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Sample records for bovine schistosomiasis background

  1. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

    OpenAIRE

    André Capron; Gilles Riveau; Jean-Marie Grzych; Denis Boulanger; Monique Capron; Raymond Pierce

    1995-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people throughout the world and causes about 500,000 deaths annually. Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites) and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease trans...

  2. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Capron

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people throughout the world and causes about 500,000 deaths annually. Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease transmission. Since viable eggs are the cause of disease pathology, a reduction in worm fecundity whether or not accompanied by a reduction in parasite burden is a sufficient goal for vaccine induced immunity. We originally showed that IgE antibodies played in experimental models a pivotal role for the development of protective immunity. These laboratory findings have been now confirmed in human populations. Following the molecular cloning and expression of a protein 28 kDa protein of Schistosoma mansoni and its identification as a glutathion S-transferase, immunization experiments have been undertaken in several animal species (rats, mice, baboons. Together with a significant reduction in parasite burden, vaccination with Sm28 GST was recently shown to reduce significantly parasite fecundity and egg viability leading to a decrease in liver pathology. Whereas IgE antibodies were shown to be correlated with protection against infection, IgA antibodies have been identified as one of the factors affecting egg laying and viability. In human populations, a close association was found between IgA antibody production to Sm28 GST and the decrease of egg output. The use of appropriate monoclonal antibody probes has allowed the demonstration that the inhibition of parasite fecundity following immunization was related to the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the molecule. Epitope mapping of Sm28 GST has indicated the prominent role of the N and C terminal domains

  3. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.; Shi, F.H.; Shen, W.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Clarke, W.R.

    1984-09-01

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial in the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.

  4. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial in the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group

  5. Evaluation of mammalian and intermediate host surveillance methods for detecting schistosomiasis reemergence in southwest China.

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    Elizabeth J Carlton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has reemerged in China, threatening schistosomiasis elimination efforts. Surveillance methods that can identify locations where schistosomiasis has reemerged are needed to prevent the further spread of infections. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested humans, cows, water buffalo and the intermediate host snail, Oncomelania hupensis, for Schistosoma japonicum infection, assessed snail densities and extracted regional surveillance records in areas where schistosomiasis reemerged in Sichuan province. We then evaluated the ability of surveillance methods to identify villages where human infections were present. Human infections were detected in 35 of the 53 villages surveyed (infection prevalence: 0 to 43%, including 17 of 28 villages with no prior evidence of reemergence. Bovine infections were detected in 23 villages (infection prevalence: 0 to 65% and snail infections in one village. Two common surveillance methods, acute schistosomiasis case reports and surveys for S. japonicum-infected snails, grossly underestimated the number of villages where human infections were present (sensitivity 1% and 3%, respectively. Screening bovines for S. japonicum and surveys for the presence of O. hupensis had modest sensitivity (59% and 69% respectively and specificity (67% and 44%, respectively. Older adults and bovine owners were at elevated risk of infection. Testing only these high-risk human populations yielded sensitivities of 77% and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Human and bovine schistosomiasis were widespread in regions where schistosomiasis had reemerged but acute schistosomiasis and S. japonicum-infected snails were rare and, therefore, poor surveillance targets. Until more efficient, sensitive surveillance strategies are developed, direct, targeted parasitological testing of high-risk human populations should be considered to monitor for schistosomiasis reemergence.

  6. Medullary schistosomiasis

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    Lia Pappamikail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomal infestation of the central nervous system is a rare cause of cord compression, although a predominant one in endemic areas. Case Description: A 38-year-old male, native of Ivory Coast, with a history of 1 month of progressive paraparesis, neurogenic bladder, diminished deep tendon reflexes of the lower limbs, and sensory level. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a medullary lesion at D4-D5 level, suggestive of an intramedullary tumor. Laminotomy of D3 to D5 and excision of a grayish white lesion according to a preliminary histopathologic review suggestive of a high grade glioma. Definitive histopathology review established the diagnosis of medullary schistosomiasis. Conclusion: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy should be considered in patients presenting with cord compression or features of transverse myelitis, especially in patients from endemic areas or low social economic settlements.

  7. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    OpenAIRE

    Salwa Dawaki; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Init Ithoi; Jamaiah Ibrahim; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Abdulhamid Ahmed; Hany Sady; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities ...

  8. Investigating the genetic background of bovine digital dermatitis using improved definitions of clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpke, K; Gomez, A; Dunbar, K A; Swalve, H H; Döpfer, D

    2015-11-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an increasing claw health problem in all cattle production systems worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an improved scoring of the clinical status for DD via M-scores accounting for the dynamics of the disease; that is, the transitions from one stage to another. The newly defined traits were then subjected to a genetic analysis to determine the genetic background for susceptibility to DD. Data consisted of 6,444 clinical observations from 729 Holstein heifers in a commercial dairy herd, collected applying the M-score system. The M-score system is a classification scheme for stages of DD that allows a macroscopic scoring based on clinical inspections of the bovine foot, thus it describes the stages of lesion development. The M-scores were used to define new DD trait definitions with different complexities. Linear mixed models and logistic models were used to identify fixed environmental effects and to estimate variance components. In total, 68% of all observations showed no DD status, whereas 11% were scored as infectious for and affected by DD, and 21% of all observations exhibited an affected but noninfectious status. For all traits, the probability of occurrence and clinical status were associated with age at observation and period of observation. Risk of becoming infected increased with age, and month of observation significantly affected all traits. Identification of the optimal month concerning DD herd status was consistent for all trait definitions; the last month of the trial was identified. In contrast, months exhibiting the highest least squares means of transformed scores differed depending on trait definition. In this respect, traits that can distinguish between healthy, infectious, and noninfectious stages of DD can account for the infectious potential of the herd and can serve as an alert tool. Estimates of heritabilities of traits studied ranged between 0.19 (±0.11) and 0.52 (±0

  9. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edi...

  10. Testicular schistosomiasis mimicking tumour

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    Nicola Mortati Neto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis is a disease caused by Schistosoma. When infecting men the most common parasites are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. The Schistosoma mansoni is the only endemic parasite in Brazil. We present a case of testicular schistosomiasis simulating malignancy. The case was treated successfully by excisional biopsy and praziquantel therapy. A review of the literature is discussed.

  11. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, F. S.; Gayral, Ph.; Duncan, J.; Christie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Although mollusciciding can be a cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis transmission, only one organic molluscicide, niclosamide, is now being produced commercially, and only a few compounds are at present being tested in the laboratory. In future, improved cost-effective use of molluscicides will require more precise knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission patterns in each endemic area and improved application techniques. In snail control studies using controlled-release form...

  12. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; LOPES Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and live...

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Areeqi, Mona A.; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed usin...

  14. Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that affects an estimated 250 million people, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The transmission of schistosomiasis is spatially and temporally restricted to freshwater bodies that contain schistosome cercariae released from specific snails that act as intermediate hosts. Our objective was to assess the contribution of remote sensing applications and to identify remaining challenges in its optimal application for schistosomiasis risk profiling i...

  15. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well t...... trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed....

  16. A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China

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    Li Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5. At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75% and bovine (100% incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from

  17. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and

  18. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  19. Schistosomiasis control in China

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    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  20. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam.

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    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages of the three transmission modes below the TGD across four provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei and Anhui to determine whether there was any immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission. Eight sentinel villages were selected to represent both province and transmission mode. The primary end point measured was human incidence. Here we present the results of this five-year longitudinal cohort study. Results showed that the incidence of human S. japonicum infection declined considerably within individual villages and overall mode over the course of the study. This is also reflected in the yearly odds ratios (adjusted for infection risk that showed significant (P<0.01 downward trends in all modes over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The decrease in human S. japonicum incidence observed across all transmission modes in this study can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ chemotherapy. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that there has been virtually no immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission downstream of the dam.

  1. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis: diagnostic challenge*

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Cláudia Renata Castro do Rêgo; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Medeiros, Camila Carolina Queiroz; de Araújo, Jessica Guido

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurre...

  2. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    , the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years....... countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial...

  3. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz C. de S. Dias; Oswaldo Marçal Jr.; GLASSER Carmem M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the prog...

  4. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  5. Global Assessment of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Shows Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Works Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lopez, Melina; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis. PMID:27441556

  6. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis: diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Cláudia Renata Castro do Rêgo; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Medeiros, Camila Carolina Queiroz; de Araújo, Jessica Guido

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurrence and its difficult clinical diagnosis. PMID:26982792

  7. Development of a schistosomiasis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Rojo, Juan U; Siddiqui, Sabrina Z; Gray, Sean A; Carter, Darrick; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2016-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) of public health importance. Despite decades of implementation of mass praziquantel therapy programs and other control measures, schistosomiasis has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas. A schistosomiasis vaccine could play an important role as part of a multifaceted control approach. With regards to vaccine development, many biological bottlenecks still exist: the lack of reliable surrogates of protection in humans; immune interactions in co-infections with other diseases in endemic areas; the potential risk of IgE responses to antigens in endemic populations; and paucity of appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in nonhuman primate models. Research is also needed on the role of modern adjuvants targeting specific parts of the innate immune system to tailor a potent and protective immune response for lead schistosome vaccine candidates with the long-term aim to achieve curative worm reduction. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:26651503

  8. Determination and control of schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Simões Barbosa

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis con...

  9. Akut schistosomiasis (Katayama-feber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Rønne-Rasmussen, J O; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1995-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever) may present with a broad spectrum of symptoms three to six weeks after primary infection by Schistosoma (S) mansoni, S. japonicum or, more rarely, S. haematobium. The acute phase of schistosomiasis is frequently confused with other feverish diseases. It occu....... Clinically normal, but potentially exposed travel companions should be examined as well. Early diagnosis and treatment may be important in preventing the infection's serious sequelae of the infection....

  10. Schistosomiasis and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khaled

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30–50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine–cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the

  11. Acute human schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rabello

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The acute schistosomiasis is the toxemic disease that follow the Schistosoma cercariae active penetration trough screen in the immunologicaly naive vertebrate host. The clinical picture starts two to eight weeks after the first contact with the contaminated water. Susceptible patients present a syndrome comprising fever, diarrhea, toxemia and hepatosplenomegaly. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological and clinical features, presence of Schistosoma eggs in the feces, enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes by ultrasonography and by detection of high antibodies levels against the antigen keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Different rates of cure have been observed with specific medication and for the most severe clinical presentations the use of steroids reduces the systemic and allergic manifestations.

  12. Schistosomiasis and the Philippine campaign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristóbal S.Berry-Cabá

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infection with one of a series of related trematode parasites that are endemic to at least 76 tropical and subtropical countries.Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of South America,Africa and Asia.This paper reported more than 1500 soldiers of US troops and 560 men of Australian Air Force were affected schistosomiasis japonicum in the Leyte of the Philippines during the liberation of the Philippines from Octorber 1944 to the early months of 1945.Many troops there were affected by contaminated water with snail hosts.At first,the medical corps knew little about the situations of the schis-tosomiasis japonica in the Leyte,no preventive measure was adopted.On December 23,1944 CPT morris Goldberg discovered schistosomes first from the hospitalized soldiers while conducting a liver biopsy.Some sol-diers with markedly signs and symptoms were admitted to hospital for treatment.Preventive measure was taken since.The US sent a lot of experts to Philippines for the research of schistosomiasis japonicum,including epi-demiology,prevention,diagnosis,treatment and so on.Nineteen chemicals were used to control snail hosts. In clinical,schistosomiasis has acute and chronic stages,the manifestations are plenty and various,the liver, intestine,veins,spleen and skin etc are common sites of impingement.An extensive educational program was carried out in the troops through different means,which yielded remarkable effect,the new incidence of schis-tosomiasis dropped.Though hospitalized soldiers were a few,but there were scare and some morale and psy-chological problems among them and the other affected victims,they worried about their prognoses or being in-fected.Some patients were evacuated to United States for treatment after diagnosis,some patients were treated in Leyte.Before World War II,schistosomiasis was treated generally with trivalent antimony compounds,Fua-din and tartar emetic.In this event,no case died

  13. High Risk Behaviours and Schistosomiasis Infection in Kumba, South-West Province, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Ratard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Kumba, a town with a population of mixed background and socio-economic status, is a new and intense focus of schistosomiasis. Although fountains provide clean water, the population still uses the river and streams which cross the town for most of its bathing, laundry and swimming activities. A multivariate analysis indicated that a local subject’s age, ethnic group, knowledge about schistomiasis and the intensity of his or her contact with the river and/or stream were all significantly associated with schistosome infection. Surprisingly, a high level of knowledge about schistosomiasis was positively associated with the infection. The potential risk of schistosome infection from water contact shows that; the younger age groups are at relatively high risk and male are at more risk than females. In terms of knowledge about schistosomiasis those aged 15-19 years had the highest means score and those aged >44 years the lowest, with males having a significantly higher knowledge than females. Age, as expected and as observed in most schistosomiasis surveys, was a major determinant of schistosomiasis infection. At similar level of exposure children are more susceptible to schistosomiasis probably because they lack the immunity built up in the adults as a result of previous infections. Most surface-water contact by the children, the group most affected by schistosomiasis, occurs during playing and swimming. It is unlikely that health education will have a significant impact on this recreational high-risk behaviour.

  14. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  15. Scintigraphic findings in schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña, E; Silva, F

    1995-12-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical parasitic disease caused by a blood fluke which inhabits the portal system of humans. Fifteen pediatric patients with the acute disease were evaluated with liver and spleen scintigraphy (LSS). Clinical history, physical examination, and serum chemistries failed to reveal any other underlying systemic disease. Liver and spleen scintigraphies were performed before therapy, 7 months and 9 years after therapy with oxamniquine. LSS initially showed hepatomegaly in 93% of the patients. In the first follow up study a reactive spleen was evident in 78% of the cases, with an unchanged hepatic image. Long term follow up revealed that from the initially enlarged livers, 93% became normal. However, 47% of the spleens were abnormal. The scintigraphic changes observed in the liver over the years were those expected for an acute infection. The findings in the spleen might indicate the persistence of an immunologic reaction with a continuous trigger, probably an antibody. These observations suggest that the LSS can be used in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8637963

  16. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined. PMID:7058982

  17. Studies on the genomic association between schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Tarek M El-Beltagy; Hekmat M Tantawy; Rasha H Soliman; Badr, Fouad M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are successful parasites, apparently as a result of prolonged co-evolution with their hosts. Studies done nationwide in Egypt found the highest risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is in those infested with schistosome without history of blood transfusions. However, the association between schistosomiasis and HCV infection is incompletely understood. Aims: The overall aim of this ...

  18. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye;

    2016-01-01

    strategies. RESULTS: These studies of different treatment schedules with PZQ will provide the most comprehensive data thus far on the optimal frequency and continuity of PCT for schistosomiasis infection and morbidity control. CONCLUSIONS: We expect that the study outcomes will provide data for decision...... 2009, SCORE held a series of meetings to specify empirical questions and design studies related to different schedules of PCT for schistosomiasis control in communities with high (gaining control studies) and moderate (sustaining control studies) prevalence of Schistosoma infection among school...

  19. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  20. Human schistosomiasis in Ngamiland, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Magnussen, Pascal; Wouters, J S; Berczy, J J; Friis, Henrik; Ali, M I

    1985-01-01

    To reassess the schistosomiasis problem in Ngamiland and especially in Maun area 552 primary school children and 213 adult labourers were examined with urinalysis and rectal snip. Of the pupils 80.3% were found positive for S. mansoni and 1.4% for S. haematobium; of the labourers 35.7% were...

  1. Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Allen G. P.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; Li, Yuesheng; Davis, George M.; Williams, Gail M.; Jiang, Zheng; Feng, Zheng; Donald P McManus

    2001-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious communicable disease and a major disease risk for more than 30 million people living in the tropical and subtropical zones of China. Infection remains a major public health concern despite 45 years of intensive control efforts. It is estimated that 865,000 people and 100,250 bovines are today infected in the provinces where the disease is endemic, and its transmission continues. Unlike the other schistosome species known to infect humans, the oriental sch...

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali

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    Doumbo Ogobara K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main control strategy for schistosomiasis in Mali. However, in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, infants and preschool-aged children are overlooked in preventive chemotherapy campaigns. We therefore determined the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in children between the ages 1-4 years in three villages across Diema health district, a rural community with endemic schistosomiasis in Mali. For Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis, a single urine sample of 10 ml obtained from each child was subjected to the standard urine filtration method. Results Of the 338 children examined 173 (51.2% were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between communities (p Conclusion Our study showed that preschool children living closely to lakes across in Mali are at high risk to be infected by schistosomiasis and contributed largely to the transmission; therefore schistosomiasis control interventions should also target infants in addition to school children and adults in endemic areas.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. METHODS/FINDINGS: Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused

  4. Genital Schistosomiasis in European Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, Xavier; Fakhri, Anass; Albert, Valérie; Doukoure, Brahima; Noël, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is an isolated chronic form of schistosomiasis. Although most infections occur in residents of endemic areas, it has been clearly documented that brief freshwater exposure is sufficient to establish infection; thus, travellers may also be infected. The clinical manifestations of FGS are nonspecific, and lesions may mimic any neoplastic or infectious process in the female genital tract. It is important to take a careful history and physical examination, making sure to consider travel history in endemic areas. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopy with egg identification or by serology. The standard of care for treatment is a single dose of oral praziquantel which avoids complications and substantial morbidity. Herein, we report a rare and original case of FGS in a European woman. PMID:21776398

  5. Quality assessment of schistosomiasis literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pao, Miranda Lee; Goffman, William

    1990-01-01

    Average impact per paper, a refinement of the use of impact factor, was used to assess the quality of publications produced by a small group of sponsored researchers. The average impact per paper associated with half of the literature published by grantees has been shown to exceed those taken from the total literature at large. Moreover, this indicator appears to be stable over the five years tested. Compared with the schistosomiasis literature as a whole, the subset ...

  6. Protection Motivation Theory in Predicting Intention to Engage in Protective Behaviors against Schistosomiasis among Middle School Students in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang (Jim); Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Surve...

  7. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Artemisinin Based Therapies for the Treatment and Prevention of Schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez del Villar, Luis; Burguillo, Francisco J.; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy based on repeated doses of praziquantel is still the most effective control strategy against Schistosomiasis, however artemisinin derivatives emerged as a family of compounds with schistomicide activity. The aim of the present work is to compare the efficacy of artemisinin-based therapies in the treatment and prophylaxis of human schistosomiasis. The design of this work involved a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Retrieva...

  8. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two local government areas of Benue state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Houmsou R.S; Amuta E.U; Sar T.T

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria and continues to pose public health challenges especially in inhabitants of rural areas. Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to determine presence of Schist...

  9. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inobaya MT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianette T Inobaya,1 Remigio M Olveda,1 Thao NP Chau,3 David U Olveda,2 Allen GP Ross21Department of Health, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa City, Philippines; 2Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport, Australia; 3Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, AustraliaAbstract: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that ranks second only to malaria in terms of human suffering in the tropics and subtropics. Five species are known to infect man and there are currently over 240 million people infected worldwide. The cornerstone of control to date has been mass drug administration with 40 mg/kg of praziquantel but there are problems with this approach. Human and bovine vaccines are in various stages of development. Integrated control, targeting the life cycle, is the only approach that will lead to sustainability and future elimination.Keywords: schistosomiais, morbidity, treatment and control, mass drug administration

  10. Human Schistosomiasis: Clinical Perspective: Review

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    Rashad S. Barsoum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis pass by acute, sub acute and chronic stages that mirror the immune response to infection. The later includes in succession innate, TH1 and TH2 adaptive stages, with an ultimate establishment of concomitant immunity. Some patients may also develop late complications, or suffer the sequelae of co-infection with other parasites, bacteria or viruses. Acute manifestations are species-independent; occur during the early stages of invasion and migration, where infection-naivety and the host’s racial and genetic setting play a major role. Sub acute manifestations occur after maturity of the parasite and settlement in target organs. They are related to the formation of granulomata around eggs or dead worms, primarily in the lower urinary tract with Schistosoma haematobium, and the colon and rectum with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mekongi infection. Secondary manifestations during this stage may occur in the kidneys, liver, lungs or other ectopic sites. Chronic morbidity is attributed to the healing of granulomata by fibrosis and calcification at the sites of oval entrapment, deposition of schistosomal antigen-antibody complexes in the renal glomeruli or the development of secondary amyloidosis. Malignancy may complicate the chronic lesions in the urinary bladder or colon. Co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis viruses B or C may confound the clinical picture of schistosomiasis, while the latter may have a negative impact on the course of other co-infections as malaria, leishmaniasis and HIV. Prevention of schistosomiasis is basically geared around education and periodic mass treatment, an effective vaccine being still experimental. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of active infection by any species, with a cure rate of 80%. Other antischistosomal drugs include metrifonate for S. haematobium, oxamniquine for S. mansoni and

  11. Determination and control of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, F S

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the building of shared

  12. Diagnosing schistosomiasis: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Enk, Martin Johannes; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included. Publications were categorized according to the methodology applied (parasitological, immunological, or molecular) and stage of development (in house development, limited field, or large scale field testing). The initial research generated 4,535 publications, of which only 643 met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority (537) of the publications focused on immunological techniques; 81 focused on parasitological diagnosis, and 25 focused on molecular diagnostic methods. Regarding the stage of development, 307 papers referred to in-house development, 202 referred to limited field tests, and 134 referred to large scale field testing. The data obtained show that promising new diagnostic tools, especially for Schistosoma antigen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, which are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, are being developed. In combination with international funding initiatives these tools may result in a significant step forward in successful disease elimination and surveillance, which is to make efficient tests accessible and its large use self-sustainable for control programs in endemic countries. PMID:24553804

  13. Diagnosing schistosomiasis: where are we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included. Publications were categorized according to the methodology applied (parasitological, immunological, or molecular and stage of development (in house development, limited field, or large scale field testing. The initial research generated 4,535 publications, of which only 643 met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority (537 of the publications focused on immunological techniques; 81 focused on parasitological diagnosis, and 25 focused on molecular diagnostic methods. Regarding the stage of development, 307 papers referred to in-house development, 202 referred to limited field tests, and 134 referred to large scale field testing. The data obtained show that promising new diagnostic tools, especially for Schistosoma antigen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection, which are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, are being developed. In combination with international funding initiatives these tools may result in a significant step forward in successful disease elimination and surveillance, which is to make efficient tests accessible and its large use self-sustainable for control programs in endemic countries.

  14. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55). Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X), protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status. PMID:26267788

  15. Achievements of schistosomiasis control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hongchang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of schistosomiasis has been spectacularly successful in terms of controlling endemicity and severity of the disease during the last 50 years. It can be categorized into two stages. From 1955 through 1980, the transmission-control strategy had been widely and successfully carried out. By the end of 1980, the epidemic of schistosomiasis was successfully circumscribed in certain core regions including areas at the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River and some mountainous areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, where control of schistosomiasis had been demonstrated to be very difficult to be sustained. Therefore, since 1980, schistosomiasis control in China has been modified to employ a stepwise strategy, based on which morbidity control has been given priorities and if possible transmission control has been pursued. However, since snail-ridden areas remain unchanged so far, reinfections occur frequently. This necessitates a maintenance phase to consolidate the achievements in the control of schistosomiasis. In the mean time, we are challenged with some environmental, social and economical changes in terms of controlling schistosomiasis. Successfully controlling schistosomiasis in China is still a long-term task but will be achieved without doubt along with the economic development and the promotion of living and cultural standard of people.

  16. Schistosomiasis therapeutics: whats in the pipeline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor-Moss, Santiago; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by schistosome worms. Global efforts to control schistosomiasis rely predominantly on mass drug administration of the drug praziquantel to populations at risk of infection. We review the history of schistosome drug development and the current position of schistosome drug research. We conclude that with no additional candidates currently in the anti-schistosome drug clinical trial pipeline, a practical and necessary approach is to optimise the health benefits from praziquantel. We offer suggestions of where and how this can be achieved. We also highlight knowledge gaps in the utility of praziquantel particularly in the treatment of chronic schistosomiasis, which includes fibrosis, organomegaly and cervical lesions associated with female genital schistosomiasis. PMID:26508363

  17. A Schistosomiasis Model with Praziquantel Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Longxing Qi; Jing-an Cui

    2013-01-01

    A compartmental model is established for schistosomiasis with praziquantel resistance. The model considers the impact of genetic resistance and drug treatment on the transmission of schistosomiasis. We calculate the basic reproductive number and discuss the existence and stability of disease-free equilibrium, boundary equilibrium, and coexistence equilibrium. Our analysis shows that regardless of whether drug treatment leads to the emergence of resistance, once the impact of genetic resistanc...

  18. Determination and control of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Simões Barbosa

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the

  19. Health seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for schistosomiasis-related symptoms in ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Danso-Appiah (Anthony); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); K.M. Bosompem (Kwabena); J. Otchere (Joseph); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-s

  20. [Ecological civilization and schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dong-Yun; Liu, Bu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the main approach of ecological civilization construction and great changes and achievements in the original schistosomiasis endemic areas, Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province. Ecological civilization is an important part of schistosomiasis control work. PMID:22590876

  1. High rate of failure in treatment of imported schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Thybo, Sören

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing number of imported cases of schistosomiasis in Europe, but there are only few studies on the efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis in non-endemic settings....

  2. Schistosomiasis mansoni: novel chemotherapy using a cysteine protease inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a chronic, debilitating parasitic disease infecting more than 200 million people and is second only to malaria in terms of public health importance. Due to the lack of a vaccine, patient therapy is heavily reliant on chemotherapy with praziquantel as the World Health Organization-recommended drug, but concerns over drug resistance encourage the search for new drug leads. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The efficacy of the vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 was tested in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Disease parameters measured were worm and egg burdens, and organ pathology including hepato- and splenomegaly, presence of parasite egg-induced granulomas in the liver, and levels of circulating alanine aminotransferase activity as a marker of hepatocellular function. K11777 (25 mg/kg twice daily [BID], administered intraperitoneally at the time of parasite migration through the skin and lungs (days 1-14 postinfection [p.i.], resulted in parasitologic cure (elimination of parasite eggs in five of seven cases and a resolution of other disease parameters. K11777 (50 mg/kg BID, administered at the commencement of egg-laying by mature parasites (days 30-37 p.i., reduced worm and egg burdens, and ameliorated organ pathology. Using protease class-specific substrates and active-site labeling, one molecular target of K11777 was identified as the gut-associated cathepsin B1 cysteine protease, although other cysteine protease targets are not excluded. In rodents, dogs, and primates, K11777 is nonmutagenic with satisfactory safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The significant reduction in parasite burden and pathology by this vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitor validates schistosome cysteine proteases as drug targets and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis.

  3. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: studies on in vitro granuloma modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara C. Parra

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Schistosoma mansoni induces humoral and T cell mediated responses and leads to delayed hipersensitivity that results in granulomatous inflamatory disease around the parasite eggs. Regulation of these responses resulting in a reduction in this anti-egg inflamatory disease is appsrently determined by idiotypic repertoires of the patient, associated with genetic background and multiple external factors. We have previously reported on idiotype/anti-idiotype-receptor transactions in clinical human schistosomiasis. These findings support a hypothesis that anti-SEA cross-reactive idiotypes develop in some patients during the course of a chronic infection and participate in regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses. We repport here on experiments wich extend those observations to the regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity measured by an in vitro granuloma model. T cells from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients were stimulated in vitro with anti-SEA idiotypes and assayed in an autologous in vitro granuloma assay for modulation of granuloma formation. These anti-SEA idiotype reactive T cells were capable of regulating autologous in vitro granuloma formation. This regulatory activity, initiated with stimulatory anti-SEA idiotypic antibodies, was antigenically specific and was dependent on the present of intact (F(ab'2 immunoglobulin molecules. The ability to elicit this regulatory activity appears to be dose dependent and is more easily demonstrated in chronically infected intestinal patients or SEA sensitized individuals. These data support the hypothesis that anti-SEA cross reactive idiotypes are important in regulating granulomatous hypersensitivy in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients and these cross-reactive idiotypes appear to play a major role in cell-cell interactions which result in the regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses.

  4. Schistosomiasis hos danske rejsende og immigranter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Thybo, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe symptoms and diagnosis of schistosomiasis in travellers and immigrants based on patients diagnosed and treated at the State University Hospital in Copenhagen in 2003-2008. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patient records. RESULTS......: A total of 49 patients (39 travellers and ten immigrants) were diagnosed with schistosomiasis. All patients except one were infected in Africa. There was considerable variation in clinical manifestations between travellers and immigrants. Eggs were detected in urine, faeces and/or biopsy from 18...... patients, whereas 31 patients were diagnosed solely by serology. DISCUSSION: Travellers with schistosomiasis are often asymptomatic or have unspecific symptoms, while immigrants may present with severe complications to the infection. Because symptoms can develop years after the infection and due to the...

  5. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  6. Sustaining control of schistosomiasis mansoni in moderate endemicity areas in western Côte d’Ivoire: a SCORE study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rufin K Assaré; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Yapi, Ahoua; Yves-Nathan T. Tian-Bi; Patrick K. Yao; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Meïté, Aboulaye; FENWICK, ALAN; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that occurs in the tropics and subtropics. The mainstay of control is preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel. In Africa, an estimated 230 million people require preventive chemotherapy. In western Côte d’Ivoire, infections with Schistosoma mansoni are widespread. To provide an evidence-base for programme decisions about preventive chemotherapy to sustain control of schistosomiasis, a 5-year multi-country study with different treatment arms ...

  7. Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Gerstoft, Jan; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....

  8. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M.; A’Kadir, Faiza M.; Ali, Jamal N.; Mohammed, Ulfat A.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology In 2011, we conducted 35 children’s discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Principal Findings Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys’ disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students. Conclusions/Significance Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child’s well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:27399310

  9. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.

  10. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1995-01-01

    A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.

  11. Advancing a vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Maureen; Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    Several candidate human schistosomiasis vaccines are in different stages of preclinical and clinical development. The major targets are Schistosoma haematobium (urogenitial schistosomiasis) and Schistosoma mansoni (intestinal schistosomiasis) that account for 99% of the world's 252 million cases, with 90% of these cases in Africa. Two recombinant S. mansoni vaccines - Sm-TSP-2 and Sm-14 are in Phase 1 trials, while Smp80 (calpain) is undergoing testing in non-human primates. Sh28GST, also known as Bilhvax is in advanced clinical development for S. haematobium infection. The possibility remains that some of these vaccines may cross-react to target both schistosome species. These vaccines were selected on the basis of their protective immunity in preclinical challenge models, through human immune-epidemiological studies or both. They are being advanced through a combination of academic research institutions, non-profit vaccine product development partnerships, biotechnology companies, and developing country vaccine manufacturers. In addition, new schistosome candidate vaccines are being identified through bioinformatics, OMICs approaches, and moderate throughput screening, although the full potential of reverse vaccinology for schistosomiasis has not yet been realized. The target product profiles of these vaccines vary but many focus on vaccinating children, in some cases following mass treatment with praziquantel, also known as vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Several regulatory pathways have been proposed, some of which rely on World Health Organization prequalification. PMID:27036511

  12. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.)

  13. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per; Benn, Christine Stabell; Gomo, Exnevia; Gerstoft, Jan; van Dam, Govert; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count...

  14. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Zeid Alaa Hammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown. Methods 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Results 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 6.9 % among the adult population. We estimated S. mansoni prevalence as 0.0 %. S. haematobium infection was focally distributed at the village level. The infection was associated with non preference of latrine use – if available, use of open water source for household affairs such as cleaning and also with the history of schistosomiasis treatment. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH was also reported as high at 7.8 %, and two species were identified; Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem among the adult population in Southern Kordofan. The estimated prevalence will serve as a guide in developing a Schistosomiasis Control Program and applying treatment plans.

  15. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Baaten; G.J. Sonder; T. van Gool; J.A. Kint; A. van den Hoek

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods: Visitors of a pre-travel health advi

  16. Schistosomiasis Control Using Piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sá; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes Victor; Fokoue, Harold Hilarion; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Marques, Joaquim Vogt; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. M...

  17. The Relationship between Water, Sanitation and Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Jack E. T.; David Croll; Harrison, Wendy E.; Jürg Utzinger; Freeman, Matthew C.; Templeton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. METHODOLOGY: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe w...

  18. Spatial pattern of schistosomiasis in Xingzi, Jiangxi Province, China: the effects of environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhijie; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zengliang; Gao, Jie; Tao, Bo; Jiang, Qiulin; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent rebounds of schistosomiasis in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River pose a challenge to the current control strategies. In this study, identification of potential high risk snail habitats was proposed, as an alternative sustainable control strategy, in Xingzi County, China. Parasitological data from standardized surveys were available for 36,208 locals (aged between 6–65 years) from 42 sample villages across the county and used in combination with environmen...

  19. Community perceptions, attitude, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis in L. Victoria islands in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kabatereine, Narcis; Fleming, Fiona; Thuo, Wangechi; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Edridah M Tukahebwa; Fenwick, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 200,000 people, most of them infected with Schistosoma mansoni inhabit 150 islands in Lake Victoria in Uganda. Although a programme to control the disease has been ongoing since 2003, its implementation in islands is inadequate due to high transport costs on water. In 2011 and 2012, the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNNTD) through Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) provided financial support to ease treatment delivery on the islands and over the period,...

  20. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Odegaard, Justin I.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium worm infection, afflicts millions of people with egg-triggered, fibrotic bladder granulomata. Despite the significant global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, the mechanisms of bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis are ill defined due to the prior lack of tractable animal models. We combined a mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis with macrophage-depleting liposomal clodronate (LC) to define how macrophages mediate bladder granulomog...

  1. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Madinga Ntwan, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspe...

  2. Research and control of advanced schistosomiasis japonica in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Aicheng; Huang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Among the three main schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium) known to infect humans, S. japonicum causes the most serious pathological lesions. In China, only schistosomiasis japonica is transmitted. From the 1950s, massive epidemiological investigations and active control measures for schistosomiasis japonica have been carried out. At the early stage of schistosomiasis control program, there were about 12 million schistosomiasis patients, and about 5% of schistosomiasis patients belong to advanced patients, which was 600,000. After more than a half century of active schistosomiasis control work, the schistosomiasis situation has been reduced markedly. The nearest epidemiological investigation showed that, by the end of 2012, there were still 240,000 schistosomiasis patients with the descent rate of 98% and 30,000 advanced patients with the descent rate of 95%. This paper reviews the rich experiences of advanced schistosomiasis research and control in China, including that the epidemiology researches confirm there is a family aggregation of advanced schistosomiasis and advanced schistosomiasis patients have no significance to the schistosomiasis transmission in transmission-interrupted areas but still are an infection source in endemic areas; pathogenic mechanism researches verify that genetic factors and immunoregulation play important roles in the disease developing process; ultrasound image examinations are used not only in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis but also in the guidance of treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effects and, furthermore, in the risk predictions of portal hypertension and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; clinical practices demonstrate that praziquantel can be used in most of advanced schistosomiasis patients, and the therapy not only can interrupt the schistosomiasis transmission somewhat but also is favorable for liver fibrosis improvement; the

  3. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  4. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%. PMID:10928356

  5. A Schistosomiasis Model with Mating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxing Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A schistosomiasis model is proposed including single schistosomes, paired schistosomes, snails, and the latent period of infected snails. A reasonable sex ratio of schistosomes and the minimum mating function are considered. A threshold condition determining the stability of the system is given, and the stability of equilibrium for the model is shown. The impact of the latent period of infected snails on schistosomiasis transmission can be found through numerical simulations. Finally, preferable control strategies are obtained by sensitivity analyses. Killing snails may be the preferred control measure. If we choose chemotherapy, we should use some drugs which are sufficient for reducing egg-associated pathology, since paired schistosomes are mostly harmful to definitive hosts.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of filariasis, schistosomiasis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from studies on the immunodiagnosis of filariasis, schistosomiasis and malaria which have been carried out under the auspices of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. These studies include an evaluation of the RIPEGA and IRMA for the detection of filarial antigens; the selection and standardization of schistosome antigens for diagnostic purposes; and the development of tests for the detection of malaria antigens and antibodies. (author)

  7. Curse of schistosomiasis on Egyptian liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by a trematode blood fluke of the genus schistosoma that belongs to the schistosomatidae family.The ancient Egyptians contracted the disease more than 4 000 years ago.It was recognized through haematuria,the main sign of urinary bilharziasis was recorded in the Kahun papyrus 1900 B.C.as"a-a-a" disease[1].

  8. Schistosomiasis in patients in the Sultanate of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an intensive public health eradication program, the focus of schistosomiasis mansoni at Salalah in Southern Oman (the only focus of schistosomiasis in Oman), appeared to have been eradicated in 1994. Since the vector snails for schistosomiasis mansoni (and also for S. haematobium) were widely endemic in fresh water springs at Salalah, and reintroduction of introduction (or introduction in case of S.haematobium), was possible, we undertook a prospective study in 1995 for schistosomiasis in our patients at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and to obtain evidence of visits by these patients to Salalah. From May 1995 to May 2000, Omani and expatriate patients presenting at SQUH were evaluated for possible schistosomiasis (residence in an endemic region, suggestive clinical features) by a search for ova in stool, urine, or in tissue biopsies, or when ova were absent, by serodiagnosis. A retrospective survey of schistosomiasis patients diagnosed in SQUH from 1990 to April 1995 was also performed. Ministry of Health (MOH) data on reports of schistosomiasis (a notifiable disease) in Oman from 1991 to 2000 were obtained. Thirty patients with schistosomiasis were identified, 10 retrospectively and 20 in prospective study. Patients were aged 9 to 60 years, and 25 of them (10 Omanis, 14 Egyptians, 1 Sudanese) contracted the infection in Africa, while 5 Omanis became infected in Salalah (3 in 99). Twelve patients had schistosomiasis mansoni, 6 had schistosomiasis. Haematobia, and in the rest, infection by both parasites was confirmed or possible. The most common presentation (23%) was hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with portal hypertension. No patient admitted to contaminating fresh water with excreta in Salalah. MOH data revealed 3 to 14 cases of schistosomiasis were reported annually between 1991 and 2000, and that all schistosomiasis cases reported from 1994 1998 originated from Africa. Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in Oman. Many

  9. Schistosomiasis and the social patterning of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Manderson, L

    1992-08-01

    Social, cultural, behavioural and economic factors interact with local environmental and ecological factors to produce extraordinary variation in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, including with respect to prevalence and intensity of infection and the potential for control. This article reviews the literature on schistosomiasis infection, primarily derived from African studies, to identify its major social themes. Research has demonstrated a strong link between economic development strategies, where irrigation has been introduced to boost agricultural production, and the increased transmission of infection. Water-contact studies have provided the fullest and most detailed descriptions of social risk factors, and have isolated age, sex, religion and occupation as primary risk factors. However, fuller explorations of the social and cultural context of infection have yet to be undertaken. The social context of water-related behaviour and patterns of water use within communities and households, the intersection of social and economic activities, and the significance that people give to these activities, remains poorly explored, and although research papers concerned with community-based interventions refer to poor community understanding of the cause, prevention and treatment of the disease, this domain has also received little scholarly attention. Finally, economic studies have focused primarily on working capacity, and extrapolated these findings to generalize about the impact that this might have on productivity, but have yet to address either household or community costs of schistosomiasis infection. PMID:1359746

  10. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Solarin Adewale RT

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST (B = 0.308, p = 0.013. While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035, rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005, ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274, dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769 and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008 soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs

  11. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control

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    Remigio M. Olveda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40 mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  12. Duplex sonography study in schistosomiasis portal hypertension: characterization of patients with and without a history of variceal bleeding Dopplerfluxometria portal na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica com e sem antecedentes de hemorragia por varizes esofágicas

    OpenAIRE

    Severino Marcos Borba de Arruda; Victorino Spinelli Toscano Barreto; Fernando José do Amaral

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presinusoidal portal hypertension with frequent episodes of upper gastrointestinal variceal bleeding are hallmarks of hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis; a clinical form that affects about 5% of Brazilians who are infected by Schistosoma mansoni. AIMS: To evaluate duplex sonography findings in patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis with and without upper gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed whereby 27 consecutive pa...

  13. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  14. A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean François; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs. Conclusions/Significance This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field. PMID:25719489

  15. Reduction patterns of acute schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

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    Shi-Zhu Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant, steady progress in schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China over the past 50 years, available data suggest that the disease has re-emerged with several outbreaks of acute infections in the early new century. In response, a new integrated strategy was introduced. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between Jan 2005 and Dec 2012, to explore the effectiveness of a new integrated control strategy that was implemented by the national control program since 2004. RESULTS: A total of 1,047 acute cases were recorded between 2005 and 2012, with an annual reduction in prevalence of 97.7%. The proportion of imported cases of schistosomiasis was higher in 2011 and 2012. Nine clusters of acute infections were detected by spatio-temporal analysis between June and November, indicating that the high risk areas located in the lake and marshland regions. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the new integrated strategy has played a key role in reducing the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

  16. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis among Villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam AFIFI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is one of the major communicable diseases of public health and socioeconomic importance in developing countries. This study assessed the situation of schistosomiasis among villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan.Methods: An epidemiological survey was carried out in three randomly selected residential sites: Village 19, Village 26 and Talat shagrat Camp, from October to December 2013. Feces and urine samples were collected from 2433 individual (1195 male and 1238 female and examined for schistosomiasis infection. The prevalence and intensity of infection were calculated according to study sites and participants’ sex and age-group.Results: There was no infection with Schistosoma haematobium among the examined individuals, while the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 27.4% and the mean intensity among those infected was 261.1 eggs per gram (epg. A high preva­lence and intensity of infection was found among the residents of Talat shagrat Camp, followed by the other two villages. The prevalence of infection among males was 41.4%, and among females was 13.9%. On the other hand, the intensity of in­fection among females was 293.4 epg and among males 187.6 epg. A high preva­lence of infection was found in the age-groups 11-20 years and > 50 years. High intensity of infection was present in the age-groups 31-40 years and > 50 years.Conclusion: The finding of the study shows the need for an integrated control program against schistosomiasis. Mass treatment, provision of adequate clean-water supply and combating the intermediate snail host are suggested.

  17. Radiographic spectrum of rectocolonic calcification from schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataar, S; Bassiony, H; Hamed, M S; Ghoneim, I; Satyanath, S; Hebbar, H G; Elgindy, N N; Hanna, R M

    1984-05-01

    Rectocolonic calcification was detected radiographically in 17 sites in 14 patients undergoing excretory urography for the assessment of urinary schistosomiasis. The right colon was involved in 11 sites, the rectum in four, and the left colon in two. The pattern of calcification varied according to the degree of bowel distension. A laminar pattern was common to all sites and occurred when the rectum or colon was distended with air, feces, or barium. A laminar or irregular amorphous density was found in the empty colon, whereas the calcified, empty rectum had a corrugated pattern. Rectocolonic calcification is probably the most common radiographic manifestation of schistosomal infestation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:6609576

  18. An economic evaluation of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China from 1992 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ming-Gang; Wang, Tian-Ping; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Chen, Xian-Yi

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project, by far the largest effort in China for schistosomiasis control since control activities were initiated in the mid 1950s, was carried out for a 9-year period commencing in 1992 in the 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remained endemic when the project started. To evaluate its impact, a retrospective economic evaluation was done in 2001. Six representative counties, i.e. Huarong in Hunan province, Qianjiang in Hubei province, Yugan in Jiangxi province, Tongling in Anhui province, Xichang in Sichuan province and Dali in Yunnan province, were selected for the study. The total financial input in these counties from 1992 to 2000 was RMB Yuan 90.334 million with the World Bank loan accounting for 40.9%. Control efforts resulted in reduction of human prevalence rates in the six counties from 0.7-9.0% in 1992 to 0.1-2.7% in 2000. With regard to S. japonicum infection in bovines, a high reduction was observed in Qianjiang, and smaller decreases were noted in four counties, while there was an increase in Dali. In general, the areas infested by the intermediate host snail fluctuated around the initial level. The net benefit-cost ratio was 6.20, which means that this project gained US$ 6.20 for every dollar spent. The correlation coefficients of the net benefit-cost ratio to the human and bovine infection rates at the beginning of the project were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. It is conceivable that further progress in schistosomiasis control is an important feature for sustained growth of the local economy, particularly in areas where control of the disease has been most challenging. PMID:16154104

  19. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  20. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  1. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

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    Salwa Dawaki

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively.The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population.Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis

  2. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

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    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  3. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

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    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  4. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

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    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  5. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

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    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  6. Schistosomiasis control in the State of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    1995-01-01

    The program of schistosomiasis control for the State of São Paulo, where only low endemicity areas occur, is discussed in this paper. Inclusion of schistosomiasis among the diseases due to obligatory notification is considered as a measure of great importance. Accordingly the search for passive cases conducted by the public health system acquired major importance in the disease surveillance. As from 1981 to 1992 only 11% of the detected cases were considered as autochthonous. The main transmi...

  7. Optimizing molluscicide treatment strategies in different control stages of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Guo-Jing; Sun Le-Ping; Hong Qing-Biao; Zhu Hong-Ru; Yang Kun; Gao Qi; Zhou Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The application of chemical molluscicides is still one of the most effective measures for schistosomiasis control in P. R. China. By applying diverse molluscicide treatment scenarios on different snail densities in the field, we attempted to understand the cost-effectiveness of molluscicide application so as to prescribe an optimal management approach to control intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis under acceptable thresholds based on the goal of the National Schis...

  8. A New Strategy Based on Smrho Protein Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Candidate Oral Vaccine against Schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carolina R.; Rezende, Cíntia M. F.; Silva, Marina R.; Ana Paula Pêgo; Olga Borges; Alfredo M. Goes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticl...

  9. Uptake of Preventive Treatment for Intestinal Schistosomiasis among School Children in Jinja District, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne; Nuwaha, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background In Uganda, the current national health sector strategic and investment plan underscores schistosomiasis as one of the diseases targeted for elimination by the year 2015. However, uptake of treatment among school children is unknown but suspected to be low. We estimated the uptake and predictors of preventive treatment with praziquantel. Methods In a cross sectional study carried out in Jinja district of Uganda, a random sample of 1,010 children in 12 primary schools was questioned ...

  10. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Treatment for Reducing HIV Transmission in Africa – The Case of Zimbabwean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Poolman, Eric M.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Orenstein, Evan W.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. Methods We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) and H...

  11. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood Stephen W; Upatham E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies) available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment....

  12. CHARACTERISTIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE ENHANCEMENT PATTERN IN CEREBRAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-qiu Liu; Xiao-yuan Feng; Zhen-wei Yao; Hua-ping Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of cerebral schistosomiasis.Methods Twenty-five patients whose diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) schistosomiasis had been pathologically (n=8) and clinically (n=17) confirmed were randomly selected.MRI was performed on a Signal 1.5T MRI scanner before and after the intravenous administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine constrast medium.We reviewed the MRI studies obtained at the time of initial presentation,as well as follow-up studies obtained during and after medical treatment.Results Immunological tests in 15 patients indicated schistosomiasis haematobium.Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in 22 cases showed central linear enhancement surrounded by multiple enhancing punctate nodules,which appeared "arborized".Through operation and pathological examination,8 cases had the granuloma formation of schistosomal eggs extensive surrounded by inflammation and venous congestion.And 17 cases were treated with praziquantel and corticosteroid therapy.And they were followed up for 2 months by taking MRI,which turned out to be complete resolution of the enhancing structure and edema.At follow-up,all the patients' initial symptoms also resolved.Conclusion The specified MRI enhancement pattern of cerebral schistosomiasis is common in most cases of CNS schistosomiasis,so it should be taken account into the diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis.

  13. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  14. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

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    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  15. Acute schistosomiasis mansoni: revisited and reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Lambertucci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute schistosomiasis is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and eggs. A variety of clinical manifestations appear during the migration of schistosomes in humans: cercarial dermatitis, fever, pneumonia, diarrhoea, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, skin lesions, liver abscesses, brain tumours and myeloradiculopathy. Hypereosinophilia is common and aids diagnosis. The disease has been overlooked, misdiagnosed, underestimated and underreported in endemic areas, but risk groups are well known, including military recruits, some religious congregations, rural tourists and people practicing recreational water sports. Serology may help in diagnosis, but the finding of necrotic-exudative granulomata in a liver biopsy specimen is pathognomonic. Differentials include malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, kala-azar, prolonged Salmonella bacteraemia, lymphoma, toxocariasis, liver abscesses and fever of undetermined origin. For symptomatic hospitalised patients, treatment with steroids and schistosomicides is recommended. Treatment is curative in those timely diagnosed.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive. Laboratory findings revealed a leukocyte count of 10,000/mL, a normal red blood cell count and no eosinophilia. The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules (Figures A and B: axial and coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images showed the nodular - yellow arrows - enhancement pattern of a left cerebellar intraxial lesion). The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla. There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum (Figure C). After surgery, treatment with praziquantel (50 mg/kg/dia, single dose) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was offered and the patient improved quickly. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: he was asymptomatic and with no neurological impairment. This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images. (author)

  17. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... of antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species of captive cervids. This action is necessary..., CO 80526-8117; (970) 494-7378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is...

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  19. A multi-component integrated approach for the elimination of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: design and baseline results of a 4-year cluster-randomised intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Darren J; Li, Yue-Sheng; Williams, Gail M; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Harn, Donald A; Li, Sheng-Ming; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Feng, Zeng; Guo, Feng-Ying; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Jie; Dong, Yu-Lan; Li, Yuan; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

    2014-08-01

    Despite major successes in its control over the past 50years, schistosomiasis japonica continues to be a public health problem in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Historically, the major endemic foci occur in the lakes and marshlands along the Yangtze River, areas where transmission interruption has proven difficult. The current endemic situation may alter due to the closure of the Three Gorges Dam. Considerable environmental and ecological changes are anticipated that may result in new habitats for the oncomelanid intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj), thereby increasing the risk of transmission. The current national control program for P.R. China involves a multi-component integrated strategy but, despite targeting multiple transmission pathways, certain challenges remain. As the Chinese government pushes towards elimination, there is a requirement for additional tools, such as vaccination, for long-term prevention. Whereas the zoonotic nature of schistosomiasis japonica adds to the complexity of control, it provides a unique opportunity to develop a transmission blocking vaccine targeting bovines to assist in the prevention of human infection and disease. Mathematical modelling has shown that control options targeting the various transmission pathways of schistosomiasis japonica and incorporating bovine vaccination, mass human chemotherapy and mollusciciding could lead to its elimination from P.R. China. Here we present the study design and baseline results of a four-year cluster randomised intervention trial we are undertaking around the schistosomiasis-endemic Dongting Lake in Hunan Province aimed at determining the impact on schistosome transmission of the multi-component integrated control strategy, including bovine vaccination using a heterologous "prime-boost" delivery platform based on the previously tested SjCTPI vaccine. PMID:24929133

  20. [Parasitological characteristics, epidemiological and clinical features, and current control approaches for three major kinds of human schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease, which could do serious damage to the people's health, and it hinders the development of the social economy but may be neglected. After a positive control, some countries and regions have blocked the spread of schistosomiasis. However, in the past few years, with the development of social economy, due to the global movement of people, schistosomiasis not only poses a threat to control areas, but also may cause new endemic areas. This article reviews the parasitological characteristics, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation, and control approaches of three major kinds of human schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis japonica, schistosomiasis haematobia, and schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:24024456

  1. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Costa Drummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected for this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US, and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%, twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%, eight were in Group 3 (2.1%, and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%. A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p<0.01. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (platelet count <143,000/mm3, the sensitivity was greater than 92% in all groups, and the specificity varied from 44.4% to 75%. Conclusions We concluded that in endemic areas, thrombocytopenia demonstrates good sensitivity for detecting HSS and may be used as a screening tool to identify patients with HSS.

  2. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe: systemic inflammation during co-infection and after treatment for schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C.; Kallestrup, P.; Zinyama-Gutsire, R.B.;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II....... IL-8 levels were higher in S. mansoni-infected individuals. Treatment for schistosomiasis caused a decrease in levels of sTNF-rII (P < 0.05) and IL-10 (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that schistosomiasis treatment may attenuate HIV replication by decreasing systemic inflammation Udgivelsesdato...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized to...

  3. Drug resistance in Schistosomiasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance associated with the treatment of human schistosomiasis appears to be an emerging problem requiring more attention from the scientific community than the subject currently receives. Drug-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni have been isolated by various investigators as a result of laboratory experimentation or from a combination of field and laboratory studies. Review of this data appears to indicate that the lack of susceptibility observed for some of the isolated strains cannot be ascribed solely to previous administration of antischistosome drugs and thus further studies are required to elucidate this phenomena. Strains of S. mansoni have now been identified from Brazil which are resistant to oxamniquine, hycanthone and niridazole; from Puerto Rico which are resistant to hycanthone and oxamniquine; and from Kenya which are resistant to niridazole and probably oxamniquine. Strains derived by in vitro selection and resistant to oxamniquine and possibly to oltipraz are also available. All of these strains are currently maintained in the laboratory in snails and mice, thus providing for the first time an opportunity for indepth comparative studies. Preliminary data indicates that S. haematobium strains resistant to metrifonate may be occurring in Kenya. This problem could poise great difficulty in the eventual development of antischistosomal agents. Biomphalaria glabrata from Puerto Rico and Brazil were found to be susceptible to drug-resistant S. mansoni from each country.

  4. Recent advances in immunity to human schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hagan

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years the epidemiological significance of immunity in human schistosomiasis has been the subject of inconclusive debate. Recently, the results of studies from Brazil and Kenya, on Shistosoma mansoni and from Zimbabwe and The Gambia on S. haematobium have confirmed the importance of protective immunity. In communities in endemic areas the development of immunity to infection only occurs after many years of exposure. In part this due to the slow development of antibodies wich are protective but also to the earlier development of antibody isotypes which lack protective capacity and wich are capable of interfering with the functioning of protective antibodies. Protective antibodies appear to be of the IgE class but some IgG subclasses may be also be important. Initially, blocking antibodies were thought to be predominantly IgM and IgG2 but IgG4 also seems to posses blocking activity. The early production of blocking antibodies and late production of protective antibodies may be indicative of cytokine induced immunoglobulin class swiching caused by the sequential involvment of different lymphokines.

  5. Nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Song, Lan-Gui; Xie, Hui; Liang, Jin-Yi; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lv, Zhi-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease that causes serious harms to humans and animals. Surveillance and diagnosis play key roles in schistosomiasis control, however, current techniques for surveillance and diagnosis of the disease have limitations. As genome data for parasites are increasing, novel techniques for detection incorporating nucleotide sequences are receiving widespread attention. These sensitive, specific, and rapid detection methods are particularly important in the diagnosis of low-grade and early infections, and may prove to have clinical significance. This paper reviews the progress of nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis, including such aspects as the selection of target genes, and development and application of nucleic acid detection methods. PMID:27025210

  6. Hypertensive portal colopathy in schistosomiasis mansoni: proposal for a classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelina C Miranda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension is a frequent complication of chronic liver disease, detected not only in schistosomiasis, but also in cirrhosis of any etiology. Vascular alterations in the colonic mucosa are a potential source for acute or chronic bleeding and have been observed in patients with portal hypertension. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe and propose a classification for the vascular alterations of portal hypertension in the colonic mucosa among patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. One or more alterations of portal colopathy were observed in all patients and they were classified according to their intensity, obeying the classification proposed by the authors. Portal colopathy is an important finding in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and might be the cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with severe portal hypertension.

  7. Hemostatic dysfunction is increased in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and advanced periportal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic parasitic disease and a public health problem in Northeast Brazil. In some patients, hepatic abnormalities lead to periportal fibrosis and result in the most severe clinical form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This study aimed to evaluate whether abnormal blood coagulation and liver function tests in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (n = 55 correlate with the severity of their periportal fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were used for liver function tests, hemogram and prothrombin time (International Normalized Ratio, INR. The blood coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa (ATIIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured by photometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined on the basis of PAI-1 levels and a D-dimer concentration greater than a standard cut-off of 483 ng/mL. Standard liver function tests were all abnormal in the patient group compared to healthy controls (n = 29, including raised serum transaminases (p<0.001 and lower levels of albumin (p = 0.0156. Platelet counts were 50% lower in patients, while for coagulation factors there was a 40% increase in the INR (p<0.001 and reduced levels of Factor VII and protein C in patients compared to the controls (both p<0.001. Additionally, patients with more advanced fibrosis (n = 38 had lower levels of protein C compared to those with only central fibrosis (p = 0.0124. The concentration of plasma PAI-1 in patients was one-third that of the control group (p<0.001, and D-dimer levels 2.2 times higher (p<0.001 with 13 of the 55 patients having levels above the cut-off. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that hemostatic abnormalities are associated with reduced liver function and increased liver fibrosis. Of note was the finding that a quarter of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and

  8. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  9. Global Health: Urogenital Schistosomiasis in the Adolescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sharise T; Franklin, Ashley L; Rome, Ellen S; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2016-08-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis affects millions of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Infection by the causative organism, Schistosoma hematobium, commonly occurs during childhood and adolescence and can lead to anemia from hematuria, inflammation on the cervix which can increase risk of HIV transmission, and pelvic infection leading to infertility. Fortunately treatment is not costly, but early diagnosis is important to reduce long-term morbidity. Our objective is to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis as well as treatment to improve the reproductive health of girls where this infection is endemic. PMID:26173381

  10. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  11. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two local government areas of Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houmsou R.S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria and continues to pose public health challenges especially in inhabitants of rural areas. Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 41.5% was observed among the 1,124 children examined. Secondary school children recorded higher prevalence rate than primary school children and pre-school children. A significant difference in prevalence was observed between the three categories of children examined. Males had statistically higher prevalence rate than females. No significant difference was observed between the different age groups, and across the months. Children whose parents have no formal education and whose parents have primary education recorded the highest prevalence with statistical significance. Children whose parents’ occupation is farming had the highest prevalence which was statistically significant compared to those whose parents were non-farmers. Children who played/bathed and collected fresh water snails had higher risks of infection with urinary schistosomiasis in the area. Conclusion: The study draws attention to the health hazards posed by urinary schistosomiasis among children in in the studied area. The urgent need for a decisive control intervention to stem this problem cannot be overemphasized.

  12. Studies on the genomic association between schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M Abou-Zied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are successful parasites, apparently as a result of prolonged co-evolution with their hosts. Studies done nationwide in Egypt found the highest risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection is in those infested with schistosome without history of blood transfusions. However, the association between schistosomiasis and HCV infection is incompletely understood. Aims: The overall aim of this study was to assess whether or not a genomic association between schistosomal infestation and HCV infection exists. Materials and Methods: Oligonucleotide specific primers of HCV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR diagnostics were used to screen the genomic DNA and cDNA library pool of Schistosoma mansoni as templates based on the end-point PCR approach. Results: Screening of schistosome DNA by PCR, lead to the detection of sequences similar to HCV. PCR products were obtained when adult worms genomic DNA were used as templates while no PCR products were amplified from S. mansoni λZAPII cDNA library pool. The resulting PCR products were sequenced and compared with the other closely related HCV sequence database at the website . Conclusions: This work demonstrates the existence of HCV and its replication in the genomic DNA of S. mansoni. In addition, it highlights the fact that the parasite can carry the virus genome and therefore, is considered as a nonhuman vector for the transmission of HCV infections.

  13. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergquist NR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed, worldwide success of chemotherapy notwithstanding, schistosomiasis continues to defy control efforts in as much rapid reinfection demands repeated treatment, sometimes as often as once a year. There is thus a need for a complementary tool with effect for the longer term, notably a vaccine. International efforts in this direction have been ongoing for several decades but, until the recombinant DNA techniques were introduced, antigen production remained an unsurmountable bottleneck. Although animal experiments have been highly productive and are still much needed, they probably do not reflect the human situation adequately and real progress can not be expected until more is known about human immune responses to schistosome infection. It is well-known that irradiated cercariae consistently produce high levels of protection in experimental animals but, for various reasons, this proof of principle cannot be directly exploited. Research has instead been focussed on the identification and testing of specific schistosome antigens. This work has been quite successful and is already at the stage where clinical trials are called for. Preliminary results from coordinated in vitro laboratory and field epidemiological studies regarding the protective potential of several antigens support the initiation of such trials. A series of meetings, organized earlier this year in Cairo, Egypt, reviewed recent progress, selecteded suitable vaccine candidates and made firm recommendations for future action including pledging support for large-scale production according to good manufacturing practice (GMP and Phase I trials. Scientists at the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have drawn up a detailed research plan. The major financial support will come from USAID, Cairo, which has established a scientific advisory group of Egyptian scientists and representatives from current and previous international donors such as WHO, NIAID, the

  14. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  15. Preliminary study on immunotoxin for the prevention of Schistosomiasis japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To investigate the effects of immunotoxin (bio-missile) on the prevention of schistosomiasis. The monoclonal antibody NP11-4, located in out-layer membrane of adult worm, membrane of cercariae, membrane of schistosomula, shell of egg and membrane of miracidium in egg, was combined with artesunate (produced by Guilin Pharmaceutical Factory of China) by chemical method to fabricate immunotoxin.

  16. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  17. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  18. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25636189

  19. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II....... IL-8 levels were higher in S. mansoni-infected individuals. Treatment for schistosomiasis caused a decrease in levels of sTNF-rII (P < 0.05) and IL-10 (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that schistosomiasis treatment may attenuate HIV replication by decreasing systemic inflammation....... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized to...

  20. Impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life and productivity of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M I; Moustafa, Y A; Foda, N; Khashab, S; Moemen, M; Abo el-Naga, R M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of schistosomiasis on quality of life (QOL) and productivity of workers was examined. In a textile factory in Alexandria, Egypt, personal, occupational and sociodemographic data were collected from 172 workers with schistosomiasis and 172 workers without schistosomiasis. Several indicators of productivity and the World Health Organization QOL brief were used to determine the impact of schistosomiasis. The disease affected the general, physical and independence, psychological and spiritual, and social domains of QOL. Although the productivity score of workers with schistosomiasis did not differ significantly from the control group, they had significantly lower additional hours of work and lower total incentives/month. A significant relationship was found between severity of schistosomiasis and QOL domains and productivity indicators. PMID:15339125

  1. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Chunhui; Liu Shengfa; Hong Yang; Fu Zhiqiang; Wei Meimei; Ai Dezhou; Lin Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH) modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs). The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ) and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript level...

  2. Vector ecology of human schistosomiasis in south India and description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan Sankarappan; Balachandran Chellapandian; Arun Prasanna Vimalanathan; Kannan Mani; Dinakaran Sundaram; Krishnan Muthukalingan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Vector ecology and taxonomy of snails is a prerequisite for controlling schistosomiasis in the tropics. The ecology of the freshwater limpet genus Ferrissia was investigated for detection of cercariae larvae in them, and taxonomic description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia. Methods: This study was conducted in 15 perennial streams from five different hills of south India. To study the seasonal patterns, a stream from each hill was selected and sampled in t...

  3. Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qin-Ping; Guo Yi; Dong Hui-Fen; Liu Rong; Jiang Ming-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Praziquantel has been used as first-line drug for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis since 1984. Besides praziquantel, artemether and artesunate have also been used for the control of this infectious disease since late 1990s. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the antischistosomal efficacy of different medication strategies including monotherapy or combination therapies of these drugs. Results A number of 52 trials from 38 articles...

  4. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the dongting lake area of hunan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Balen; Zhao-Chun Liu; McManus, Donald P.; Giovanna Raso; Jürg Utzinger; Shui-Yuan Xiao; Dong-Bao Yu; Zheng-Yuan Zhao; Yue-Sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitab...

  5. Ureteric obstruction secondary to schistosomiasis 2 years after praziquantel therapy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Olajide, Abimbola Olaniyi; Olajide, Folakemi Olajumoke; Aremu, Ademola Adegoke; Komolafe, Akinkunmi Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the oldest and commonest parasitic infestations of mankind and one of the leading infestations of public health concern. Hitherto, praziquantel has been the only drug for mass eradication of Schistosomiasis. Few reports have shown possible resistance of the schistosome to praziquantel in some part of the world with global concern about the future of the drug. We report this case to illustrate progression of Schistosomiasis to surgical complication despite treatment, ...

  6. Effects of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound on pulmonary lesions in rabbits with schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To explore the interventional effects and mechanism of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound preparation(ICCBco) on pulmonary lesions in portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis. METHODS:The experimental group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by ICCBco.The control group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by praziquantel. The morphological changes of the pulmonary tissues were observed under light and electron microscopy....

  7. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear....... METHODS: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used...... to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected...

  8. A Huge Thrombosed Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm without Pulmonary Hypertension in a Patient with Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Salem, Elsayed S.; Ramadan, Mahmoud M.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Thrombosed pulmonary artery aneurysm Symptoms: Cough productive • fever • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Pericardiocentesis Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: We herein report a case of huge pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 55-year-old male farmer from the Nile delta (Lower-Egypt), mostly due to infestation with Schistosoma mansoni, which is the parasite causing hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Case Report: This male patient was admitted with a month-long history of progressive shortness of breath, 2-month history of fever, and a cough with mucoid sputum for 10 days. On examination, he had normal temperature and blood pressure, but he had tachypnea, tachycardia, and congested neck veins. Electrocardiography showed multifocal atrial tachycardia and right bundle branch block. Conclusions: The present case is unique in that it shows the presence of a huge pulmonary artery aneurysm despite the absence of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25746428

  9. Schistosomiasis control in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The program of schistosomiasis control for the State of São Paulo, where only low endemicity areas occur, is discussed in this paper. Inclusion of schistosomiasis among the diseases due to obligatory notification is considered as a measure of great importance. Accordingly the search for passive cases conducted by the public health system acquired major importance in the disease surveillance. As from 1981 to 1992 only 11% of the detected cases were considered as autochthonous. The main transmission areas are located at the Litoral and Paraiba Valley regions. In the period of time under analysis, the epidemiological surveillance data suggest a decrease in the morbidity and in the autochthony tendency in the State of São Paulo.

  10. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  11. Ethanol challenge in non-alcoholic patients with schistosomiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, R D; Borges, D R

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate serum gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in a group of non-alcoholic patients with the hepatointestinal form of schistosomiasis; and the response of both GGT and alkaline phosphatase to an ethanol challenge in two subgroups of patients with different baseline serum concentrations of GGT. METHODS: Seventy six non-alcoholic, non-smoking hepatitis B virus (HBV) negative men with normal body mass index, who denied blood product transfusion or use of medication, were studie...

  12. Use of a saline gradient for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho; Jurberg, Arnon D.; Oliveira, Áureo A.; Naftale Katz

    2009-01-01

    The development of novel methods for parasitological diagnosis that are both highly sensitive and low in cost has been strongly recommended by the World Health Organization. In this study, a new technique for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni is proposed based on the differential sedimentation of eggs when subjected to a slow continuous flux of 3% saline solution through a porous plaque. This influx suspends low-density faecal material, effectively cleaning the sample. The remaining sedime...

  13. Rural tourism: a risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin Johannes; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Costa e Silva, Matheus Fernandes; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazinnelli, Giovanni; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Massara, Cristiano Lara

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis among 38 tourists who rented a country house in the district of Igarapé, the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during a holiday period in 2006. A total number of 32 individuals were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Results of stool examinations revealed individual S. mansoni egg counts per gram of faeces (epg) ranging from 4-768 epg with a geometric mean egg count of 45. The most frequent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (78.1%), headache (75%), fever (65.6%), dry cough (65.2%) and both diarrhoea and asthenia (59.4%). A malacological survey of the area, where 22 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were collected, revealed three (13.6%) specimens eliminating Schistosoma cercariae. This investigation re-confirms a recently described pattern of schistosomiasis infection, resulting in the acute form of the disease and connected to rural tourism, which contributes to the spread of the disease among the middle-class and into non-endemic areas. The lack of specific knowledge about acute schistosomiasis among health services causes an increased number of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment, resulting in considerable discomfort for the patients. PMID:20721505

  14. Rural tourism: a risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johannes Enk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis among 38 tourists who rented a country house in the district of Igarapé, the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during a holiday period in 2006. A total number of 32 individuals were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Results of stool examinations revealed individual S. mansoni egg counts per gram of faeces (epg ranging from 4-768 epg with a geometric mean egg count of 45. The most frequent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (78.1%, headache (75%, fever (65.6%, dry cough (65.2% and both diarrhoea and asthenia (59.4%. A malacological survey of the area, where 22 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were collected, revealed three (13.6% specimens eliminating Schistosoma cercariae. This investigation re-confirms a recently described pattern of schistosomiasis infection, resulting in the acute form of the disease and connected to rural tourism, which contributes to the spread of the disease among the middle-class and into non-endemic areas. The lack of specific knowledge about acute schistosomiasis among health services causes an increased number of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment, resulting in considerable discomfort for the patients.

  15. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreas N Mbah,1,2 Ousman Mahmud,1 Omotayo R Awofolu,2 Raphael D Isokpehi11Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions.Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum.Results: Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene.Conclusion: Given that the initial effects of

  16. Tools to support policy decisions related to treatment strategies and surveillance of Schistosomiasis japonica towards elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Nong Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate diagnostics to monitor disease trends and assess the effectiveness and impact of interventions are essential for guiding treatment strategies at different thresholds of schistosomiasis transmission and for certifying elimination. Field validation of these assays is urgently needed before they can be adopted to support policy decisions of the national programme for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in P.R. China. We compared the efficacy and utility of different immunoassays in guiding control strategies and monitoring the endemic status of S. japonicum infections towards elimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven villages with different transmission intensities settings to assess the performance and utility of three immunoassays, e.g., an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA_JX, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA_SZ, and a dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA_SH. 6,248 individuals aged 6-65 years old who gave consent and supplied their stool and blood samples were included for data analysis. Results showed that ELISA_SZ performed significantly higher sensitivity (95.45%, 95%CI: 92.94-97.97% than IHA_JX (87.59%, 95%CI: 83.51-91.49% and DIGFA_SH (79.55%, 95%CI: 74.68-84.41%, especially in subgroups with very low infection intensity. The specificity of ELISA_SZ, IHA_JX, DIGFA_SH in 6-9 year olds with occasional exposure was nearly 90%. DIGFA_SH performed the highest screening efficacy for patients among three assays with overall positive predicative value of 13.07% (95%CI: 11.42-14.72%. We found a positive correlation of antibody positive rate of IHA_JX with results of stool examination in age strata (r = 0.70, P<0.001. Seropositivity of IHA_JX in children aged 6-9 years old showed an excellent correlation with prevalence of schistosome infection in the seven communities (r = 0.77, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies suggest that ELISA

  17. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  18. Vaccination against bovine schistosomiasis japonica with highly X-irradiated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercariae of the Chinese mainland strain of Schistosoma japonicum were used. Eighteen cattle, divided into six groups of three each, were immunized with schistosomula transformed from cercariae exposed to three different doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR). The immunization was given either once, twice, or thrice, and the number of immunizing schistosomula was 10,000 or more in each immunization. The immunized cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae. Five native cattle were similarly infected with normal cercariae as controls. All cattle were killed 32-33 days after challenge or infection, and the worms were obtained by perfusion. The mean worm reduction in the 18 experimental animals varied from 42.1 to 96.0%. The mean percent worm reduction of the six experimental groups varied from 54.8 to 87.1. The reduction was greater with increasing numbers of immunizations, and was higher in the groups immunized with schistosomula exposed to 36 kR than in those exposed to 24 or 48 kR. Statistical analyses showed that all immunized groups yielded significantly fewer worms than controls. However, the three doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR) had no significant effect for a fixed number of immunizations (1, 2, or 3). The means for both two and three immunizations were significantly different from the mean for one immunization, although they were not significantly different from each other

  19. Vaccination against bovine schistosomiasis japonica with highly X-irradiated schistosomula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Xu, S.T.; Shi, F.H.; He, Y.X.; Clarke, W.R.; Johnson, S.C.

    1983-03-01

    Cercariae of the Chinese mainland strain of Schistosoma japonicum were used. Eighteen cattle, divided into six groups of three each, were immunized with schistosomula transformed from cercariae exposed to three different doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR). The immunization was given either once, twice, or thrice, and the number of immunizing schistosomula was 10,000 or more in each immunization. The immunized cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae. Five native cattle were similarly infected with normal cercariae as controls. All cattle were killed 32-33 days after challenge or infection, and the worms were obtained by perfusion. The mean worm reduction in the 18 experimental animals varied from 42.1 to 96.0%. The mean percent worm reduction of the six experimental groups varied from 54.8 to 87.1. The reduction was greater with increasing numbers of immunizations, and was higher in the groups immunized with schistosomula exposed to 36 kR than in those exposed to 24 or 48 kR. Statistical analyses showed that all immunized groups yielded significantly fewer worms than controls. However, the three doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR) had no significant effect for a fixed number of immunizations (1, 2, or 3). The means for both two and three immunizations were significantly different from the mean for one immunization, although they were not significantly different from each other.

  20. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre-treatment sn......Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre...... addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0.002). The...

  1. Optimizing molluscicide treatment strategies in different control stages of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of chemical molluscicides is still one of the most effective measures for schistosomiasis control in P. R. China. By applying diverse molluscicide treatment scenarios on different snail densities in the field, we attempted to understand the cost-effectiveness of molluscicide application so as to prescribe an optimal management approach to control intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis under acceptable thresholds based on the goal of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme. Methods The molluscicidal field trial was carried out in the marshland of an island along the Yangtze River, Jiangsu province, P.R. China in October 2010. Three plots in the island representing low-density, medium-density and high-density groups were identified after the baseline survey on snail density. Each snail density plot was divided into four experimental units in which molluscicide (50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder was applied once, twice, trice and four times, respectively. The logistic regression model to correlate snail mortality rate with the covariates of number of molluscicidal treatment and snail density, and a linear regression model to investigate the relationship between cost-effectiveness and number of molluscicidal treatment as well as snail density were established. Results The study revealed that increase in the number of molluscicide treatments led to increased snail mortality across all three population density groups. The most cost-effective regimen was seen in the high snail density group with a single molluscicide treatment. For both high and low density groups, the more times molluscicide were applied, the less cost-effectiveness was. However, for the median density group, the level of cost-effectiveness for two applications was slightly higher than that in one time. Conclusions We concluded that different stages of the national schistosomiasis control/elimination programme, namely

  2. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  3. Integrated community-directed intervention for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in western Kenya – a pilot study

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    Mwinzi Pauline NM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are recognized as major global public health problems, causing severe and subtle morbidity, including significant educational and nutritional effects in children. Although effective and safe drugs are available, ensuring access to these drugs by all those at risk of schistosomiasis and STHs is still a challenge. Community-directed intervention (CDI has been used successfully for mass distribution of drugs for other diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A national control programme is yet to be instituted in Kenya and evidence for cost-effective strategies for reaching most affected communities is needed. This study evaluated the effectiveness and feasibility of the CDI strategy in the control of schistosomiasis and STHs, in East Uyoma location, Rarieda district, a community of western Kenya that is highly endemic for both infections. Results Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni averaged 17.4% (range 5-43% in the entire location. Treatment coverage in different villages ranged from 54.19 to 96.6% by community drug distributor (CDD records. Assessment from a household survey showed coverage of 52.3 -91.9% while the proportion of homesteads (home compounds covered ranged from 54.9-98.5%. Six months after one round of drug distribution, the prevalence levels of S. mansoni, hookworm and Trichuris trichura infections were reduced by 33.2%, 69.4% and 42.6% respectively. Conclusions This study shows that CDI is an accepted and effective strategy in the mass treatment of schistosomiasis and STH infections in resource constrained communities in Kenya and may be useful in similar communities elsewhere. A controlled trial comparing CDI and school based mass drug administration to demonstarte their relative advantages is ongoing.

  4. Proportion of Urinary Schistosomiasis among HIV-Infected Subjects in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Akinbo Frederick Olusegun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, and the effect of CD4+ T cell counts and demographics on its prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria.Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 2000 HIV-positive subjects. A wet preparation of the urine deposit was examined microscopically to identify ova of Schistosoma haematobium. The blood specimens were analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count.Results: An overall prevalence rate of 0.3% was reported. Gender and CD4 count <200 cells/µL did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, while HIV patients that were single had significantly higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (p=0.002.Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among HIV patients in Benin City is low. CD4+ count did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis.

  5. A rationale for schistosomiasis control in elementary schools of the rainforest zone of pernambuco, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C Favre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since its beginning in 1999, the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS has registered a cumulative coverage of just 20% of the population from the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP, northeast Brazil. This jeopardizes the accomplishment of the minimum goal of the Fifty-Fourth World Health Assembly, resolution WHA54.19, of providing treatment for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH to 75% of school-aged children at risk, which requires attending at least 166,000 residents in the 7-14 age range by year 2010 in that important endemic area. In the present study, secondary demographic and parasitological data from a representative municipality of the ZMP are analyzed to provide evidence that the current, community-based approach to control schistosomiasis and STH is unlikely to attain the WHA-54.19 minimum goal and to suggest that school-based control actions are also needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data available on the PCE-SUS activities related to diagnosis and treatment of the population from the study municipality were obtained from the State Secretary of Health of Pernambuco (SES/PE for 2002-2006, complemented by the Municipal Secretary of Health (SMS for 2003-2004. Data from a school-based stool survey carried out by the Schistosomiasis Reference Service of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (SRE/Fiocruz in 2004 were used to provide information on infection status variation among school-aged children (7-14 years. According to the SES, from 2004 to 2006, only 2,977 (19.5% of the estimated 15,288 residents of all ages were examined, of which 396 (13.3% were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Among these, only 180 (45.5% were treated. According to the SMS, of the 1,766 examined in the 2003-2004 population stool survey 570 (32.3% were children aged 7-14 years. One year later, the SRE/Fiocruz school survey revealed that the infection status among those children remained unchanged

  6. STUDI KEBIJAKAN PENGENDALIAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KABUPATEN POSO DAN KABUPATEN SIGI PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Erlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan salah satu penyakit parasit terpenting dalam kesehatan masyarakat. Di Indonesiaschistosomiasis disebabkan oleh cacing Schistosoma japonicum dengan hospes perantara keong Oncomelaniahupensis lindoensis. Penyakit ini hanya ditemukan di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah di dua kabupaten yaitu Kabupaten Posodan Sigi. Selama ini pengendalian yang dilakukan masih bersifat rutin yaitu pengobatan, survei fokus keong,pengumpulan tinja, dan pengadaan tool kit. Belum pernah dilakukan penelitian dari aspek kebijakan pemerintah daerahdalam pengendalian schistosomiasis. Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan untuk memberikan opsi kebijakan bagipemerintah daerah dalam pengendalian schistosomiasis. Tujuan khusus yang ingin dicapai adalah menilai persepsistakeholder mengenai pengendalian schistosomiasis, menilai kebijakan yang selama ini dilakukan oleh pemerintahdaerah dalam pengendalian schistosomiasis dan merumuskan suatu opsi kebijakan. Metode penelitian yang dipakaiadalah studi kualitatif dengan wawancara mendalam kepada stakeholder di Kabupaten Poso, Kabupaten Sigi, danpemerintah daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Penentuan sampel dilakukan secara purposive sampling dimana sampeladalah stakeholder yang berkompeten mengeluarkan kebijakan tentang pengendalian schistosomiasis. Data primerdikumpulkan dengan wawancara mendalam, sedangkan data sekunder diperoleh dengan mengumpulkan dokumendokumenyang terkait dengan kebijakan pengendalian schistosomiasis. Hasil wawancara mendalam menunjukkanbahwa pada umumnya semua stakeholder sudah tahu kalau schistosomiasis adalah penyakit spesifik lokal yang diIndonesia cuma ada di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, apa penyebabnya dan bagaimana cara pengendaliannya. Tindaklanjut dari surat keputusan yang sudah dikeluarkan oleh Gubernur Sulawesi Tengah yang membentuk tim terpadupengendalian schistosomiasis sampai sekarang belum ada gerakan. Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (SKPD yangdiharapkan terlibat, belum tahu apa

  7. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

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    Rashika A.F. El Ridi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating

  8. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  9. Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Luciana Santos Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25high T cells, and CD4+CTLA-4+ T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+CD25low cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.

  10. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

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    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  11. The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis.

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    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends the provision of praziquantel treatment to preschool-aged children infected with schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis the current operational field diagnostic standard is examination of a thick Kato-Katz smear by microscopy prepared from a single stool specimen, and although pragmatic, this methodology has well-known shortcomings. Here, as a potential alternative, the performance of the urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA dipstick test was assessed in terms of disease-mapping and point-of-care diagnosis for intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Our manuscript reports on findings at baseline and at the end of a one-year longitudinal treatment study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 925 children (mean age 2.8 years were initially recruited from six lakeshore villages representative of high, moderate and low levels of disease transmission. At baseline, all children were tested for intestinal schistosomiasis by microscopic examination of duplicate Kato-Katz smears prepared from a single stool faecal, by antigen detection with the urine CCA dipstick test and by serology with a commercially available ELISA test (as 'gold-standard' that measures host antibody titres to soluble egg antigens. As a point-of-care diagnosis, the urine CCA dipstick test achieved sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 52.5-63.2% and 57.7-75.6%, respectively, with faecal microscopy achieving very high specificities (>87% but sensitivities as low as 16.7% in the low transmission setting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The urine CCA test was shown to be more effective than faecal microscopy especially in lower transmission settings. The diagnostic performance of this test was not significantly impacted by treatment history or co-infections with other intestinal helminths.

  12. Progress in the national schistosomiasis control programme of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    J. Massoud; F.Arfaa; I. Farahmandian; A Ardalan; Mansoorian, A.

    1982-01-01

    A combination of chemotherapy and mollusciciding has been used in Khuzestan, south-west Iran, since 1966, to try to control urinary schistosomiasis. The total amount of molluscicide used each year varied between 702 and 3505 kg and between 287 and 1320 infected persons were detected and treated annually. The prevalence of infection has gradually declined from 8.3% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. Similarly, the incidence of infection among schoolchildren decreased from 3.5% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. T...

  13. Comparative randomised trial of high and conventional doses of praziquantel in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo C Queiroz; Sandra C Drummond; De Matos, Maria Laura M; Mariana BS Paiva; Thaís S Batista; Ahraby ZM Kansaon; Carlos Maurício F. Antunes; José Roberto Lambertucci

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of oral praziquantel in the treatment of schistosomiasis has been considered low by most public health institutions. In this paper, we compared the efficacy of two dosages of praziquantel (80 mg/kg vs. 50 mg/kg) in patients with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni. Two hundred eighty-eight patients with schistosomiasis from a community in Brazil were randomly divided into two groups: 145 patients (Group 1) received 80 mg/kg body weight of oral praziquantel divided in two equal doses ...

  14. Association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis in young patients: a case report and literature review

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    Albert Bacelar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This case report refers to a 47-year old patient with prostate cancer associated with schistosomiasis mansoni, who was submitted to radical prostatectomy. This is the third report published in the literature with respect to this association, and up to the present time it is still not known whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two pathologies. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well-documented in bladder cancer; however, there are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostatic neoplasia. In this report, a third documented case of prostatic adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis mansoni is described and a literature review is performed.

  15. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  16. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  17. Ultrasonic and x-ray tomographic findings of Schistosomiasis Japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, attempts were made to classify the ultrasonic patterns of the liver infected with Schistosoma Japonicum. The calcification and fibrosis of the liver were evaluated by comparative investigation with an ultrasonogram and computed tomography (CT). Schistosomiasis Japonica was examined in 23 patients who were more than 45 years of age. It was diagnosed by liver needle biopsy, an intracutaneous test, or autopsy. The cases with a fish scale and network pattern had attenuation of the liver on ultrasonography and were unspecific on CT. Histological findings demonstrated moderate liver fibrosis. The cases with a sieve pattern had attenuation on ultrasonography, and the CT disclosed a retractive liver and the CT number of that liver was increased. Histological findings demonstrated a severe fibrotic liver. The cases with a mottled pattern had increased reflective spotty echo with an acoustic shadow, and the CT disclosed calcification. The histological findings demonstrated a marked calcification of the eggs. The cases with a mixed pattern, which consisted of mottled and sieve based on fish scale and network, had no retraction with less increase in the CT number. These results suggest that the peculiar reflective echo pattern of Schistosomiasis Japonica was due to not only calcification but also fibrosis of the liver. (author)

  18. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  19. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  20. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  1. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  2. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas. PMID:21655841

  3. [Epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Yao-Rong; Ying, Xi-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Chun

    2013-02-01

    According to "The Scheme of Schistosomiasis Surveillance in Zhejiang Province", the status of Oncomelania snails, and the schistosome infection of permanent residents, floating population, and livestock were surveyed in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, from 2008 to 2011. In 4 years, the area with residual snails was 3,060 m2, and no infected snails were found among 595 living snails. The positive rate of sero-tests for schistosomiasis of the permanent residents was 0.77%, and that of the floating population was 1.09%. No schistosomiasis cases were found. In conclusion, the area with residual snails is small and its distribution is scattered, and we still should strengthen the surveillance of snail status and imported schistosomiasis cases. PMID:23687831

  4. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord presenting as progressive myelopathy. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    The authors report on a case of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in an individual returning to Ireland after a 25-year residence in Africa, where the infection affects approximately 200 million people.

  5. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  6. Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qin-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Praziquantel has been used as first-line drug for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis since 1984. Besides praziquantel, artemether and artesunate have also been used for the control of this infectious disease since late 1990s. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the antischistosomal efficacy of different medication strategies including monotherapy or combination therapies of these drugs. Results A number of 52 trials from 38 articles published in peer-reviewed journals before July 2011 were selected for analysis after searching the following literature databases: the Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Our meta-analyses showed that a dosage of 30-60 mg/kg praziquantel compared with placebo produced a protection rate of about 76% (95% CI: 67%-83% for treating human schistosomiasis, which varied from 70% to 76% with no significant differences among the subspecies S. haematobium, S. japonicum or S. mansoni. Protection rates were higher when praziquantel doses were elevated, as concluded from the nRCTs results: the protection rate of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg was 52% (95% CI: 49%-55%, and it increased to 91% (95% CI: 88%-92% when the dosages were elevated to 60/80/100 mg/kg divided two or more doses. Multiple doses of artemether or artesunate over 1- or 2-week intervals resulted in protection rates of 65% to 97% for preventing schistosomiasis, and increased doses and shorter medication intervals improved their efficacies. Praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives (artemether or artesunate in combination resulted in a higher protection rate of 84% (95% CI: 64%-91% than praziquantel monotherapy for treatment. praziquantel and artesunate in combination had a great protection rate of 96% (95% CI: 78%-99% for preventing schistosomes infection. Conclusions According to the results, praziquantel

  7. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-specific IgG and IgE antibody production and clinical schistosomiasis status in a rural area of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Negrão-Corrêa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-seven Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound analysis. IgG reactivity and IgE concentration against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA and adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP were evaluated by ELISA assay. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite-reactive antibodies and the co-variables investigated. The study population showed low parasite burden (median 30 eggs/g feces, constant re-infection, and signs of fibrosis was detected in more than 30% of individuals. Most infected individuals showed IgG reactivity, and the median concentrations of IgE anti-SEA and anti-SWAP antibodies were 1,870 and 1,375 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between parasite burden and antibody response or any parameter of disease severity. However, IgG anti-SWAP level was positively associated with morbidity parameters, such as spleen size and thickness of portal vein at the entrance and secondary branch. In contrast, the data also revealed independent inverse correlations between concentration of parasite-reactive IgE and gallbladder wall thickness, a marker of fibrosis in schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that IgG anti-SWAP is positively

  8. Paenibacillus, a novel pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host for schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Allienne, Jean-François; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. To achieve the objective of schistosomiasis eradication in a decade, various research strategies and treatment programs were recommended and supported by WHO. One of these applicable approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic area. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction could be effective but no systemic investigation has ever been conducted to identi...

  9. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O; Thomas M Kariuki; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need...

  10. Spatial epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Africa: risk models, transmission dynamics and control ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews recent studies on the spatial epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Africa. The integrated use of geographical information systems, remote sensing and geostatistics has provided new insights into the ecology and epidemiology of schistosomiasis at a variety of spatial scales. Because large-scale patterns of transmission are influenced by climatic conditions, an increasing number of studies have used remotely sensed environmental data to predict spatial distributio...

  11. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, J. E. T.; Croll, D.; Harrison, W. E.; Utzinger, J; Freeman, M. C.; Templeton, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel ...

  12. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazwan Butrous

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtz...

  13. [Recent evolution of schistosomiasis in the water project of Sourou in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Wango, S P; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D

    2004-02-01

    In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guiédougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-île, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations. PMID:15104151

  14. Post-splenectomy infections in chronic schistosomiasis as a consequence of bacterial translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kedma de Magalhães Lima; Melissa Negro-Dellacqua; Victor Emmanuell Fernandes Apolônio dos Santos; Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and internal organs. Schistosomiasis may cause alterations in the immune system and damage to the intestines, portal system and mesenteric lymph nodes. This study investigated bacterial translocation and alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosa in schistosomiasis and splenectomized mice. METHODS : Forty female 35-day-old Swiss Webster mice were...

  15. Monitoring schistosomiasis risk in East China over space and time using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ward, Michael P; Xia, Congcong; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem and causes substantial economic impact in east China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. Disease forecasting and surveillance can assist in the development and implementation of more effective intervention measures to control disease. In this study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model to describe trends in schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997-2010. A computationally efficient approach-Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation-was used for model inference. A zero-inflated, negative binomial model best described the spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis risk. It predicted that the disease risk would generally be low and stable except for some specific, local areas during the period 2011-2014. High-risk counties were identified in the forecasting maps: three in which the risk remained high, and two in which risk would become high. The results indicated that schistosomiasis risk has been reduced to consistently low levels throughout much of this region of China; however, some counties were identified in which progress in schistosomiasis control was less than satisfactory. Whilst maintaining overall control, specific interventions in the future should focus on these refractive counties as part of a strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis from this region. PMID:27053447

  16. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrous, Ghazwan

    2014-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25076995

  17. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazwan Butrous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  18. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  19. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  20. Performance and safety of praziquantel for treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ. Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months-7 years old in lakeshore settings of Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period, where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%. PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in

  1. Schistosomiasis japonica of the liver: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 47-year-old Chinese male, born in Hong Kong, but living in the Netherlands since the age of 16, was admitted to hospital complaining of right upper abdominal pain. Real-time ultrasonography of the liver showed a lobulated structure with hyperechogenic septa surrounding normal liver tissue. There was no evidence of periportal fibrosis. The diameter of the main portal vein and the size of the spleen were normal. Computed tomography demonstrated capsular and septal calcifications, causing a lobulated pattern similar to the ultrasonographic image. There was no enhancement of the septa or other structures after intravenous administration of contrast medium. The liver and spleen were not enlarged. The computed tomography diagnosis of Schistosomiasis japonica was definitely confirmed by liver biopsy. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  2. [A case of chronic schistosomiasis four years after infestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, M; Vercesi, E; Manini, C; Piras, D; Di Primio, O G; Vella, R; Marino, G

    2010-01-01

    Authors present a case of bilharziosis incidentally diagnosed in a patient undergoing TURB for suspected bladder cancer. The patient, who in 2005 had gone to Malaysia, had been suffering from recurrent hemorrhagic cystitis since 2007, which were treated with antibiotic therapy. In November 2009 he presented to our observation for persistent hematuria, underwent ultrasound examination, fibroscopy and TURB diagnostics for suspicious lesions. The histopathology diagnosis found granulomatous lesions with typical parasites eggs due to schistosomiasis eggs. As a consequence of that, the patient underwent medical therapy. The pathologist's role becomes nullifying not only for the diagnosis of parasitic infections but also for the exclusion or evidence of urothelial squamous neoplasia. The low incidence of this rare parasitic disease in European tourists and the presence of immigrants in our country require to spread the knowledge of these parasites and the most simple tests for early detection. PMID:21308673

  3. Cytokine profile associated with chronic and acute human schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and regulation of interleukin (IL IL-13, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-³ was evaluated in 43 schistosomiasis patients with different clinical forms. Whole-blood cultures cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA, soluble worm adult preparation (SWAP, mitogens, neutralizing antibodies or recombinant IL-13 were measured by ELISA. After SWAP stimulation, chronic patients, particularly hepatointestinals, produced higher levels of IL-4 in comparison with acute patients, suggesting the presence of a type 2 cytokine profile in these patients. Following SEA and SWAP stimulation, hepatosplenic (HS patients showed increased levels of IFN-³ when compared with acute patients, indicating that HS disease in humans is associated with a type 1 cytokine response. The mechanisms of immune regulation are apparently different between the clinical stages of the disease, some of which are antigen-specific.

  4. Some personal views on the control of schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Kloetzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Our views are based, on a recent study of a district of Uniao dos Palmares (Alagoas. Although being a very compact community (32 city blocks holding two thousand families, transmission is very uneven, the geometric mean egg counts in the various blocks ranging between extremes of 96 and 1920. (Results do not correlate with the availability of domestic water supply. We thus are led to conclude that: (a transmission is primarily peridomestic, resulting from pollution of open ditches and other collections of water; (b control of transmission can be done on a selective basis, requiring quite medest investments. Given the inefficacy of population-based chemotherapy, when used alone, the author insists that this alternative cannot any longer be overlooked. He also regrets the emphasis placed upon vaccine development; allegations that this would, at any rate, prevent severe morbidity can be dismissed, since-whatever the cause-morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been rapidly declining in Northeast Brazil.

  5. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  6. Treatment and education reduce the severity of schistosomiasis periportal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carolina Valenca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluates the factors associated with the development of severe periportal fibrosis in patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2012 involving 178 patients infected with S. mansoni who were treated in the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, Brazil. Information regarding risk factors was obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the patients' epidemiological history, clinical examination, and upper abdomen ultrasound evaluation, patients were divided into 2 groups: 137 with evidence of severe periportal fibrosis and 41 patients without fibrosis or with mild or moderate periportal fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using EpiInfo software version 3.5.5. Results Illiterate individuals (30.1% and patients who had more frequent contact with contaminated water in towns in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (33.2% were at greater risk for severe periportal fibrosis. Based on multivariate analysis, it was determined that an education level of up to 11 years of study and specific prior treatment for schistosomiasis were preventive factors for severe periportal fibrosis. Conclusions The prevailing sites of the severe forms of periportal fibrosis are still within the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, although there has been an expansion to urban areas and the state coast. Specific treatment and an increased level of education were identified as protective factors, indicating the need for implementing social, sanitary, and health education interventions aimed at schistosomiasis to combat the risk factors for this major public health problem.

  7. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months;......; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P...

  8. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  9. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavitra Pillay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%. SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%, seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6% of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0% of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7% of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and

  10. Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenwick Alan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis is often widespread among the populations living around Lake Victoria and on its islands. The Sesse Island group (containing some 84 islands, however, is typically assumed to be a low prevalence zone, with limited transmission, but has never been surveyed in detail. Here, we present a rapid mapping assessment, bringing together snail and parasite information, at 23 sites for the presence of intermediate host snails and at 61 sites for the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in school-aged children (N = 905. Two different diagnostic tools were used and compared at 45 of these sites: Kato-Katz thick faecal smears and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine dipsticks. Results Biomphalaria snails were found at 11 sites but in low numbers; none was found shedding schistosome cercariae. At 22 out of the 45 sites, local prevalence by urine and/or stool diagnostics was in excess of 50%, although mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis overall was 34.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI = 31.0-38.3% by Kato-Katz and 46.5% (95% CI = 42.7-50.4% by CCA if 'trace' reactions were considered infection-positive (if considered infection-negative, mean prevalence was 28.1% (95% CI = 24.7-31.7%. Diagnostic congruence between CCA and Kato-Katz was poor and significant discordance in estimated prevalence by location was found, with each often inferring different mass drug administration regimes. Conclusions Accurate estimation of schistosome prevalence is important for determining present and future treatment needs with praziquantel; the wide range of schistosome prevalence across the Sesse Island group requires a treatment regime largely tailored to each island. In high prevalence locations, further malacological sampling is required to confirm the extent of local transmission, especially on the northern islands within the group. The observation that different diagnostic tests can provide varying results in

  11. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attwood Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment. Predictions currently assume that the impacts will be the same as those observed in Africa (i.e., a worsening of the schistosomiasis problem; however, marked ecological differences between the snails involved suggest that region specific models are required. The present study was performed as an initial step in providing data, which could be useful in the planning of water resource development in the Mekong. Snail population density records were analyzed for populations close to, and far downstream of, the Nam Theun 2 (NT2 project in Laos in order to detect any changes that might be attributable to impoundment. Results The population immediately downstream of NT2 and that sampled 400 km downstream in Thailand both showed a long term trend of slow growth from 1992 to 2005; however, both populations showed a marked decline in density between 2005 and 2011. The decline in Thailand was to a value significantly lower than that predicted by a linear mixed model for the data, whilst the population density close to NT2 fell to undetectable levels in 2011 from densities of over 5000 m-2 in 2005. The NT2 dam began operation in 2010. Conclusions The impact of the NT2 dam on N. aperta population density could be more complex than first thought and may reflect the strict ecological requirements of this snail. There was no indication that responses of N. aperta populations to dam construction are similar to those observed with Bulinus and Schistosoma haematobium in

  12. Schistosomiasis research in Africa: how the CONTRAST alliance made it happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    In May 2012, the World Health Assembly passed resolution WHA 65.21, calling upon member states to intensify schistosomiasis control and, wherever possible, to attempt transmission interruption and initiate interventions towards local elimination. It is now clear that CONTRAST--a multidisciplinary alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa--was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial, social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher, the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years. PMID:23973364

  13. KONTRIBUSI HEWAN MAMALIA SAPI, KERBAU, KUDA, BABI DAN ANJING DALAM PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KECAMATAN LINDU KABUPATEN SIGI PROPINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan Gunawan; Hayani Anastasia; Phetisya Pamela F.S; Risti Risti

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik jaringan yang terabaikan. Schistosomiasis adalah penyakit parasitik yang bersifat zoonosis, selain menginfeksi manusia juga menginfeksi hewan mamalia lainnya. Ada 13 mamalia yang diketahui dapat terinfeksi oleh schistosomiasis antara lain sapi(Bos sundaicus), kerbau (Bubalus bubalis), kuda (Equus cabalus), anjing (Canis familiaris), babi (Sus sp), musang (Vivera tangalunga), rusa (Carvus timorensis), dan berbagai jenis tikus (Rattus exulans,...

  14. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Højrup, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fib......BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin...

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  16. Expression of pluripotency markers in the bovine uterus with adenomyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Łupicka, Martyna; Socha, Barbara; Szczepańska, Agata; Korzekwa, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenomyosis is a proliferative uterine dysfunction with unknown aetiology. One possible mechanism of its development involves disturbances in stem cell differentiation in uterine tissue. Previously, we identified pluripotent/multipotent cells in the bovine uterus, therefore our present study focused on determining expression of pluripotency markers, NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2, in bovine adenomyotic tissues and cells. Findings Immunolocalisation revealed protein expression of NANOG, OCT4 ...

  17. Treatment of acute experimental schistosomiasis Tratamento da esquistossomose aguda experimental

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    Zilton A. Andrade

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A model of acute schistosomiasis of the mouse was used to observe whether curative treatment would be followed by an enhancement of the hepatic and splenic lesions, as a consequence of the massive destruction of worms and eggs within the portal system. Mice infected with 50 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were treated with both oxamniquine and praziquantel on the 50th day of infection and submitted to a sequential histologic examination from the 2nd to the 45th day after treatment. Although severe focal lesions due to dead and disintegranting worms were present in the livers of the treated animals, no aggravation of the general changes (reative hepatitis and splenitis, or periovular granulomas was seen in comparison with a control non-treated group. Of 50 animals treated during the acute phase of schistosomiasis only one died espontaneously, while 16 ou of 30 infected controls died before the end of the experiment. The present investigation indicates that curative treatment during the acute phase of schistosomiasis does not enhance previous lesions at first and results in progressive disappearance of the lesions starting six days following chemotherapy.Foi utilizado um modelo de esquistossomose aguda do camundongo para testar se o tratamentop curativo da parasitose nesta fase poderia produzir uma exacerbação das lesões hepáticas e esplênicas, em virtude da destruição maciça de vermes e ovos nointerior do sistema porta. Camundongos infectados com 50 cercárias do Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados no 50º dia da infecção por uma combinação de oxamniquine e praziquantel e submetidos a exames histopatológicos seqüenciados desde o 2º até o 45º dia após o tratamento. Muito embora tenham sido encontrados lesões focais intensas causadas por vermes mortos no interior do fígado, não foi encontrada qualquer evidência de agravamento das lesões gerais (hepatite reacional e esplenite, ou nos granulomas periovulares quando se fez

  18. A new strategy based on SmRho protein loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a candidate oral vaccine against schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing the antigen SmRho and coated with sodium alginate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our results showed an efficient performance of protein loading of nanoparticles before and after coating with alginate. Characterization of the resulting nanoparticles reported a size around 430 nm and a negative zeta potential. In vitro release studies of protein showed great stability of coated nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF. Further in vivo studies was performed with different formulations of chitosan nanoparticles and it showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of antibodies, otherwise intramuscular immunization induced high levels of both subtypes IgG1 and IgG2a SmRho specific antibodies. Mice immunized with nanoparticles associated to CpG showed significant modulation of granuloma reaction. Mice from all groups immunized orally with nanoparticles presented significant levels of protection against infection challenge with S. mansoni worms, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response. Finally, mice immunized with nanoparticles associated with the antigen SmRho plus CpG had 38% of the granuloma area reduced and also presented 48% of protection against of S. mansoni infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this results support this new strategy as an efficient delivery system and a potential vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  19. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in Lake Victoria, Uganda

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    Kabatereine Narcis B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely advocated that integrated strategies for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are cost-effective in comparison to vertical disease-specific programmes. A prerequisite for implementation of control interventions is the availability of baseline data of prevalence, including the population at risk and disease overlap. Despite extensive literature on the distribution of schistosomiasis on the mainland in Uganda, there has been a knowledge gap for the prevalence of co-infections with malaria, particularly for island communities in Lake Victoria. In this study, nine lakeshore and island districts were surveyed for the prevalence of NTDs and malaria, as well as educational and health infrastructure. Results A total of 203 communities were surveyed, including over 5000 school-age children. Varying levels of existing health infrastructure were observed between districts, with only Jinja District regularly treating people for NTDs. Community medicine distributors (CMD were identified and trained in drug delivery to strengthen capacity. Prevalence levels of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were assessed via Kato-Katz thick smears of stool and malaria prevalence determined by microscopy of fingerprick blood samples. Prevalence levels were 40.8%, 26.04% and 46.4%, respectively, while the prevalence of co-infection by Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium spp. was 23.5%. Socio-economic status was strongly associated as a risk factor for positive infection status with one or more of these diseases. Conclusions These results emphasise the challenges of providing wide-scale coverage of health infrastructure and drug distribution in remote lakeshore communities. The data further indicate that co-infections with malaria and NTDs are common, implying that integrated interventions for NTDs and malaria are likely to maximize cost-effectiveness and sustainability of disease control efforts.

  20. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

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    Charles H King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms 'schistosomiasis', 'dosing' and 'praziquantel' and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays were, for S. mansoni, 69-91% cure after two doses vs. 42-79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46-99% cure after two doses vs. 37-93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count were also different for the two species-for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni-$211 (S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be

  1. Estimating the cost of the mass treatment campaign for schistosomiasis in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maphumulo, Andile A; Gagai, Silindile; Lothe, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects developing countries; it has economic and public health significance. WHO recommends regular treatment for schistosomiasis in endemic areas and has that estimated that more than 5 million individuals require treatment in South Africa...

  2. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.;

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of ...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly.......% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni...... in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme...

  3. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549

  4. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham Mahyoub; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib Mohammed; Al-Areeqi, Mona Abdullah; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Nasr, Nabil Ahmed; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-11

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  5. Critical analysis of molluscicide application in schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Pmz; Caldeira, R L

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea are naturally infected by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Despite decades of governmental efforts through official control programs, schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the country: thousands of people are infected with the trematode each year and millions live in endemic areas. The World Health Organization recommends using a combination of molluscicide (niclosamide) and mass chemotherapy to control the transmission of schistosomiasis, with this treatment successfully reducing the morbidity of the disease. In the past, niclosamide has been used in official schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil. However, as B. glabrata recolonizes even after molluscicide application, the use of molluscicides has gradually decreased in the country until they were discontinued in 2002, mainly due to the rising global pressure to preserve the environment and the difficulties of obtaining licenses from the Brazilian Ministry of Environment to use toxic substances in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the discovery of new molluscicides, which could be more selective to Biomphalaria species and less harmful to the aquatic ecosystem, is necessary. In addition, political efforts to sensitize funders to provide grants for this field of research are required. In this context, this article aims to make a critical analysis of molluscicide application in schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil. PMID:27374126

  6. Schistosomiasis laboratory diagnostic techniques and transmission of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the efficacy of schistosomiasis laboratory diagnostic techniques, used in hospitals, in identifying those infected with S. mansoni and the possible role of the false negatives on the transmission of the disease. It was carried out in Abu Usher hospital, Gezira state. It compared two laboratory techniques, a qualitative and a quantitative method. The qualitative method was the direct smear method, used routinely in hospitals and health units. The quantitative technique was the locally modified kato method, used in research, epidemiological studies and evaluation of schistosomiasis control programmes. 288 stool samples from the hospital out patients were examined by the direct smear and the kato methods. The direct smear method indicated that 277 (96.8%) of the total examined un-infected. Examination of the stools by the kato method revealed that 161 (55.9%) were infected with S. mansoni. The difference between the numbers found infected by the two methods was highly significant (P<0.001). The intensity of infection of those found infected were categorized arbitrary into four groups: lightly (1-100 eggs/g), moderately (101-500 eggs/g), heavily (501-1000 eggs/g), and very heavily (1001+eggs/g) infected respectively. The majority of those examined were with low and moderate intensity of infection with S.mansoni, 42.23% and 46.58% respectively. The direct smear method failed to identify those with light, moderate and heavy infection. Only 3 (27.3%) out of 11 of the very heavily infected persons were detected by this technique. The difference in detecting the heavily infected person by the two diagnostic methods was significant (P<0.025). Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were infected individually with 1, 2 and 4 miracidia. B. pfeifferi snails infected with 1 miracidium did not produce any cercariae. All infected surviving snails died 11 days after they started to shed cercariae. The control snails survived for two

  7. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  8. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Merlini, Ramiro; Rondelli, Flavia; Trono, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calve...

  9. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis

  10. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino, E-mail: marino.gatto@polimi.it; Casagrandi, Renato, E-mail: renato.casagrandi@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mari, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano (Italy); Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rinaldo, Andrea [Laboratory of Ecohydrology, ECHO/IIE/ENAC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 2, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile ed Ambientale, Università di Padova, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  11. Development of a brazilian nanoencapsulated drug for schistosomiasis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bastos da Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that, according to the World Health Organization, constitutes a major public health problem associated with severe morbidity, mostly children in preschool age. The administration of drugs in children always constitutes a difficult task, especially when formulations are not developed specifically for pediatric use, when high doses of drug are required and the drug has a bitter taste, as in the case of praziquantel. Polymer nanoparticles are promising systems for development of encapsulated drugs with low water solubility and bitter taste, due to the good physical and chemical stability, adequate biocompatibility and simple manufacturing processes. Moreover, they can enhance the bioavailabili-ty and reduce variability of treatment among patients. Poly (methyl methacrylate doped with praziquantel was produced through a miniemulsion polymerization pro-cess to compose a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. Nanoparticles were cha-racterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, toxicological properties and biological activity in mice, being concluded that obtained results were satisfactory. The results were encapsulation rate around 90%, absence of chemical interaction drug - polymer and the presence of biological activity. A collaborative approach was used for this development, involving national partnerships and independent funding mechanisms, a powerful pathway for development of drugs for neglected diseases.

  12. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  13. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  14. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

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    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  15. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pessa-Morikawa Tiina; Ekman Anna; Niku Mikael; Iivanainen Antti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. Results We selected 31 useful antibodies and lectins which can be used to identify cell types...

  16. Morphological variations of intra-testicular arterial vasculature in bovine testis - a corrosion casting study

    OpenAIRE

    Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Podgórski, Michał; Szymański, Jacek; Olbrych, Katarzyna; Olewnik, Łukasz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper blood supply is necessary for the physiological function of every internal organ. The article offers the first classification of the bovine intra-testicular arteries. A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arterial vasculature was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed accurately using MultiScanBase v.18.02 software. Methods A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arteries was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed acc...

  17. Low avidity IgG antibodies in diagnosis of recent human schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nahed E; Awad, Adel; Shalaby, Mohsen

    2002-12-01

    One hundred thirty school children from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Sharkia Governorate, were selected on parasitological findings. Seventy persons were negative on the first screen and turned positive after 3 months of the screening (recently infected). Stool examination, ELISA (IgG & IgM), low avid IgG, and circulating antigens were performed for all patients and controls. ELISA detected IgM in all cases. IgG and circulating antigens in 90% of schistosomiasis patients. Low avidity IgG were detected in 85.71% of recent cases. The specificity of ELISA appeared to be >99%. The IgM/IgG ratio was >1 in patients with recent infection. The percentage of fall of O.D. readings of IgG after addition of 6 molar urea was high among cases with recent infection. Low avid lgG appears to be good and valuable in diagnosis of recent schistosomiasis in man. PMID:12512829

  18. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

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    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health.We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI. The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children.Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire.A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and

  19. A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls

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    Ludmila N. Rapado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, “in silico” studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  20. Antibody isotype responses to egg antigens in human chronic Schistosomiasis mansoni before and after treatment

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    Gomes Yara M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication we analyzed the levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE isotypes to soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma mansoni by ELISA in individuals from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Northeast Brazil. The analysis was performed before and after treatment to evaluate the age-dependent pattern, and to identify differences in the reactivities to antigens. Our results suggest that schistosomiasis treatment would not interfere with this sort of immune response.

  1. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou;

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years...... ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis...

  2. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

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    Demetrius da Silva Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed disease expansion to Southern Brazil. We demonstrated the effectiveness of SINAN to monitor notifiable diseases. Our results are useful to develop preventive actions for schistosomiasis control.

  3. Transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe: A mathematical and GIS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarakana-Gwasira, E. T.; Bhunu, C. P.; Masocha, M.; Mashonjowa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature and presence of water bodies are known to influence the transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis. In this work, effects of water bodies (taken in context of rainfall patterns) and temperature from 1950 to 2000 are considered in the model. With the aid of Geographic Information System (GIS), the reproduction number is mapped on the Zimbabwean country. Results of the mapping show high reproduction numbers along the Lowveld and the Zambezi valley catchment area. High reproduction numbers suggest high levels of schistosomiasis. This result suggests more control efforts should be targeted in these areas with high reproduction numbers.

  4. Schistosomiasis control using piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at different developmental stages.

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    Ludmila Nakamura Rapado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems. The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using (1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml. The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio. Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to

  5. Schistosomiasis Control Using Piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at Different Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sá; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes Victor; Fokoue, Harold Hilarion; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Marques, Joaquim Vogt; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. Methods and Findings The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems). The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using 1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml) was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml) and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml). The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. Conclusions The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio). Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to environment. PMID

  6. Two Practical and Cost Effective Methods for Urinary Schistosomiasis Screening in Yemeni Schoolchildren

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    Ba'amer Abobakar Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The study was conducted to estimate and compare the validity and performance of two screening methods for uri­nary schistosomiasis: the interview - reporting blood in urine- and detecting microhematuria by reagent strip."nMethods:  In year 2003, 515 schoolchildren from five schools in Abyan and Taiz governorates in Yemen, were in-terviewed by healtworker for hematuria, and then urine samples were collected and tested for microhematuria by urine strip and for the presence and count of Schistosoma hematobium by filtration method. Validity and performance indicators were esti­mated and compared for the two methods using the filtration method as the reference- standard- test."nResults: The mean age of the schoolchildren was 10.7±2.5 years. Boys represented 65% of the sample. The prevalence of the infection as determined by filtration, interview and reagent strip methods was 21.4%, 22.15, and 30.9%, respectively. Sen­sitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of the urine strip was higher than the same indicators for the interview method. Com­bining the results of both screening methods increased all validity and performance indicators. A statically significant (P< 0.001 association was found between urine strip positivity level and infection intensity."nConclusion: The urine strip had higher validity and performance indicators than the interview method. For its low -cost, sim­ple and rapid application, we recommend using it for screening infected schoolchildren in areas endemic with S. hemato­bium in combination with the interview method to enhance its performance.  

  7. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  8. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  9. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  10. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  11. Glomerulonephritis in schistosomiasis with mesangial IgM deposits

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    Ageu Godoy Magalhães Filho

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one cases of hepatoesplenic schistosomiasis patients without clinical and laboratory evidence of renal disease, were studied by surgical biopsies using light microscopy and immunofluorescence. The cases were classified histologically as: normal pattern (6 cases; minimal changes (6 cases; and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (9 cases. By the immunofluorescence microscopy using anti IgM, IgG, IgA and C3, the predominant finding in all biopsies, except the normal cases, was granular deposits of IgM in the mesangium along with C3. On the other hand, IgG was present in all cases including normal biopsies along the capillary walls. However IgG was also present in the mesangium only in cases with glomerular lesions. This finding may well be similar to that recently described as IgM mesangial nephropathy. According to our cases a mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, characterized by segmental cell proliferation and deposition of IgM in the mesangium, is probably the entity found in the early stages of mansonic schistosomiasis.Com o objetivo de observar as lesões renais iniciais na esquistossomose mansoni, foram selecionados 21 casos da forma hepato-esplênica, com idade média de 12 anos e que não apresentavam sinais clínicos ou laboratoriais de alterações renais. As biópsias foram realizadas durante esplenectomia e em seguida examinadas à microscopia ótica e à microscopia de fluorescência, sendo empregados conjugados anti IgG, IgM, IgA e C3, isoladamente. No exame microscópico, os 21 casos foram classificados em: 6 casos normais; 6 casos com lesões glomerulares consideradas mínimas e 9 casos com lesões mesangiais discretas ou moderadas. À imunofluorescência constatou-se presença de depósitos de IgM e de C3 predominantemente de localização mesangial, tanto nos casos de lesões mínimas, como nos casos de proliferação mesangial mais acentuada (Tabelas II e III. Constatou-se aind a depósitos de IgG em todos

  12. Pathogenesis and immunology of ruminant schistosomiasis in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosoma bovis in the Kosti area (Sudan) was almost 90% in cattle up to 2 years old but fell to around 30% by 10 years of age. Infection incidence followed a markedly seasonal pattern of transmission. Infected animals either lost weight or gained less weight than controls. This was associated with the development of severe anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, which in turn were due to massive blood and plasma losses through the gut mucosa. The epizootiological work suggested that cattle can acquire resistance to S. bovis as a result of repeated field infections. This was tested by artificially challenging field-infected cattle, together with animals of similar age and breed from a non-enzootic area. Animals reared in an enzootic environment clearly become solidly resistant to a cercarial challenge sufficient to cause fatal disease in cattle from non-enzootic areas. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are being studied. Immunization with irradiated vaccines was tested in the laboratory. A marked reduction in the faecal egg counts, worm burdens, tissue egg counts and clinical manifestations of the vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated cattle and sheep indicated significant protection. Vaccination efficacy was also tested under field conditions. A group of calves was immunized with irradiated S. bovis schistosomula and a second group served as controls. These animals were released into the field in the enzootic area of Kosti and followed up for 10 months. The results showed 80% reduction in the faecal egg counts and about 70% protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg counts in vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated calves. Further evidence of resistance was shown by the lower mortality rate in the former animals. Vaccination against schistosomiasis can be of practical benefit to livestock

  13. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

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    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  14. Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda

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    Stothard J Russell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was given to schoolchildren in endemic areas and to adults in selected communities where local prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren was high. Methods The impact of the treatment program was monitored through cohorts of schoolchildren and adults. Their infection status with S. mansoni and STH was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at annual follow-ups. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and STH before and after treatment were analyzed. Results Two rounds of treatment significantly reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in schoolchildren across three regions in the country from 33.4–49.3% to 9.7–29.6%, and intensity of infection from 105.7–386.8 eggs per gram of faeces (epg to 11.6–84.1 epg. The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 41.2–57.9% to 5.5–16.1%, and intensity of infection from 186.9–416.8 epg to 3.7–36.9 epg. The proportion of children with heavy S. mansoni infection was significantly reduced from 15% (95% CI 13.4–16.8% to 2.3% (95% CI 1.6–3.0%. In adults, significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and hookworm infections was also observed. More importantly, the prevalence and intensity of both S. mansoni and hookworm infections in the cohorts of newly-recruited 6-year-olds who had never previously received treatment decreased significantly over 2 years: 34.9% (95% CI 31.9–37.8% to 22.6% (95% CI 19.9–25.2% and 171.1 epg (95% CI 141.5–200.7 to 72.0 epg (95% CI 50.9–93.1 for S. mansoni; and 48.4% (95% CI 45.4–51.5 to 15.9% (95% CI 13.6–18.2 and 232.7 epg (95% CI 188.4–276.9 to 51.4 epg (95% CI 33.4–69.5 for hookworms, suggesting a general decline

  15. Effect of Chinese herbal compound on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis by B-ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lu Liang; Jia-Ying Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of B-ultrasound on the evaluation of the effects of traditional Chinese medicine compound of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis, and TCM +praziquantel on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis. Methods: The hepatic fibrosis model in rabbits with schistosomiasis was established. The experimental animals (24 rabbits) were randomly divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D, n=6). Group A (control group) was only treated by praziquantel; Group B was treated by mixture of Radix astragali and Salvia miltiorrhiza +praziquantel; Group C was treated by mixture of Radix astragali and Angelica sinensis +praziquantel; Group D was treated by mixture of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis +praziquantel. Then B-ultrasonogram was used to evaluate the effects. Results: Each group showed certain curative effect on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis. The efficacy of group B, C and D was better than group A, and that of group D was the best. The differences in long diameter, thickness diameter, transverse diameter and portal vein inner diameter of liver before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). The liver function indexes and liver fibrosis indexes were significantly improved after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions:The mixture of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis combined with Western medicine treatment can obviously improve the efficacy on liver fibrosis of schistosomiasis.

  16. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control. However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted. PMID:25884172

  17. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire using high- and moderateresolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixelbased modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  18. RE-EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL. III. "NOROESTE DE MINAS" MESOREGION

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    CARVALHO Omar S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, João Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário. All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  19. Microgeographical patterns of schistosomiasis and water contact behavior; examples from Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of spatial (microgeographical water contact/schistosomiasis studies in two African (Egyptian and Kenyan and one Brazilian communities. All three studies used traditional cartographic and statistical methods but one of them emploeyd also GIS (geographical information systems tools. The advantage of GIS and their potential role in schistosomiasis control are briefly described. The three cases revealed considerable variation in the spatial distribution of water contact, transmission parameters and infection levels at the household and individual levels. All studies showed considerable variation in the prevalence and intensity of infection between households. They also show a variable influence of distance on water contact behavior associated with type of activity, age, sex, socioeconomic level, perception of water quality, season and availability of water in the home. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis were evaluated in the Brazilian village of Nova União within the context of water sharing between household and age/sex groups. Recommendations are made for further spatial studies on the transmission and control of schistosomiasis.

  20. Exploring the potential of host-environment relationship in the control of schistosomiasis in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of human disease prevalences are supported by host-parasite-environment interactions. One such disease is schistosomiasis. Schistosoma parasites are transmitted between the snail intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts in an aquatic environment. This host-environment link determin

  1. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine;

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection...

  2. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Mukaratirwa, S.;

    considered, on national scale, to be co-endemic with schistosomiasis. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database. We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of...

  3. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Schistosomiasis at Niamey, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chippaux J-P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomes (CERMES is a research institute depending on the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies - a West African Organization for Public Health - devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. The staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. The activities of the CERMES involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a ecology of human and animal schistosomiasis transmission; the CERMES defined the different patterns of schistosomiasis transmission in Niger (involving African dry savana; in this field, we have shown, (i the existence of important variability in conditions of transmission of S. haematobium and, (ii natural hybridization between parasitic species of the ruminants (S. bovis and S. curassoni and genetic interaction between human and animal parasites; (b definition of morbidity indicators usable for rapid assessment methods, for appraisal of the severity of the disease and for the evaluation of the efficiency of control methods; we have established the correlation between ultrasonographic data and some cheap and simple field indicators; (c immune response and protective immunity induced by recombinant glutathion S-transferase (Sm28, Sb28 and Sh28 in homologous and heterologous animal models including goats, sheep and non human primates (Erythrocebus patas. In Niger, we participate in all control programs against schistosomiasis to define control strategies, to supervise operations and to participate in their evaluation with external experts. International collaborations constitute a frame including four laboratories in Africa and six laboratories in developed countries (Europe and USA

  4. Human Schistosomiasis mansoni associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tonsy, Manar Mahmoud; Hussein, Hesham Mohammed; Helal, Thanaa El-Sayed; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Koriem, Khalid Mohamed; Hussein, Hend Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It was reported to account for about 4.7 % of chronic liver disease in Egyptian patients. The present study aimed at studying the different factors that may be implicated in the relationship of schistosomiasis mansoni with HCC in Egypt. A total of 75 Egyptian patients with primary liver tumours (HCC) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to full history taking and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. According to the results, the patients were categorized into two groups: Group I: 29 patients with negative IHA for schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive with no history or laboratory evidence of previous or current Schistosoma mansoni infection. Group II: 46 patients with positive IHA for schistosomiasis and HCV positive. The significant higher proportion of HCC patients in the present study had concomitant HCV and schistosomiasis (61.3 %) compared to HCC patients with HCV alone (38.7 %) suggesting that the co-infection had increased the incidence of HCC among these patients. Analysis of the age distribution among HCC patients revealed that patients in Group II were younger in age at time of diagnosis of HCC with mean age 57.1 years, as compared to patients in Group I with mean age 64.3 years with a highly significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. HCC in Group II was more common in rural residents while it was more common in urban areas in Group I with a significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. Analysis of the sex distribution among the studied groups showed that HCC was more common in males than females in both groups. As regards the aggression of HCC, it was more commonly multifocal and larger in size in patients with concomitant infection than in patients with HCV alone. PMID:27605822

  5. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L; Kariuki, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria. PMID:26883586

  6. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    OpenAIRE

    Lekeux, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  7. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Suresh R; Aragonda Prathyusha; Polineni Pavana; Furuta Richard; Adelson David L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling) in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these ...

  8. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  9. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Anchamparuthy, Vahida Muhammed Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes is a challenge. Studies were conducted to vitrify mouse zygotes and cumulus-intact bovine oocytes from follicles of different diameters, small (â ¤ 4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. The specific goals were to assess changes in apoptotic gene expression (Fas-FasL, Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin) in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assays. Mouse zygotes were exposed to increasing concentrations...

  10. LINKING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTORS TO DISEASE: AN APPLICATION TO THE SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELLING OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wrable, M.; Liss, A.; Kulinkina, A.; Koch, M.; Biritwum, N. K.; Ofosu, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Gute, D M; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-01-01

    90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to s...

  11. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  12. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  13. Schistosomiasis research in the dongting lake region and its impact on local and national treatment and control in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P McManus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC, where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50-60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised.

  14. Generic praziquantel in South Africa: the necessity for policy change to provide cheap, safe and efficacious schistosomiasis drugs for the poor, rural population : Policy change for praziquantel

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 4.5 million South Africans, mainly in settings of rural poverty, are in need of treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis. In spite of severe morbidity and mortality, schistosomiasis remains a neglected disease with an important gender impact. The World Health Organization recommends regular mass treatment of all school-aged children. In areas endemic for schistosomiasis children are treated with a single dose of praziquantel, used for almost 30 years as the drug of choice. If adm...

  15. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of single-dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel T.; Belizario, Vincente J.; Lwambo, Nicholas J. S.; Mohamed Ouldabdallahi; Otavio S. Pieri; Maria L Amarillo; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mamadou Diaw; Analucia C Domingues; Tereza C Favre; Olivier Lapujade; Fabiana Alves; Lester Chitsulo

    2011-01-01

    Background Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. Methodology/Principal Findings Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n = 428) or 60 mg/kg (n = 428). While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in...

  16. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  17. Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the

  18. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Müller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max as a proxy for physical fitness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1, respectively. The VO(2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1 min(-1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001 and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001, but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children

  19. Schistosomiasis of the central nervous system: clinical and radiologic correlation; Apresentacoes da esquistossomose no sistema nervoso central: correlacao clinica e radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Andreia Vasconcelos; Cerqueira, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de; Reis, Fabiano; Menezes Neto, Jose Ribeiro; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: andrea.vf@ig.com.br; Pirani, Clodoaldo; Damasceno, Benito Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia

    2002-02-01

    We report four cases of patients with schistosomiasis in the central nervous system and describe and correlate the radiologic findings with clinical manifestations. In one patient, cerebral involvement presented as a pseudotumoral lesion confirmed by autopsy. Three other patients had schistosomiasis in the spinal cord characterized by an intramedullary mass and radicular and leptomeningeal enhancement after administration of gadolinium. Our findings show the importance of considering schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intramedullary or cerebral lesions in patients of endemic areas of schistosomiasis. (author)

  20. Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F.; Valayudhan, Binu T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (BPI3V) are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection against the virus, but there is no current information regarding the BPI3V strains that are circulating in the U.S. Results A project was initiated to sequence archival BPI3V isolates to study vira...

  1. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...

  2. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  4. Rate of reversion of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis after specific therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Dietze

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis were treated with oxamniquine. The patients lived iti an endemic area and were evaluated 6, 18 and 24 months after treatment, during which time transmission in the area was interrupted. After treatment, clinical improvement occurred in 49 (70% of the patients, as seen by reduction in visceromegaly and reversion of liver nodules. Reversion of hepatosplenic disease occurred in 28 (40% patients and in liver nodularity in 26 (47.3%patients after 24 months. Reversion of hepatosplenic disease was seen in 12 (21% patients and liver nodules disappeared in 4 (8.5% as early as 6 months after treatment. In general, hepatosplenomegaly reverses earlier than liver nodularity. Itis notable that reversion of hepatosplenic disease occurred in many individuals with a history ofprevious treatment and also in some with advanced age. In four cases this clinical form of the disease had existed for 20 years. Therefore, there must exist factors other than age and duration of the condition which determine the reversibility of this clinical form. Ourresults reinforce the concept that, in patients with hepatosplenic disease without esophageal hemorrhages, specific treatment shouldpreceed surgical intervention even in those with a history of previous treatment. At least 18 months should be allowed for the ejfects of treatment to be manifest.Foram tratados com oxamniquine 70 esquistossomóticos, com a forma hepatosplênica. Os pacientes permaneceram na área endêmica e foram avaliados clinicamente antes, 6, 18, e 24 meses após o tratamento. Durante este período a transmissão foi interrompida na área. Após o tratamento específico ocorreu melhora clínica em 49(70% pacientes, traduzida por diminuição nas visceromegalias e reversão do fígado nodular. Houve reversão da forma hepatosplênica em 28(40% e do fígado nodular em 26(47.3% após 24 meses. A reversão da forma hepatosplênica já havia ocorrido após seis

  5. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  6. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). PMID:26115938

  7. 'The worm that got away': parainfectious atypical optic neuritis associated with schistosomiasis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Chinar; Hannigan, Sally; Ditchfield, Adam; Harden, Stephen; Marshall, Ben; Pinto, Ashwin Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Although optic neuritis is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis, patients with atypical optic neuritis require further investigations to exclude other associated conditions. We report a woman presenting with cough, fatigue, atypical optic neuritis with chiasmitis. She responded partially to corticosteroids and we subsequently found she had a ground-glass lung nodule. Follow-up CT scan of thorax at 12 months showed new parenchymal lung lesions that suggested schistosomiasis. Further questioning by a respiratory physician identified, in retrospect, a previous exposure history; serological testing confirmed schistosoma infection. She was treated with praziquantel and slowly improved clinically, with radiological improvement in the optic chiasm, regression of the parenchymal lung lesions but with the ground glass nodule unchanged. We diagnosed parainfectious optic neuritis associated with schistosomiasis, based upon exposure history, serological confirmation and radiological features, together with the response to treatment, and having excluded other causes of an atypical optic neuritis. PMID:26888797

  8. Characterising granuloma regression and liver recovery in a murine model of schistosomiasis japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Candy; Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P; Nawaratna, Sujeevi K; Burke, Melissa L; Owen, Helen C; Ramm, Grant A; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-04-01

    For hepatic schistosomiasis the egg-induced granulomatous response and the development of extensive fibrosis are the main pathologies. We used a Schistosoma japonicum-infected mouse model to characterise the multi-cellular pathways associated with the recovery from hepatic fibrosis following clearance of the infection with the anti-schistosomal drug, praziquantel. In the recovering liver splenomegaly, granuloma density and liver fibrosis were all reduced. Inflammatory cell infiltration into the liver was evident, and the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages were significantly decreased. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism genes and the identification of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha as the upstream regulator of liver recovery. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway which regulates xenobiotic metabolism was also differentially up-regulated. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with the regression of hepatic schistosomiasis. PMID:26812024

  9. Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Song; Yang, Changhong; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dongchuan

    2006-02-01

    Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence) was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system. PMID:16501732

  10. Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Song

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had reemerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system.

  11. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  12. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li,Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effec...

  13. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xia; Yi Yuan; Xingjian Xu; Fenghua Wei; Guiling Li; Min Liu; Jianqiang Li; Rujuan Chen; Zhengping Zhou; Shaofa Nie

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effe...

  14. Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, E F; Poggensee, G; Helling-Giese, G; Richter, J; Sjaastad, A; Chitsulo, L; Kumwenda, N; Gundersen, S G; Krantz, I; Feldmeier, H

    1996-12-30

    A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had urinary schistosomiasis. This, together with the finding that the majority of the divorced women had FGS, indicates that the manifestation of this disease may have implications for the marital and sexual life of the affected women. PMID:9028409

  15. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.;

    2010-01-01

    Despite ongoing preventive chemotherapy campaigns, intestinal schistosomiasis is hyper-endemic in shoreline communities living along Lake Albert, Uganda. To provide a deeper insight into the local epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, a variety of field-based studies were undertaken focusing upon ...... environmental modification(s), i.e. improvement in sanitation and hygiene and control of snail populations, is needed to bolster the impact of chemotherapy-based interventions....

  16. Hepatic Shunting of Eggs and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Bmpr2+/− Mice with Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Elaine; Jones, Frances M.; Southwood, Mark R.; Haghighat, Leila; Toshner, Mark R.; Raine, Tim; Horan, Ian; Yang, Peiran; Moore, Stephen; Ferrer, Elisabet; Wright, Penny; Ormiston, Mark L.; White, R. James; Haight, Deborah A.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Schistosomiasis is a major cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type-II receptor (BMPR-II) are the commonest genetic cause of PAH. Objectives: To determine whether Bmpr2+/− mice are more susceptible to schistosomiasis-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and Bmpr2+/− mice were infected percutaneously with Schistosoma mansoni. At 17 weeks postinfection, right ventricular systolic pressure and liver and lung egg counts were measured. Serum, lung and liver cytokine, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and liver histology were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: By 17 weeks postinfection, there was a significant increase in pulmonary vascular remodeling in infected mice. This was greater in Bmpr2+/− mice and was associated with an increase in egg deposition and cytokine expression, which induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation, in the lungs of these mice. Interestingly, Bmpr2+/− mice demonstrated dilatation of the hepatic central vein at baseline and postinfection, compared with WT. Bmpr2+/− mice also showed significant dilatation of the liver sinusoids and an increase in inflammatory cells surrounding the central hepatic vein, compared with WT. This is consistent with an increase in the transhepatic passage of eggs. Conclusions: This study has shown that levels of BMPR-II expression modify the pulmonary vascular response to chronic schistosomiasis. The likely mechanism involves the increased passage of eggs to the lungs, caused by altered diameter of the hepatic veins and sinusoids in Bmpr2+/− mice. Genetically determined differences in the remodeling of hepatic vessels may represent a new risk factor for PAH associated with schistosomiasis. PMID:26308618

  17. Transcriptional profiling of the bladder in urogenital schistosomiasis reveals pathways of inflammatory fibrosis and urothelial compromise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debalina Ray

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, chronic infection by Schistosoma haematobium, affects 112 million people worldwide. S. haematobium worm oviposition in the bladder wall leads to granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and egg expulsion into the urine. Despite the global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, basic understanding of the associated pathologic mechanisms has been incomplete due to the lack of suitable animal models. We leveraged our recently developed mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis to perform the first-ever profiling of the early molecular events that occur in the bladder in response to the introduction of S. haematobium eggs. Microarray analysis of bladders revealed rapid, differential transcription of large numbers of genes, peaking three weeks post-egg administration. Many differentially transcribed genes were related to the canonical Type 2 anti-schistosomal immune response, as reflected by the development of egg-based bladder granulomata. Numerous collagen and metalloproteinase genes were differentially transcribed over time, revealing complex remodeling and fibrosis of the bladder that was confirmed by Masson's Trichrome staining. Multiple genes implicated in carcinogenesis pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor-, oncogene-, and mammary tumor-related genes, were differentially transcribed in egg-injected bladders. Surprisingly, junctional adhesion molecule, claudin and uroplakin genes, key components for maintaining the urothelial barrier, were globally suppressed after bladder exposure to eggs. This occurred in the setting of urothelial hyperplasia and egg shedding in urine. Thus, S. haematobium egg expulsion is associated with intricate modulation of the urothelial barrier on the cellular and molecular level. Taken together, our findings have important implications for understanding host-parasite interactions and carcinogenesis in urogenital schistosomiasis, and may provide clues for novel therapeutic

  18. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population.

  19. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis -- an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    2004-01-01

    The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population. PMID:15486647

  20. Integration of mass drug administration programmes in Nigeria: The challenge of schistosomiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Frank O Richards; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel S; Jinadu, M. Y.; Donald R Hopkins

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with safe oral anthelminthic drugs (praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole) is the strategy for control of onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and schistosomiasis. District health officers seek to integrate treatment activities in areas of overlapping disease endemicity, but they are faced with having to merge different programmatic guidelines. APPROACH: We proceeded through the three stages of integrated MDA implementation: mapping the d...

  1. Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Ugandan schoolchildren: a rapid mapping assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J. Standley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Even with a national control programme in place, intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in school-aged children and other community members in Uganda. This is especially the case in the environments around the Great Lakes, where disease transmission is high, such as Lake Victoria. Moreover, in the most remote areas, some schools might periodically miss large-scale drug administrations owing to inaccessibility. To provide contemporary monitoring and surveillance data, 27 schools along the lakeshore were surveyed with a rapid assessment protocol to determine both prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections. In total, 25 (92.6% of schools were positive for S. mansoni, with an average prevalence across the surveyed children of 42% and average infection intensity of 634 eggs per gram of faeces. Mean prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was 12.9%, 9.3% and 2.4%, respectively. Results from questionnaire data revealed a high level of itinerancy among the children, and a total of 38.2% reported to have never received treatment for schistosomiasis, despite 96% living in districts targeted by the national control programme. A birthplace outside of Uganda was a significant predictor for increased risk of schistosomiasis infection (odds ratio (OR = 9.6, and being resident at a school for less than a year was significantly associated with absence of praziquantel treatment (OR = 0.3. Univariate regression analysis showed a trend of increasing schistosomiasis towards the eastern region of Uganda, while semivariograms of infection prevalence demonstrated a range of spatial autocorrelation of ~78 km. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were more common in the Western region. Our results emphasise how social and demographic variables such as migration may affect epidemiological trends and confound the impact of existing treatment regimes.

  2. Cross-sectional study and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis among children in Northeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Soumay Houmsou; Sam Mao Panda; Sambo Obadiah Elkanah; Liatu Columbus Garba; Binga Emmanuel Wama; Elizabeth Une Amuta; Santaya Larit Kela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine schistosomiasis level and risk factors that exposed school-aged children to infection as well as to model schistosomiasis map in relation to altitude and rainfall in Gashaka Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2014. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 1 080 school-aged children and processed using the filtration and formol–ether concentration techniques, respectively. Results: Irrespective of the schistosomes species, a point prevalence of 10.18% was reported out of the 1 080 children examined. Males were significantly infected than their female counterparts (11.75%vs. 8.43%) (c2=4.86;P=0.027), as well as children aged 6–10 (11.65%, 72/618) and 11–15 years (10.29%, 35/340) than the other age groups (c2 = 9.274; P = 0.026). No significant difference was observed in schistosomiasis be-tween children whose parents were educated (11.11%, 57/513) and not educated (9.88%, 53/536) (c2=1.342;P=0.247) and those whose parents are farmers (9.74%, 53/544) and non-farmers (10.63%, 57/536) (c2 = 0.787; P = 0.375). Proximity to water bodies (distance Conclusions: This study reported a moderate level of infection among school-aged chil-dren with proximity to water bodies and fishing as the main risk factors. The spatial dis-tribution of schistosomiasis in the area will guide in efficient and effective control programmes at local level. It is recommended that continued efforts be made to scale-up distribution of praziquantel to high risk areas so as to curb the progression of the disease.

  3. Impact of schistosomiasis on rice output and farm inputs in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Audibert, M.; Etard, Jean-François

    1998-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the economic impact of schistosomiasis was studied in 412 rice-grower households in Mali. Two groups of seven villages were formed, one a treated group and one an untreated group, after pair-matching by geographical zone and irrigtion type. Effect of treatment was assessed according to economic output (paddy yield) and five resource variables (family and and hired labour productivity, family and hired labour intensity and farm size). This study shows that ch...

  4. In Vivo MRI Assessment of Hepatic and Splenic Disease in a Murine Model of Schistosomiasis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Masi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis (or bilharzia, a major parasitic disease, affects more than 260 million people worldwide. In chronic cases of intestinal schistosomiasis caused by trematodes of the Schistosoma genus, hepatic fibrosis develops as a host immune response to the helminth eggs, followed by potentially lethal portal hypertension. In this study, we characterized hepatic and splenic features of a murine model of intestinal schistosomiasis using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and evaluated the transverse relaxation time T2 as a non-invasive imaging biomarker for monitoring hepatic fibrogenesis.CBA/J mice were imaged at 11.75 T two, six and ten weeks after percutaneous infection with Schistosoma mansoni. In vivo imaging studies were completed with histology at the last two time points. Anatomical MRI allowed detection of typical manifestations of the intestinal disease such as significant hepato- and splenomegaly, and dilation of the portal vein as early as six weeks, with further aggravation at 10 weeks after infection. Liver multifocal lesions observed by MRI in infected animals at 10 weeks post infection corresponded to granulomatous inflammation and intergranulomatous fibrosis with METAVIR scores up to A2F2. While most healthy hepatic tissue showed T2 values below 14 ms, these lesions were characterized by a T2 greater than 16 ms. The area fraction of increased T2 correlated (rS = 0.83 with the area fraction of Sirius Red stained collagen in histological sections. A continuous liver T2* decrease was also measured while brown pigments in macrophages were detected at histology. These findings suggest accumulation of hematin in infected livers.Our multiparametric MRI approach confirms that this murine model replicates hepatic and splenic manifestations of human intestinal schistosomiasis. Quantitative T2 mapping proved sensitive to assess liver fibrogenesis non-invasively and may therefore constitute an objective imaging biomarker for treatment

  5. Protective effect of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the schistosomiasis liver fibrosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuan; Liang, Yu; Zhu, Yi; Gao, Yongqiang; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yukuai; Yin, Weiguo; Li, Yingju; Wang, Kegeng; Xiao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on initiation and elimination of the schistosomiasis inflammatory response and liver fibrosis. The mice infected with the cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum (20 ± cercarie per mice) were separated randomly into several groups. After 60 days, liver tissue samples of all mice were sectioned. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Masson staining, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and flow cytometry (FCM) were perfor...

  6. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrius da Silva Martins; Mariana Fabris Xavier; Franciéle de Souza Masiero; Juliana Cordeiro; Patrícia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones...

  8. Anti-schistosomiasis triterpene glycoside from the Egyptian medicinal plant Asparagus stipularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham R. El-Seedi; Rehan El-Shabasy; Hanem Sakr; Mervat Zayed; Asmaa M. A. El-Said; Khalid M. H. Helmy; Ahmed H. M. Gaara; Zaki Turki; Muhammad Azeem; Ahmed, Ahmed M; Loutfy Boulos; Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson; Ulf Göransson

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation using an in vitro assay testing for anti- schistosomiasis yielded a novel triterpene saponin, asparagalin A, from the n-butanol extract of the roots of Asparagus stipularis Forssk., Asparagaceae. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformations. Administration of asparagalin A resulted in a retardation of worm growth and locomotion at the first day and showed a significant activity of egg-laying suppression at 200 µg/mL concentration.

  9. Anti-schistosomiasis triterpene glycoside from the Egyptian medicinal plant Asparagus stipularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham R. El-Seedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided isolation using an in vitro assay testing for anti- schistosomiasis yielded a novel triterpene saponin, asparagalin A, from the n-butanol extract of the roots of Asparagus stipularis Forssk., Asparagaceae. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformations. Administration of asparagalin A resulted in a retardation of worm growth and locomotion at the first day and showed a significant activity of egg-laying suppression at 200 µg/mL concentration.

  10. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis cases in the rural areas of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infections and schistosomiasis remain high in the rural areas of Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (ZMP, Brazil, where these parasites still represent a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to spatially assess the occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP. METHODS: The ZMP has a population of 1,132,544 inhabitants, formed by 43 municipalities. An ecological study was conducted, using secondary data relating to positive human cases and parasite loads of schistosomiasis and positive human cases of geohelminthiasis that were worked up in Excel 2007. We used the coordinates of the municipal headquarters to represent the cities which served as the unit of analysis of this study. The Kernel estimator was used to spatially analyze the data and identify distribution patterns and case densities, with analysis done in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Spatial analysis from the Kernel intensity estimator made it possible to construct density maps showing that the northern ZMP was the region with the greatest number of children infected with parasites and the populations most intensely infected by Schistosoma mansoni. In relation to geohelminths, there was higher spatial distribution of cases of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the southern ZMP, and greater occurrence of hookworms in the northern/central ZMP. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several surveys and studies showing occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP, no preventive measures that are known to have been effective in decreasing these health hazards have yet been implemented in the endemic area.

  11. Predictive risk mapping of schistosomiasis in Brazil using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Gosoniu, Laura; Malone, John B; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. A national control programme was initiated in Brazil in the mid-1970s and proved successful in terms of morbidity control, as the number of cases with hepato-splenic involvement was reduced significantly. To consolidate control and move towards elimination, there is a need for reliable maps on the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, so that interventions can target communities at highest risk. The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. We utilized readily available prevalence data from the national schistosomiasis control programme for the years 2005-2009, derived remotely sensed climatic and environmental data and obtained socioeconomic data from various sources. Data were collated into a geographical information system and Bayesian geostatistical models were developed. Model-based maps identified important risk factors related to the transmission of S. mansoni and confirmed that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed predictive risk map, including uncertainty, highlights priority areas for intervention, namely the northern parts of North and Southeast regions and the eastern part of Northeast region. Our predictive risk map provides a useful tool for to strengthen existing surveillance-response mechanisms. PMID:24361640

  12. Early lessons from schistosomiasis mass drug administration programs [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Evan Secor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration using praziquantel is the backbone of the current strategy for the control of schistosomiasis. As the theoretical plans have moved into practical application, certain challenges with this approach have surfaced, and it is likely that annual mass drug administration alone may not be sufficient to achieve program goals. However, mass drug administration is still the only available intervention that can be readily used in the wide variety of settings where schistosomiasis is endemic. The task then becomes how to improve this approach and identify what adjuncts to mass drug administration are effective, as programs move from morbidity control to elimination goals. Other aspects worthy of consideration include how best to employ new diagnostic tools to more easily identify where treatment is needed, and new formulations of praziquantel to extend the availability of treatment to all age groups. The aim of this review is to highlight both areas of challenge and of opportunity to improve the public health impact of schistosomiasis control programs.

  13. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  14. Application of geo-spatial technology in schistosomiasis modelling in Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Manyangadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis continues to impact socio-economic development negatively in sub-Saharan Africa. The advent of spatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS, Earth observation (EO and global positioning systems (GPS assist modelling efforts. However, there is increasing concern regarding the accuracy and precision of the current spatial models. This paper reviews the literature regarding the progress and challenges in the development and utilization of spatial technology with special reference to predictive models for schistosomiasis in Africa. Peer-reviewed papers identified through a PubMed search using the following keywords: geo-spatial analysis OR remote sensing OR modelling OR earth observation OR geographic information systems OR prediction OR mapping AND schistosomiasis AND Africa were used. Statistical uncertainty, low spatial and temporal resolution satellite data and poor validation were identified as some of the factors that compromise the precision and accuracy of the existing predictive models. The need for high spatial resolution of remote sensing data in conjunction with ancillary data viz. ground-measured climatic and environmental information, local presence/absence intermediate host snail surveys as well as prevalence and intensity of human infection for model calibration and validation are discussed. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach in developing robust, spatial data capturing, modelling techniques and products applicable in epidemiology is highlighted.

  15. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombetzki, Martina; Koslowski, Nicole; Doss, Sandra; Loebermann, Micha; Trauner, Michael; Reisinger, Emil C.; Sauer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae) and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae) infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples. PMID:27376078

  16. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sombetzki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples.

  17. The Estrada Real project and endemic diseases: the case of schistosomiasis, geoprocessing and tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Omar S; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Drummond, Sandra C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Dutra, Luciano V; Oliveira, Guilherme; Massara, Cristiano L; Enk, Martin J

    2010-07-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is a tool that has recently been applied to better understand spatial disease distributions. Using meteorological, social, sanitation, mollusc distribution data and remote sensing variables, this study aimed to further develop the GIS technology by creating a model for the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and to apply this model to an area with rural tourism in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG). The Estrada Real, covering about 1,400 km, is the largest and most important Brazilian tourism project, involving 163 cities in MG with different schistosomiasis prevalence rates. The model with three variables showed a R(2) = 0.34, with a standard deviation of risk estimated adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected for modelling were summer vegetation, summer minimal temperature and winter minimal temperature. The results confirmed the importance of Remote Sensing data and the valuable contribution of GIS in identifying priority areas for intervention in tourism regions which are endemic to schistosomiasis. PMID:20721504

  18. Does mass drug administration for the integrated treatment of neglected tropical diseases really work? Assessing evidence for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about mass drug administration [MDA] for neglected tropical diseases [NTDs] than is suggested by those so vigorously promoting expansion of the approach. This paper fills an important gap: it draws upon local level research to examine the roll out of treatment for two NTDs, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, in Uganda. Methods Ethnographic research was undertaken over a period of four years between 2005-2009 in north-west and south-east Uganda. In addition to participant observation, survey data recording self-reported take-up of drugs for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and, where relevant, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis was collected from a random sample of at least 10% of households at study locations. Data recording the take-up of drugs in Ministry of Health registers for NTDs were analysed in the light of these ethnographic and social survey data. Results The comparative analysis of the take-up of drugs among adults revealed that although most long term residents have been offered treatment at least once since 2004, the actual take up of drugs for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths varies considerably from one district to another and often also within districts. The specific reasons why MDA succeeds in some locations and falters in others relates to local dynamics. Issues such as population movement across borders, changing food supply, relations between drug distributors and targeted groups, rumours and conspiracy theories about the 'real' purpose of treatment, subjective experiences of side effects from treatment, alternative understandings of affliction, responses to social control measures and historical experiences of public health control measures, can all make a huge difference. The paper highlights the need to adapt MDA to local circumstances. It also points to specific generalisable issues, notably with respect to health education, drug distribution and

  19. Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Western Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a SCORE Study, One Year after Initial Praziquantel Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaré, Rufin K.; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T.; Yao, Patrick K.; N’Guessan, Nicaise A.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Meïté, Aboulaye; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; N’Goran, Eliézer K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d’Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. Methodology The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. Principal Findings The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5–24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5–20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9–13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2–105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7–135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. Conclusions/Significance One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children

  20. Evaluation of Ethanol Extracted Surface Antigens of Mycobacterium bovis for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Livestock Cattle and Wild Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Bovine tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease resulting in chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis, particularly in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Although bovine TB has been nearly eradicated in many developed countries, the disease persists pri...

  1. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  2. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth control in Niger: cost effectiveness of school based and community distributed mass drug administration [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Leslie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5-14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD. The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. CONCLUSIONS: The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process.

  3. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveda, Remigio M; Tallo, Veronica; Olveda, David U; Inobaya, Marianette T; Chau, Thao N; Ross, Allen G

    2016-04-01

    Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is GIS) risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted. PMID:26820760

  4. A Latent Markov Modelling approach to the evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen strips for Schistosomiasis diagnosis pre- and post-praziquantel treatment in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukounari, Artemis; Donnelly, Christl A.; Moustaki, Irini;

    2013-01-01

    Regular treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) is the strategy for human schistosomiasis control aiming to prevent morbidity in later life. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, appropriate diagnostic tools to inform interventions are keys to thei...

  5. Multi-host model and threshold of intermediate host Oncomelania snail density for eliminating schistosomiasis transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Chen, Yue; Liang, Song; Song, Xiu-Xia; Chen, Geng-Xin; He, Zhong; Cai, Bin; Yihuo, Wu-Li; He, Zong-Gui; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health issue in many tropical countries, with more than 700 million people at risk of infection. In China, a national integrated control strategy, aiming at blocking its transmission, has been carried out throughout endemic areas since 2005. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effects of different intervention measures on the transmission dynamics of S. japonicum in three study areas and the data were analyzed using a multi-host model. The multi-host model was also used to estimate the threshold of Oncomelania snail density for interrupting schistosomiasis transmission based on the longitudinal data as well as data from the national surveillance system for schistosomiasis. The data showed a continuous decline in the risk of human infection and the multi-host model fit the data well. The 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles, and the mean of estimated thresholds of Oncomelania snail density below which the schistosomiasis transmission cannot be sustained were 0.006, 0.009, 0.028 and 0.020 snails/0.11 m2, respectively. The study results could help develop specific strategies of schistosomiasis control and elimination tailored to the local situation for each endemic area. PMID:27535177

  6. Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 and nuclear factor-kappa B expression in experimental colonic schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Dalia S; Shohieb, Zeinab S; Sarhan, Naglaa I

    2015-11-01

    Role of different mediators was described in the development of the granulomatous response and fibrosis observed in intestinal schistosomiasis. However, both Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) have not yet been investigated in intestinal schistosomiasis. This study aimed to characterize the role of TLR2 and NF-κB in the pathogenesis of intestinal schistosomiasis. Experimental animals were divided into two groups; group I: non-infected control group and group II: mice infected subcutaneously with S. mansoni cercariae. Colon samples were taken from infected mice, every two weeks, starting from the 6th week postinfection (PI) till 18th week PI. Samples were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Colon of S. mansoni infected mice showed histopathological changes in the form of mucosal degeneration, transmural mononuclear cellular infiltration and granulomas formation. Immunostained sections revealed significant increase in TLR2 and NF-κB positive cells in all layers of the colon, cells of the granuloma and those of the lymphoid follicles 10 weeks PI. All these changes decreased gradually starting from 12 weeks PI onward to be localized focally at 18 weeks PI. In conclusion, recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells to the colonic mucosa in intestinal schistosomiasis are multifactorial events involving TLR2 that can trigger the NF-κB pathways. Hence, down-regulation of both TLR2 and NF-κB could be exploited in the treatment of colonic schistosomiasis. PMID:26644925

  7. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

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    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  8. Health Education as an Important Component in the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhong, B; Xu, J; Li, R-Z; Cao, C-L

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis control programme in The People's Republic of China had promoted the mass mobilization of health education in various forms, such as films, drama, traditional opera, poems, slogans, posters, exhibits. This paper is trying to review the impacts of those forms on different endemic settings and targeted populations. In the future, health education and health promotion will still be the effective strategy and one of the interventions in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and other infectious diseases, even in the pre- or posttransmission stages. With the social and economic development and improvement of people's living standard, it is necessary to establish a sustainable mechanism, in combination of health education with health guarantee of improving the quality of life, improving the production and living conditions, changing the unhealthy production methods and lifestyle of the residents in the endemic areas, in order to reach the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137451

  9. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Thea; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serol...

  10. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength of an indirect composite to bovine dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus; Rosana Sampaio Meirelles; Victor Blunck Schuina; Liana Matos Ferreira; Eduardo Moreira da Silva; Jose Guilherme Antunes Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several surface treatments could be used to improve the bond strength (BS) between indirect composites and cement. Aim: To evaluate the BS of an indirect composite submitted to different surface treatments, cemented to bovine dentin. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty conical cavities were prepared in slices of bovine dentin and bulk filled with the composite. Materials and Methods: After curing and removal from the cavity, the restorations were treated according ...

  11. Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an important component of environmental characterization activities and serves as a basis for distinguishing the presence and significance of contamination. Background data can also be used to assess the levels of baseline risk to which humans or other receptors are typically exposed and to establish remediation goals. Evaluating background on a sitewide basis provides a consistent, technically defensible definition of background as opposed to determining area-specific background compositions for each waste management unit being considered for remediation across the Hanford Site

  12. Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 2: Political economy, management strategy and costs, 1953-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, A; Jackson, S; Li, X; Huang, K

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of the political economy, management, and costs of the successful Guangxi schistosomiasis eradication programme, spanning 40 years from 1953 to 1992. For this purpose we analysed all government data and memoranda on the policy, management, technical support, finance, and the control strategy of the programme. We also interviewed many local staff involved in the programme over the 40-year period and obtained cost data from annual county-level records on seven major categories of variable costs. Schistosomiasis control in Guangxi began with one of the first examples of community participation and rapid assessment in public health history--the use of pre-franked envelopes to return disease questionnaires and suspect snails from rural areas. This approach quickly and accurately delineated the endemic area. This was Mao Zedong's "mass line", incorporating ideas and knowledge from peasants directly into services run for and by them, here the schistosomiasis control programme. Recognition by China's leaders that schistosomiasis was a great economic burden, steadfast prioritizing of the programme over 40 years, local innovative scientific study, agricultural and environmental focus on eradicating the snail hosts and boosting rural production, and mass community education and support were all key factors in the final success. Local leaders motivated programme staff and everyone involved knew the objectives. The programme was always multisectoral, with policy developed centrally, and strategy and collaboration encouraged and rewarded at the grass-roots. These features explain how a very poor autonomous region such as Guangxi finally eradicated schistosomiasis, spending less than US$ 0.50 per protected citizen per year; it is remarkable that the disease and snails were initially found across a large area of complex environments and modern drugs such as praziquantel were not available for most of the 40-year period. The lessons from Guangxi

  13. Evidence of increasing risk of schistosomiasis among school-age children in municipality of Calatrava, Province of Negros Occidental, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belizario VY Jr; Erfe JM; Naig JRA; Chua PLC

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk of school-age children being infected with schistosomiasis in selected villages in the municipality of Calatrava, province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. Methods:As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the helminth control program in the province of Negros Occidental, parasitological monitoring, through the use microscopy of stool samples processed using Kato-Katz technique, was conducted to describe the baseline and follow-up parasitological status of school-age children in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Seven villages from the municipality of Calatrava were selected as study sites.Results:During baseline assessment, only one case of schistosomiasis was reported from the village of Marcelo. During follow-up assessment, 32 cases (6.9%) of schistosomiasis were reported and the prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity infection was 1.3% in six villages. Among the seven villages included in the follow-up, Minapasuk had the highest prevalence at 14.6%, while San Isidro reported no case of schistosomiasis.Conclusions:Non-endemic villages, which have reported positive cases in school-age children, may need to be assessed for possible endemicity for schistosomiasis. Transmission of the disease may need to be determined in these villages through active parasitological and malacological surveillance. Other non-endemic villages adjacent to or share river networks with endemic villages in Calatrava may need to be explored for possible introduction of the disease, especially after typhoons and flooding. Establishing endemicity for schistosomiasis in these villages will help infected and at risk individuals to receive yearly treatment to reduce morbidities caused by this disease.

  14. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

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    Julia L Finkelstein

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden due to Schistosoma japonicum remains controversial. We used a decision model to quantify an alternative disability weight estimate of the burden of human disease due to S. japonicum. We reviewed S. japonicum morbidity data, and constructed decision trees for all infected persons and two age-specific strata, or =15 y. We conducted stochastic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for each model. Infection with S. japonicum was associated with an average disability weight of 0.132, with age-specific disability weights of 0.098 ( or =15 y. Re-estimated disability weights were seven to 46 times greater than current GBD measures; no simulations produced disability weight estimates lower than 0.009. Nutritional morbidities had the greatest contribution to the S. japonicum disability weight in the <15 y model, whereas major organ pathologies were the most critical variables in the older age group. GBD disability weights for schistosomiasis urgently need to be revised, and species-specific disability weights should be established. Even a marginal increase in current estimates would result in a substantial rise in the estimated global burden of schistosomiasis, and have considerable implications for public health prioritization and resource allocation for schistosomiasis research, monitoring, and control.

  15. Increasing the reach: Involving local Muslim religious teachers in a behavioral intervention to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celone, Mike; Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M; Lyimo, Jameelat H; Mohammed, Ulfat A; Khamis, Alippo N; Mohammed, Yussra S; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    In Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, Madrassa schools are influential institutions, where children and adults can learn about the interpretation of the Koran. We aimed to explore the involvement of Madrassa teachers for behavior change interventions in a randomized operational research trial designed to investigate the impact of multiple approaches to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis transmission from Zanzibar. Madrassa teachers performing in the 30 communities of the behavior change study arm were trained in new interactive and participatory teaching methods by the local behavioral team and provided with schistosomiasis-teaching tools for teaching about transmission and prevention in their Madrassa. In July 2014, in a qualitative research study, we conducted 25 semi-structured interviews with Madrassa teachers to find out how they perceived their involvement in interventions against schistosomiasis. In 2014, 5926 among the 8497 registered Madrassa students in 30 communities on Unguja and Pemba islands received health education and participated in interactive behavior change exercises about schistosomiasis. Madrassa teachers reported that they valued their inclusion in the study and the opportunity to educate their students about schistosomiasis transmission, prevention, and treatment. They also perceived personal and community benefits as a result of their training and strongly supported the inclusion of additional Madrassa teachers in future intervention activities. Madrassa teachers are influential in the Zanzibari society, and hence are important change agents within our community-level behavioral intervention. They might constitute an untapped resource that can help to expand and increase acceptance of and participation in schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical disease control activities in African Muslim communities. PMID:27498244

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

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    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  17. Predicting the impact of long-term temperature changes on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: a mechanistic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara D Mangal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many parasites of medical and veterinary importance are transmitted by cold-blooded intermediate hosts or vectors, the abundance of which will vary with ambient temperatures, potentially altering disease prevalence. In particular, if global climate change will increase mean ambient temperature in a region endemic with a human pathogen then it is possible that the incidence of disease will similarly increase. Here we examine this possibility by using a mathematical model to explore the effects of increasing long-term mean ambient temperature on the prevalence and abundance of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model showed that the impact of temperature on disease prevalence and abundance is not straightforward; the mean infection burden in humans increases up to 30 degrees C, but then crashes at 35 degrees C, primarily due to increased mortalities of the snail intermediate host. In addition, increased temperatures changed the dynamics of disease from stable, endemic infection to unstable, epidemic cycles at 35 degrees C. However, the prevalence of infection was largely unchanged by increasing temperatures. Temperature increases also affected the response of the model to changes in each parameter, indicating certain control strategies may become less effective with local temperature changes. At lower temperatures, the most effective single control strategy is to target the adult parasites through chemotherapy. However, as temperatures increase, targeting the snail intermediate hosts, for example through molluscicide use, becomes more effective. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that S. mansoni will not respond to increased temperatures in a linear fashion, and the optimal control strategy is likely to change as temperatures change. It is only through a mechanistic approach, incorporating the combined effects of temperature on all stages of the life-cycle, that we

  18. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  19. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

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    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  20. On The Interaction between Induced Diabetes Mellitus and Schistosomiasis:Mechanism and Protection

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    Nahla S. El-Shenawy and Maha F. M. Soliman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study mice were percutaneously exposed to 50 S. mansoni cercariae. Seven weeks post infection (pi, infected mice were either injected i.p. a single dose of alloxan (200 mg kg-1 or treated with a single dose of alloxan followed, three days later, with daily i.p. treatment of ethanolic extract of Cleome droserifolia (0.31 g kg-1 for 18 days. Diabetes mellitus (DM affected characteristics of Schistosoma infection as shown in alteration of oogram pattern, impairing of egg maturation and lowering of faecal egg output. However, extract treatment (EXT affected the previously mentioned aspects in addition to its remarkable effect on worm load, diminishing of hepatic granulomas and suppressing the formation of involutional granulomas. Results indicated that DM increased the complications of schistosomiasis that was manifested by the augmented increase of serum glucose level, the severe decrease of serum thyroid hormones (tri-iodothyronine; T3 and tetra-iodo-thyronin; T4, insulin levels, liver glycogen content and hepatic DNA. In addition, a decrease in hepatic GSH that was accompanied by an increase in serum uric acid were observed in infected-DM mice. Serum total proteins concentrations were obviously decreased and some of protein fractions were also decreased or absent in both infected and infected-DM mice except for gamma globulin that was increased in both groups. EXT succeeded efficiently to alleviate these alterations in infected-diabetic mice, to various extents. The beneficial effects of EXT on thyroid and pancreatic hormones status seem to be contradictory to its beneficial anti-schistosomiasis effects. This contradiction may suggest that EXT exerts its beneficial effects through its direct effects on the parasite, not secondary to its effect on the host. The current results showing differential effects of both diabetes and extract on schistosomiasis, though both are beneficial, serve to corroborate this hypothesis.

  1. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  2. Screening diagnostic candidates for schistosomiasis from tegument proteins of adult Schistosoma japonicum using an immunoproteomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the world's most prevalent zoonotic diseases and a serious worldwide public health problem. Since the tegument (TG of Schistosoma japonicum is in direct contact with the host and induces a host immune response against infection, the identification of immune response target molecules in the schistosome TG is crucial for screening diagnostic antigens for this disease.In this study, an immunoproteomics approach used TG proteins as screening antigens to identify potential diagnostic molecules of S. japonicum. Ten spots corresponding to six proteins were identified that immunoreacted with sera from S. japonicum-infected rabbits but not sera from uninfected rabbits and their specific IgG antibody levels declined quickly after praziquantel treatment. Recombinant phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM and UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog B (RAD23 proteins were expressed and their diagnostic potential for schistosomiasis was evaluated and compared with schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA using ELISA. The results showed high sensitivity and specificity and low crossreactivity when rSjPGM-ELISA and rSjRAD23-ELISA were used to detect water buffalo schistosomiasis. Moreover, antibodies to rSjPGM and rSjRAD23 might be short-lived since they declined quickly after chemotherapy.Therefore, the two schistosome TG proteins SjPGM and SjRAD23 were identified as potential diagnostic markers for the disease. The two recombinant proteins might have the potential to evaluate the effectiveness of drug treatments and for distinguishing between current and past infection.

  3. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Lin [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Su, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hai-Bo [Central Blood Bank in Yueyang, Yueyang, Hunan Province (China); Du, Kun; Yu, Ping [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Shi-Ping [Key Laboratory of Schistosomiasis in Hunan, Department of Parasitology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-03-02

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region.

  4. Application of Radar Altimetry Methods to Monitoring of Parasitic Disease Transmission: Schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, M.; Ibaraki, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Liang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second-most prevalent tropical disease after malaria affecting two-hundred million people annually world-wide; it shortens lifespan on average by ten years in endemic areas and no vaccine exists. The current control methods of human host chemotherapy and application of molluscicides to the environment do not break the disease transmission cycle. Schistosomiasis transmission in southern China involves an amphibious intermediate host snail for which hydrology is a key factor because the adults need moist vegetation while the juveniles are fully aquatic. Thus, hydrology is a key factor in schistosomiasis transmission and understanding its role can inform control measures. Our objective is to integrate hydrologic, ecologic, and other environmental factors to determine the changes in available snail habitat through space and time. We use radar altimetry measurements to determine water level every 35 days when the Envisat (Environmental Satellite) passes over the lake. The radar altimetry readings have been calibrated to levels from in-situ gauging stations and will support remote analysis of disease transmission potential without the need for gauging station data. A geographic information system was used to combine key factors including water level, topography, and air temperature data to identify areas of available snail habitat. In order to accomplish this, we conducted three steps including: delineating the watershed, specifying potential snail habitat areas through topography and air temperature classification, and calculating the intersection between potential snail habitat and non-flooded areas in the watershed. Statistical analyses of total available habitat area are also conducted. These maps and statistics analyses can be used by public health agencies to monitor snail habitat trends over time. Coupling remote sensing of water levels with a geographic information system model will continue to be important as the hydrology of the lake

  5. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  6. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M Eissa

    Full Text Available Miltefosine (MFS is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD. This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%, good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs

  7. Absence of linkage between MHC and a gene involved in susceptibility to human schistosomiasis

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    Chiarella J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred million people are at risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. MHC haplotypes have been reported to segregate with susceptibility to schistosomiasis in murine models. In humans, a major gene related to susceptibility/resistance to infection by S. mansoni (SM1 and displaying the mean fecal egg count as phenotype was detected by segregation analysis. This gene displayed a codominant mode of inheritance with an estimated frequency of 0.20-0.25 for the deleterious allele and accounted for more than 50% of the variance of infection levels. To determine if the SM1 gene segregates with the human MHC chromosomal region, we performed a linkage study by the lod score method. We typed for HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens in 11 informative families from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil, by the microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-DR typing by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP and HLA-DQ were confirmed by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP. The lod scores for the different q values obtained clearly indicate that there is no physical linkage between HLA and SM1 genes. Thus, susceptibility or resistance to schistosomiasis, as defined by mean fecal egg count, is not primarily dependent on the host's HLA profile. However, if the HLA molecule plays an important role in specific immune responses to S. mansoni, this may involve the development of the different clinical aspects of the disease such as granuloma formation and development of hepatosplenomegaly.

  8. The Last Fifteen Years of Schistosomiasis in Venezuela: Features and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of schistosomiasis in Venezuela has been a topic of major interest and controversy among the metaxenic parasitosis. A small area of transmission of approximately 15,000 km2 was thought to be eradicated some years ago. However, some epidemiological characteristics of our transmission area have limited the success on the way toward eradication. Since 1945, when the Schistosomiasis Control Program started, the prevalence in the endemic area has decreased from 14% in 1943 to 1.4% in 1996. Until 1982, the surveillance of active cases was based on massive stool examination. Since then, the Schistosomiasis Research Group (SRG recommended the additional use of serologic tests in the Control Program and the selective or massive chemotherapy depending on serological and parasitological prevalence of each community. At present, the real prevalence is underestimated due to the fact that approximately 80% of the individuals eliminate less than 100 eggs/g of feces. Those persons could be responsible for the maintenance of the foci going on and therefore limiting the impact of the control measures. Efforts of the SRG are being oriented toward improvement of immunodiagnostic tests by using defined antigens (enzymes and chemically synthesized peptides, derived from relevant molecules of the parasite, either for antibodies or antigens search. On the other hand, introduction of snail competitors has been a biological weapon in the control of the intermediate host in certain areas. However, the recent reinfestation of water courses by Biomphalaria glabrata, the increased prevalence in some areas, together with important administrative changes at the Control Program of the Minister of Health, have arisen new questions and doubts, challenging the eradication strategy proposed during the last decade.

  9. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region

  10. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  11. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  12. [Parasitological profile of urinary schistosomiasis of the Sourou hydroagricultural complex of Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D; Sawadogo, B; Kambou, T; Parent, G; Sondo, B

    2001-03-01

    In the Sourou area of Burkina Faso, parasitological and malacological surveys of urinary schistosomiasis have been carried out in the constructed sites of Guédougou, Niasan and Débé dating respectively from 1967, 1986 and 1996. The investigations covered also the traditional villages of Lanfiera, Di, Poro, Tiao and Mara situated in the middle of the hydroagricultural planning for the first, very close to the lake for the second and about twenty kilometres distant for the three last. These towns represent the main sites in the Sourou area. The results of the parasitological surveys showed that urinary schistosomiasis was present in all sites. The levels of prevalence varied considerably: 70.3% in Guiédougou, 40.8% in Niassan, 8.5% in Débè in the irrigated zone, 55.6% in Lanfiéra, 56.8% in Di, 13.2% in Poro, 83.3% in Tiao and 64.7% in Mara. Concerning the malacological investigation, two species (Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus) were shown to be intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. The first was endemic to the area while the second was compatible with S. haematobium from the Sourou and other zones. Compared to the results of earlier investigations, the endemic had worsened with differences according to sites. This disparity of prevalence levels which has already been observed in other hydroagricultural area results from many factors, among which the impact of irrigation activities, the aquatic biotope system (irrigation canals, natural lake, pools and temporary rivers) and the type of contact of human communities with water rank high. Schistosomiasis expansion is amplified by the intermediate host dynamics and the introduction of new schistosomes carried by the new workers arriving from all over the country. In these conditions, in order to reduce rapidly prevalence levels, preventive measures should be centred on chemotherapy for the population. The treatment should be administered during a period of weak intermediate host density and be

  13. Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekpo, Uwem F.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Oluwole, Akinola S.; Abe, Eniola M.; Mafe, Margaret A.; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Olamiju, Francisca; Kadiri, Mukaila; Poopola, Temitope O. S.; Braide, Eka I.; Saka, Yisa; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the......% confidence interval (CI): 22.8-23.1%). The model suggests that the mean temperature, annual precipitation and soil acidity significantly influence the spatial distribution. Prevalence estimates, adjusted for school-aged children in 2010, showed that the prevalence is...

  14. Enhanced Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Form of the Schistosomiasis Vaccine Antigen Sm-TSP-2

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Mark S.; Pickering, Darren A.; McSorley, Henry J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG1 and IgG3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubilit...

  15. Efficacy of oxamniquine, praziquantel and a combination of both drugs in schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Zwingenberger; J. A. Nogueira Queiroz; U. Poggensee; J. E. Alencar; J. Valdegunas; F. Esmeralda; Feldmeier, H.

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare the efficacy of a low-dosage combination of oxamniquine (7.5 mg/kg) plus praziquantel (20 mg/kg) against either agent, oxamniquine (15 mg/kg) or praziquantel (40 mg/kg) alone, in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in the Brazilian north-east. The drugs were randomly administered per os to 91 patients. Six and twelve months after treatment 89% of those admitted to the trial were reexamined by Kato-Katz method (ten slides) and MIF tec...

  16. Partial Regulatory T Cell Depletion Prior to Schistosomiasis Vaccination Does Not Enhance the Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Fan; Zhou, Sha; Xu, Zhipeng; Hoellwarth, Jason; Chen, Xiaojun; He, Lei; Zhang, Rongbo; Feng LIU; Wang, Jun; Su, Chuan

    2012-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) do not only influence self-antigen specific immune responses, but also dampen the protective effect induced by a number of vaccines. The impact of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on vaccines against schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that is a major public health concern, however, has not been examined. In this study, a DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum (pVAX1-Sj26GST) was constructed and its potential effects were...

  17. Understanding low uptake of mass treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Nuwaha, Fred;

    2015-01-01

    Despite attempts to control intestinal schistosomiasis through school-based mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel using school teachers in Uganda, less than 30% of the school children take the treatment in some areas. The aim of the study was to understand why the uptake of praziquantel......-effects of praziquantel, especially when the drug is taken on an empty stomach. The institutional, policy and community factors include inadequate preparation and facilitation of teachers and the school feeding policy, which requires parents to take responsibility for providing their children with food while at school...

  18. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    Sivan Sarit; Menage Janis; Roberts Sally; Urban Jill PG

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc de...

  19. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Mayuri; Vivek Garg; Chandan Mukherji; Divya Aggarwal; Sanjeev Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year o...

  20. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody in cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, H J; Masri, S A; Deregt, D; Yeo, S G; Thomas, E J

    1991-01-01

    A reliable bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viral antigen was prepared from BVD virus grown on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells by solubilizing the virus with detergent MEGA-10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide) followed by removal of hydrophobic proteins with Triton X-100 treatment. By these treatments, problems of high background associated with BVD viral antigen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were eliminated. With this new antigen, an ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum a...

  2. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  3. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  4. An interactive perspective of health education for the tropical disease control: the schistosomiasis case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schall Virgínia T

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Some municipalities in Brazil have been requesting orientation for the implementation of health education programs related to the control of schistosomiasis. This demand was based on experiences in the development of health education researches, strategies and materials for school-age children, involving the communities and secretaries of health and education. Motivated by this request and the recently implemented plan of health services (Unified Health System - Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS that gives autonomy to the municipalities to utilize health resources and services in Brazil, this paper presents an interactive perspective of planning health education research and programs. The purpose of this perspective is to stimulate a reflection on the needs and actions of institutions and people involved in health education research and/or programs to obtain sustainability, commitment and effectiveness - not only in the control of schistosomiasis, but also in the improvement of environmental conditions, quality of life and personal health. This perspective comprises interaction among three levels related to health education programs: the decision level, the executive level and the beneficiary level. The needs and lines of action at each of these levels are discussed, as well as the ways in which they can interact with each other. This proposal may lead to useful interactive ways of planing, organizing, executing and evaluating health education research and/or program, not only towards the prevention and control of the disease at stake, but also to promote health in general.

  5. BLOCKADE OF PGE2, PGD2 RECEPTORS CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST PREPATENT SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Rabia, Ibrahim; El-Ahwany, Eman; Saber, Sameh; Gamal, Rasha; Nagy, Faten; Mahmoud, Olaa; Hamad, Rabab Salem; Barakat, Walled

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease with considerable social impact. Despite the availability of affordable chemotherapy, drug treatment has not significantly reduced the overall number of disease cases. Among other mechanisms, the parasite produces PGE2 and PGD2 to evade host immune defenses. To investigate the role of PGE2 and PGD2 in schistosomiasis, we evaluated the effects of L-161,982, Ah6809 (PGE2 receptor antagonists alone of combined with each other) and MK-0524 (PGD2 receptor antagonist) during prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally an hour before and 24 hours after infection of C57BL/6 mice with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. L-161,982, Ah6809, their combination and MK-0524 caused partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection which was mediated by biasing the immune response towards Th1 phenotype. These results showed that blockade of PGE2 and PGD2 receptors confers partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection in mice and that they may be useful as adjunctive therapy to current anti-schistosomal drugs or vaccines. PMID:26939228

  6. A geoprocessing approach for studying and controlling schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are tools that have been recently tested for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution of disease. The objective of this paper was to further develop the GIS technology to model and control schistosomiasis using environmental, social, biological and remote-sensing variables. A final regression model (R² = 0.39 was established, after a variable selection phase, with a set of spatial variables including the presence or absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, winter enhanced vegetation index, summer minimum temperature and percentage of houses with water coming from a spring or well. A regional model was also developed by splitting the state of Minas Gerais (MG into four regions and establishing a linear regression model for each of the four regions: 1 (R² = 0.97, 2 (R² = 0.60, 3 (R² = 0.63 and 4 (R² = 0.76. Based on these models, a schistosomiasis risk map was built for MG. In this paper, geostatistics was also used to make inferences about the presence of Biomphalaria spp. The result was a map of species and risk areas. The obtained risk map permits the association of uncertainties, which can be used to qualify the inferences and it can be thought of as an auxiliary tool for public health strategies.

  7. COMMUNITY CO-DESIGNED SCHISTOSOMIASIS CONTROL INTERVENTIONS FOR SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN ZANZIBAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, B; Knopp, S; Ali, S M; A'kadir, F M; Khamis, A N; Ali, J N; Lymo, J H; Mohammed, K A; Rollinson, D

    2016-09-01

    Top-down biomedical interventions to control schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa have had limited success, primarily because they fail to engage with the social, political, economic and ecological contexts in which they are delivered. Despite the call to foster community engagement and to adapt interventions to local circumstances, programmes have rarely embraced such an approach. This article outlines a community co-designed process, based upon Human-Centered Design, to demonstrate how this approach works in practice. It is based on initial work undertaken by social science researchers, public health practitioners and community members from the Zanzibar Islands, Tanzania, between November 2011 and December 2013. During the process, 32 community members participated in a qualitative and quantitative data-driven workshop where they interpreted data on local infections from S. haematobium and co-designed interventions with the assistance of a facilitator trained in the social sciences. These interventions included the implementation of novel school-based education and training, the identification of relevant safe play activities and events at local schools, the installation of community-designed urinals for boys and girls and the installation of community-designed laundry-washing platforms to reduce exposure to cercariae-contaminated fresh water. It is suggested that the a community co-designed process, drawing from Human-Centered Design principles and techniques, enables the development of more sustainable and effective interventions for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:27428066

  8. Cerebral Schistosomiasis Caused by Schistosoma mansoni: a Case Report with Clinical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral nervous system involvement arising from schistosomiasis is uncommon. It may be produced most fre­quently by Schistosoma japonicum infection, but reports of S. mansoni presenting as an intracerebral mass lesion are particularly rare. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 3-month history of partial epilep­tic seizures and head­aches. She immigrated to Egypt 4 years ago and had worked in Iraq for 2 years after the immigration. The patient's gen­eral physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed an enhanc­ing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. A stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. S. mansoni was identified by stool examination. Prednisone (1 mg/kg per day for 1 week, with gradual with­drawal during the following 3 weeks and praziquantel (2 doses at 20 mg/kg per day therapy was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MR imaging yielded normal findings. This case is the rare imported case of cerebral schistosomiasis in China and the neuroschistosomiasis should be considered as the patient lived in a region in which this disease is endemic.

  9. New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vlassoff

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

  10. Impact of Climate Variability on Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis over Sunyani in the Transition Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S. K.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Tagoe, G.

    2012-04-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the impact of climate variability on Schistosoma haematobium infection among patients and school children in Sunyani between 2006 and 2009. Urine samples from the subjects were collected and examined in the laboratory using the filtration technique for the detection and quantification of Schistosomiasis haematobium eggs. The prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis at the Sunyani Regional Hospital for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 were found to be 0.24%, 0.55%, 0.55% and 0.75% respectively while that for Methodist Junior High School in 2008 and 2009 were 60.1% and 60.3% respectively. A decrease in the relative humidity and average annual rainfall were identified as factors contributory to the increase in urinary Schistosomiasis prevalence rate. The temperature values obtained throughout the study period did not have any significant effect on the prevalence rate. The temperature values, however, were those that enhanced cercarial incubation (15-35˚C) with a resultant increase in shedding of cercariae leading to more infections among water contacts. The infection rate due to stream Amama was 20.1%, while that due to river Tano was 36.6%. The highest risk group was children aged 15-19 years. Praziquantel was administered to treat the infection, producing a cure rate of 93%. Recognition of urinary Schistosomiasis as a public health problem in Ghana is the main challenge to prevention and control of the disease.

  11. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. PMID:15682248

  12. Identifying Spatial Clusters of Schistosomiasis in Anhui Province of China: A Study from the Perspective of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqian Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the strategy shifting from morbidity control to transmission interruption, the burden of schistosomiasis in China has been declining over the past decade. However, further controls of the epidemic in the lake and marshland regions remain a challenge. Prevalence data at county level were obtained from the provincial surveillance system in Anhui during 1997–2010. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistics were combined to assess the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis. The spatial-temporal cluster analysis based on retrospective space-time scan statistics was further used to detect risk clusters. The Global Moran’s I coefficients were mostly statistically significant during 1997–2004 but not significant during 2005–2010. The clusters detected by two spatial cluster methods occurred in Nanling, Tongling, Qingyang and Wuhu during 1997–2004, and Guichi and Wuhu from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Spatial-temporal cluster analysis revealed 2 main clusters, namely Nanling (1999–2002 and Guichi (2005–2008. The clustering regions were significantly narrowed while the spatial extent became scattered during the study period. The high-risk areas shifted from the low reaches of the Yangtze River to the upper stream, suggesting the focus of schistosomiasis control should be shifted accordingly and priority should be given to the snail habitats within the high-risk areas of schistosomiasis.

  13. The Behavioral Determinants of Intestinal Schistosomiasis Transmission: Water Contact, Hygienic Practices and Risk Prevention. A study in Northern Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sow (Seydou)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world, ranking second only to malaria in terms of its socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas (WHO, 1985; WHO, 2002). At least 200 million people are infected and 600 million a

  14. Distribution of 124Sb-labelled Bilharcid in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of two antimonial drugs was observed, using the radioactive form of both Bilharcid and tartar emetic in a 3% solution. The tracer technique is the most suitable method for determining antimony in biological materials and in vivo studies. Moreover, it is easy to carry out and provides a high degree of accuracy. Sixty bilharzial patients were categorized into four groups: simple, hepatosplenomegalic, ascitic and bilharzial cases with kidney disease. All received intravenous injections of either Bilharcid or tartar emetic; a fifth group received Bilharcid syrup. The blood level of the radioactive drug was estimated, starting 5 min after injection and continuing for 24 h. The rate of antimony excretion in urine and stools was studied during the course of treatment and for 5 d after the injections. Distribution of antimony in the liver, heart, thyroid, kidneys and spleen was recorded. The maximum antimony blood level was reached 5 min after the single intravenous injection of Bilharcid in simple bilharzial cases, then dropped rapidly in the first 3 h. The background in most cases was reached in 24 h. The total excretion of antimony was almost the same using Bilharcid or tartar emetic, whether the drug was given as a single injection or 10 injections, but the route of excretion was different. Bilharcid was excreted in higher percentages via stools than was tartar emetic. (author)

  15. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis and Usefulness of Indirect Diagnostic Tests in School-Age Children in Cubal, Central Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bocanegra

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a public health major problem and little is known in many areas, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa.To assess the burden and risk factors of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasitic helminthes in the children of Cubal, Angola, and to compare different diagnostic approaches for urinary schistosomiasis under field conditions.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Urine and faeces samples of school children were microscopically studied. A random sample of children was obtained from an alphabetically arranged list of children, taking one of two children. Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination. Possible risk factors for the infection were sex, age, distance to the river and previous treatment with praziquantel; the assessment was performed using Chi-square test.A total of 785 (61.18% children showed S. haematobium eggs in urine; children living within 500 meters from the river had a higher odds for infection: Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45-2.7 CI 95%; urine dipstick showed sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 61.3%, with a positive predictive value; colorimetric test showed sensitivity of 52.5%, specificity of 74.6% and a positive predictive value of 77%. Proteinuria was present in 653 (51.1% children, being more frequent in children with S. haematobium in urine (75.2%; 32 of 191 stool samples (16% showed the presence of other intestinal parasites and 8 (4% for S. haematobium.Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in our study area is much higher than the national average, considering it as a high-risk community. Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection. Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost. Proteinuria was a common finding, probably showing an early structural damage due to schistosomiasis in this group of children.

  16. Characterisation and application of a bovine U6 promoter for expression of short hairpin RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalrymple Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III promoters of either mouse or human origin. Results To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The promoter was then used to express shRNAs, which resulted in the efficient knockdown of an exogenous reporter gene and an endogenous bovine gene. Conclusion We have mined data from the bovine genome sequencing project to identify a functional bovine U6 promoter and used the promoter sequence to construct a shRNA expression vector. The use of this native bovine promoter in shRNA expression is an important component of our future development of RNAi therapeutic and transgenic applications in bovine species.

  17. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lobato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  18. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    OpenAIRE

    F.C.F. Lobato; R.A. Assis; V.L.V. Abreu; M.F. Souza Jr.; C.G.R.D. Lima; F.M. Salvarani

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  19. Cloning and expression of two new prolactin-related proteins, prolactin-related protein-VIII and -IX, in bovine placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneyama Kanako; Hosoe Misa; Takahashi Toru; Ushizawa Koichi; Hashizume Kazuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Prolactin-related proteins (PRPs) are specific proteins of the growth hormone/prolactin (GH/PRL) family in bovine placenta. This study reports the identification and sequencing of a full-length cDNA for two new members of bovine PRPs, bPRP-VIII and -IX, and their localization and quantitative expression in bovine placenta. Methods New bPRP-VIII and -IX were identified from bovine placentome. Localization and quantitative gene expression in the placenta were respectively in...

  20. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  1. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... March 16, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR...

  2. KONTRIBUSI HEWAN MAMALIA SAPI, KERBAU, KUDA, BABI DAN ANJING DALAM PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KECAMATAN LINDU KABUPATEN SIGI PROPINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik jaringan yang terabaikan. Schistosomiasis adalah penyakit parasitik yang bersifat zoonosis, selain menginfeksi manusia juga menginfeksi hewan mamalia lainnya. Ada 13 mamalia yang diketahui dapat terinfeksi oleh schistosomiasis antara lain sapi(Bos sundaicus, kerbau (Bubalus bubalis, kuda (Equus cabalus, anjing (Canis familiaris, babi (Sus sp, musang (Vivera tangalunga, rusa (Carvus timorensis, dan berbagai jenis tikus (Rattus exulans, R. hoffmani, R. chysomomusrallus, R. marmosurus, R norvegicus, R palallae. Di Indonesia schistosomiasis disebabkan oleh cacing Schistosoma japonicum dan hanya ditemukan endemik di Sulawesi Tengah yaitu di dataran tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi reservoir dalam penularan schistosomiasis di Kecamatan Lindu, Kabupaten Sigi, Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Metode penelitian ini adalah deskriptif observational dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengumpulan data primer dilakukan dengan mengobservasi mamalia yang berisiko,dengan pengambilan dan pemeriksaan sampel tinja hewan mamali tersebut. Sejumlah 219 sampel tinja hewan mamalia yang terdiri dari sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda diperiksa dengan menggunakan metode sentrifugasi formalin-eter. Dari hasil pemeriksaan tinja yang dilakukan dilaboratorium Parasitologi Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala sebanyak 54 sampel tinja hewan mamalia (sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda positif terinfeksi S.japonicum.Kata kunci : Schistosomiasis, hewan mamalia, Schistosoma japonicumAbstractSchistosomiasis is one of neglected parasitic diseaseds and also a zoonosic disease, in addition to humans it also infect mammals. There were 13 known mammals that can be infected by schistosomiasis, i.e. cattle (Bos sundaicus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, horse (Equus Cabalus, dog (Canis familiaris, pig(Sus sp, civet cat(Vivera tangalunga, deer (Cervus timorensis, and various types of rat (Rattus exulans, R

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni Ressonância magnética e ultrassonografia na esquistossomose mansoni hepatoesplênica

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Lambertucci; Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva; Luciene Mota Andrade; Leonardo Campos de Queiroz; Rogério Augusto Pinto-Silva

    2004-01-01

    We report the findings of abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging observed in a patient with advanced schistosomiasis mansoni. A 25-year-old man with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and variceal bleeding confirmed by upper endoscopy was submitted to abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. During surgery for portal hypertension, a liver biopsy was taken and the diagnosis of Symmers' fibrosis was confirmed. magnetic resonance imaging scans gave more precise information ab...

  4. Abdominal manifestations of urogenital schistosomiasis in girls : A school based cross-sectional pilot study in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: People in 77 different countries are infected with schistosomiasis. Ninety percent of these live in Africa and 300 million women and girls in Africa are at risk of getting infected. Female genital schistosomiasis is a poverty-related water-transmitted parasitic disease which may create gynaecological symptoms, contact bleeding, friable blood vessels and inflammation. Children have been found to have urinary manifestations such as dysuria, haematuria and increased urinary fre...

  5. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-03-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a

  6. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. PMID:27137450

  7. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  8. Recent Advances in the Discovery of Haem-Targeting Drugs for Malaria and Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. de Villiers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Haem is believed to be the target of some of the historically most important antimalarial drugs, most notably chloroquine. This target is almost ideal as haem is host-derived and the process targeted, haemozoin formation, is a physico-chemical process with no equivalent in the host. The result is that the target remains viable despite resistance to current drugs, which arises from mutations in parasite membrane transport proteins. Recent advances in high-throughput screening methods, together with a better understanding of the interaction of existing drugs with this target, have created new prospects for discovering novel haem-targeting chemotypes and for target-based structural design of new drugs. Finally, the discovery that Schistosoma mansoni also produces haemozoin suggests that new drugs of this type may be chemotherapeutic not only for malaria, but also for schistosomiasis. These recent developments in the literature are reviewed.

  9. Intestinal parasites of man in Northern Bohol, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, W P; Banzon, T; De Veyra, V; Daña, E; Cross, J H

    1980-12-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites with emphasis on Oriental schistosomiasis was conducted in the townships of Trinidad and Talibon, Bohol Province, Philippines and approximately 1,700 stool samples were examined. Schistosoma japonicum is still endemic to these areas of northern Bohol but infection rates were much lower than expected, 5% rather than 30%. Soil-transmitted helminths were the most common parasitic infections. Hookworms were found in 71% of the samples tested, most infections were due to Necator americanus 97% and Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for only 3%. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were diagnosed in 58% and 45% respectively of the fecal samples examined. Other helminths and protozoan parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyoides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili. PMID:7221688

  10. Intestinal parasites of man in Bukidnon, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, W P; de Veyra, V U; Cala, E M; Cross, J H

    1981-03-01

    A total of 831 fecal specimens from Malay-balay, Mindanao, Philippines were examined for schistosomiasis and common intestinal parasites. Schistosoma japonicum eggs were found in 16% of the samples. Infections were more common in males (20%) than in females (12%). Age-wise, infections were infrequently diagnosed in children less than 10 years and infections in older age groups varied from 12-27%. Hookworm, chiefly Necator americanus, was the most common parasite found (44%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (32%) Trichuris trichiura was found in only 12%. Enterobius vermicularis and eggs of Taenia sp., echinostome, heterophyid and dicrocoelid trematodes were identified in less than 1% of the samples. Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichomonas hominis and Chilomastix mesnili were also found to parasitize man in this region of Mindanao. PMID:7256354

  11. Decay of antibody isotypes against early developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni after treatment of schistosomiasis patients

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    Herminia Yohko KANAMURA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to a number of parasite antigens are found in schistosomiasis patients, and antibodies to early developmental stages were demonstrated to be efficient immunologic markers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. In the present study, decay patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies against cercariae and schistosomula were investigated, in comparison to antibodies against worms and eggs in schistosomiasis patients after chemotherapy, for an investigation of seroepidemiologic aspects. Data obtained in the study of 359 serum samples from patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection, noninfected individuals, and patients followed-up for a period of 12 to 15 months after treatment provided the basis to postulate a general pattern for the kinetics of antibody decay. Before treatment, the antibody pattern was represented by a unimodal curve, which shifted to a bimodal curve after treatment, and ended with a unimodal curve similar to that for the noninfected group. Different types of antibodies were classified into four categories according to their decay features, and anti-schistosomulum IgM was classified into the moderate-decay caterogy, whereas other antibodies to early parasite stages were classified into the slow-decay category. The present methodology permits the identification of the most suitable antibodies to be detected in field control programs for schistosomiasis or other parasitosesEm pacientes com esquistossomose, são encontrados anticorpos contra grande número de antígenos parasitários, e aqueles contra formas evolutivas jovens do parasita demonstraram que eram eficientes marcadores imunológicos para o diagnóstico da esquistossomose. Padrões de queda de anticorpos IgM e IgG contra cercária e esquistossômulo foram aqui estudados, comparativamente aos dos anticorpos contra verme e ovo, em pacientes esquistossomóticos após quimioterapia, abordando aspectos soroepidemiológicos. Dados obtidos no estudo de 359 amostras de soros

  12. Effect of artemether on cytokine profile and egg induced pathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

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    Neveen A. Madbouly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemether (ART, the methylated derivative of artemisinin, is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg body weight of ART in comparison with PZQ treatment (42 days PI. ART administration was 7, 14, 21 and 45 days PI. ART effect was studied parasitologically, histopathologically and immunologically. It was found that maximum effect was reached when ART treatment interfered with 14 or 21 days old schistosomula. ART treatment 14 or 21 days PI was associated with shift from Th2 to Th1 predominancy (decrease in IL-4 and upgrading of serum IFN-γ levels. In conclusion, ART is a promising drug in control of schistosomiasis mansoni due to its reductive effect on worm burden and its role in improvement of hepatic granulomatous lesions.

  13. Acute toxemic schistosomiasis complicated by a acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 55-year old Sudanese physician presented with one month history of diarrhea, loss of weight 10 kg and low grade nocturnal fever. Following colonoscopy, he rapidly developed paraparesis and retention of urine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord showed low cord lesion suggestive of transverse myelitis. We present a detailed account of diagnostic and management challenges and a literature review of the final diagnosis of acute toxemic schistosomiasis, complicated by acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. We are reporting this case to increase the awareness of physicians of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy, as it needs urgent specific treatment praziquantel and steroids. An early follow-up with MRI of the spinal cord 2 weeks treatment may help in preventing unnecessary neurosurgical intervention. Bilharziasis may be contracted on the banks of river White Nile in urban areas. Finally clinicians should make use of the Google search for diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  14. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

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    Qiu Chunhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated. Results The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ. Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs

  15. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  16. Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

  17. Post-splenectomy infections in chronic schistosomiasis as a consequence of bacterial translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedma de Magalhães Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and internal organs. Schistosomiasis may cause alterations in the immune system and damage to the intestines, portal system and mesenteric lymph nodes. This study investigated bacterial translocation and alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosa in schistosomiasis and splenectomized mice. METHODS : Forty female 35-day-old Swiss Webster mice were divided into the following four groups with 10 animals each: schistosomotic (ESF, splenectomized schistosomotic (ESEF, splenectomized (EF and control (CF. Infection was achieved by introduction of 50 Schistosoma mansoni (SLM cercariae through the skin. At 125 days after birth, half of the parasitized and unparasitized mice were subjected to splenectomy. Body weights were recorded for one week after splenectomy; then, the mice were euthanized to study bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and intestinal morphometry. RESULTS : We observed significant reductions in the weight increases in the EF, ESF and ESEF groups. There were increases of at least 1,000 CFU of intestinal microbiota bacteria in these groups compared with the CF. The EF, ESF and ESEF mice showed decreases in the heights and areas of villi and the total villus areas (perimeter. We observed frequent co-infections with various bacterial genera. CONCLUSIONS : The ESEF mice showed a higher degree of sepsis. This finding may be associated with a reduction in the immune response associated with the absence of the spleen and a reduction in nutritional absorption strengthened by both of these factors (Schistosoma infection and splenectomy.

  18. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  19. Cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Fathy, Ghada Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Sara Abdel-Rahman; El-Shafei, Mahmoud Abdel-Atei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin. The study was conducted upon 100 mice that were divided into five groups; 20 each: uninfected control group, Schistosoma mansoni infected untreated mice (infected control), infected mice treated with praziquantel (PZQ), infected mice treated with silymarin and infected mice treated with both praziquantel and silymarin. 10 mice from each group were sacrificed at 10th and 18th weeks post infection respectively. Histopathological investigations were performed. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to evaluate changes of granuloma sizes and numbers. Serum levels of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and TGF-β1) were assessed in the sera of all groups by immunoassay. The measured levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1) were found to be significantly increased in infected mice compared to normal control. At the same time, treated groups with silymarin alone or combined with PZQ showed significant decrease in IL-4, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels compared to infected control. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in IFN-γ level observed in all treated groups compared to infected control. In addition, the histopathological examination of the liver in the group treated with PZQ showed a reduction in the number of livers eggs granuloma at all periods of sacrification compared with the infected untreated group. However, there was more decrease in granulomas diameter in both silymarin treated group or combined with PZQ at all periods of sacrification when compared to infected untreated group. In conclusion; treatment with silymarin combined with PZQ in murine schistosomiasis could reduce hepatic fibrosis by their action on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27605811

  20. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  1. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; McSorley, Henry J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1) and IgG(3) from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1), suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic. PMID:22428079

  2. Diagnosing schistosomiasis by detection of cell-free parasite DNA in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Wichmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia, one of the most relevant parasitoses of humans, is confirmed by microscopic detection of eggs in stool, urine, or organ biopsies. The sensitivity of these procedures is variable due to fluctuation of egg shedding. Serological tests on the other hand do not distinguish between active and past disease. In patients with acute disease (Katayama syndrome, both serology and direct detection may produce false negative results. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a novel diagnostic strategy, following the rationale that Schistosoma DNA may be liberated as a result of parasite turnover and reach the blood. Cell-free parasite DNA (CFPD was detected in plasma by PCR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real-time PCR with internal control was developed and optimized for detection of CFPD in human plasma. Distribution was studied in a mouse model for Schistosoma replication and elimination, as well as in human patients seen before and after treatment. CFPD was detectable in mouse plasma, and its concentration correlated with the course of anti-Schistosoma treatment. Humans with chronic disease and eggs in stool or urine (n = 14 showed a 100% rate of CFPD detection. CFPD was also detected in all (n = 8 patients with Katayama syndrome. Patients in whom no viable eggs could be detected and who had been treated for schistomiasis in the past (n = 30 showed lower detection rates (33.3% and significantly lower CFPD concentrations. The duration from treatment to total elimination of CFPD from plasma was projected to exceed one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCR for detection of CFPD in human plasma may provide a new laboratory tool for diagnosing schistosomiasis in all phases of clinical disease, including the capacity to rule out Katayama syndrome and active disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical usefulness of CFPD quantification in therapy monitoring.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni; Ressonancia magnetica na esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Bruno Perocco; Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (BRazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive. Laboratory findings revealed a leukocyte count of 10,000/mL, a normal red blood cell count and no eosinophilia. The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules (Figures A and B: axial and coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images showed the nodular - yellow arrows - enhancement pattern of a left cerebellar intraxial lesion). The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla. There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum (Figure C). After surgery, treatment with praziquantel (50 mg/kg/dia, single dose) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was offered and the patient improved quickly. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: he was asymptomatic and with no neurological impairment. This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images. (author)

  4. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  5. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarmudji; Supar

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal p...

  6. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Pepe; Gian Carlo Tenore; Raffaella Mastrocinque; Paola Stusio; Pietro Campiglia

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble) and whey proteins (soluble). Caseins ( α S1, α S2, β , and κ ) are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β -lactoglobulin, α -lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other...

  7. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  8. Evaluation of a Urine Pooling Strategy for the Rapid and Cost-Efficient Prevalence Classification of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A key epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is its focal distribution, which has important implications for the spatial targeting of preventive chemotherapy programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a urine pooling strategy using a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detection of Schistosoma mansoni, and employed simulation modeling to test the classification accuracy and efficiency of this strategy in determining where preventive chemotherapy is needed in low-endemicity settings. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study involving 114 children aged 6–15 years in six neighborhoods in Azaguié Ahoua, south Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA cassette test with urine samples that were tested individually and in pools of 4, 8, and 12. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate test characteristics for individual POC-CCA and quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears on stool samples. We then developed a microsimulation model and used lot quality assurance sampling to test the performance, number of tests, and total cost per school for each pooled testing strategy to predict the binary need for school-based preventive chemotherapy using a 10% prevalence threshold for treatment. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the urine pooling strategy for S. mansoni diagnosis using pool sizes of 4, 8, and 12 was 85.9%, 79.5%, and 65.4%, respectively, when POC-CCA trace results were considered positive, and 61.5%, 47.4%, and 30.8% when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative. The modeled specificity ranged from 94.0–97.7% for the urine pooling strategies (when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative). The urine pooling strategy, regardless of the pool size, gave comparable and often superior classification performance to stool microscopy for the same number of tests. The urine pooling strategy with a pool size of 4 reduced the number of tests and total

  9. Characterization of recombinant human and bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone preparations by mass spectrometry and determination of their endotoxin content

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, S.; Hassa, P O; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Piechotta, M.; Reusch, C E; Roschitzki, B; Boretti, F S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as altern...

  10. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Polypeptide From the Erns Coding Region of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masood Reza; Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Masood; Mahmoodi Koohi, Pezhman; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a worldwide distribution. Detection and elimination of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is essential for the control of BVD and eradication of BVDV. There are usually no pathognomonic clinical signs of BVDV infection. Diagnostic investigations therefore rely on laboratory-based detection of the virus, or virus-induced antigens or antibodies. Objectives: Erns as an...

  11. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi Misako; Kameyama Ken-ichiro; Hayama Yoko; Yamamoto Takehisa; Tsutsui Toshiyuki; Kobayashi Sota; Murakami Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several attempts have been made to control enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) at the local level, a nationwide control program has not been implemented in Japan, except for passive surveillance. Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of BL...

  12. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  13. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  14. Why the radiation-attenuated cercarial immunization studies failed to guide the road for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashika El Ridi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease caused by platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma, notably Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum. Pioneer researchers used radiation-attenuated (RA schistosome larvae to immunize laboratory rodent and non-human primate hosts. Significant and reproducible reduction in challenge worm burden varying from 30% to 90% was achieved, providing a sound proof that vaccination against this infection is feasible. Extensive histopathological, tissue mincing and incubation, autoradiographic tracking, parasitological, and immunological studies led to defining conditions and settings for achieving optimal protection and delineating the resistance underlying mechanisms. The present review aims to summarize these findings and draw the lessons that should have guided the development of an effective schistosomiasis vaccine.

  15. Why the radiation-attenuated cercarial immunization studies failed to guide the road for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem

    2015-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease caused by platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma, notably Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum. Pioneer researchers used radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome larvae to immunize laboratory rodent and non-human primate hosts. Significant and reproducible reduction in challenge worm burden varying from 30% to 90% was achieved, providing a sound proof that vaccination against this infection is feasible. Extensive histopathological, tissue mincing and incubation, autoradiographic tracking, parasitological, and immunological studies led to defining conditions and settings for achieving optimal protection and delineating the resistance underlying mechanisms. The present review aims to summarize these findings and draw the lessons that should have guided the development of an effective schistosomiasis vaccine. PMID:26257924

  16. Induction of Protective Immune Responses Against Schistosomiasis haematobium in Hamsters and Mice Using Cysteine Peptidase-Based Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Tallima, Hatem; Dalton, John P.; El Ridi, Rashika

    2015-01-01

    One of the major lessons we learned from the radiation-attenuated cercariae vaccine studies is that protective immunity against schistosomiasis is dependent on the induction of T helper (Th)1-/Th2-related immune responses. Since most schistosome larval and adult-worm-derived molecules used for vaccination uniformly induce a polarized Th1 response, it was essential to include a type 2 immune response-inducing molecule, such as cysteine peptidases, in the vaccine formula. Here, we demonstrate t...

  17. Assessment of vaccination with schistosomules attenuated by using different doses of γ-radiation on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current strategies for the control of schistosomiasis are based primarily on chemotherapy but successful vaccination against infection has been also demonstrated in several host parasite models.The present study was designed to asses the immunogenic effects of the vaccination with autogenic targets in the form of schistosomula attenuated by different doses of γ-radiation (15, 20, 25 kilo rad) in mice challenged with S. mansoni cercariae as regard parasitological, histological, biochemical and immunological aspects.

  18. Contribution of Mobile Teams to Efforts to Eliminate Schistosomiasis at Schistosoma haematobium in Morocco- Narrative Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    BARKIA, Hicham; Barkia, Abdelaziz; Yacoubi, Rajae; ALEMAD, Ali; EL KHARIM, Khadija; Belghyti, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since it was first diagnosed in 1914 in Marrakesh, schistosomiasis has been a public health problem in Morocco for decades. A national control program launched in 1982 has led to a considerable reduction in the incidence and morbidity associated with the disease. Consequently, the program has shifted from disease control to an elimination process launched in 1994. This process aimed to eliminate disease transmission by the end of 2004 and has helped to clear all known foci. Mobile te...

  19. Contribution of Mobile Teams to Efforts to Eliminate Schistosomiasis at Schistosoma haematobium in Morocco- Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Barkia; Abdelaziz Barkia; Rajae Yacoubi; Ali Alemad; Khadija El Kharim; Driss Belghyti

    2014-01-01

    Since it was first diagnosed in 1914 in Marrakesh, schistosomiasis has been a public health problem in Morocco for decades. A national control program launched in 1982 has led to a considerable reduction in the incidence and morbidity associated with the disease. Consequently, the program has shifted from disease control to an elimination process launched in 1994. This process aimed to eliminate disease transmission by the end of 2004 and has helped to clear all known foci. Mobile teams were ...

  20. Survey on the clinical trial results achieved in Brazil comparing praziquantel and oxamniquine in the treatment of mansoni schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Getúlio Leonel de Rezende

    1985-01-01

    A random, double-blind, parallel group clinical trial program was carried out to compare praziquantel, a recently developed anti-helmintic drug, and oxamniquine, an already established agent for treating mansoni schistosomiasis. Both drugs were administered orally as a single dose, on the average, praziquantel 55 mg/kg and oxamniquine 16 mg/kg BWT. The diagnosis and the parasitological follow-up lasting for a minimum of six months, were based on stool examinations according to Kato/Katz techn...

  1. Why the radiation-attenuated cercarial immunization studies failed to guide the road for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rashika El Ridi; Hatem Tallima

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease caused by platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma, notably Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum. Pioneer researchers used radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome larvae to immunize laboratory rodent and non-human primate hosts. Significant and reproducible reduction in challenge worm burden varying from 30% to 90% was achieved, providing a sound proof that vaccination against this infection is feasible. Exte...

  2. Gender Difference of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Infection in Population with Schistosomiasis in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Bishi; Xia, Fan; Li, Baolin; Ouyang, Xinxing; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Yang, Rongge; Wang, Linding

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of (KS), a common cancer in AIDS patients. The risk factors for KSHV infection have been extensively studied in Western countries but remain largely undefined in other parts of the World. Schistosomiasis caused by infection of Schistosoma japonicum is recently identified as a cofactor for KSHV infection in rural Egypt. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of KSHV in a population with high incidence of Schistomasis along...

  3. Resistance of rumen bacteria murein to bovine gastric lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangeli Fabián

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysozymes, enzymes mostly associated with defence against bacterial infections, are mureinolytic. Ruminants have evolved a gastric c type lysozyme as a digestive enzyme, and profit from digestion of foregut bacteria, after most dietary components, including protein, have been fermented in the rumen. In this work we characterized the biological activities of bovine gastric secretions against membranes, purified murein and bacteria. Results Bovine gastric extract (BGE was active against both G+ and G- bacteria, but the effect against Gram- bacteria was not due to the lysozyme, since purified BGL had only activity against Gram+ bacteria. We were unable to find small pore forming peptides in the BGE, and found that the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria by BGE was due to an artefact caused by acetate. We report for first time the activity of bovine gastric lysozyme (BG lysozyme against pure bacterial cultures, and the specific resistance of some rumen Gram positive strains to BGL. Conclusions Some Gram+ rumen bacteria showed resistance to abomasum lysozyme. We discuss the implications of this finding in the light of possible practical applications of such a stable antimicrobial peptide.

  4. Hydrology and density feedbacks control the ecology of intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis across habitats in seasonal climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We report about field and theoretical studies on the ecology of the aquatic snails (Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) that serve as obligate intermediate hosts in the complex life cycle of the parasites causing human schistosomiasis. Snail abundance fosters disease transmission, and thus the dynamics of snail populations are critically important for schistosomiasis modeling and control. Here, we single out hydrological drivers and density dependence (or lack of it) of ecological growth rates of local snail populations by contrasting novel ecological and environmental data with various models of host demography. Specifically, we study various natural and man-made habitats across Burkina Faso's highly seasonal climatic zones. Demographic models are ranked through formal model comparison and structural risk minimization. The latter allows us to evaluate the suitability of population models while clarifying the relevant covariates that explain empirical observations of snail abundance under the actual climatic forcings experienced by the various field sites. Our results link quantitatively hydrological drivers to distinct population dynamics through specific density feedbacks, and show that statistical methods based on model averaging provide reliable snail abundance projections. The consistency of our ranking results suggests the use of ad hoc models of snail demography depending on habitat type (e.g., natural vs. man-made) and hydrological characteristics (e.g., ephemeral vs. permanent). Implications for risk mapping and space-time allocation of control measures in schistosomiasis-endemic contexts are discussed. PMID:27162339

  5. Information and education in schistosomiasis control: an analysis of the situation in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schall Virgínia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main ideas discussed in the round-table "Social and Educacional Aspects of Schistosomiasis Control", during the VII International Symposium of Schistosomiais. Considering the perspectives of schistosomiasis control in Brazil, it is described the example of the State of Minas Gerais , where the disease has been registered for more than seven decades. The importance of an extensive evaluation is now more important, considering the recent change in the Brazilian health system, since the Federal responsibility for the tropical diseases control programs have been replaced by the municipalities coordination. In this way, it is urgent to develop effective alternatives to assist the municipal staffs in the control task. In the specific case of health education, one observes a wide gap between the planned objectives and what is in fact carried out. Instant objectives and the utilization of traditional techniques prevail, which do not take into account the active participation of the population involved. Based on the authors' experience in the scientific and health education, the paper analyzes: (1 some data from a case study in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which presents the social representation and perception of schistosomiasis by the population; (2 an analysis of 35 different informative and educative materials used in Brazil since the sixties, and (3 some recommendations resulted from the studies that were carried out.

  6. Scrotal Swelling and Testicular Atrophy due to Schistosomiasis in a 9-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Rambau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a communicable disease which commonly involves urinary bladder causing hematuria, or large bowel causing bloody stool. The common species encountered in this lake region surrounding Lake Victoria in Tanzania are Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Complications can lead to portal hypertension due portal fibrosis in liver, and fibrosis in lung can lead to pulmonary hypertension; this commonly seen with S. mansoni. Major complications of S. maeametobium are chronic cystitis with squamous metaplasia with subsequent development of squamous cell carcinoma. Involvement of spinal cord causing paraplegia has been observed in S. haematobium. Other unusual pathology of schistosomiasis has been described, such as involvement of the appendix, ovary, prostate, and cervix. Here, we present a case of schistosomiasis in a 9-year-old boy who presented with left scrotal pain for one year which was accompanied by scrotal swelling; surgical exploration was done, and the finding was hydrocele and atrophic testes with nodules on the surface. Histological examination reveals atrophic testis and heavy active granulomatous inflammation with schistosoma eggs consistent with Schistosoma haematobium in the tunica vaginalis.

  7. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette B.; Agerholm, Jorgen S.; Christensen, Knud;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a poss...

  8. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  9. The characterization of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of bovine placental lactogen and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Osman V

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine trophoblast binucleate cells (BNC express a plethora of molecules including bovine placental lactogen (bPL, gene name is bCSH1 and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP1. BCSH1 and bPRP1 are members of the growth hormone (GH/prolactin (PRL gene family, which are expressed simultaneously in BNC and are central to placentation and the progression of pregnancy in cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of both the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that the expression of a number of genes is controlled by the methylation status of their promoter region. In the present study, we examined the cell-type-specific epigenetic alterations of the 5'-flanking region of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes to gain an insight into their regulatory mechanisms. Results Analysis of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment demonstrated that bCSH1 expression is moderately induced in fibroblast cultures but enhanced in BT-1 cells. Sodium bisulfite based sequencing revealed that bCSH1 is hypomethylated in the cotyledonary tissue but not in the fetal skin, and this pattern was not altered with the progression of pregnancy. On the other hand, the methylation status of bPRP1 was similar between the cotyledon and fetal skin. The bPRP1 gene was exclusively hypermethylated in a bovine trophoblast cell-derived BT-1 cell-line. While the activity of bCSH1 was similar in both BT-1 and bovine fibroblast cells, that of bPRP1 was specific to BT-1. Treatment with a demethylating agent and luciferase assays provided in vitro evidence of the positive regulation of bCSH1 but not bPRP1. Conclusion This is the first report to identify the differential regulatory mechanisms of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes and indicates that bCSH1 might potentially be the only transcript that is subject to DNA methyltransferase regulation. The data indicates the possibility of novel kinetics of induction of

  10. Immunochemical, biomolecular and biochemical characterization of bovine epithelial intestinal primocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainil Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultures of enterocytes and colonocytes represent valuable tools to study growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. In vitro models may be used to evaluate passage or toxicity of drugs, interactions of enteropathogenes bacteria strains with intestinal epithelium and other physiologic or pathologic phenomenon involving the digestive tract. Results Cultures of bovine colonocytes and jejunocytes were obtained from organoid-enriched preparations, using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical disruption of the intestine epithelium, followed by an isopicnic centrifugation discarding most single cells. Confluent cell monolayers arising from plated organoids exhibited epithelium typical features, such as the pavement-like structure, the presence of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Accordingly, cells expressed several markers of enterocyte brush border (i.e. maltase, alkaline phosphatase and fatty acid binding protein as well as an epithelial cytoskeleton component (cytokeratin 18. However, enterocyte primocultures were also positive for the vimentin immunostaining (mesenchyme marker. Vimentin expression studies showed that this gene is constitutively expressed in bovine enterocytes. Comparison of the vimentin expression profile with the pattern of brush border enzymes activities, suggested that the decrease of cell differentiation level observed during the enterocyte isolation procedure and early passages of the primoculture could result from a post-transcriptional de-repression of vimentin synthesis. The low differentiation level of bovine enterocytes in vitro could partly be counteracted adding butyrate (1–2 mM or using a glucose-deprived culture medium. Conclusion The present study describes several complementary approaches to characterize bovine primary cultures of intestinal cells. Cultured cells kept their morphologic and functional characteristics during several generations.

  11. Prokaryotic expression of Chinese bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤; 赵阳; 甘一如

    2004-01-01

    Background To express in vitro the bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit (EKL ) protein, which could be used in the future for the cleavage and purification of fusion proteins. Methods Bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR from the duodenal mucosa of a bovine obtained at a wholesale market, and then cloned into a pUCmT cloning vector and sequenced. The desired gene fragment was inserted into a pET39b expression plasmid and the recombinant vector pET39b-EKL was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced using IPTG. The recombinant DsbA-EK, was purified with His · Tag affinity chromatography, and its bioactivity was analyzed. Results Compared with the sequence deposited in GenBank, the sequence of the EKL gene cloned in the present study is correct. It was also confirmed that the nucleotide sequence of expression plasmid pET39b-EKL was correct at the conjunction site between the recombinant DNA 5'terminal multi-cloning site and the recombinant fragment. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the target product was about 65 kDa and represented 28% of total cell protein. Purified recombinant protein was obtained by metal chelating chromatography using a NJ-IDA resin, After desalting and changing the buffer, the crude kinase was incubated at 21℃ overnight and shown to have a high autocatalytic cleavage activity. Conclusion The EKE gene from a Chinese bovine has been cloned successfully and expressed. This investigation has layed the foundation for future enterokinase activity research and for further large-scale application of expression products.

  12. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  13. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  14. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  15. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  16. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...

  17. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  18. The Three Gorges Dam: Does it accelerate or delay the progress towards eliminating transmission of schistosomiasis in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in the largest endemic area of schistosomiasis in China, is one of the world's largest hydroelectric projects to date. Some large-scale hydro projects have resulted in schistosomiasis emergence or re-emergence. Therefore, the dam's potential impact on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum has raised concerns from medical researchers worldwide. A systematic literature review, coupled with an analysis of data on the water level and snail density in the Yangtze River was conducted to assess the impact of the dam on schistosomiasis transmission after more than 10 years of operation. The dam has significantly altered the water levels in the Yangtze River according to different seasons. These changes directly impact the ecology of the schistosome snail host. Due to the dam, there has been a reduction in the density of Oncomelania snails and/or changes in the distribution of snails. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum has decreased in the downstream areas of the dam, including in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum in humans has decreased from 6.80 % in 2002 (before the dam began operating) to 0.50 % in 2012, and the number of people infected with S. japonicum have decreased from 94 208 in 2002 to 59 200 in 2011 in the Poyang Lake region. The presence of the dam does not seem to affect snail breeding or the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Overall, the Three Gorges Dam has significantly contributed to changes in hydrology after more than 10 years of the dam operating. The changes caused by the dam, together with integrated control of schistosomiasis, might be accelerating the progress towards eliminating the transmission of S. japonicum in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite the positive effect the dam is having in controlling S. japonicum transmission, continued surveillance is required to monitor the future ecological impacts of the

  19. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BOVINE BREED (TABAPUA) UNDER ARTIFICIAL SELECTION LOCATED IN THE AMAZON REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Ednaldo da Silva Filho; Marcone Helmer da Silva; Jose Elivalto Guimaraes Campelo; Maria Lucia Harada; Marcia Rocha DeRosia

    2012-01-01

    Brazil currently has the biggest commercial bovine cattle population in the world. Several different breeds that come from Europe and India compose it. They are primarily used for dairy and meat production. In Brazil, several high quality genetic background cattle are kept in a condition known as pure breed, meaning no other animal of different genetic background is interbreeding with them and consequently, affecting their genetic variability. Hence, these cattle are apparently vulnerable to ...

  20. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K; Farah, Idle O; Kariuki, Thomas M; LoVerde, Philip T

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and

  1. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and

  2. Determination of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method and appartus for determining the level of background radiation in a spectral region where a Raman peak characteristic of a particular substance, in particular diamond, is expected to occur. The method includes the steps of isolating the radiation in a first spectral band, and isolating the radiation in a second spectral band which overlaps the first spectral band at least partially to form an overlapping band in the vicinity of the expected Raman Peak and a least one sideband. At least one sideband value representative of the radiation present in the one or more sidebands is then obtained, and further values, representative of the radiation isolated by any one or more of the other spectral bands, such as the first and second bands, are then used to derive a background value indicative of the level of background radiation present at the position of the expected Raman peak

  3. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  4. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity the spectrum is free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

  5. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  6. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  7. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  8. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  9. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall...-five infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  11. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  12. Bovine colostrum modulates myeloablative chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko; Shen, René Liang; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intensive chemotherapy frequently results in gut toxicity, indicated by oral and intestinal mucositis, resulting in poor treatment outcomes and increased mortality. There are no effective preventive strategies against gut toxicity and the role of diet is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We...... hypothesized that the severity of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity in early life is diet-dependent, and that intake of bovine colostrum (BC) provides better gut protection than an artificial milk replacer (MR). METHODS: A total of 37 3-d-old pigs received for 6 d either intravenous saline control or...... myeloablative treatment with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, and were fed either BC or MR, resulting in the following 4 treatments (n = 8-10/group): bovine colostrum plus saline control (Ctr-BC), milk replacer plus saline control (Ctr-MR), bovine colostrum plus busulfan and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (BUCY...

  13. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  14. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  15. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  16. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones. PMID:26012228

  17. In vivo T cell depletion regulates resistance and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies assessed the roles of subpopulations of T lymphocytes in inducing and modulating resistance to schistosomiasis and thereby influencing subsequent morbidity. C57BL/6 mice were depleted in vivo of Lyt-1+, Lyt-2+, and L3T4+ cells by the daily administration of monoclonal antibodies. The development of protective immunity, induced by exposure to irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae as expressed in depleted animals, was compared to that demonstrated in undepleted, normal, and congenitally athymic C57BL/6 mice. The development of morbidity was determined by spleen weight, portal pressure and reticuloendothelial system activity. The results indicated that depletion of specific subpopulations of T lymphocytes minimally affected the primary development of parasites; however, depletion strongly influenced the development of resistance to the parasite and subsequent morbidity due to infection. Depletion of T lymphocytes by anti-Lyt-1+ or anti-L3T4+ antibody decreased the development of resistance, antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity directed against schistosome antigens. Morbidity due to disease was increased. Depletion of Lyt-2+ cells produced opposite changes with augmented resistance and reduced morbidity. Congenitally athymic mice developed minimal resistance and morbidity. Moreover, resistance was inversely related to the morbidity shown by a given animal. These studies indicate that the development of protective immunity to S. mansoni cercariae is regulated by discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The feasibility of decreasing morbidity by increasing specific immunologically mediated resistance is suggested

  18. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  19. In vivo T cell depletion regulates resistance and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.M.; Linette, G.P.; Doughty, B.L.; Byram, J.E.; Von Lichtenberg, F.

    1987-08-01

    These studies assessed the roles of subpopulations of T lymphocytes in inducing and modulating resistance to schistosomiasis and thereby influencing subsequent morbidity. C57BL/6 mice were depleted in vivo of Lyt-1+, Lyt-2+, and L3T4+ cells by the daily administration of monoclonal antibodies. The development of protective immunity, induced by exposure to irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae as expressed in depleted animals, was compared to that demonstrated in undepleted, normal, and congenitally athymic C57BL/6 mice. The development of morbidity was determined by spleen weight, portal pressure and reticuloendothelial system activity. The results indicated that depletion of specific subpopulations of T lymphocytes minimally affected the primary development of parasites; however, depletion strongly influenced the development of resistance to the parasite and subsequent morbidity due to infection. Depletion of T lymphocytes by anti-Lyt-1+ or anti-L3T4+ antibody decreased the development of resistance, antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity directed against schistosome antigens. Morbidity due to disease was increased. Depletion of Lyt-2+ cells produced opposite changes with augmented resistance and reduced morbidity. Congenitally athymic mice developed minimal resistance and morbidity. Moreover, resistance was inversely related to the morbidity shown by a given animal. These studies indicate that the development of protective immunity to S. mansoni cercariae is regulated by discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The feasibility of decreasing morbidity by increasing specific immunologically mediated resistance is suggested.

  20. Nuclear techniques in the study of resistance to schistosomiasis: Studies on in vitro-labelled cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis is a disease of immense international importance, affecting an estimated 200 million individuals. Intensive efforts utilizing a variety of control measures have indicated that public health efforts per se are inadequate to prevent the ever increasing spread of disease. Accordingly, it has been necessary to develop a variety of new methodologies to accomplish the goals of containment. It is increasingly clear that sophisticated use of radiobiological and immunological techniques would be of special value in accomplishing these goals. These studies have fallen into two main categories: studies utilizing radioattenuated vaccines and studies elucidating immune mechanisms. The latter category will be addressed here, using studies performed in the laboratory. Radioisotopic labels were used to trace the fate of intact worms as well as the soluble products of the schistosomula as they undergo migration, growth and development within the mammalian host. Subsequently, the basic aspects of the protective immune system, vis-a-vis the target of immune resistance and site and mode of the expression of this resistance, are discussed. These studies strongly suggest that a combined radiobiological-immunological approach provides tools for synergistic analytical capability. (author)

  1. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  2. Reduced uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis control in absence of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    effects attributable to praziquantel and prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis infection. Differences in the demographic and descriptive variables between the 2013 and 2014 samples were compared using chi squared tests for categorical variables and student's t-test for geometric mean intensity of S...... was unchanged in the non-snack schools; 46.9 and 53.2 % (p = 0.443). Although the prevalence of S. mansoni infection increased in both the snack and non-snack schools, the differences did not reach statistical significance;1.3 and 7.5 % (p = 0.051) and 14.1 and 22.0 % (p = 0.141), respectively....... Similarly, the difference in the geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni infection in both the snack and non-snack schools was not statistically significant; 38.3 eggs per gram of stool (epg) and 145.7 epg (p = 0.197) and 78.4 epg and 322.5 epg (p = 0.120), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results show that in...

  3. Prophylactic effect of artemether on human schistosomiasis mansoni among Egyptian children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorshedy, Hala; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert N; Sharaf, Soraya; Barakat, Rashida

    2016-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in an endemic focus for Schistosoma mansoni in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt, to evaluate the prophylactic effect of artemether (ART) given in conjunction with praziquantel (PZQ). The study encompassed 913 primary school children randomly assigned to two treatment groups PZQ/ART and PZQ/ART-placebo. At baseline, both groups received 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ twice four weeks apart, after which one group received 6 mg/kg body weight of ART every 3 weeks in 5 cycles during the transmission season and the other group received ART-placebo. At the end of the study, prevalence of infection among the PZQ/ART was approximately half that of the PZQ/ART-placebo group, i.e. 6.7% versus 11.6%, and incidence of new infections for the PZQ/ART was 2.7% versus 6.5% for the PZQ/ART-placebo. In conclusion, PZQ/ART combined therapy might be considered as an adjunct measure against human schistosomiasis, by specifically reducing transmission and therefore contribute to disease elimination. PMID:26921676

  4. Efficacy of oxamniquine, praziquantel and a combination of both drugs in schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zwingenberger

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare the efficacy of a low-dosage combination of oxamniquine (7.5 mg/kg plus praziquantel (20 mg/kg against either agent, oxamniquine (15 mg/kg or praziquantel (40 mg/kg alone, in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in the Brazilian north-east. The drugs were randomly administered per os to 91 patients. Six and twelve months after treatment 89% of those admitted to the trial were reexamined by Kato-Katz method (ten slides and MIF technique (one gram of stool The achieved cure rates, as defined by absence of S. mansoni eggs in the faeces of individual patients at all points during the parasitological follow-up, were 81.8%, 81.2% and 67.6% for praziquantel, oxamniquine and the combination respectively. The reduction of eggs excretion in non cured patients six months after therapy ranged from 93.8-96.8% with praziquantel, 32.5-97% with oxamniquine and 76.9-99.5% with the combination. It is concluded that, at the used dosages, the three therapeutical regimens give similar and satisfactory results in the treatment of uncomplicated S. mansoni infection in Brazil.

  5. Repeated praziquantel treatments remodel the genetic and spatial landscape of schistosomiasis risk and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Carmo, Theomira M; Aminu, Peace T; Pitanga, Thassila N; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Blank, Walter A; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E

    2016-05-01

    Repeated treatments with praziquantel reduce schistosomiasis prevalence and morbidity, but transmission persists and populations often recover within a few years. To identify factors associated with persistence, we surveyed and treated all identified Schistosoma mansoni infections in two rural Brazilian communities (Jenipapo and Volta do Rio) in 2009, 2012 and 2013. Eggs were collected from all infected individuals and genotyped with 11 microsatellite markers to evaluate parasite differentiation and diversity. After successive rounds of community-wide treatment, prevalence decreased from 45% to 24% then 16%. Intensity of infection decreased by 57% over this period, and the number of eggs transmitted to the environment decreased by 92%. During all time periods the majority of eggs were excreted by those >15years of age. The incidence was 23% in 2012 and 15% in 2013, consistent with a decrease in transmission. There was little immigration or gene flow over a distance of 6km. On reinfection, infrapopulations were moderately differentiated indicating that pretreatment multilocus genotypes were not fully reacquired. The effective population size responded to census population decline more rapidly than differentiation. Reinfection was concentrated in the downstream portion of Jenipapo, consistent with the observed increased human fecal contamination. At this scale and in this area S. mansoni infections exist on a fragmented landscape with a highly focal pattern of transmission that may facilitate future elimination. PMID:26953255

  6. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndamba, J; Nyazema, N; Makaza, N; Anderson, C; Kaondera, K C

    1994-04-01

    A total of 286 traditional healers, 85% of them registered with the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers' Association (ZINATHA), in five administrative provinces of Zimbabwe, were interviewed to assess their knowledge about the signs and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis. Information on the names of plants used to treat Schistosoma haematobium infections was solicited. Haematuria was mentioned by 99% of the traditional healers to be the most obvious sign of S. haematobium infection. General body weakness, increased urinary frequency and pain on micturition also were reported to be some of the signs of infection. Eight plant materials were identified as the most commonly used for the treatment of S. haematobium. The plants were identified and parts collected to investigate their antischistosomal properties. The plant materials were prepared according to the guidelines of the traditional healers and their efficacy determined by administering the crude extracts orally to hamsters infected with S. haematobium cercariae. The results obtained suggested that plant extracts from Abrus precatorius (Leguminosae), Pterocarpus angolensis (Leguminosae) and Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae) were lethal to adult schistosomes. PMID:8072305

  7. Hepatitis B virus markers in patients with schistosomiasis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoshima,Tatsuya

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Markers of hepatitis A and B virus were tested in 88 adult Sudanese subjects in Khartoum, Sudan. The subjects consisted of 25 control hospitalized patients, 21 volunteer blood donors, 23 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, 13 patients with liver cirrhosis and 6 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Antibody to hepatitis A virus was detected in 96% of the total. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was positive in 4, 24, 22, 31, and 67% of the subject groups, respectively. Antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb of undiluted serum was positive in 60, 57, 65, 77 and 83%, and there was no difference in incidence among the groups. It was positive in 200X diluted serum in 4, 24, 17, 23 and 60%. HBsAg and HBcAb (200X were detected more often in HCC patients than in the control subjects (p less than 0.01. Hepatitis B virus is an important factor in the etiology of HCC in the Sudan.

  8. Forma aguda ou toxêmica da esquistossomose mansoni Acute or toxemic form of mansoni's schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Neves

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxemic form of schistosomiasis mansoni is studied under anatomic and clinical point of view, according to classification made by Neves, Raso and Bagliolo in 1975. The first phase is characterized by the following facts: cutaneous (immediate and late manifestations; high fever or in progressive elevation; intense diaphoresis abdominal disconfort; intense acquous diarrhea; dehidratation; loss of weight, dry cough; painful hepatosplenomegaly; discreet lymphademegaly, progressive increase of blood leucocytes and eosinophisles; radiological pulmonary alterations; absence of alterations in serum protein and hepatic functional tests; the hepatic function byopsy shows focus of acute hepatitis. The second stage or properly named toxemic period was clinically characterized by the neat aggravation of the previously observed phenomena. At last, the evolutive course of the disease has implication derived not only of the worm's presence, but from the intense dissemination of eggs in the tissue. In the pre-laying phase one studied the forms of cercarian dermatitis, prodromic and innapparent. In the post laying phase, the properly named acute toxemic form, with its types: pseudocholeraic, pseudotyphous, pseudodysenteric-bacillary, pseudonophritic, pseudoenterovirotic, the reactivated, the ischemic enterocolitis and others; whenever possible clinical and anatomic correlation will be made.

  9. Duplex sonography study in schistosomiasis portal hypertension: characterization of patients with and without a history of variceal bleeding Dopplerfluxometria portal na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica com e sem antecedentes de hemorragia por varizes esofágicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Marcos Borba de Arruda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Presinusoidal portal hypertension with frequent episodes of upper gastrointestinal variceal bleeding are hallmarks of hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis; a clinical form that affects about 5% of Brazilians who are infected by Schistosoma mansoni. AIMS: To evaluate duplex sonography findings in patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis with and without upper gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed whereby 27 consecutive patients with hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis were divided into two groups: group I (six men and six women; mean age 48.7 years with a past history of bleeding and group II (four men and eight women; mean age 44.7 years without a past history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, underwent duplex sonography examination. All patients underwent the same upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory examinations. Those with signs of mixed chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis (three cases were excluded. RESULTS: Group I showed significantly higher mean portal vein flow velocity than group II (26.36 cm/s vs 17.15 cm/sec. Although, as a whole it was not significant in all forms of collateral vessels (83% vs 100%, there was a significantly higher frequency of splenorenal collateral circulation type in group II compared with group I (17% vs 67%. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly lower in group I than in group II (0.057 cm vs 0.073 cm/sec. CONCLUSION: Our duplex sonography findings in hepatosplenic Manson’s schistosomiasis support the idea that schistosomotic portal hypertension is strongly influenced by overflow status, and that collateral circulation seems to play an important role in hemodynamic behavior.RACIONAL: Hipertensão portal pré-sinusoidal com freqüentes episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta são aspectos característicos da esquistossomose hepatoesplênica, forma clínica que acomete cerca de 5% dos

  10. Orally administered bovine lactoferrin inhibits bacterial translocation in mice fed bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Teraguchi, S.; Shin, K.; Ogata, T; Kingaku, M; Kaino, A; Miyauchi, H; Fukuwatari, Y; Shimamura, S

    1995-01-01

    Feeding of bovine milk to mice induced a high incidence of bacterial translocation from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the bacteria involved were mainly members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Supplementation of the milk diet with bovine lactoferrin or a pepsin-generated hydrolysate of bovine lactoferrin resulted in significant suppression of bacterial translocation. Our findings suggest that this ability of lactoferrin to inhibit bacterial translocation may be due to its...

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  12. Acute schistosomiasis: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features Esquistossomose aguda: aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Lambertucci

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct syndromes caused by schistosomiasis have been described: cercarial dermatitis or swimmer's itch, acute schistosomiasis or Katayama fever, and chronic schistosomiasis. Complications of acute schistosomiasis have also been reported. The absence of a serological marker for the acute stage has hindered early diagnosis and treatment. Recently, an ELISA test using KLH (keyhole limpet haemocyanin as antigen, has proved useful in differentiating acute from chronic schistosomiasis mansoni. Clinical and experimental evidence indicate that steroids act synergistically with schistosomicides in the treatment of Katayama syndrome. In this paper, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of acute schistosomiasis are updated.A esquistossomose apresenta-se clinicamente em três formas distintas: dermatite cercariana, esquistossomose aguda ou febre de Katayama e esquistossomose crônica. Há na literatura relatos de complicações da fase aguda. A ausencia de um marcador sorológico simples e confiável tem dificultado o diagnóstico precoce e, como consequência, o tratamento adequado de pacientes na fase aguda da doença. Recentemente, o teste de ELISA, realizado com o antígeno KLM (hemocianina do caramujo Megathura crenulata, tem se mostrado util na identificação dos pacientes com febre de Katayama. Evidências clínicas e experimentais apontam no sentido de uma ação sinérgica entre os corticosteróides e os esquistossomicidas no tratamento da esquistossomose toxêmica. Neste artigo, alguns aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos da esquistossomose aguda são atualizados.

  13. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzakis, Nikos; Quiros, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying gra...

  14. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  15. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  16. Background, phenomenology, and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the background to the kinetics of adsorption and desorption after an elementary introduction to the problem of chemisorption in two limiting cases. Other topics discussed include the thermodynamics of adsorption, reaction mechanisms outside surfaces, and a case history of catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Figures show the potential energy barrier as a function of an appropriate reaction coordinate, and bonding of carbon monoxide to platinum metal

  17. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  18. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  19. Combining Remotely Sensed Environmental Characteristics with Social and Behavioral Conditions that Affect Surface Water Use in Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, A. V.; Walz, Y.; Liss, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Biritwum, N. K.; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium transmission is influenced by environmental conditions that determine the suitability of the parasite and intermediate host snail habitats, as well as by socioeconomic conditions, access to water and sanitation infrastructure, and human behaviors. Remote sensing is a demonstrated valuable tool to characterize environmental conditions that support schistosomiasis transmission. Socioeconomic and behavioral conditions that propagate repeated domestic and recreational surface water contact are more difficult to quantify at large spatial scales. We present a mixed-methods approach that builds on the remotely sensed ecological variables by exploring water and sanitation related community characteristics as independent risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission.

  20. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) phenotype and capacity to produce BVDV

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Mrigendra KS; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Park, Kaci; Braun, Lyle J; Mwangi, Waithaka; Young, Alan J; Chase, Christopher CL

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presentation cells that monitor, process, and present antigen to T cells. Viruses that infect DC can have a devastating impact on the immune system. In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. The study also examined the effect of BVDV infection on Mo-DC expression of cell surface markers, including MHCI, MH...

  1. [Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni in the Kou valley: Characterization of the transmission system and socioeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpoda, Noëllie W; Sorgho, Herman; Poda, Jean-Noël; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Kabré, Gustave B

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the waterborne diseases which benefit from environmental and behavioral changes induced by the mobilization of surface water resources in Sahelian countries, such as Burkina Faso. Studies have established the existence of human schistosomiasis in the Kou valley, one of the oldest hydro-agricultural zones in the country. However, the role of population behavior in the transmission pattern of this disease and its socioeconomic impact in this valley are poorly understood. It is in response to these questions that this study was undertaken. The objectives of this study were to identify activities that exposed most of the Valley's population to infection by schistosomiasis, and to contribute knowledge on the consequences of this disease. The study was conducted in the cold dry season at the Kou Valley, located in the South Sudanese area of Burkina Faso. It has adopted the strategy of direct observation to examine host-parasites interactions. The study of the socioeconomic consequences of the infection has been first to identify subjects that actually carry the parasite by screening the population by the Kato-Katz method. These were then subjected to a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 6.4. This work has revealed six activities at risk of infection for the residents of the Valley with an increased risk of factor for rice farming, household activities and swimming. In view of these activities, women and young people seem to be most vulnerable to infection. This disease causes significant economic losses as a function of socio-professional categories of infected persons. PMID:23916204

  2. A cross-sectional serological study of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinococcosis in HIV-1 infected people in Beira, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Virginia Noormahomed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1(+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection.Patients (601 were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4(+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen. Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9% were women and 223 (37.1% were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475 patients (79% were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis.Neither age nor the CD4(+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4(+ between 200-500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.

  3. Tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica Treatment of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Amorim Correa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansoni é a terceira doença parasitária endêmica mais prevalente do mundo. Estima-se que mais de 200 milhões de pessoas estejam infectadas com uma das espécies do parasita Schistosoma. Dessas, 270.000 pessoas (4,6% são portadoras de hipertensão arterial pulmonar, que é associada à forma hepatoesplênica da doença. Essa alta prevalência coloca a hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica como a causa mais frequente de hipertensão pulmonar no mundo. Entretanto, o tratamento dirigido especificamente ao acometimento vascular pulmonar não está ainda estabelecido. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente portadora dessa doença que foi tratada com um inibidor de fosfodiesterase-5 (sildenafil com resultados satisfatórios.Schistosomiasis mansoni is the third most prevalent endemic parasitic disease in the world. It is estimated that over 200 million people are infected with parasites belonging to one of the Schistosoma species. Of those, 270,000 people (4.6% suffer from pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is associated with the hepatosplenic form of the disease. This high prevalence makes schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension the leading cause of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. However, no specific treatment for the pulmonary vascular component of the disease has yet been devised. We report the case of a patient with schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension who was treated satisfactorily with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil.

  4. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    DDAs in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or...... general; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio-cultural...

  5. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George; Scott, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by ...

  6. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  7. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to...... chapter provides important background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality...

  8. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam;

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  9. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  11. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  12. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  13. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  14. The Backgrounds Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  16. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  17. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Enk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  18. Recent advances in the characterization of genetic factors involved in human susceptibility to infection by schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Amandine; Chevillard, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Human resistance to infection by schistosomes is associated to a strong Th2 immune. However a persistent Th2 response can cause severe kidney and liver disease in human. In this review, we mainly focused on the control of infection levels caused by schistosomes. Several experimental models allowed us to better understand the immunological mechanisms of the host against schistosome infection. High IgE and eosinophil levels are associated with resistance to infection by schistosomes and this effect is counterbalanced by IgG4. IgE and eosinophils are highly dependent on IL-4, IL-13, and Il-5, which are three main Th2 cytokines. We also examined the genetic factors involved in human susceptibility to infection by schistosomiasis. Infection levels are mainly regulated by a major locus SM1, in 5q31-q33 region, which contains the genes encoding for the IL-4, IL-13, and Il-5 cytokines. An association between an IL13 polymorphism, rs1800925, and infection levels has been shown. This polymorphism synergistically acts with another polymorphism (rs324013) in the STAT6 gene, encoding for the signal transducer of the IL13 pathway. This pathway has also been involved in atopic disorders. As helminthiasis, atopy is the result of aberrant Th2 cytokine response to allergens, with an increased production of IL-4, IL-13, Il-9 and Il-5, with high amounts of allergen-specific and total IgE and eosinophilia. However, the Th2 immune response is protective in helminthiasis but aggravating in atopic disorders. Several studies reported interplay between helminthic infections and allergic reactions. The different results are discussed here. PMID:19471606

  19. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk. PMID:15486645

  20. Different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Helen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control. Although these approaches vary in their assessment of costs, the major focus of the paper is on the evaluation of effectiveness. The first model presented is a static economic model which assesses effectiveness in terms of the proportion of cases cured. This model is important in highlighting that the optimal choice of chemotherapy regime depends critically on the level of budget constraint, the unit costs of screening and treatment, the rates of compliance with screening and chemotherapy and the prevalence of infection. The limitations of this approach is that it models the cost-effectiveness of only one cycle of treatment, and effectiveness reflects only the immediate impact of treatment. The second model presented is a prevalence-based dynamic model which links prevalence rates from one year to the next, and assesses effectiveness as the proportion of cases prevented. This model was important as it introduced the concept of measuring the long-term impact of control by using a transmission model which can assess reduction in infection through time, but is limited to assessing the impact only on the prevalence of infection. The third approach presented is a theoretical framework which describes the dynamic relationships between infection and morbidity, and which assesses effectiveness in terms of case-years prevented of infection and morbidity. The use of this model in assessing the cost-effectiveness of age-targeted treatment in controlling Schistosoma mansoni is explored in detail, with respect to varying frequencies of treatment and the interaction between drug price and drug efficacy.