spear, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    Rainfall-runoff models have become essential tools for conceptualizing and predicting the response of hydrologic processes to changing environments, but they have rarely been applied to challenges facing health scientists. Yet with their efficient parameterization and modest data requirements, they hold great promise for epidemiological application. A modeling analysis incorporating simple hydrologic constraints on transmission of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum in southwestern China was conducted by coupling a lumped parameter rainfall-runoff model (IHACRES) with a delay-differential equation schistosomiasis transmission model modified to account for channel flows and on-field egg inactivation. Model predictions of prevalence and infection timing agree with observations in the region, which indicate that hydrological differences between sites can lead to pronounced differences in transmission. Channel flows are shown to be important in determining infection intensity and timing in modeled village populations. In the periodic absence of flow, overall transmission intensity is reduced among all modeled risk groups. However, the influence of hydrologic variability was greater on the cercarial stage of the parasite than the miracidial stage, due to the parasite ova's ability to survive dormant on fields between rain events. The predictive power gained from including hydrological data in epidemiological models can improve risk assessments for environmentally mediated diseases, under both long-term climate change scenarios and near-term weather fluctuations.

  6. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  7. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones.

  8. In vivo T cell depletion regulates resistance and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.M.; Linette, G.P.; Doughty, B.L.; Byram, J.E.; Von Lichtenberg, F.

    1987-08-01

    These studies assessed the roles of subpopulations of T lymphocytes in inducing and modulating resistance to schistosomiasis and thereby influencing subsequent morbidity. C57BL/6 mice were depleted in vivo of Lyt-1+, Lyt-2+, and L3T4+ cells by the daily administration of monoclonal antibodies. The development of protective immunity, induced by exposure to irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae as expressed in depleted animals, was compared to that demonstrated in undepleted, normal, and congenitally athymic C57BL/6 mice. The development of morbidity was determined by spleen weight, portal pressure and reticuloendothelial system activity. The results indicated that depletion of specific subpopulations of T lymphocytes minimally affected the primary development of parasites; however, depletion strongly influenced the development of resistance to the parasite and subsequent morbidity due to infection. Depletion of T lymphocytes by anti-Lyt-1+ or anti-L3T4+ antibody decreased the development of resistance, antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity directed against schistosome antigens. Morbidity due to disease was increased. Depletion of Lyt-2+ cells produced opposite changes with augmented resistance and reduced morbidity. Congenitally athymic mice developed minimal resistance and morbidity. Moreover, resistance was inversely related to the morbidity shown by a given animal. These studies indicate that the development of protective immunity to S. mansoni cercariae is regulated by discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The feasibility of decreasing morbidity by increasing specific immunologically mediated resistance is suggested.

  9. The effect of a health communication campaign on compliance with mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya--the SCORE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA.

  10. Urban schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiases in young school children in Dar es Salaam and Tanga, Tanzania, after a decade of anthelminthic intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwele N.; Mosha, Franklin W.;

    2014-01-01

    and control of these infections in urban settings is limited. The present study assessed the status of urinary schistosomiasis and STH across two different-sized cities in Tanzania - Dar es Salaam and Tanga - after a decade of anthelminthic intervention. Primary school children were examined for parasite eggs...... in urine and stool. Questionnaires were administered to the children, and observations were made on the urban environments. The burden of urinary schistosomiasis and STH was found to be low in both cities (overall 1.2% in Dar es Salaam and 0.3% in Tanga for urinary schistosomiasis; overall ... to have been accomplished by implementation of drug based intervention programs, in combination with environmental change (fewer snail habitats) and generally improved levels of hygiene. Continued efforts, including anthelminthic treatment and health education, are important to maintain these positive...

  11. The impact of a school health programme on the prevalence and morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis in Mwera Division, Pangani District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P; Ndawi, B; Sheshe, A K;

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Pangani District (Tanzania) was assessed rapidly by a questionnaire approach. Based on the results, a strategy of selective treatment with praziquantel was adopted. Eleven primary schools in Mwera Division, Pangani District, with a...... parents pay for the treatment of children with episodes of visible haematuria during the school year. Communities also participated in the improvement of sanitary installations at the schools.......The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Pangani District (Tanzania) was assessed rapidly by a questionnaire approach. Based on the results, a strategy of selective treatment with praziquantel was adopted. Eleven primary schools in Mwera Division, Pangani District......, with about 2500 schoolchildren were included in a control programme for urinary schistosomiasis. Macro- and microscopic haematuria diagnosed visually and with urine reagent strips was used as an indirect indicator of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Intensity of infection among children was monitored...

  12. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  13. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  14. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  15. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  16. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  17. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive chemotherapies received treatment. Methods. Coverage of community-directed treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole (ALB) was analyzed in 17 villages of Mayuge District, Uganda. National drug registers, household questionnaires, and parasitological surveys were collected to track 935 individuals before and after MDA. Multilevel logistic regressions, including household and village effects, were specified with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and parasitological variables. The factors predicting who did not receive PZQ and ALB from community medicine distributors were identified. Results. Drug receipt was correlated among members within a household, and nonrecipients of PZQ or ALB were profiled by household-level socioeconomic factors. Individuals were less likely to receive either PZQ or ALB if they had a Muslim household head or low home quality, belonged to the minority tribe, or had settled for more years in their village. Untreated individuals were also more likely to belong to households that did not purify drinking water, had no home latrine, and had no members who were part of the village government. Conclusions. The findings demonstrate how to locate and target individuals who are not treated in MDA. Infection risk factors were not informative. In particular, age, gender, and occupation were unable to identify non-recipients, although World Health Organization guidelines rely on these factors. Individuals of low socioeconomic status, minority religions, and minority tribes can be targeted to expand MDA coverage. PMID:26409064

  18. Combining Remotely Sensed Environmental Characteristics with Social and Behavioral Conditions that Affect Surface Water Use in Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, A. V.; Walz, Y.; Liss, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Biritwum, N. K.; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium transmission is influenced by environmental conditions that determine the suitability of the parasite and intermediate host snail habitats, as well as by socioeconomic conditions, access to water and sanitation infrastructure, and human behaviors. Remote sensing is a demonstrated valuable tool to characterize environmental conditions that support schistosomiasis transmission. Socioeconomic and behavioral conditions that propagate repeated domestic and recreational surface water contact are more difficult to quantify at large spatial scales. We present a mixed-methods approach that builds on the remotely sensed ecological variables by exploring water and sanitation related community characteristics as independent risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission.

  19. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  20. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  1. A cross-sectional serological study of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinococcosis in HIV-1 infected people in Beira, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Virginia Noormahomed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1(+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection.Patients (601 were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4(+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen. Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9% were women and 223 (37.1% were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475 patients (79% were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis.Neither age nor the CD4(+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4(+ between 200-500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.

  2. Tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica Treatment of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Amorim Correa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansoni é a terceira doença parasitária endêmica mais prevalente do mundo. Estima-se que mais de 200 milhões de pessoas estejam infectadas com uma das espécies do parasita Schistosoma. Dessas, 270.000 pessoas (4,6% são portadoras de hipertensão arterial pulmonar, que é associada à forma hepatoesplênica da doença. Essa alta prevalência coloca a hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica como a causa mais frequente de hipertensão pulmonar no mundo. Entretanto, o tratamento dirigido especificamente ao acometimento vascular pulmonar não está ainda estabelecido. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente portadora dessa doença que foi tratada com um inibidor de fosfodiesterase-5 (sildenafil com resultados satisfatórios.Schistosomiasis mansoni is the third most prevalent endemic parasitic disease in the world. It is estimated that over 200 million people are infected with parasites belonging to one of the Schistosoma species. Of those, 270,000 people (4.6% suffer from pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is associated with the hepatosplenic form of the disease. This high prevalence makes schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension the leading cause of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. However, no specific treatment for the pulmonary vascular component of the disease has yet been devised. We report the case of a patient with schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension who was treated satisfactorily with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil.

  3. [Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni in the Kou valley: Characterization of the transmission system and socioeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpoda, Noëllie W; Sorgho, Herman; Poda, Jean-Noël; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Kabré, Gustave B

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the waterborne diseases which benefit from environmental and behavioral changes induced by the mobilization of surface water resources in Sahelian countries, such as Burkina Faso. Studies have established the existence of human schistosomiasis in the Kou valley, one of the oldest hydro-agricultural zones in the country. However, the role of population behavior in the transmission pattern of this disease and its socioeconomic impact in this valley are poorly understood. It is in response to these questions that this study was undertaken. The objectives of this study were to identify activities that exposed most of the Valley's population to infection by schistosomiasis, and to contribute knowledge on the consequences of this disease. The study was conducted in the cold dry season at the Kou Valley, located in the South Sudanese area of Burkina Faso. It has adopted the strategy of direct observation to examine host-parasites interactions. The study of the socioeconomic consequences of the infection has been first to identify subjects that actually carry the parasite by screening the population by the Kato-Katz method. These were then subjected to a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 6.4. This work has revealed six activities at risk of infection for the residents of the Valley with an increased risk of factor for rice farming, household activities and swimming. In view of these activities, women and young people seem to be most vulnerable to infection. This disease causes significant economic losses as a function of socio-professional categories of infected persons.

  4. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin.

  5. Surgical hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis in adolescents: repercussions of the post-treatment schistosomotic burden on the hepatic functional reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni affects the hepatic functional reserve. Clinical treatment with oxamniquine is not 100% effective and there has been found strain of this parasite resistant to this drug. The aims of this investigation were: (1 to examine the presence of residual parasite burden after medical and surgical treatment on adolescents with surgical schistosomiasis mansoni and (2 to assess the effect on the hepatic functional reserve in patients with and without residual infection. Twenty nine children with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varices were treated with oxamniquine. They underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum. After a mean post-operative follow up of five years they underwent rectal biopsy for schistosomotic egg search. They were divided in patients with and without infection. In 20 patients the submucosal egg search was negative, however, in 9 it was positive. The hepatic functional reserve in the patients without infection was as follows: 17 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. In the patients who were still infected 6 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. The chi2 analysis of the hepatic functional reserve showed chi2 = 3.19 - p= 0.07. From the results the following conclusion can be drawn: residual infection or reinfection in the follow up period had not interfered with the distribution of the hepatic functional reserve of the patients in this series. However, there was a trend for a decrease of this parameter in patients with residual infection.

  6. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  7. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  8. Contribution of Mobile Teams to Efforts to Eliminate Schistosomiasis at Schistosoma haematobium in Morocco- Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Barkia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first diagnosed in 1914 in Marrakesh, schistosomiasis has been a public health problem in Morocco for decades. A national control program launched in 1982 has led to a considerable reduction in the incidence and morbidity associated with the disease. Consequently, the program has shifted from disease control to an elimination process launched in 1994. This process aimed to eliminate disease transmission by the end of 2004 and has helped to clear all known foci. Mobile teams were a key element that contributed to the success of this program. They played three important roles: monitoring and control, response, and the transmission of messages.

  9. PERCOBAAN PEMBERANTASAN HOSPES PERANTARA SCHISTOSOMIASIS (ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS LINDOENSIS DENGAN BAYLUSCIDE DAN KOMBINASI PENGERINGAN DENGAN BAYLUSCIDE DI DATARAN LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were conducted in the Anca and Paku areas of the Lindu valley, Central Sulawesi against the schistosomiasis intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. The trials were conducted in sequence. Application of bayluscide monthly at 10-40 ppm for one year suppressed 50% of the snail population density in Anca and 23% in Paku. Application of bayluscide monthly at 10-40 ppm com­bined with installing drainage canals following the above mentioned trials reduced the snail population density in Anca 61% and 94% in Paku.

  10. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  11. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  13. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....... expertise, the involvement in the process leading to this the book including a number of workshops, and a literature review of the development of their disciplinary fields: Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) Marketing. Findings: The difference...... in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to organisations...

  14. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  15. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Enk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  16. Willingness-to-pay for schistosomiasis-related health outcomes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M; Sambo, L G; Kainyu, L H

    2000-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) provides a framework for identifying, quantifying, and valuing in monetary terms all the important costs and consequences to society of competing disease interventions. Thus, CBA requires that impacts of schistosomiasis interventions on beneficiaries'health be valued in monetary terms Economic theory requires the use of the willingness to pay (WTP) approach in valuation of changes in health as a result of intervention. It is the only approach which is consistent with the potential Pareto improvement principle, and hence, consistent with CBA. The present study developed a health outcome measure and tested its operational feasibility. Contingent valuation for certain return to normal health from various health states, and for remaining in one's current health state were elicited through direct interview of randomly selected rice farmers, teachers, and health personnel in Kenya. The WTP to avoid risk of advancing to the next more severe state, seemed to be higher than WTP for a return to normal health. Generally, there was a significant difference between the average WTP values of farmers, teachers and health personnel populations. The gender and occupation variable coefficients were positive and highly significant in all regressions. The coefficients of the other explanatory variables were generally not statistically significant, indicating that medical expenses, anxiety cost, loss of earnings, and loss of work time, implied in various health states descriptions did not have significant effect on respondents expressed WTP values. The latter finding shows that there is need for more research to identify the other (besides gender and occupation) determinants of expressed WTP values in Africa. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to elicit coherent WTP values from economically under-developed countries. Further empirical work is clearly needed to at least address the validity and reliability of the contingent valuation approach and

  17. Treatment of patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni: a double blind clinical trial comparing praziquantel with oxamniquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Caetano da Silva

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available A double-blind clinical trial involving 120 patients with chronic schistosomiasis was carried out to compare the tolerability and efficacy of praziquantel and oxamniquine. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One was treated with praziquantel, 55 mg/kg of body weight CBWT, and the other one with oxamniquine, 15mg/kg bwt, administered in a single oral dose. The diagnosis and the parasitological follow-up was based on stool examinations by quantitative Kato-Katz method and on rectal biopsies. Side-effects — mainly dizziness, sleepness, abdominal distress, headache, nausea and diarrhea — were observed in 87% of the cases. Their incidence, intensity and duration were similar for both drugs but abdominal pain was significantly more frequent after praziquantel intake and severe dizziness was more commonly reported after oxamniquine. A significant increase of alanine-aminotransferase and y-glutamyltransferase was found with the latter drug and of total bilirubin with the former one. A total of 48 patients treated with praziquantel and 46 with oxamniquine completed with negative findings the required three post-treatment parasitological controls — three slides of each stool sample on the first, third and sixth month. The achieved cure rates were 79.2% and 84.8%, respectively, a difference without statistical significance. The non-cured cases showed a mean reduction in the number of eggs per gram of feces of 93.5% after praziquantel and of 84.1% after oxamniquine. This diference also was not significant. Five patients retreated with praziquantel were cured but only one out of three treated a second time with oxamniquine. These findings show that both drugs — despite their different chemical structures, pharmacological properties and mechanisms-of-action — induce similar side-effects as well as a comparable therapeutical efficacy, in agreement with the results reported from analogous investigations.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the use of artificial neural networks for modelling the epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, T A; Abdel-Wahab, M F; DeClaris, N; El-Sahly, A; El-Kady, N; Strickland, G T

    1996-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in the application of approaches based on artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of computer science and medical diagnosis, but AI is still relatively unused in epidemiological settings. In this study we report results of the application of neural networks (NN; a special category of AI) to schistosomiasis. It was possible to design an NN structure which can process and fit epidemiological data collected from 251 schoolchildren in Egypt using the first year's data to predict second and third years' infection rates. Data collected over 3 years included age, gender, exposure to canal water and agricultural activities, medical history and examination, and stool and urine parasitology. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were 50%, 78% and 66% at the baseline and the 2 follow-up periods, respectively. NN modelling was based on the standard back-propagation algorithm, in which we built a suitable configuration of the network, using the first year's data, that optimized performance. It was implemented on an IBM compatible computer using commercially available software. The performance of the NN model in the first year compared favourably with logistic regression (NN sensitivity = 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88%) and positive predictive value (PPV) = 63% (95% CI 57-69%); logistic regression sensitivity = 66% (95% CI 60%-72%) and PPV = 59% (95% CI 53%-65%). The NN model generalized the criteria for predicting infection over time better than logistic regression and showed more stability over time, as it retained its sensitivity and specificity and had better false positive and negative profiles than logistic regression. The potential of NN-based models to analyse and predict wide-scale control programme data, which are inevitably based on unstable egg excretion rates and insensitive laboratory techniques, is promising but still untapped.

  19. Different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Helen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control. Although these approaches vary in their assessment of costs, the major focus of the paper is on the evaluation of effectiveness. The first model presented is a static economic model which assesses effectiveness in terms of the proportion of cases cured. This model is important in highlighting that the optimal choice of chemotherapy regime depends critically on the level of budget constraint, the unit costs of screening and treatment, the rates of compliance with screening and chemotherapy and the prevalence of infection. The limitations of this approach is that it models the cost-effectiveness of only one cycle of treatment, and effectiveness reflects only the immediate impact of treatment. The second model presented is a prevalence-based dynamic model which links prevalence rates from one year to the next, and assesses effectiveness as the proportion of cases prevented. This model was important as it introduced the concept of measuring the long-term impact of control by using a transmission model which can assess reduction in infection through time, but is limited to assessing the impact only on the prevalence of infection. The third approach presented is a theoretical framework which describes the dynamic relationships between infection and morbidity, and which assesses effectiveness in terms of case-years prevented of infection and morbidity. The use of this model in assessing the cost-effectiveness of age-targeted treatment in controlling Schistosoma mansoni is explored in detail, with respect to varying frequencies of treatment and the interaction between drug price and drug efficacy.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of Schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: a review of a line of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Noya

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available After 57 years of successful control of schistosomiasis in Venezuela, the prevalence and intensity of infection have declined. Approximately 80% of the individuals eliminate less than 100 eggs/g of stools, therefore morbidity is mild and the majority are asymptomatic. The sensitivity of Kato-Katz decreases to approximately 60%. Available serological methods for the detection of circulating antigens only reach a 70% of sensitivity. Tests based on the detection of antibodies by immunoenzymatic assays have been improved. The circumoval precipitine test has shown a high sensitivity (97%, specificity (100%, and correlation with oviposition, being considered the best confirmatory diagnostic test. Additionally to the classical immunoenzymatic assays, the development of the alkaline phosphatase immunoassay, allowed to reach a 100% specificity with an 89% sensitivity. Recently, we have developed a modified ELISA in which the soluble egg antigen is treated with sodium metaperiodate (SMP-ELISA in order to eliminate the glycosilated epitopes responsible for the false positive reactions. The specificity and sensitivity reaches 97% and 99%, respectively. Synthetic peptides from the excretory-secretory enzymes, cathepsin B (Sm31 legumain (Sm32 and cathepsin D (Sm45, have been synthesized. The combination of two peptides derived from the Sm31 have been evaluated, reaching a sensitivity of 96% when analyzed independently and with a 100% specificity. Antibodies raised in rabbits against peptides derived from the Sm31 and Sm32 are currently evaluated in two different antigen-capture-based assays. The development of a simple, cheap and reliable test that correlates with parasite activity is a major goal.

  1. Temporal expression of chemokines dictates the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in a murine model of schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Burke

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis continues to be an important cause of parasitic morbidity and mortality world-wide. Determining the molecular mechanisms regulating the development of granulomas and fibrosis will be essential for understanding how schistosome antigens interact with the host environment. We report here the first whole genome microarray analysis of the murine liver during the progression of Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced granuloma formation and hepatic fibrosis. Our results reveal a distinct temporal relationship between the expression of chemokine subsets and the recruitment of cells to the infected liver. Genes up-regulated earlier in the response included T- and B-cell chemoattractants, reflecting the early recruitment of these cells illustrated by flow cytometry. The later phases of the response corresponded with peak recruitment of eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and myofibroblasts/hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and the expression of chemokines with activity for these cells including CCL11 (eotaxin 1, members of the Monocyte-chemoattractant protein family (CCL7, CCL8, CCL12 and the Hepatic Stellate Cell/Fibrocyte chemoattractant CXCL1. Peak expression of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL6, CXCL14 and markers of alternatively activated macrophages (e.g. Retnla during this later phase provides further evidence of a role for these cells in schistosome-induced pathology. Additionally, we demonstrate that CCL7 immunolocalises to the fibrotic zone of granulomas. Furthermore, striking up-regulation of neutrophil markers and the localisation of neutrophils and the neutrophil chemokine S100A8 to fibrotic areas suggest the involvement of neutrophils in S. japonicum-induced hepatic fibrosis. These results further our understanding of the immunopathogenic and, especially, chemokine signalling pathways that regulate the development of S. japonicum-induced granulomas and fibrosis and may provide correlative insight into the pathogenesis of other

  2. Advanced application of bovine intestinal epithelial cell line for evaluating regulatory effect of lactobacilli against heat-killed enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli-mediated inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Takanashi, Naoya; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Villena, Julio Cesar; Murata, Kozue; Takahashi, Takuya; Chiba, Eriko; Tohno, Masanori; Tomoyuki Shimazu; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Yasushi; Tadao Saito; Alvarez, Gladis Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previously, a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) was successfully established. This work hypothesized that BIE cells are useful in vitro model system for the study of interactions of microbial- or pathogenassociated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs) with bovine intestinal epithelial cells and for the selection of immunoregulatory lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Results: All toll-like receptor (TLR) genes were expressed in BIE cells, being TLR4 one of the most strong...

  3. Control of urinary schistosomiasis on Zanzibar (Unguja Island: a pilot evaluation of the educational impact of the Juma na Kichocho health booklet within primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JR Stothard

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve health education within primary schools, the health education booklet Juma na kichocho was evaluated during a study within 5 schools using key-informant questionnaires that recorded children's knowledge and attitude (KA towards schistosomiasis before and after daily structured-use of booklets. A total of 229 schoolchildren (114 boys : 115 girls of between 11 and 15 years of age were interviewed and re-assessed after a working school week. Existing and putative booklet-induced changes in KA scores for schistosomiasis were compared directly against equivalent KA scores for malaria. In total 47.4% of children were already aware that schistosomiasis was a water-borne disease while only 10.5% knew of its exact aetiology; after booklet intervention these levels increased to 54.6 and 15.7%, respectively. The majority of children still failed, however, to realise that re-infection could take place soon after treatment. While a positive increase was observed for children's total KA questionnaire scores for both malaria and schistosomiasis after booklet intervention, these were not statistically significant. In the context of control, further educational efforts are needed to promote and guide behavioural change, especially in relation to reduction of environmental water contact.

  4. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  5. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  6. Correlation of biological serum markers with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in hepatitis C and schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is the gold-standard method to stage fibrosis; however, it is an invasive procedure and is potentially dangerous. The main objective of this study was to evaluate biological markers, such as cytokines IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β, platelets, bilirubins (Bil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, total proteins, γ-glutamil transferase (γ-GT and alkaline phosphatase (AP, that could be used to predict the severity of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis and hepatitis C (HC as isolated diseases or co-infections. The following patient groups were selected: HC (n = 39, HC/hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS (n = 19, HSS (n = 22 and a control group (n = 13. ANOVA and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. With HC patients we showed that TNF-α (p = 0.020 and AP (p = 0.005 could differentiate mild and severe fibrosis. With regard to necroinflammatory activity, AST (p = 0.002, γ-GT (p = 0.034 and AP (p = 0.001 were the best markers to differentiate mild and severe activity. In HC + HSS patients, total Bil (p = 0.008 was capable of differentiating between mild and severe fibrosis. In conclusion, our study was able to suggest biological markers that are non-invasive candidates to evaluate fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in HC and HC + HSS.

  7. Dos nuevas localizaciones para España de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, hospedador intermediario de Schistosomiasis urinaria

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    Martínez-Ortí, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new locations in Spain of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, intermediate host of urinary Schistosomiasis Two new populations of the planorbid snail species Bulinus truncatus were found in Spain in 2014. The first consisted of shells only, found in the lagoon of Villena (province of Alicante, which had dried up at the beginning of the 19th century. This finding is of important biogeographic interest because it links the presence of this species in northern Catalonia with its detection in southern Andalucia as this species had not been found previously in the regions of Murcia or Valencia. The second population was found in El Ejido (province of Almeria, and thousands of living specimens were found here. This allowed a complete shell characterisation and molecular assessment by means of sequencing the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which showed 100% homology with sequences of other populations of the same snail species available in the GenBank. The finding of B. truncatus in Almeria is of additional value given the applied importance of this planorbid species as a vector of urinary Schistosomiasis, thus representing a risk of introduction and autochthonous transmission of the disease in Spain, as has occurred in other southern European countries in the past and recently.

  8. LINKING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTORS TO DISEASE: AN APPLICATION TO THE SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELLING OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wrable

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.

  9. Linking Satellite Remote Sensing Based Environmental Predictors to Disease: AN Application to the Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrable, M.; Liss, A.; Kulinkina, A.; Koch, M.; Biritwum, N. K.; Ofosu, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Gute, D. M.; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.

  10. A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  11. Successful outcome of an integrated strategy for the reduction of schistosomiasis transmission in an endemically complex area

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    Shi-Zhu Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the major public health problems in the People’s Republic of China (and elsewhere, seriously threatening health as well as social and economic development. An integrated control strategy, emphasising transmission control but also aimed at reducing greenhouse gases, was carried out in Jiangling county, Hubei province from 2007 to 2009. Three villages were chosen for a pilot study involving removal of cattle from neighbouring, snail-infested grasslands, improving sanitation and construction of units for household biogas production in addition to routine control measures. Both prevalence and intensity of infection in the snails in the neighbourhood were greatly reduced after two years of implementation, while the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans in the three villages had been reduced by 29%, 34% and 24%, respectively. The removal of cattle and construction of biogas production units had an additional positive effect in that the annual, average emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were reduced by an estimated 7.8 and 80.2 tons, respectively.

  12. Some features of immune status of animals infected with bovine leukosis background unbalanced on feeding

    OpenAIRE

    TURKO I.; SEMANYUK V.; PELENYO R.; KULYABA O.; TURKO YA.; VERHOLYUK M.

    2012-01-01

    The features of protein metabolism and immunity in cows with leukemia by unbalanced feeding of animals. The peculiarities of the dynamics of total protein, protein fractions, immunoglobulins, Tand B-lymphocytes in cows under violation of the sugar-protein ratio of diet and infection with a virus leukemia.

  13. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  14. The development and characterization of a competitive ELISA for measuring active ADAMTS-4 in a bovine cartilage ex vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yi; Zheng, Qinlong; Simonsen, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    )) in a bovine cartilage ex vivo model. We found that after stimulation with catabolic factors, the cartilage initially released high levels of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments into supernatant but subsequently decreased to background levels. The level of active ADAMTS-4 released into the supernatant...

  15. An atlas of bovine gene expression reveals novel distinctive tissue characteristics and evidence for improving genome annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background A comprehensive transcriptome survey, or gene atlas, provides information essential for a complete understanding of the genomic biology of an organism. We present an atlas of RNA abundance for 92 adult, juvenile and fetal cattle tissues and three cattle cell lines. Results The Bovine Gene...

  16. Identification of a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion gene associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle. Classical BSE is associated with ingestion of BSE-contaminated feedstuffs. H- and L-type BSE, collectively known as atypical BSE, differ from classical BSE by displaying a different di...

  17. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    McElwain Terry F; Cochran Matt H; Bent Stephen J; Bowers Edwin J; Hewitt David G; Ortega-Santos Alfonso; Teel Pete D; Duhaime Roberta A; Ugstad Paul O; Messenger Matthew T; Hillman Robert; Almazán Consuelo; Wagner Gale G; Miller Ryan S; Wikel Stephen K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever,...

  18. Microarray gene expression profiling of neural tissues in bovine spastic paresis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine Spastic Paresis (BSP) is a neuromuscular disorder which affects both male and female cattle. BSP is characterized by spastic contraction and overextension of the gastrocnemious muscle of one or both limbs and is associated with a scarce increase in body weight. This disease seems to be caused by an autosomal and recessive gene, with incomplete penetration, although no genes clearly involved with its onset have been so far identified. We employed cDNA microarrays to identify ...

  19. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin Annette; Müller Matthias; Weber Bianca K; Klee Wolfgang; Rademacher Günter; Büttner Mathias; Friedrich Annette; Assad Aryan; Hafner-Marx Angela; Sauter-Louis Carola M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. How...

  20. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Nan; Sun Changjiang; Wang Quankai; Du Rui; Wang Shijie; Gao Yugang; Zhang Pengju; Zhang Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  1. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  2. A second generation radiation hybrid map to aid the assembly of the bovine genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janitz Michal

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several approaches can be used to determine the order of loci on chromosomes and hence develop maps of the genome. However, all mapping approaches are prone to errors either arising from technical deficiencies or lack of statistical support to distinguish between alternative orders of loci. The accuracy of the genome maps could be improved, in principle, if information from different sources was combined to produce integrated maps. The publicly available bovine genomic sequence assembly with 6× coverage (Btau_2.0 is based on whole genome shotgun sequence data and limited mapping data however, it is recognised that this assembly is a draft that contains errors. Correcting the sequence assembly requires extensive additional mapping information to improve the reliability of the ordering of sequence scaffolds on chromosomes. The radiation hybrid (RH map described here has been contributed to the international sequencing project to aid this process. Results An RH map for the 30 bovine chromosomes is presented. The map was built using the Roslin 3000-rad RH panel (BovGen RH map and contains 3966 markers including 2473 new loci in addition to 262 amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP and 1231 markers previously published with the first generation RH map. Sequences of the mapped loci were aligned with published bovine genome maps to identify inconsistencies. In addition to differences in the order of loci, several cases were observed where the chromosomal assignment of loci differed between maps. All the chromosome maps were aligned with the current 6× bovine assembly (Btau_2.0 and 2898 loci were unambiguously located in the bovine sequence. The order of loci on the RH map for BTA 5, 7, 16, 22, 25 and 29 differed substantially from the assembled bovine sequence. From the 2898 loci unambiguously identified in the bovine sequence assembly, 131 mapped to different chromosomes in the BovGen RH map. Conclusion Alignment of the

  3. Esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Magalhães

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Foram constituídos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1 não infectados, normoprotéicos; 2 infectados, normoprotéicos; 3 não infectados, hipoprotéicos e 4 infectados, hipoprotéicos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infecção, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrição do hospedeiro, principalmente os vermes machos, que além de terem seu desenvolvimento prejudicado, tiveram seu número reduzido aproximadamente pela metade. O número de granulomas foi menor nos roedores subnutridos e o tamanho da lesão foi reduzido. Houve acentuada leucopenia nos animais submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica, principalmente nos infectados subnutridos. A linfopenia e a eosinopenia acentuadas sugeriram que o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro foi afetado pela subnutrição. A taxa de mortalidade foi muito mais elevada nos animais infectados submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Concluiu-se que os camundongos subnutridos resistiram menos à infecção esquistossomótica apesar de terem apresentado menor número de lesões granulomatosas.Mansoni schistosomiasis was studied in mice fed on a low protein diet. Four groups of the Swiss breed Mus musculus were used in an experiment with two factors, each with two levels: 1-non-infected, normal diet; 2 - infected, normal diet ; 3 - non-infected, low protein diet; 4 - infected, low protein diet. The mice were killed for observation at age 90 days, after 60 days of infection, for those infected. It was found that the worms suffered the effects of malnutrition, mainly males, whose population count was cut by half, in addition to poor individual growth. The hepatic granuloma count was found to be smaller in the undernourished group; while the corresponding lesions were also generally smaller. There was a marked leukopenia in

  4. ECTOPIC CUTANEOUS SCHISTOSOMIASIS: REPORT OF TWO CASES AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Souza ANDRADE FILHO

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis are described. Both patients presented with abdominal papular skin lesions, which on biopsy were found to contain granulomas with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Twenty-five other cases were retrieved from the literature. Most patients were female, mean age 24.9 year, with a predominance of the white race. The most common localization was anterior thorax and abdomen. Usually, the lesions were asymptomatic. In few cases, however, severe clinical syndromes due to the parasite coexisted, such as transverse myelitis or the acute-toxemic form of the disease. Intestinal infection was not frequently demonstrated in these patients. The importance of the recognition of these cutaneous lesions may rest on the opportunity to provide an etiological diagnosis in these difficult cases.Dois casos de esquistossomose cutânea ectópica são relatados. Ambos os pacientes apresentavam lesões papulares no abdômen que, ao exame histopatológico, mostraram presença de granulomas contendo ovos de Schistosoma mansoni. Vinte e cinco casos de esquistossomose cutânea ectópica foram encontrados descritos na literatura. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino, com idade média de 24,9 anos e predominância da raça branca. A localização mais comum foi o tórax anterior e abdômen. Freqüentemente, as lesões eram assintomáticas. Em alguns casos, no entanto, coexistiam alterações sistêmicas graves, relacionadas ao parasito, como mielite transversa e a forma aguda toxêmica da doença. Na maior parte dos casos, a infecção intestinal não pôde ser demonstrada. O reconhecimento destas lesões cutâneas pode ser importante por proporcionar oportunidade para um diagnostico etiológico nestes casos.

  5. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  6. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  7. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  8. A comparative evaluation of bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and type I collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) with bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and fibrin fibronectin sealing system (TISSEEL) in the treatment of intrabony defects: A clinico-radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Palachur, Deepthi; K V Prabhakara Rao; Murthy, K. Raja V.; Kishore, D. Trinath; Reddy, M. Narendra; Bhupathi, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and Type I collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) with bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and fibrin fibronectin sealing system (TISSEEL) in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen healthy patients in the age range of 20 to 60 years, showing bilateral or contralateral infrabony defects were selected. The defects were assigned ra...

  9. Development and validation of a bovine macrophage specific cDNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddington David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of macrophages to danger signals is an important early stage in the immune response. Our understanding of this complex event has been furthered by microarray analysis, which allows the simultaneous investigation of the expression of large numbers of genes. However, the microarray resources available to study these events in livestock animals are limited. Results Here we report the development of a bovine macrophage specific (BoMP cDNA microarray. The BoMP microarray contains 5026 sequence elements (printed in duplicate and numerous controls. The majority of the clones incorporated on the microarray were derived from the BoMP cDNA library generated from bovine myeloid cells subjected to various stimuli, including over 900 sequences unique to the library. Additional clones representing immunologically important genes have been included on the BoMP microarray. The microarray was validated by investigating the response of bovine monocytes to stimulation with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide using amplified RNA. At 2 and 16 hours post stimulation 695 genes exhibited statistically significant differential expression, including; 26 sequences unique to the BoMP library, interleukin 6, prion protein and toll-like receptor 4. Conclusion A 5 K cDNA microarray has been successfully developed to investigate gene expression in bovine myeloid cells. The BoMP microarray is available from the ARK-Genomics Centre for Functional Genomics in Farm Animals, UK.

  10. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  11. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...

  12. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  13. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  14. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  16. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  19. Paeoniflorin prevents hepatic fibrosis of Schistosomiasis japonica by inhibiting TGF-β1 production from macrophages in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of paeoniflorin (PAE)on hepatic fibrosis of mice with Schistosomiasis japonica in vivo and in vitro,a model of hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis was established in mice infected with cercariae of Schistosomajaponicum.Then,PAE was orally administered before and after praziquantel treatment and both therapeutics were given simultaneously at different time points after the infection.The concentration of serum hyaluronic acid(HA)was determined by radioimmunoassay(RIA).Hepatic granuloma and fibrosis were evaluated via HE and Masson staining.The expression of s-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA),transforming growth factor 131(TGF-β1)and collagen I(Col Ⅰ)protein was detected by immunohistochemistry.The effect of soluble egg antigen(SEA)and PAE on the production of TGF-131 from mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMφs)was investigated by RT-PCR,Western blotting and ELISA.The effect of TGF-β1 in optimum macrophage-conditioned medium(OPMCM)on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells(HSCs)and collagen secretion from HSCs with anti-TGF-β1 antibody was explored by MTT assay and ELISA.The results show that PAE could significantly reduce the concentration of serum HA,the size of egg granuloma,the severity of hepatic fibrosis and the expression of α-SMA,TGF-β1 and Col I protein in the pre-treatment group.However,in sim-or post-treatment group,PAE did not have any significant therapeutic effect.TGF-β1 could be secreted from PMφs stimulated by SEA.Meanwhile,the production of TGF-β1 from PMφs could be depressed significantly by PAE in a concentration-dependent manner.TGF-β1 could promote the proliferation of HSCs and the secretion of collagens.In a word,PAE can prevent hepatic granuloma and fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis japonica through the inhibition of the secretion of TGF-β1 from PMφs,the proliferation and activation of HSCs and the secretion of collagens from HSCs.

  20. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  1. Evaluation of schistosomiasis control effect of buffalo removal in Anxiang County%安乡县淘汰散放牛控制血吸虫病传播效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绍平; 李胜明; 魏成建; 杨其云; 鲁丙坤; 廖远志; 陈均安; 贾铁武

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价以传染源控制为主的血吸虫病综合防治策略在湖沼型流行区的实施效果.方法 在湖南安乡县的2个邻近乡(镇)各选择7个行政村为试点村和对照村,每年均开展人畜化疗和易感地带灭螺等常规血防措施.2005年,在试点村淘汰所有存栏牛和羊,并辅以封洲禁牧、以机代牛、改水改厕等巩固措施.2005-2011年采取统一的调查方法对人群和钉螺感染情况进行跟踪观测.结果 试点村人群感染率在于预后的第3年降至1%以下,垸外无感染螺.对照村第4年后感染率仍徘徊在2%~3%.淘汰牛等传染源控制措施使试点村近50%的人口免于感染或再感染血吸虫.结论 淘汰或杜绝散放牛是湖沼型血吸虫病流行区传染源控制策略的核心技术,有助于该类疫区早日实现控制和阻断血吸虫病传播的远期目标.%Objective To evaluate the effect of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control strategy based on buffalo removal in a lake and marshland region. Methods A community intervention trial was carried out in seven pilot villages and seven control villages along Dongting Lake in Anxiang County, Hunan Province. Besides annual routine control measures such as synchronous chemotherapy, molluscicidal spray and health education, all buffaloes and sheep were killed or removed from the pilot areas in 2005, of which the effect was strengthened by other supporting measures such as replacing bovines by agricultural machines, isolating meadows and prohibiting pastures, supplying safe water, and building sanitary lavatories or methane pits. Schistosoma japoni-cum infection in humans or Oncomelania snails was observed and followed up to the spring of 2011. Results Three years after the intervention, the infection rates in humans decreased to below 1 % with no infected snails found outside the embankment in the pilot villages, but the infection rates still ranged between 2% and 3% in the control villages 4

  2. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  3. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  4. A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Single-Dose Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for Treating Intestinal Schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel T.; Belizario, Vincente J.; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Pieri, Otavio S.; Amarillo, Maria L.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Diaw, Mamadou; Domingues, AnaLucia C.; Favre, Tereza C.; Lapujade, Olivier; Alves, Fabiana; Chitsulo, Lester

    2011-01-01

    Background Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. Methodology/Principal Findings Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n = 428) or 60 mg/kg (n = 428). While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in Mauritania), no bias or heterogeneity across sites was detected for the main efficacy outcomes. The primary efficacy analysis was the comparison of cure rates on Day 21 in the intent-to-treat population for the pooled data using a logistic model to calculate Odd Ratios allowing for baseline characteristics and study site. Both doses were highly effective: the Day 21 cure rates were 91.7% (86.6%–98% at individual sites) with 40 mg/kg and 92.8% (88%–97%) with 60 mg/kg. Secondary parameters were eggs reduction rates (ERR), change in intensity of infection and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months. On Day 21 the pooled estimate of the ERR was 91% in both arms. The Hazard Ratio for reinfections was only significant in Brazil, and in favour of 60 mg/kg on the pooled estimate (40 mg/kg: 34.3%, 60 mg/kg: 23.9%, HR = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.63;0.96]). Analysis of safety could not distinguish between disease- and drug-related events. 666 patients (78%) reported 1327 adverse events (AE) 4 h post-dosing. The risk of having at least one AE was higher in the 60 than in the 40 mg/kg group (83% vs. 73%, p<0.001). At 24 h post-dosing, 456 patients (54%) had 918 AEs with no difference between arms. The most frequent AE was abdominal pain at both 4 h and 24 h (40% and 24%). Conclusion A higher dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel offers no significant efficacy advantage over standard 40 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis caused by either S. mansoni or S. japonicum. The results

  5. Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafiana, C F; Ekpo, U F; Ojo, D A

    2003-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children below the age of 5 years in three settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of 209 children screened, 150 (71.8%) had an infection, with no significant difference between males and females; 42.9% of infants were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased significantly with age (P infections were light (men and women revealed that infection in preschool children was primarily because of exposure occasioned by the mothers' domestic (washing and bathing) and occupational (fishing) activities, while older children could go swimming on their own. Although the participants claimed that using a different water supply may not be effective in combating the disease, as their entire existence was tied to the reservoir, we propose that health education geared towards changing behaviour and attitudes is necessary. As preschool children are a source of both contamination and transmission, control programmes must take them into account.

  6. [Comparative study of schistosomiasis transmission (urinary and intestinal forms) at 10 sites in Burkina Faso (in sub-Saharan Africa)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, D; Kabre, B G; Dayeri, D; Savadogo, B; Poda, J N

    2012-01-01

    Despite great progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health problem. This study analyzes parasitologic data from investigations of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and mollusks. The prevalence rate of S. haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4%; that for S. mansoni (tested only in the western part of the country) from 3.3% to 39.1%. Prevalence rates are higher in school-aged boys than girls, but the reverse is true among adults. Studies of mussels showed the presence of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus in these areas. Our results indicate that behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease.

  7. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  8. The use of a vest equipped with a global positioning system to assess water-contact patterns associated with schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Y.W. Seto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The real exposure to many of the tropical diseases is difficult to assess at the individual-level due to problems of recall, self-reported diaries, personnel requirements, and altered behaviour related to observation. We present a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma japonicum in which global positioning system (GPS receivers were used for personal time-activity monitoring to assess water-contact associated with schistosomiasis transmission. The study subjects were equipped with a vest with an embedded GPS receiver for 8-hour periods. The resulting data were used to create hourly time-activity maps, which were subsequently used in interviews to ascertain the timing and location of the water-contacts. Based on a sample of twenty-four 8-hour person-days we found that individuals averaged 1.4 ± 1.2 water-contacts per day, and were surprisingly mobile, with 39% of the participants having spent time out of the village (0.8 ± 1.4 hours outside of village. Such mobility suggests the need for further research into social patterns that may facilitate the spread of parasites, and contribute to sustained transmission. We present an assessment of the accuracy of cheaper commercially- available GPS units that have shown promise in such applications. We feel that a speed-filtering method is effective in managing measurement errors commonly encountered during personal activity monitoring with GPS. We conclude that personal GPS units can help reduce recall problems associated with other methods of assessing water-contact, and that they offer valuable insights into time-activity patterns that influence schistosomiasis transmission.

  9. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  10. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  12. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  13. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  14. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-28

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  17. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  18. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  19. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

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    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  20. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  1. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  2. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  3. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  4. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  5. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. Cytokine profile, proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in circulating mononuclear cells from individuals during the chronic intestinal phase of Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Prado Roberta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune response to Schistosoma mansoni is characterized by a granulomatous reaction around the parasite eggs that are trapped in the host liver, and this reaction modulates the immune response during the chronic phase of the disease. The typical peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC response of patients during the chronic intestinal phase of infection is characterized by a decreased response to an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen. To obtain a greater understanding of Schistosoma infections, this study investigated the effects of the soluble egg antigen (SEA and soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP of S. mansoni on cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in PBMCs from infected (XTO and egg-negative (NI individuals living in the same endemic area. Methods The activation status was evaluated by cell immunophenotypic staining (cytometry. The cell proliferation assay was by CFSE method. Cytokine detection assay (Th1 and Th2 was by Cytometric Bead and Array phosphorylation status was by ELISA. Results The XTO, NI and BD (blood donor individuals from an area not endemic for schistosomiasis were compared. The CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation rate was lower in the XTO group, but not the NI group, after SEA stimulation compared to the BD group. The CD8+ T cell proliferation rate was lower in the XTO group in the unstimulated cultures and after both SEA and SWAP stimulation compared to the BD group. Cytokine analysis after either SEA or SWAP stimulation showed a balanced cytokine pattern in the XTO and NI groups. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were only marginally detected in all groups; however, a decrease in ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was observed in the SWAP-stimulated XTO group compared to both the NI and BD groups. Conclusions The data indicate that SEA-stimulated CD4+ T cells from infected patients have a lower proliferation rate than the same cells from the NI group. Furthermore, we observed

  8. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praziquantel treatment of human schistosomiasis haematobium also boosts circulating IL-5, the immunological and parasitological factors that predispose to this, and the relationship between these and subsequent immunity to post-treatment re-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The relationship between pre-treatment SWA-IgE, eosinophil number and infection intensity and the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost was investigated in a Malian cohort (aged 5-40 yrs, exposed to S. haematobium. Eotaxin levels were measured at 24-hr post-treatment as a proxy of eosinophil migration. The relationship between the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost and later eosinophil numbers and SWA-IgE levels (9-wk post-treatment was examined, then investigated in the context of subsequent levels of re-infection (2-yr post-treatment. Circulating IL-5 levels increased 24-hr post-treatment and were associated with pre-treatment infection intensity, SWA-IgE levels, eosinophil number, as well as 24-hr post-treatment eotaxin levels. 24-hr IL-5 levels were, in turn, significantly associated with eosinophil number and elevated SWA-IgE 9-wk later. These SWA-IgE levels were significantly associated with immunity to re-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early IL-5 production after treatment-induced exposure to S. haematobium worm antigen is positively associated with antigen dose (infection intensity, IgE availability for arming of effector cells at time of treatment and subsequent eosinophil migration response (as indicated by eotaxin levels. The IL-5 produced is positively associated with increased downstream eosinophil number and increases in specific IgE levels, implicating this

  9. Wilsonian flows and background fields

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We study exact renormalisation group flows for background field dependent regularisations. It is shown that proper-time flows are approximations to exact background field flows for a specific class of regulators. We clarify the role of the implicit scale dependence introduced by the background field. Its impact on the flow is evaluated numerically for scalar theories at criticality for different approximations and regularisations. Implications for gauge theories are discussed.

  10. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  11. Genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from humans and bovine mastitis samples in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that also causes important infections in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed to test genetic diversity among strains of S. aureus isolated from cattle (n=34 and humans (n=22 by DNA typing. Materials and Methods: Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP is the genotyping tool used in the study. The presence of the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes among these strain groups was also checked. Results: A dendrogram deduced from FAFLP showed that all the strains clustered into 10 groups (A-J with a relative genetic divergence of less than 8%. Sixty-seven percent of the isolates from bovine sources clustered together in two clades (A and H, while another major cluster with 13 isolates (59% (Cluster G had all strains from a human host. The remaining strains from both the hosts clustered independently into smaller clusters with the exception of two strains of human origin, which clustered along with a bovine cluster. Thirteen strains belonging to cluster G were highly clonal. About 77% of strains obtained from human infections were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, whereas only 29% of strains from bovine origin were MRSA. Only three strains from human origin showed PVL positive, while no strain from cattle had PVL genes. The complete absence of PVL genes in all the bovine strains in the study appears to be significant. Conclusions: FAFLP can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship of S. aureus isolates from different hosts. The study also provided the valuable epidemiological data on S. aureus from bovine sources in India, which is lacking.

  12. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  13. Binding of benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin: A second derivative spectrophotometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Ahmed A.; El-Sayed, Abdel-Aziz; Shehata, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The binding constants ( K values) of three benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin were determined by a second derivative spectrophotometric method. Despite the sample and reference samples were prepared in the same way to maintain the same albumin content in each sample and reference pair, the absorption spectra show that the baseline compensation was incomplete because of the strong background signals caused by bovine serum albumin. Accordingly, further quantitative spectral information could not be obtained from these absorption spectra. On the other hand, the calculated second derivative spectra clearly show isosbestic points indicating the complete removal of the residual background signal effects. Using the derivative intensity differences (Δ D values) of the studied benzodiazepine drugs before and after the addition of albumin, the binding constants were calculated and obtained with R.S.D. of less than 8%. The interactions of drugs with bovine serum albumin were investigated using Scatchard's plot. In addition, the consistency between the fractions of bound benzodiazepine calculated from the obtained K values and the experimental values were established. The results indicate that the second derivative method can be advantageously applicable to the determination of binding constants of drugs to serum albumin without prior separation. Moreover, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed.

  14. Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholen Ernst

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method, which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the

  15. The bovine chemokine receptors and their mRNA abundance in mononuclear phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley George

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokine and chemokine receptor families play critical roles in both the healthy and diseased organism mediating the migration of cells. The chemokine system is complex in that multiple chemokines can bind to one chemokine receptor and vice versa. Although chemokine receptors have been well characterised in humans, the chemokine receptor repertoire of cattle is not well characterised and many sequences are yet to be experimentally validated. Results We have identified and sequenced bovine homologs to all identified functional human chemokine receptors. The bovine chemokine receptors show high levels of similarity to their human counterparts and similar genome arrangements. We have also characterised an additional bovine chemokine receptor, not present in the available genome sequence of humans or the more closely related pigs or horses. This receptor shows the highest level of similarity to CCR1 but shows significant differences in regions of the protein that are likely to be involved in ligand binding and signalling. We have also examined the mRNA abundance levels of all identified bovine chemokine receptors in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Considerable differences were observed in the mRNA abundance levels of the receptors, and interestingly the identified novel chemokine receptor showed differing levels of mRNA abundance to its closest homolog CCR1. The chemokine receptor repertoire was shown to differ between monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. This may reflect the differing roles of these cells in the immune response and may have functional consequences for the trafficking of these cells in vivo. Conclusions In summary, we have provided the first characterisation of the complete bovine chemokine receptor gene repertoire including a gene that is potentially unique to cattle. Further study of this receptor and its ligands may reveal a specific role of this receptor in cattle. The availability of the bovine

  16. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were c

  17. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  18. Expression at a 20L scale and purification of the extracellular domain of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 recombinant protein: a vaccine candidate for human intestinal schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Brelsford, Jill; Deumic, Vehid; Plieskatt, Jordan; Rezende, Wanderson C; Tsao, Eric; Kalampanayil, Bose; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A novel recombinant protein vaccine for human schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is under development. The Sm-TSP-2 schistosomiasis vaccine is comprised of a 9 kDa recombinant protein corresponding to the extracellular domain of a unique S. mansoni tetraspanin. Here, we describe the cloning and the expression of the external loop of Sm-TSP-2 recombinant protein secreted by Pichia Pink the process development at 20L scale fermentation, and the two-steps purification, which resulted in a protein recovery yield of 31% and a protein purity of 97%. The developed processes are suitable for the production of purified protein for subsequent formulation and Phase 1 clinical studies.

  19. Schistosomiasis risk mapping in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a decision tree approach, remote sensing data and sociological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia T Martins-Bedê

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is not just a physical disease, but is related to social and behavioural factors as well. Snails of the Biomphalaria genus are an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and infect humans through water. The objective of this study is to classify the risk of schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais (MG. We focus on socioeconomic and demographic features, basic sanitation features, the presence of accumulated water bodies, dense vegetation in the summer and winter seasons and related terrain characteristics. We draw on the decision tree approach to infection risk modelling and mapping. The model robustness was properly verified. The main variables that were selected by the procedure included the terrain's water accumulation capacity, temperature extremes and the Human Development Index. In addition, the model was used to generate two maps, one that included risk classification for the entire of MG and another that included classification errors. The resulting map was 62.9% accurate.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Dziuba, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Background RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in liver...... tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits. Results The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads.......21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel) positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal...