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Sample records for bovine rumen fluid

  1. The inhibitory effect of bovine rumen fluid on Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P G; Lysons, R J

    1979-05-01

    The possible fate of Salmonella typhimurium in the rumen was investigated by monitoring rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactate concentrations and pH over periods which included regular feeding and 48 h starvation. Preparations were made containing 50 per cent rumen fluid from the cow or VFA solutions, and then inoculated with S typhimurium. Viable counts before and after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C were compared. Incubation in broths with high concentrations of VFA and low pH resulted in a marked decrease in salmonella numbers, while lower VFA concentrations had little or no inhibitory effect on growth.

  2. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 bovine rumen fluid proteome reflects adaptive bacterial responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kudva, Indira T; Stanton, Thaddeus B; Lippolis, John D

    2014-01-01

    Background To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content “maintenance diet” under diverse in vitro conditions. Results Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; d...

  3. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 bovine rumen fluid proteome reflects adaptive bacterial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Indira T; Stanton, Thaddeus B; Lippolis, John D

    2014-02-21

    To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content "maintenance diet" under diverse in vitro conditions. Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; devoid of normal ruminal microbiota) and nutrient-depleted and filtered RF (dRF) resulted in an anaerobic O157 fRF-and dRF-proteome comprising 35 proteins functionally associated with cell structure, motility, transport, metabolism and regulation, but interestingly, not with O157 virulence. Shotgun proteomics-based analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation used to further study differential protein expression in unfiltered RF (uRF; RF containing normal rumen microbial flora) complemented these results. Our results indicate that in the rumen, the first anatomical compartment encountered by this human pathogen within the cattle gastrointestinal tract (GIT), O157 initiates a program of specific gene expression that enables it to adapt to the in vivo environment, and successfully transit to its colonization sites in the bovine GIT. Further experiments in vitro using uRF from animals fed different diets and with additional O157 strains, and in vivo using rumen-fistulated cattle will provide a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive mechanisms involved, and help direct evolution of novel modalities for blocking O157 infection of cattle.

  4. Application of the artificial rumen and simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids procedure in the study of the bioavailability of transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1977-01-01

    An artificial rumen and simulated abomasal and intestinal fluids procedure was used to study the alimentary availability of plutonium-238. When plutonium-238 was administered as plutonium nitrate, 10.1% remained soluble following the artificial rumen incubation period and 15.3% following the abomasal period; 30.1% and 32.7% remained soluble when the fluid was held at pH 4 and 5, respectively, during the duodenal phase. The solubility increased to 60.1% following the addition of bile and enzymes with adjustment of the pH to 6 to simulate the jejunum. The increase in plutonium solubility in the simulated jejunal fluid was found to be due to the presence of bile. Plutonium administered as a citrate-buffered plutonium solution was 9.0% soluble following the rumen incubation period, 13.1% following the abomasal period, and 22.5% and 24.8% when held at pH 4 and 5, respectively, in the duodenal phase. The solubility increased to 59.6% following the addition of bile and enzymes with adjustment of the pH to 6. Plutonium administered as 0.06-μm plutonium dioxide spheres was 1.5% soluble following the rumen incubation period, 2.3% following the abomasal period, and 3.6% and 3.9% when held at pH 4 and 5, respectively, in the duodenal phase. Solubility increased to 7.4% following the addition of bile and enzymes with adjustment of the pH to 6. Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation at the Nevada Test Site, Area 13, were collected quarterly and incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary availability of field-deposited plutonium-238, plutonium-239, and americium-241. Results to date indicate that the highest concentrations of plutonium and americium in the rumen contents occurred during the late summer or fall

  5. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility accompanied by a marked reduction in plutonium concentration of the rumen contents was observed concurrently with a reduction in intake of Eurotia lanata and an increase in the intake of Oryzopsis hymenoides or Sitanion jubatum. However, during the November, February, and August trials, comparatively high concentration of plutonium, but low plutonium solubility, was associated with high levels of Eurotia lanata in the rumen contents. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239 in these fluids. Ratios of the percentage of soluble plutonium-238 to the percentage of soluble plutonium-239 varied fro []1:1 to 18:1 on a radioactivity basis. (auth)

  6. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with [ 3 H]HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with [ 3 H]acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown

  7. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with (/sup 3/H)HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with (/sup 3/H)acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown.

  8. Sekuensing 16S DNA Bakteri Selulolitik Asal Limbah Cairan Rumen Sapi Peranakan Ongole (SEQUENCING OF 16S DNA OF CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FROM BOVINE RUMEN FLUID WASTE ONGOLE CROSSBREED

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    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identified cellulolytic inoculant code WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Ongole Cross Breed of Surabaya Slaughter house. A single colony of isolates celulolytic grown on 5 mL of liquid media Luria Bertani (LB consist of 1 % NaCl , 1% tripton , 0.5 % yeast extract, containing1 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC at temperature 37°C, using a shaker of incubator during 16-18 hours. That isolate determined by 16S DNA gen analysis using High Fidelity Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase with primer forward PB36 5’-AGR GTT TGA TCM TGG CTC AG-3’ and primer reverse PB38 5’-GMT ACCTTG TTA CGA CTT-3’ for PCR. Nucleotide sequence of 16S DNA fragment was determined through the sequencing method. The result was then compared with GenBank database to recognize the type of the sample bacteria. DNA isolation and 16S DNA coding genes amplification were carried out using Kit High Fidelity Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase. Afterward, BLAST was applied to identify the phylogenetic tree. The bacteria was capable of indicating the existence of clear zone in a media CMC by congo red staining. The existence of the clear zone associated with the activity of microbes to degrade cellulose. The conclusión of this research based on the results was the sequencing nucleotides genome 16S DNA showed that cellulolytic inoculant was identified as Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi lebih lanjut isolat selulolitik kode WPL 214 yang telah diisolasi dari cairan rumen sapi peranakan ongole dari limbah Rumah Potong Hewan Surabaya. Koloni tunggal dari isolat selulolitik ditumbuhkan pada 5 mL media cair Luria Bertani (LB dengan komposisisi 1% NaCl, 1% tripton, 0,5% yeast ekstrak, yang mengandung 1% substrat carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC pada suhu 37°C, dengan pengocokan menggunakan shaker incubator selama ±16-18 jam. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua tahap, tahap pertama dilakukan isolasi DNA, tahap kedua

  9. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

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    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  10. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kav, Aya Brown; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses. PMID:22431592

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

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    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.

  12. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

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    Tom F. O’Callaghan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  13. Exploring the bovine rumen bacterial community from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Elie; Israel, Adi; Kotser, Assaf; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2013-06-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota is essential in shaping many of its host's functional attributes. One such microbiota resides in the bovine digestive tract in a compartment termed as the rumen. The rumen microbiota is necessary for the proper physiological development of the rumen and for the animal's ability to digest and convert plant mass into food products, making it highly significant to humans. The establishment of this microbial population and the changes occurring with the host's age are important for understanding this key microbial community. Despite its importance, little information about colonization of the microbial populations in newborn animals, and the gradual changes occurring thereafter, exists. Here, we characterized the overall bovine ruminal bacterial populations of five age groups, from 1-day-old calves to 2-year-old cows. We describe the changes occurring in the rumen ecosystem after birth, reflected by a decline in aerobic and facultative anaerobic taxa and an increase in anaerobic ones. Some rumen bacteria that are essential for mature rumen function could be detected as early as 1 day after birth, long before the rumen is active or even before ingestion of plant material occurs. The diversity and within-group similarity increased with age, suggesting a more diverse but homogeneous and specific mature community, compared with the more heterogeneous and less diverse primary community. In addition, a convergence toward a mature bacterial arrangement with age was observed. These findings have also been reported for human gut microbiota, suggesting that similar forces drive the establishment of gut microbiotas in these two distinct mammalian digestive systems.

  14. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  15. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Bacterial Population Attached to the Bovine Rumen Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš, F. (Filip); Šimůnek, J. (Jiří); Mrázek, J. (Jakub); Kopečný, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    We isolated and amplified by PCR 16S rDNA from bacteria attached to the bovine rumen wall and analyzed it by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent sequence analysis. The attached bacterial community differed from the bacteria of rumen content; however, no differences were observed among the five epithelial sampling sites taken from each animal. The DGGE profile of the bacterial population attached to the rumen wall represented a high inter-animal variation.

  16. Determination of in vitro isoflavone degradation in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnková, Andrea; Šancová, Kateřina; Zapletalová, Martina; Kašparovská, Jitka; Dadáková, Kateřina; Křížová, Ludmila; Lochman, Jan; Hadrová, Sylvie; Ihnatová, Ivana; Kašparovský, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of dietary isoflavones in rumen fluid under 2 feeding regimens. The experiments were performed in vitro using a rumen fluid buffer system. The rumen fluid was taken from cows fed either a hay diet or a concentrate-rich diet (the diet consisted of 34.6% maize silage, 17.6% haylage, 12.8% alfalfa hay, and 35.0% supplemental mixture on a dry matter basis). As a source of isoflavones, 40% soybean extract (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) at levels of 5, 25, 50, and 75 mg per 40 mL of rumen fluid was used. Samples of soybean extract were incubated in triplicate at 39°C for 0, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 24.0 h in incubation solution. The metabolism of daidzein and genistein was faster under concentrate-rich diet conditions. In general, production of equol started after 3 to 6 h of incubation and reached the highest rate after approximately 12 h of incubation regardless of the type of diet or concentration of extract. In most of the experiments, production of equol continued after 24 h of incubation. Generally, equol production was greater under the hay diet conditions. Furthermore, experiments with higher amounts of added soybean extract revealed possible inhibitory effects of high levels of isoflavones on the rumen microflora. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Promiscuous Oxidases Discovered in the Bovine Rumen Microbiome

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    Lisa Ufarté

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The bovine rumen hosts a diverse microbiota, which is highly specialized in the degradation of lignocellulose. Ruminal bacteria, in particular, are well equipped to deconstruct plant cell wall polysaccharides. Nevertheless, their potential role in the breakdown of the lignin network has never been investigated. In this study, we used functional metagenomics to identify bacterial redox enzymes acting on polyaromatic compounds. A new methodology was developed to explore the potential of uncultured microbes to degrade lignin derivatives, namely kraft lignin and lignosulfonate. From a fosmid library covering 0.7 Gb of metagenomic DNA, three hit clones were identified, producing enzymes able to oxidize a wide variety of polyaromatic compounds without the need for the addition of copper, manganese, or mediators. These promiscuous redox enzymes could thus be of potential interest both in plant biomass refining and dye remediation. The enzymes were derived from uncultured Clostridia, and belong to complex gene clusters involving proteins of different functional types, including hemicellulases, which likely work in synergy to produce substrate degradation.

  18. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway

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    Xudong Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5. qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2 and acidic (pH=5.5 medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. Conclusion: The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway.

  19. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning indentifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen increases from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, significantly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion in ...

  20. Some studies on liver and rumen flukes of bovines in Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkpc001

    Keywords: liver and rumen flukes, bovines, influence of climate, Sri Lanka. INTRODUCTION .... they were given two changes of absolute alcohol, each longing ..... inland and where fresh water ditches, streams and large water ... India. Res. ull. Panjab Univ., New series, 18: 369-337. sen J, Perry B. 1994. The epidemiology,.

  1. Evaluation Nutritients Of Rice Bran Second Quality Fermented Using Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    ermalia, ayu afria ulita

    2016-01-01

    Rice bran is agriculture  waste that easy to find. Means to increase biological value of rice bran can do with decrease of highly crude fiber. Treatment that to do with fermentation use rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid potential is easy to find in slaughterhouse, this rumen fluid much to never utilization. This purpose of the research for evaluation of rice bran nutrition value that fermentating used rumen fluid, with different levels and long time incubations for get lower crude fiber and ...

  2. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

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    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  3. Some aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the bovine rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the use of urea as a source of nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis showed that utilization was more efficient when the protein-N content of the diet was low. However, when the total nitrogen of the dietary dry matter was reduced below 1.9%, there was a drop in the protein-N content of rumen dry matter and a reduction in the daily flow of protein through the duodenum. The mean post-prandial rumen ammonia concentrations were below 5mg NH 3 -N/100ml. In vitro work with 15 N-labelled urea and ammonia salts showed that the overall utilization rate of ammonia was not significantly affected by mean concentrations between 1.6 and 16.7mg/ml, but that net utilization was lower below 5.8mg/100ml. It is suggested that increased lysis of susceptible micro-organisms or increased proteolysis of feed proteins may account for these findings. The concentrations of ammonia-N, protein-N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen were not affected by increases in the amount of calcium, phosphorus, potassium or sulphur in the diet, although the concentrations of these elements were significantly increased in the rumen. A wide dietary Ca/P ratio (3.26) tended to reduce the stability of rumen contents leading to a low pH and foaming. Increases in mean sulphide concentration from 3.6 to 8.0mg/l had no effect on overall protein synthesis rate as indicated by the 35 S incorporation rate. (author)

  4. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Yuan, Xue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Guoquan; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-perf...

  6. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  7. Influence of Inoculum Content on Performance of Anaerobic Reactors for Treating Cattle Manure using Rumen Fluid Inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarso; S. Johari; I N. Widiasa; Budiyono

    2009-01-01

    Biogas productions of cattle manure using rumen fluid inoculums were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic temperatures (room and 38.5 oC). The aim of this paper was to analyze the influence of rumen fluid contents on biogas yield from cattle manure using fluid rumen inoculums. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M) was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (...

  8. Development of Simple and Precise Method of Arginine Determination in Rumen Fluid by Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacher, B.; Marghazani, I. B.; Liu, J. X.; Liu, H. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of current study was to build up a convenient, economic and accurate procedure to determine arginine (ARG) concentration in rumen fluid. Rumen fluid was collected from 3 rumen fistulated Chinese Holstein dairy cows and added with or without (control) 1mmol/l unprotected ARG and blank (with only medium) in to syringe system in triplicate as a replicate. All syringes were incubated in water bath at 39 Degree C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h and were terminated to measure the ARG concentration. Sakaguchi reaction method was used to analyze the ARG concentration in rumen fluid by determining the rumen degradation rate of protected and unprotected ARG. Temperature, time and absorbance were optimized in the procedure based on Sakaguchi reaction. Color consistency remained 4-6 min. The optimum temperature (0-5) Degree C was observed for maximum optical density 0.663 at wave length 500 nm. Minimum ARG that could be determined in rumen fluid by spectrophotometer was 4-5 μ g/ml. No significance (P>0.05) difference were observed between two results derived from spectrophotometer and amino acid analyzer methods. In conclusion, the spectrophotometer method of ARG determination in rumen fluid based on Sakaguchi reaction is easy, accurate, and economical and could be useful in learning ARG metabolism in the rumen. (author)

  9. Measurement of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in serum, plasma, and rumen fluid from sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies involving the consumption, metabolism, and elimination of terpenes by small ruminants consuming terpene-laden shrubs as well as those exploring the potential for natural products as rumen modifiers could benefit from a procedure that measures terpenes in both blood and rumen fluid and that i...

  10. Evaluation of bovine rumen contents as a feed for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Njidda, Ahmed Amin

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of increasing levels of dried rumen contents (DRC) on voluntary intake, growth performance, digestibility, nutritive value, N utilization, microbial protein supply (MPS), and purine derivatives excretion (PDE) of lambs fed with Afzelia africana basal forage. Sixteen lambs (13.7 ± 0.1 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to one of the four eight diets containing 0, 200, 400 and 600 g DRC/kg dry matter (DM) in a completely random design. Intakes of concentrate, DM, crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), digestible CP (DCP), digestible OM (DOM), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), CP and OM digestibility, DOM, DCP, DE, ME, N intake and retention, weight gain, cost/kg BW gain, MPS and PDE increased with increasing DRC level up to 400 g/kg DRC and declined at 600 g/kg DRC (P level increased from 0 to 400 g/kg and peaked at 600 g/kg DRC (P level. Results indicate that DRC can be incorporated up to 400 g/kg in a compounded ration for sheep.

  11. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  12. Rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Roderick I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The rumen is a large pregastric fermentation compartment (foregut), which maintains a diverse but concentrated population of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are responsible for a variety of degradative and fermentative reactions. During this process biodegradable organic matter, mainly......). The concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer in which the mutually beneficial unidirectional transfer of hydrogen from a hydrogenproducing to a hydrogenutilising bacteria in a coupled reaction that maintains low partial pressures, which makes the transfer process hermodynamically feasible is important...... in ruminal methanogenesis. Currently, modern ‘Omics’ technologies are being applied to the study of rumen microbial ecology, genomics, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics....

  13. Isolation and characterization of novel lipases/esterases from a bovine rumen metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privé, Florence; Newbold, C Jamie; Kaderbhai, Naheed N; Girdwood, Susan G; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Scollan, Nigel D; Huws, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Improving the health beneficial fatty acid content of meat and milk is a major challenge requiring an increased understanding of rumen lipid metabolism. In this study, we isolated and characterized rumen bacterial lipases/esterases using functional metagenomics. Metagenomic libraries were constructed from DNA extracted from strained rumen fluid (SRF), solid-attached bacteria (SAB) and liquid-associated rumen bacteria (LAB), ligated into a fosmid vector and subsequently transformed into an Escherichia coli host. Fosmid libraries consisted of 7,744; 8,448; and 7,680 clones with an average insert size of 30 to 35 kbp for SRF, SAB and LAB, respectively. Transformants were screened on spirit blue agar plates containing tributyrin for lipase/esterase activity. Five SAB and four LAB clones exhibited lipolytic activity, and no positive clones were found in the SRF library. Fosmids from positive clones were pyrosequenced and twelve putative lipase/esterase genes and two phospholipase genes retrieved. Although the derived proteins clustered into diverse esterase and lipase families, a degree of novelty was seen, with homology ranging from 40 to 78% following BlastP searches. Isolated lipases/esterases exhibited activity against mostly short- to medium-chain substrates across a range of temperatures and pH. The function of these novel enzymes recovered in ruminal metabolism needs further investigation, alongside their potential industrial uses.

  14. Gene-centric metagenomics of the fiber-adherent bovine rumen microbiome reveals forage specific glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulc, Jennifer M; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Miller, Margret E Berg; Wilson, Melissa K; Yannarell, Anthony C; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert E; Frank, Edward D; Emerson, Joanne B; Wacklin, Pirjo; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A

    2009-02-10

    The complex microbiome of the rumen functions as an effective system for the conversion of plant cell wall biomass to microbial protein, short chain fatty acids, and gases. As such, it provides a unique genetic resource for plant cell wall degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuels. The rumen and gastrointestinal tract harbor a dense and complex microbiome. To gain a greater understanding of the ecology and metabolic potential of this microbiome, we used comparative metagenomics (phylotype analysis and SEED subsystems-based annotations) to examine randomly sampled pyrosequence data from 3 fiber-adherent microbiomes and 1 pooled liquid sample (a mixture of the liquid microbiome fractions from the same bovine rumens). Even though the 3 animals were fed the same diet, the community structure, predicted phylotype, and metabolic potentials in the rumen were markedly different with respect to nutrient utilization. A comparison of the glycoside hydrolase and cellulosome functional genes revealed that in the rumen microbiome, initial colonization of fiber appears to be by organisms possessing enzymes that attack the easily available side chains of complex plant polysaccharides and not the more recalcitrant main chains, especially cellulose. Furthermore, when compared with the termite hindgut microbiome, there are fundamental differences in the glycoside hydrolase content that appear to be diet driven for either the bovine rumen (forages and legumes) or the termite hindgut (wood).

  15. The effect of rumen ciliates on chitinolytic activity, chitin content and the number of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Herman, Andrzej; Kowalik, Barbara; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selected protozoa on the degradation and concentration of chitin and the numbers of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep. Three adult ewes were fed a hay-concentrate diet, defaunated, then monofaunated with Entodinium caudatum or Diploplastron affine alone and refaunated with natural rumen fauna. The average density of the protozoa population varied from 6.1 · 10(4) (D. affine) to 42.2 · 10(4) cells/ml rumen fluid (natural rumen fauna). The inoculation of protozoa in the rumen of defaunated sheep increased the total activity of chitinolytic enzymes from 2.9 to 3.6 μmol N-acetylglucosamine/g dry matter (DM) of rumen fluid per min, the chitin concentration from 6.3 to 7.2 mg/g DM of rumen fluid and the number of fungal zoospores from 8.1 to 10.9 · 10(5) cells/ml rumen fluid. All examined indices showed diurnal variations. Ciliate population density was highest immediately prior to feeding and lowest at 4 h thereafter. The opposite effects were observed for the numbers of fungal zoospores, the chitin concentration and chitinolytic activity. Furthermore, it was found that chitin from zoospores may account for up to 95% of total microbial chitin in the rumen fluid of sheep. In summary, the examined ciliate species showed the ability of chitin degradation as well as a positive influence on the development of the ruminal fungal population.

  16. Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de Almeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.

  17. The Concentrations of Rumen Fluid Volatile Fatty Acids and Ammonia, and Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Sheep Given Feed During the Day and Night Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, D. A. K. W.; Rianto, E.; Arifin, M.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of volatile (VFA), ammonia and microbial protein production of rumen fluid in sheep given fedd during the day and at night. This study used 12 fat-tailed rams aged 12-18 months and weighed 24,12 ± 25 kg (CV = 10,51%). The rams were fed a complete feed containing 16.64% protein and 68,33% total digestible nutrients (TDN). The rams were allocated into a completely randomised design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments applied were: T1: day time feeding (6.00 hrs - 18.00 hrs); T2: night time feeding (18.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs); and T3: day and night time feedings (6.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs). The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI), rumen VFA concentration, rumen ammonia concentration, rumen rmicrobial protein production and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein production. The results showed that feeding time did not significantly affect (P>0.05) all the parameters observed. Dry matter intake, VFA concentration, ammonia concentration, the microbial protein production of rumen fluid and the efficiency of microbial protein production were 1,073g/d, 49.69 mmol; 4.77 mg N/100 ml, 12,111 g/d and 19.96 g per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), respectively. It is concluded that feeding time did not affect DMI, condition of rumen fluid and rumen microbial protein production in sheep.

  18. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  19. Dietary supplementation of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens alters fatty acids of milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivani, Swati; Srivastava, Anima; Shandilya, Umesh K; Kale, Vishnu; Tyagi, Amrish K

    2016-03-30

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have high health amelioration potential and hence it is of great interest to increase the CLA content in dairy products. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of administration of high CLA producing Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In-1 on fatty acid composition of milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats. Four groups (n = 5) of lactating goats were assigned the following treatments: Control (C) (basal diet); T1 (basal diet + linoleic acid source), T2 (basal diet + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In-1, 10(9) CFU head(-1)) and T3 (basal diet + linoleic acid source + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In-1, 10(9) CFU head(-1)). Rumen liquor and milk samples were collected on days 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment and linoleic isomerase enzyme (LA-I) activity and fatty acid profiles were elucidated. Major effects of treatments were seen on day 30 of the experiment. Total CLA content of rumen fluid increased (P content was lowered (P content increased (P rumen that subsequently decreased SFA content while increased CLA and unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant's milk. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Basfia succiniciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Scholten, Edzard; Haefner, Stefan; Mayor, Désirée; Frey, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative, coccoid, non-motile bacteria that are catalase-, urease- and indole-negative, facultatively anaerobic and oxidase-positive were isolated from the bovine rumen using an improved selective medium for members of the Pasteurellaceae. All strains produced significant amounts of succinic acid under anaerobic conditions with glucose as substrate. Phenotypic characterization and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, rpoB, infB and recN genes were performed on seven independent isolates. All four genes showed high sequence similarity to their counterparts in the genome sequence of the patent strain MBEL55E, but less than 95 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to any other species of the Pasteurellaceae. Genetically these strains form a very homogeneous group in individual as well as combined phylogenetic trees, clearly separated from other genera of the family from which they can also be separated based on phenotypic markers. Genome relatedness as deduced from the recN gene showed high interspecies similarities, but again low similarity to any of the established genera of the family. No toxicity towards bovine, human or fish cells was observed and no RTX toxin genes were detected in members of the new taxon. Based on phylogenetic clustering in the MLSA analysis, the low genetic similarity to other genera and the phenotypic distinction, we suggest to classify these bovine rumen isolates as Basfia succiniciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is JF4016(T) (=DSM 22022(T) =CCUG 57335(T)).

  1. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  2. In vitro biodegradation of cyanotoxins in the rumen fluid of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manubolu, Manjunath; Madawala, Samanthi R P; Dutta, Paresh C; Malmlöf, Kjell

    2014-05-08

    In countries around the Baltic Sea grazing ruminants have access to and drink, surface water from lakes, rivers and in several coastal regions. The water quality of these naturally occurring reservoirs affects performance and health of livestock. In the Baltic Sea both microcystin (MC) and nodularin (NOD) occurs as cyclic peptides and have hepatotoxic effects. Although cattle obviously have died after consuming contaminated water very little information is available as to how susceptible ruminants are to the toxins produced by cyanobacteria. The critical question as to whether the rumen microflora might constitute a protective shield is unresolved. For this reason our aim is to investigate a possible degradation rate of these toxins in rumen. The ability of rumen microorganisms to degrade certain important cyanotoxins (MC-LR, YR, RR and NOD) was studied in vitro by incubating with rumen fluid at three different concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg/mL) for 3 h. The degradation efficiencies were determined by LC-MS (ESI) positive mode. Degradation was observed in the following order MC-RR 36%, NOD 35%, MC-RR 25% and MC-LR 8.9% at lower concentrations within 3 h. However, average degradation was observed at concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. No degradation was observed in higher concentrations for entire 3 h. The present results reveal that the degradation was both dose and time dependent. In conclusion the present results suggest that the rumen microbial flora may protect ruminants from being intoxicated by Cyanotoxins.

  3. Responses of anaerobic rumen fungal diversity (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) to changes in bovine diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, B; Lillis, L; Clipson, N; Petrie, K; Kenny, D A; Boland, T M; Doyle, E

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic rumen fungi (Neocallimastigales) play important roles in the breakdown of complex, cellulose-rich material. Subsequent decomposition products are utilized by other microbes, including methanogens. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary changes on anaerobic rumen fungi diversity. Altered diets through increasing concentrate/forage (50 : 50 vs 90 : 10) ratios and/or the addition of 6% soya oil were offered to steers and the Neocallimastigales community was assessed by PCR-based fingerprinting with specific primers within the barcode region. Both a decrease in fibre content and the addition of 6% soya oil affected Neocallimastigales diversity within solid and liquid rumen phases. The addition of 6% soya oil decreased species richness. Assemblages were strongly affected by the addition of 6% soya oil, whereas unexpectedly, the fibre decrease had less effect. Differences in volatile fatty acid contents (acetate, propionate and butyrate) were significantly associated with changes in Neocallimastigales assemblages between the treatments. Diet clearly influences Neocallimastigales assemblages. The data are interpreted in terms of interactions with other microbial groups involved in fermentation processes within the rumen. Knowledge on the influence of diet on anaerobic fungi is necessary to understand changes in microbial processes occurring within the rumen as this may impact on other rumen processes such as methane production. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Ratio of dietary rumen degradable protein to rumen undegradable protein affects nitrogen partitioning but does not affect the bovine milk proteome produced by mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoma, R; Fields, J; Ebenstein, D B; Lam, Y-W; Greenwood, S L

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the bovine milk proteome or whether it can be affected by diet. The objective of this study was to determine if the dietary rumen degradable protein (RDP):rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio could alter the bovine milk proteome. Six Holstein cows (parity: 2.5 ± 0.8) in mid lactation were blocked by days in milk (80 ± 43 d in milk) and milk yield (57.5 ± 6.0 kg) and randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experiment was conducted as a double-crossover design consisting of three 21-d periods. Within each period, treatment groups received diets with either (1) a high RDP:RUP ratio (RDP treatment: 62.4:37.6% of crude protein) or (2) a low RDP:RUP ratio (RUP treatment: 51.3:48.7% of crude protein). Both diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (crude protein: 18.5%, net energy for lactation: 1.8 Mcal/kg of dry matter). To confirm N and energy status of cows, dry matter intake was determined daily, rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid analysis, blood samples were collected for plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, urea nitrogen, and fatty acid analysis, and total 24-h urine and fecal samples were collected for N analysis. Milk samples were collected to determine the general milk composition and the protein profile. Milk samples collected for high-abundance protein analysis were subjected to HPLC analysis to determine the content of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein, as well as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Samples collected for low-abundance protein analysis were fractionated, enriched using ProteoMiner treatment, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After excision and digestion, the peptides were analyzed using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and adjusted using the MULTTEST procedure. All other parameters were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. No treatment differences

  5. Bacterial community dynamics in a rumen fluid bioreactor during in-vitro cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletalová, Martina; Kašparovská, Jitka; Křížová, Ludmila; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Šerý, Omar; Lochman, Jan

    2016-09-20

    To study the various processes in the rumen the in vitro techniques are widely used to realize more controlled and reproducible conditions compared to in vivo experiments. Mostly, only the parameters like pH changes, volatile fatty acids content or metabolite production are monitored. In this study we examine the bacterial community dynamics of rumen fluid in course of ten day cultivation realize under standard conditions described in the literature. Whereas the pH values, total VFA content and A/P ratio in bioreactor were consistent with natural conditions in the rumen, the mean redox-potential values of -251 and -243mV were much more negative. For culture-independent assessment of bacterial community composition, the Illumina MiSeq results indicated that the community contained 292 bacterial genera. In course of ten days cultivation a significant changes in the microbial community were measured when Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio changed from 3.2 to 1.2 and phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria represented by genus Bifidobacterium and Olsenella significantly increased. The main responsible factor of these changes seems to be very low redox potential in bioreactor together with accumulation of simple carbohydrates in milieu as a result of limited excretion of fermented feed and absence of nutrient absorbing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times.

  7. Bioconversion of waste office paper to hydrogen using pretreated rumen fluid inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Lívia Silva; Ratti, Regiane Priscila; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Ramos, Lucas Rodrigues; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a microbial consortium from an acid-treated rumen fluid was used to improve the yields of H 2 production from paper residues in batch reactors. The anaerobic batch reactors, which contained paper and cellulose, were operated under three conditions: (1) 0.5 g paper/L, (2) 2 g paper/L, and (3) 4 g paper/L. Cellulase was added to promote the hydrolysis of paper to soluble sugars. The H 2 yields were 5.51, 4.65, and 3.96 mmol H 2 /g COD, respectively, with substrate degradation ranging from 56 to 65.4 %. Butyric acid was the primary soluble metabolite in the three reactors, but pronounced solventogenesis was detected in the reactors incubated with increased paper concentrations (2.0 and 4.0 g/L). A substantial prevalence of Clostridium acetobutylicum (99 % similarity) was observed in the acid-treated rumen fluid, which has been recognized as an efficient H 2 -producing strain in addition to ethanol and n-butanol which were also detected in the reactors.

  8. Dynamics of initial colonization of nonconserved perennial ryegrass by anaerobic fungi in the bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joan E; Kingston-Smith, Alison H; Jimenez, Hugo R; Huws, Sharon A; Skøt, Kirsten P; Griffith, Gareth W; McEwan, Neil R; Theodorou, Michael K

    2008-12-01

    Anaerobic fungi (Neocallimastigales) are active degraders of fibrous plant material in the rumen. However, only limited information is available relating to how quickly they colonize ingested feed particles. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of initial colonization of forage by anaerobic fungi in the rumen and the impact of different postsampling wash procedures used to remove loosely associated microorganisms. Neocallimastigales-specific molecular techniques were optimized to ensure maximal coverage before application to assess the population size (quantitative PCR) and composition (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) of the colonizing anaerobic fungi. Colonization of perennial ryegrass (PRG) was evident within 5 min, with no consistent effect of time or wash procedure on fungal population composition. Wash procedure had no effect on population size unlike time, which had a significant effect. Colonizing fungal population size continued to increase over the incubation period after an initial lag of c. 4 min. This dynamic differs from that reported previously for rumen bacteria, where substantial colonization of PRG occurred within 5 min. The observed delay in colonization of plant material by anaerobic fungi is suggested to be primarily mediated by the time taken for fungal zoospores to locate, attach and encyst on plant material.

  9. Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the major component of maize kernels, contributing significantly to the feeding value of forage maize when fed to ruminants. The effects of genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage on starch content in the kernels and on in vitro starch degradability in rumen fluid were

  10. Comparison of protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid determined with the gas production technique and the nylon bag technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Blok, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a modified version of the gas production technique was used to determine protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid of 19 feedstuffs. Performing the incubations in a N-free environment, and with an excess of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates, made N the limiting factor to

  11. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael A; Croom, Jim; Kahler, Melissa; AlZahal, Ousama; Hook, Sarah E; Plaizier, Kees; McBride, Brian W

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in rumen epithelial structure and function during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are largely undescribed. In this study, four mature nonlactating dairy cattle were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF; 0% grain) to a high-grain diet (HG; 65% grain). After feeding the HG diet for 3 wk, the cattle were transitioned back to the original HF diet, which was fed for an additional 3 wk. Continuous ruminal pH was measured on a weekly basis, and rumen papillae were biopsied during the baseline and at the first and final week of each diet. The mean, minimum, and maximum daily ruminal pH were depressed (P < 0.01) in the HG period compared with the HF period. During the HG period, SARA was diagnosed only during week 1, indicating ruminal adaptation to the HG diet. Microscopic examination of the papillae revealed a reduction (P < 0.01) in the stratum basale, spinosum, and granulosum layers, as well as total depth of the epithelium during the HG period. The highest (P < 0.05) papillae lesion scores were noted during week 1 when SARA occurred. Biopsied papillae exhibited a decline in cellular junctions, extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum, and the appearance of undifferentiated cells near the stratum corneum. Differential mRNA expression of candidate genes, including desmoglein 1 and IGF binding proteins 3, 5, and 6, was detected between diets using qRT-PCR. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the rumen epithelium is compromised during grain feeding and is associated with the differential expression of genes involved in epithelial growth and structure.

  13. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  14. Fate of [14C]xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) in a goat and in bovine ruminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivie, G.W.; Beier, R.C.; Bull, D.L.; Oertli, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    A lactating Nubian goat was treated with [ 14 C]xanthotoxin, a photosensitizing psoralen that occurs naturally in some phototoxic range plants, as a single oral dose equivalent to 10.0 mg of xanthotoxin/kg of body weight. The radiochemical was rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. Although expired air was not monitored for the presence of volatile radiocarbon, the data indicated that greater than 50% of the administered [ 14 C]xanthotoxin was metabolized by cleavage of the O-[ 14 C]methyl moiety, with subsequent loss of the label as, presumably, [ 14 C]CO 2 . Studies with bovine ruminal fluid in vitro indicated that cleavage of the O-methyl moiety of xanthotoxin could occur rapidly in the rumen. In the goat, nonmetabolized xanthotoxin was not excreted in urine, and of several metabolites in urine extracts, 3 were identified as resulting from opening of the furan or lactone ring. Only about 2% of the dose was recovered in the feces, and this consisted mainly of unmetabolized xanthotoxin. Although appreciable amounts of radiocarbon were secreted into milk, this radiocarbon was not in the form of xanthotoxin or any identifiable metabolites. The radiocarbon in milk likely resulted from the biosynthetic incorporation of [ 14 C]CO 2 into normal milk components

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses E. coli O157:H7 in bovine ruminal fluid: Toward a pre-slaughter strategy to improve food safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Bertin

    Full Text Available The bovine gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC responsible for food-borne infections. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies, such as EHEC suppression by antagonistic microorganisms, to reduce EHEC survival in the GIT of cattle and to limit shedding and food contamination. Most human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri strains produce hydroxypropionaldehyde (HPA, an antimicrobial compound, during anaerobic reduction of glycerol. The capacity of L. reuteri LB1-7, a strain isolated from raw bovine milk, to produce HPA and its antimicrobial activity against an O157:H7 EHEC strain (FCH6 were evaluated in bovine rumen fluid (RF under strict anaerobiosis. EHEC was totally suppressed when incubated in RF inoculated with L. reuteri LB1-7 and supplemented with 80 mM glycerol (RF-Glyc80. The addition of LB1-7 or glycerol alone did not modify EHEC survival in RF. Glycerol was converted to HPA (up to 14 mM by LB1-7 during incubation in RF-Glyc80, and HPA production appeared to be responsible for EHEC suppression. The bactericidal activity of L. reuteri LB1-7, the concentration of glycerol required and the level of HPA produced depended on physiological and ecological environments. In vitro experiments also showed that EHEC inoculated in rumen fluid and exposed to L. reuteri and glycerol had a very limited growth in rectal contents. However, L. reuteri exerted an antimicrobial activity against the rumen endogenous microbiota and perturbed feedstuff degradation in the presence of glycerol. The potential administration of L. reuteri and glycerol in view of application to finishing beef cattle at the time of slaughter is discussed. Further in vivo studies will be important to confirm the efficiency of L. reuteri and glycerol supplementation against EHEC shedding in ruminants.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses E. coli O157:H7 in bovine ruminal fluid: Toward a pre-slaughter strategy to improve food safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Habouzit, Chloé; Dunière, Lysiane; Laurier, Marie; Durand, Alexandra; Duchez, David; Segura, Audrey; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine; Baruzzi, Federico; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Forano, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies, such as EHEC suppression by antagonistic microorganisms, to reduce EHEC survival in the GIT of cattle and to limit shedding and food contamination. Most human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri strains produce hydroxypropionaldehyde (HPA), an antimicrobial compound, during anaerobic reduction of glycerol. The capacity of L. reuteri LB1-7, a strain isolated from raw bovine milk, to produce HPA and its antimicrobial activity against an O157:H7 EHEC strain (FCH6) were evaluated in bovine rumen fluid (RF) under strict anaerobiosis. EHEC was totally suppressed when incubated in RF inoculated with L. reuteri LB1-7 and supplemented with 80 mM glycerol (RF-Glyc80). The addition of LB1-7 or glycerol alone did not modify EHEC survival in RF. Glycerol was converted to HPA (up to 14 mM) by LB1-7 during incubation in RF-Glyc80, and HPA production appeared to be responsible for EHEC suppression. The bactericidal activity of L. reuteri LB1-7, the concentration of glycerol required and the level of HPA produced depended on physiological and ecological environments. In vitro experiments also showed that EHEC inoculated in rumen fluid and exposed to L. reuteri and glycerol had a very limited growth in rectal contents. However, L. reuteri exerted an antimicrobial activity against the rumen endogenous microbiota and perturbed feedstuff degradation in the presence of glycerol. The potential administration of L. reuteri and glycerol in view of application to finishing beef cattle at the time of slaughter is discussed. Further in vivo studies will be important to confirm the efficiency of L. reuteri and glycerol supplementation against EHEC shedding in ruminants.

  17. Non-protein nitrogen and reduced phosphorus supply to sheep. 1. Phosphorus, volatile fatty acids, NH3 and pH of rumen liquid and daily fluid and phosphorus outflow from the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, H.; Breves, G.; Martens, H.

    1983-01-01

    Sheep were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and in the abomasum and fed a straw/pellet diet providing 29% of total N as urea-N. The diet was deficient in P, and daily P intake during P depletion was about 1.3g. Phosphorus repletion was obtained in the same sheep by daily infusion of 2.85gP as phosphoric acid into the abomasum. During experimental periods, Cr-EDTA and 15 N-urea were continuously infused into the rumen for five days. During the last two days, blood samples and a total of ten samples from both rumen and abomasum were taken. Three depletion and three repletion experiments were performed. The following significant changes were noted in the P-deficient state (means): blood plasma inorganic P fell from 2.38 to 0.67mmol/L and rumen liquid total P from 5.65 to 1.71mmol/L, i.e. both levels decreased by approximately 70%. Fluid outflow from the rumen was raised by about 10% but P outflow decreased by about 68%. NH 3 concentrations in rumen fluid increased from 3.60 to 7.51mmol/L whereas total VFA concentration was reduced from 125 to 100mmol/L. Average pH values changed from 6.06 to 6.56. It is suggested that P depletion led to reduced microbial growth and activity in the rumen although data on microbial protein outflow from the rumen are not yet available. (author)

  18. Dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the bovine rumen: nitrous oxide production and effect of acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, H F; Tiedje, J M

    1981-03-01

    15N tracer methods and gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector were used to investigate dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite by the rumen microbiota of a fistulated cow. Ammonium was the only 15N-labeled end product of quantitative significance. Only traces of nitrous oxide were detected as a product of nitrate reduction; but in experiments with nitrite, up to 0.3% of the added nitrogen accumulated as nitrous oxide, but it was not further reduced. Furthermore, when 13NO3- was incubated with rumen microbiota virtually no [13N]N2 was produced. Acetylene partially inhibited the reduction of nitrite to ammonium as well as the formation of nitrous oxide. It is suggested that in the rumen ecosystem nitrous oxide is a byproduct of dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium rather than a product of denitrification and that the latter process is absent from the rumen habitat.

  19. Effects of plant antioxidants and natural vicinal diketones on methane production, studied in vitro with rumen fluid and a polylactate as maintenance substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2011-01-01

    In a simplified model of methane production, lactate based maintenance substrates provided primary metabolites and H2, for methanogenic reduction of CO2, to a rumen fluid inoculum. In batch incubation assays, the polylactate Hydrogen Release Compound eXtended® (HRC-X) as maintenance substrate caused

  20. A comparison between buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cow (Bos taurus) rumen fluids in terms of the in vitro fermentation characteristics of three fibrous feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabrò, S.; Williams, B.A.; Piccolo, V.; Infascelli, F.; Tamminga, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen fluids from fistulated buffalos (Italy-BRF) and cows (Netherlands-CRF) were used as inocula to determine the fermentation kinetics of three forages. These were corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS) and wheat straw (WS) which had originated from both regions, giving six substrates in total.

  1. Comparison of various pretreatments for ethanol production enhancement from solid residue after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Wei; Xu, Dong; Wang, Bei; Yan, Li; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    The rumen digested residue of rice straw contains high residual carbohydrates, which makes it a potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of applying microwave assisted alkali (MAP), ultrasound assisted alkali (UAP), and ball milling pretreatment (BMP) to enhance ethanol production from two digested residues (2.5%-DR and 10%-DR) after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw at 2.5% and 10.0% solid content. Results revealed that 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR had a cellulose content of 36.4% and 41.7%, respectively. MAP and UAP improved enzymatic hydrolysis of digested residue by removing the lignin and hemicellulose, while BMP by decreasing the particle size and crystallinity. BMP was concluded as the suitable pretreatment, resulting in an ethanol yield of 116.65 and 147.42mgg -1 for 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR, respectively. The integrated system including BMP for digested residue at 2.5% solid content achieved a maximum energy output of 7010kJkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  3. Pericardial Parietal Mesothelial Cells: Source of the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme of the Bovine Pericardial Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsione Ribeiro de Sousa Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II, the primary effector hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, acts systemically or locally, being produced by the action of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE on angiotensin I. Although several tissue RASs, such as cardiac RAS, have been described, little is known about the presence of an RAS in the pericardial fluid and its possible sources. Locally produced Ang II has paracrine and autocrine effects, inducing left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, heart failure and cardiac dysfunction. Because of the difficulties inherent in human pericardial fluid collection, appropriate experimental models are useful to obtain data regarding the characteristics of the pericardial fluid and surrounding tissues. Objectives: To evidence the presence of constituents of the Ang II production paths in bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium. Methods: Albumin-free crude extracts of bovine pericardial fluid, immunoprecipitated with anti-ACE antibody, were submitted to electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gels stained with coomassie blue. Duplicates of gels were probed with anti-ACE antibody. In the pericardial membranes, ACE was detected by use of immunofluorescence. Results: Immunodetection on nitrocellulose membranes showed a 146-KDa ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid. On the pericardial membrane sections, ACE was immunolocalized in the mesothelial layer. Conclusions: The ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium should account at least partially for the production of Ang II in the pericardial space, and should be considered when assessing the cardiac RAS.

  4. Dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the bovine rumen: nitrous oxide production and effect of acetylene.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, H F; Tiedje, J M

    1981-01-01

    15N tracer methods and gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector were used to investigate dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite by the rumen microbiota of a fistulated cow. Ammonium was the only 15N-labeled end product of quantitative significance. Only traces of nitrous oxide were detected as a product of nitrate reduction; but in experiments with nitrite, up to 0.3% of the added nitrogen accumulated as nitrous oxide, but it was not further reduced. Furthermore, whe...

  5. In Vitro binding capacity of zeolite A to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in rumen fluid as influenced by changes in pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess; Poulsen, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    with and without zeolite, as well as varying the content of Ca and/or P. The pH was lowered by addition of HCl so as to mimic abomasal conditions, followed by subsequent HCO3- addition to mimic small intestinal pH. Rumen fluid samples were taken at strategic time points in the experiment. All samples were......An in vitro experiment was designed to mimic the transport of ingested zeolite A in the forestomachs and proximal part of the small intestine so as to evaluate the binding capacity of zeolite A to Ca, P and Mg as influenced by changes in pH. This was done by incubation of rumen fluid solutions...... centrifuged and the supernatant analysed for Ca, P and Mg as indicators of the amount of unbound mineral. The addition of zeolite to rumen fluid solutions reduced the amount of supernatant Ca and Mg at rumen pH, whereas the level of P was not reduced. After adding HCl, a large proportion of the zeolite...

  6. Effect of exogenous phytase on feed inositol phosphate hydrolysis in an in vitro rumen fluid buffer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Pedersen, Dorte Niss; Glitsø, Lene Vibe; Skov, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    phytases was most suitable under rumen-like conditions. The feedstuffs were incubated with a mixture of physiological buffer, ruminal fluid, and exogenous phytase at pH 6.2, after which the samples were incubated for different periods. Incubations were stopped using HCl, and the samples were analyzed......, and Phy4 led to an undegraded InsP6 content of 56, 49, 70, and 18%, respectively, when incubated with rapeseed cake for 6 h, indicating that Phy2 and Phy4 were the most effective phytases. However, Phy2 had a higher specific activity than Phy4, as 60% of the original InsP6 content was remaining after 3 h...

  7. Release of bacterial alkaline phosphatase in the rumen of cattle fed a feedlot bloat-provoking diet or a hay diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Costerton, J W

    1976-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (APase) was present in the bovine rumen in both cell-free and cell-associated states and levels of the enzyme varied with dietary regime. Reaction product deposition showed that the enzyme was associated with the mixed bacterial population. No enzyme was observed to be associated with protozoa. Trace activity of APase was also detected in the saliva. The presence of large amounts of APase in cell-free rumen fluid of cattle fed fine concentrate feed is believed to be due, in part, to the breakage of bacterial cells that occurs in the rumen.

  8. Fluid Circulation Determined in the Isolated Bovine Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Oscar A.; Mathias, Richard; Gerometta, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In 1997, a theoretical model was developed that predicted the existence of an internal, Na+-driven fluid circulation from the poles to the equator of the lens. In the present work, we demonstrate with a novel system that fluid movement can be measured across the polar and equatorial surface areas of isolated cow lenses. We have also determined the effects of ouabain and reduced bath [Na+]. Methods. Lenses were isolated in a chamber with three compartments separated by two thin O-rings. Each compartment, anterior (A), equatorial (E), and posterior (P), was connected to a vertical capillary graduated in 0.25 μL. Capillary levels were read every 15 minutes. The protocols consisted of 2 hours in either open circuit or short circuit. The effects of ouabain and low-Na+ solutions were determined under open circuit. Results. In 21 experiments, the E capillary increased at a mean rate of 0.060 μL/min while the A and P levels decreased at rates of 0.044 and 0.037 μL/min, respectively, closely accounting for the increase in E. The first-hour flows under short circuit were approximately 40% larger than those in open-circuit conditions. The first-hour flows were always larger than those during the second hour. Preincubation of lenses with either ouabain or low-[Na+] solutions resulted in reduced rates of fluid transport. When KCl was used to replace NaCl, a transitory stimulation of fluid transport occurred. Conclusions. These experiments support that a fluid circulation consistent with the 1997 model is physiologically active. PMID:22969071

  9. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    by micromanipulation. From two independent replicates, 23 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid while 803 proteins were identified in the remaining cell material. The proteins were grouped into categories according to their gene ontology (GO) terms by which proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell...... proliferation, development, and reproduction could be derived. Proteins classified in these categories could be candidates for further functional studies to understand pluripotency and early mammalian development....

  10. The application of rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) for studying dynamics of the bacterial community and metabolome in rumen fluid and the effects of a challenge with Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Stefanie U; Eger, Melanie; Burmester, Marion; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Pinior, Beate; Wagner, Martin; Breves, Gerhard; Mann, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    The rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) is a well-established semicontinuous in vitro model for investigating ruminal fermentation; however, information on the stability of the ruminal bacterial microbiota and metabolome in the RUSITEC system is rarely available. The availability of high resolution methods, such as high-throughput sequencing and metabolomics improve our knowledge about the rumen microbial ecosystem and its fermentation processes. Thus, we used Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and a combination of direct injection mass spectrometry with a reverse-phase LC-MS/MS to evaluate the dynamics of the bacterial community and the concentration of several metabolites in a RUSITEC experiment as a function of time and in response to a challenge with a pathogenic Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) strain. After four days of equilibration, samples were collected on days 5, 6, 7, 10, 12 and 15 of the steady-state and experimental period. From a total of six fermenters, three non-infected fermenters were used for investigating time-dependent alterations; three fermenters were incubated with C. perfringens and compared with the non-infected vessels at days 10, 12 and 15. Along the time-line, there was no statistically significant change of the overall bacterial community, however, some phylotypes were enriched at certain time points. A decrease in Fibrobacter and Elusimicrobia over time was followed by an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In contrast, classical fermentation measurements such as pH, redox potential, NH3-N, short chain fatty acids and the concentrations of metabolites determined by metabolomics (biogenic amines, hexoses and amino acids) remained stable throughout the experiment. In response to C. perfringens addition the concentrations of several amino acids increased. Although the overall bacterial community was not altered here either, some minor changes such as an enrichment of Synergistetes and Bacteroidetes were

  11. Short communication: Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in fluid- and particle-associated rumen bacteria determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A C; Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Shaver, R D

    2014-01-01

    Microbial protein represents the majority of metabolizable protein absorbed by ruminant animals. Enhanced understanding of the AA digestibility of rumen microbes will improve estimates of metabolizable protein. The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestibility of AA in fluid- (FAB) and particle-associated bacteria (PAB) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay. Bacteria were isolated from 4 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows by differential centrifugation, including particle suspension in 0.1% Tween-80 for increased removal of PAB from ruminal digesta. Samples of FAB and PAB were fed to 9 cecectomized roosters to determine standardized digestibility of AA. Total AA digestibility was 76.8 and 75.5% for FAB and PAB, respectively, but did not differ. Differences existed in AA digestibilities within bacterial type when compared with the mean essential AA digestibility value. Compared with previous literature estimates of AA digestibility in microbes (mean = 76%; range = 57-87%) and relative to National Research Council estimates of total AA from rumen bacteria (80%), the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay is an acceptable in vivo model to determine AA digestibility of rumen bacteria. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro gas production in rumen fluid of buffalo as affected by urea-calcium mixture in high-quality feed block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of urea-calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) levels in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on ruminal digestibility, fermentation and gas kinetics in rumen fluid of swamp buffalo by using in vitro techniques. The treatments were seven levels of U-cas incorporated in HQFB at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction, potential extent of gas and cumulative gas were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas in HQFB. The in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, true digestibility and microbial mass were altered by treatments and were greatest at 18% U-cas supplementation. Concentrations of propionate were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas and was highest with U-cas supplementation at 18%. The NH3 -N concentration was highest when urea was added in the HQFB while NH3 -N concentration tended to be reduced with increasing level of U-cas. The findings suggest supplementation of 18% U-cas in HQFB improves kinetics of gas production, rumen fermentation, digestibility and microbial mass as well as controlling the rate of N degradation in the rumen of swamp buffalo. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Alteration of Rumen Bacteria and Protozoa Through Grazing Regime as a Tool to Enhance the Bioactive Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Saldinger, Laurel K; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are the origin of many bioactive fatty acids (FA) found in ruminant-derived food products. Differences in plant leaf anatomy and chemical composition between cool- and warm-season pastures may alter rumen microorganisms, potentially enhancing the quantity/profile of bioactive FA available for incorporation into milk. The objective of this study was to identify rumen bacteria and protozoa and their cellular FA when cows grazed a warm-season annual, pearl millet (PM), in comparison to a diverse cool-season pasture (CSP). Individual rumen digesta samples were obtained from five Holstein cows in a repeated measures design with 28-day periods. The treatment sequence was PM, CSP, then PM. Microbial DNA was extracted from rumen digesta and sequence reads were produced with Illumina MiSeq. Fatty acids (FA) were identified in rumen bacteria and protozoa using gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Microbial communities shifted in response to grazing regime. Bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes were more abundant during PM than CSP ( P rumenic acid, and α-linolenic acid in milk. In conclusion, grazing regime can potentially be used to alter microbial communities shifting the FA profile of microbial cells, and subsequently, alter the milk FA profile.

  14. The application of rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC for studying dynamics of the bacterial community and metabolome in rumen fluid and the effects of a challenge with Clostridium perfringens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie U Wetzels

    Full Text Available The rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC is a well-established semicontinuous in vitro model for investigating ruminal fermentation; however, information on the stability of the ruminal bacterial microbiota and metabolome in the RUSITEC system is rarely available. The availability of high resolution methods, such as high-throughput sequencing and metabolomics improve our knowledge about the rumen microbial ecosystem and its fermentation processes. Thus, we used Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and a combination of direct injection mass spectrometry with a reverse-phase LC-MS/MS to evaluate the dynamics of the bacterial community and the concentration of several metabolites in a RUSITEC experiment as a function of time and in response to a challenge with a pathogenic Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens strain. After four days of equilibration, samples were collected on days 5, 6, 7, 10, 12 and 15 of the steady-state and experimental period. From a total of six fermenters, three non-infected fermenters were used for investigating time-dependent alterations; three fermenters were incubated with C. perfringens and compared with the non-infected vessels at days 10, 12 and 15. Along the time-line, there was no statistically significant change of the overall bacterial community, however, some phylotypes were enriched at certain time points. A decrease in Fibrobacter and Elusimicrobia over time was followed by an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In contrast, classical fermentation measurements such as pH, redox potential, NH3-N, short chain fatty acids and the concentrations of metabolites determined by metabolomics (biogenic amines, hexoses and amino acids remained stable throughout the experiment. In response to C. perfringens addition the concentrations of several amino acids increased. Although the overall bacterial community was not altered here either, some minor changes such as an enrichment of Synergistetes and

  15. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...... such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. One of today's challenges in regenerative medicine is to define proper culture conditions for hESC. The natural milieu in the blastocyst may provide clues on how to improve culture conditions, and the aim of the present study was to determine...... the proteome of the blastocoel fluid and the remaining cells of bovine blastocysts. Bovine blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of oocytes retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries. The blastocoel from 195 blastocysts (1-8nL per blastocyst) were isolated by micromanipulation and analysed by nano...

  16. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  17. Evaluation of continuous silage of sorghum varieties samurai 2 containing probiotic of BIOS K2 in rumen fluid of buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafa Imanda; Yunus Effendi; Irawan Sugoro; Sihono; Irawan Sugoro

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant forage needs could be enhanced by making silage. One of develop techniques was a continuous silage that is a modification technology of making silage by reducing the fermentation time through the addition of seeds inoculum at the beginning of the forages production. The quality of silage could be improved by adding a probiotic supplement such as BIOS K2. Forage that has a potency as silage is sorghum var. Samurai 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the continuous silage of sorghum var. Samurai 2 that contained probiotics BIOS K2. Evaluation of sample used in vitro Hoheinheim gas test method by using buffalo rumen fluid which was incubated for 24 hours at 39 °C. Treatments were A (silage sorghum 21 days), B (continuous sorghum silage 3 days), and C (continuous silage sorghum 7 days). The parameters tested were degradation of organic matter (% DOM), ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFA), the levels of carbon dioxide (CO_2) and methane (CH_4), as well as protein synthesis microbes (bacteria and protozoa). The analysis indicated there was a significant effect in the feed treatment to ammonia concentration, the concentration of VFA, microbial protein synthesis and % DOM, while there were no effect in levels of CO_2 and CH_4. Treatment of feed C produced ammonia, VFA and bacterial protein synthesis respectively of 0.44/ml; 0.89 mg/ml; and 5.18 mg.ml"-"1 hour"-"1, higher than treatment A and B. The treatment A had the highest DOM percentage i.e. 47.30 %, while B and C i.e. 25.18 and 37.15 % respectively. Treatment A and B had higher activity of protozoa microbial protein synthesis, respectively of 2.62 mg.ml"-"1hour"-"1 than treatment C of 2.55 mg.ml"-"1hour"-"1. It could be concluded that a continuous feed silage sorghum var. Samurai 2 with time of incubation for 7 days (C) has a better quality than sorghum silage with 21 days incubation (A). (author)

  18. Studies on the Influence of Tritium Radiation on Anaerobic Bacteria from the Bovine Rumen; Influence de l'Irradiation par le Tritium sur les Bacteries Anaerobies du Rumen des Bovins; 0418 0441 0414 ; Estudios sobre los Efectos de las Radiaciones del Tritio en las Bacterias Anaerobias de la Panza de los Bovinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, J.; Giesecke, D. [Institute of Physiology and Animal Nutrition, University of Munich, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-02-15

    The bacterial flora in the bovine rumen is mainly composed of strictly anaerobic species supplying the host with large amounts of volatile fatty acids (VFA's) as the main energy source. Long time in-vitro irradiations of the flora with T{sub 2}O in a so-called ''artificial rumen'' under anaerobic conditions have shown that doses up to 75 Krad had no inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and VFA-production. Stimulatory effects resulting in acceleration of cell division and increased amounts of VFA's were observed after irradiating the resting flora at 0 Degree-Sign C with a total dose of about 300 Krad within 20 d, but reproducibility was unsatisfactory because of the heterogeneity of the material. Further experiments were carried out on pure cultures of selected strains of rumen bacteria. Doses up to 150 Krad (5 d) did not markedly influence anaerobic growth and carbohydrate metabolism. However, if oxygen was present during the irradiation of resting cells a strong reduction in viable numbers was noted. Oxygen per se was found to exert a lethal effect on these species following a logarithmic order of decline. It is assumed that secondary radiation products, especially H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, are mainly responsible for the action of T{sub 2}O on these microorganisms which are devoid of catalase. Some confirmatory results are still to be obtained. (author) [French] La flore bacterienne du rumen des bovins se compose surtout d'especes strictement anaerobies qui fournissent a l'hote, comme principale source d'energie, de grandes quantites d'acides gras volatils (AGV). Des irradiations de longue duree de la flore par T{sub 2}O, faites in vitro dans un 'rumen artificiel', en anaerobie, ont montre que des doses allant jusqu'a 75 krads n'ont aucun effet inhibiteur sur la croissance des bacteries et sur la production d'AGV. Des effets stimulateurs, se traduisant par une division cellulaire acceleree et par une production accrue d'AGV, ont ete observes apres irradiation de la

  19. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early...

  20. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  1. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  2. An in vitro model to study interactions between Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacterial inoculants for silage in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Ogunade, I M; Adesogan, A

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants enhance ruminants' performance. The objective of the current experiments was to develop an in vitro model to study interactions between LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages and Escherichia coli (EC) in rumen fluid (RF). Our hypothesis was that some inoculants inhibit EC in RF. For that purpose buffered RF was incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C with commercial strains of LAB silage inoculants or with laboratory corn and wheat silages treated with these LAB, an EC strain and with various ruminant feed ingredients. The EC strain was originally isolated from cattle manure and tagged with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescence protein and kanamycin and streptomycin resistance. Results indicate that the LAB or the treated silages did not suppress EC numbers in the RF. When the pH of the RF decreased below 5·0 the EC disappeared. We conclude that both LAB inoculants for silage and EC survived in RF for several days; however, the inoculants and silages treated with such inoculants did not inhibit EC in RF in vitro. Forage crops, silage and hay are initial stages of the food chain for humans. Cattle harbours and sheds enterobacteria regularly, some strains of which are pathogens. These can contaminate forage crops through field fertilization with cattle manure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model to test whether lactic acid bacteria, which are used in silage inoculants, alone or in treated silages can inhibit Escherichia coli in rumen fluid. This study presents safety aspects and it is also part of a broad research effort aimed at finding out how LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages enhance ruminant performance or exert probiotic effects in ruminants. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Roehe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e

  4. Influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone In Vitro: Prediction of the biot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 20 marrow-filled and water-filled bovine femoral trabecular bone samples. The mean phase velocities at frequencies between 0.6 and 1.2 MHz exhibited significant negative dispersions for both the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. The magnitudes of the dispersions showed no significant differences between the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. In contrast, replacement of marrow by water led to a mean increase in the phase velocity of 27 m/s at frequencies from 0.6 to 1.2 MHz. The theoretical phase velocities of the fast wave predicted by using the Biot model for elastic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media showed good agreements with the measurements.

  5. Technical note: In vitro digestibility of amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite, at 240 hours with or without rumen fluid reinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Fustini, M; Mammi, L; Formigoni, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term in vitro fermentation (240 h) evaluating amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite (aNDFom) digestibility is required to quantify the indigestible fiber fraction. It is commonly accepted to inoculate rumen fluid more than one time during such fermentations, every 96 h or at 120 h. However, no studies have been conducted to verify if the reinoculation is actually required to properly carry out the fermentation process. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of these procedures on aNDFom digestibility at 240 h. The study was conducted on a total of 24 forage samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages). Samples were digested in triplicate at 240 h in vitro. Rumen fluid was added twice (at 96 and 192 h) in treatment 1, after 120 h in treatment 2, whereas no addition was made in treatment 3. At the end of the fermentations, residual aNDFom was quantified to calculate digestibility. Among treatments, no difference was found in digestibility of aNDFom. Moreover, treatment 1 resulted in higher variability compared with other treatments. Results obtained in the current study show that subsequent addition of rumen fluid is not necessary for a proper estimation of aNDFom digestibility, and can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Selected Biostimulating Substance on the Degradation in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cows with the canulla were divided into two groups - experimental and control. One cow was added to experimental product Biopolym FZT, second Biopolym granules. The samples of rumen fluid and feces were analyzed. The growth of microorganisms in the rumen fluid of experimental animals means the possibility of a positive impact of Biopolym on the degradation of feeding the rumen.

  7. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  8. Rumen metabolism and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Oldham, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The rumen contains a heterogenous microbial population unevenly distributed in the fluid, in solid fractions of the contents and on the rumen wall. Understanding the ways in which these populations interact with dietary nutrients or those of endogenous origin is essential for improving prediction of nutritional responses, for developing economic production systems and for making maximum use of low quality feeds. Important factors affecting fibre digestion, protein degradation and microbial protein synthesis include turnover rates of individual digesta fractions, long lasting or transient deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and the susceptibilities to microbial attack of naturally occurring or treated dietary components. (author)

  9. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.E.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 10 11 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (10 4 -10 6 /g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 10 2 -10 4 /g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (10 7 -10 9 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  10. Reproductive Fecundity of Iraqi Awassi Ewes Immunized against Synthetic Inhibin-α Subunit or Steroid-Free Bovine Follicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saaidi, Jabbar Abbas Ahmed; Khudair, Khalisa Khadim; Al-Kafaji, Sura Safe Aubaes

    2018-03-02

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal MPA sponge (60 mg for 12 days). Ewes were treated at 0, 28, and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28, and 50 days (AI group). After mating with Awassi rams, pregnancy and embryo number were diagnosed using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of pregnancy, for assessment of estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels. After parturition, numbers of delivered lambs were recorded. The results revealed significant increase of P4 and significant decrease of E2 levels in SI and AI pregnant ewes than controls at 30, 60 and 90 day. Newborn number increased significantly in SI and AI treated than control ewes. Active or passive immunization against endogenous inhibin could augment reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.

  11. Relationship between growth hormone concentrations in bovine oocytes and follicular fluid and oocyte developmental competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Modina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several works suggest that Growth Hormone (GH is involved in follicular development and oocyte maturation. These actions may reflect endocrine roles of pituitary GH and also account for local autocrine or paracrine activities of GH produced in reproductive tissue. This study was aimed to verify whether the developmental competence of bovine female gametes might be related to ovarian GH.We evaluated the localisation and distribution of GH in the cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs and the concentration of GH in the oocytes and in the follicular fluids (FF from ovaries classified on the basis of the follicles number. Oocytes retrieved from ovaries with more than 10 follicles of 2 to 5 mm in diameter (High ovaries, Hi show higher rate of maturation and blastocyst formation than those retrieved from ovaries with less than 10 follicles (Low ovaries, Lo. At the same time we measured Estrogen (E2 and Progesterone (P4 concentrations in FF, to relate oocytes quality, GH concentration and follicle health. GH localization in COCs and oocytes was performed by indirect immunofluorescence and its concentration within the ooplasm was evaluated by microspectrophotometer analysis. GH, E2 and P4 concentrations in FF were measured by an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent assay (ELISA.We observed a positive, diffuse signal at cytoplasmic level in most of the cumulus cells, with no differences between COCs collected from Hi and Lo ovaries. On the contrary, GH level was significantly higher in the oocytes collected from Lo ovaries than in those recovered from Hi ovaries. Finally we found that also GH level in the FF was inversely related to the oocytes developmental capability. We suggest that the increase of GH in the oocytes and in the FF derived from Lo ovaries might be interpreted as attempt of the follicular environment to improve ovarian activity and in turn oocytes developmental competence in a autocrineparacrine manner. Moreover, E2, and P4 levels

  12. In Vitro Biodegradation of Hepatotoxic Indospicine in Indigofera spicata and Its Degradation Derivatives by Camel Foregut and Cattle Rumen Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2017-08-30

    The known accumulation of the hepatotoxin indospicine in tissues of camels and cattle grazing Indigofera pasture plants is unusual in that free amino acids would normally be expected to be degraded during the fermentation processes in these foregut fermenters. In this study, in vitro experiments were carried out to examine the degradability of indospicine of Indigofera spicata by camel and cattle foregut microbiota. In the first experiment, a 48 h in vitro incubation was carried out using foregut fluid samples that were collected from 15 feral camels and also a fistulated cow. Degradability of indospicine ranged between 97% and 99%, with the higher value of 99% for camels. A pooled sample of foregut fluids from three camels that were on a roughage diet was used in a second experiment to examine the time-dependent degradation of indospicine present in the plant materials. Results indicated that camels' foregut fluids have the ability to biodegrade ∼99% of the indospicine in I. spicata within 48 h of incubation and produced 2-aminopimelamic acid and 2-aminopimelic acid. The time-dependent degradation analysis showed rapid indospicine degradation (65 nmol/h) during the first 8-18 h of incubation followed by a slower degradation rate (12 nmol/h) between 18 and 48 h. Indospicine degradation products were also degraded toward the end of the experiment. The results of these in vitro degradation studies suggest that dietary indospicine may undergo extensive degradation in the foregut of the camel, resulting in trace levels after 48 h. The retention time for plant material in the camel foregut varies depending on feed quality, and the results of this study together with the observed accumulation of indospicine in camel tissues suggest that, although indospicine can be degraded by foregut fermentation, this degradation is not complete before the passage of the digesta into the intestine.

  13. Technical note: A simple rumen collection device for calves: An adaptation of a manual rumen drenching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, R N; Oconitrillo, M J; Sackett, A; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Lascano, G J

    2018-07-01

    A limited amount of research is available related to the rumen microbiota of calves, yet there has been a recent spike of interest in determining the diversity and development of calf rumen microbial populations. To study the microbial populations of a calf's rumen, a sample of the rumen fluid is needed. One way to take a rumen fluid sample from a calf is by fistulating the animal. This method requires surgery and can be very stressful on a young animal that is trying to adapt to a new environment and has a depressed immune system. Another method that can be used instead of fistulation surgery is a rumen pump. This method requires a tube to be inserted into the rumen through the calf's esophagus. Once inside the rumen, fluid can be pumped out and collected in a few minutes. This method is quick, inexpensive, and does not cause significant stress on the animal. This technical note presents the materials and methodology used to convert a drenching system into a rumen pump and its respective utilization in 2 experiments using dairy bull calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Kristensen, Lise; Højbjerg, Ole

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  15. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Hisao; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14 C from 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U- 14 C-alanine, 2- 14 C-glycine or 14 C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15 N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15 N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  16. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S. K.; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Materials and Methods: Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, ...

  17. Changes in fibre-adherent and fluid-associated microbial communities and fermentation profiles in the rumen of cattle fed diets differing in hay quality and concentrate amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Petri, Renee M; Kleefisch, Maria-Theresia; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-09-01

    The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Operational taxonomic units clustered separately between the liquid and the solid-associated fraction. Phyla in the liquid fraction were identified as mainly Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas main phyla of the fibre-associated fraction were Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres and Firmicutes. Significant alterations in the rumen bacterial communities at all taxonomic levels as a result of changing the hay quality and concentrate proportions were observed. Several intermicrobial correlations were found. Genera Ruminobacter and Fibrobacter were significantly suppressed by feeding sugar-rich hay, whereas others such as Selenomonas and Prevotella proliferated. This study extends the knowledge about diet-induced changes in ruminal microbiome of cattle. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Rumen Fluid by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相高效液相色谱法测定瘤胃液中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 霍文婕; 朱伟云; 毛胜勇

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish a method of simultaneously detecting concentration of biogenic amine in rumen fluid by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC). Samples were extracted by hydrochloric acid (0. 5 mol/L) , and then derived using dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was a gradient elution program with a binary mixture of acetonitrile and 0. 1 mol/L ammonium acetate and the flow rate was 1 mL/min; the wavelength of UV detector was 254 nm, and the column temperature was 30 t. The method was then used to investigate the effect of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio on concentrations of the five biogenic amines in rumen fluid of goats. The results showed that a good separation of tryptamine, putrescine, methylamine, histamine and tyramine was seen within 40 min, and the average recovery were ranged from 88. 46% to 98. 49% , and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% ; Compared with goats fed low concentrate diet, tryptamine and histamine concentrations in rumen fluid of goats fed high concentrate diet were significantly higher (P 0. 05). The results indicate that this method presented here can be used to determine biogenic amine concentrations in rumen fluid, and concentrations of biogenic amine in rumen fluid of goats can be affected by diet forage-to-concentrate ratio.%本文旨在应用反相高效液相色谱法建立瘤胃液中生物胺的测定方法.样品经0.5 mol/L盐酸提取后,用丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,流动相为乙腈和0.1 mol/L乙酸铵溶液;采用梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min;紫外检测器波长254 nm,柱温30℃.应用该方法,研究高精料和低精料饲粮条件下瘤胃液中5种生物胺浓度的差异.结果表明:采用该方法,色胺、腐胺、甲胺、组胺和酪胺5种生物胺能在40 min内得到良好地分离,回收率为88.46%~98.49%,相对标准偏差小于10%.在高精料饲粮条件下,饲喂前山羊瘤胃液中的酪胺和甲胺浓度

  19. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  20. Diversity of phytases in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Brenda A; McAllister, Tim A; Sharma, Ranjana; Selinger, L Brent

    2007-01-01

    Examples of a new class of phytase related to protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) were recently isolated from several anaerobic bacteria from the rumen of cattle. In this study, the diversity of PTP-like phytase gene sequences in the rumen was surveyed by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two sets of degenerate primers were used to amplify sequences from rumen fluid total community DNA and genomic DNA from nine bacterial isolates. Four novel PTP-like phytase sequences were retrieved from rumen fluid, whereas all nine of the anaerobic bacterial isolates investigated in this work contained PTP-like phytase sequences. One isolate, Selenomonas lacticifex, contained two distinct PTP-like phytase sequences, suggesting that multiple phytate hydrolyzing enzymes are present in this bacterium. The degenerate primer and PCR conditions described here, as well as novel sequences obtained in this study, will provide a valuable resource for future studies on this new class of phytase. The observed diversity of microbial phytases in the rumen may account for the ability of ruminants to derive a significant proportion of their phosphorus requirements from phytate.

  1. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S K; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor. Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (pclove and peppermint oil. Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

  2. The effect of pectin, corn and wheat starch, inulin and pH on in vitro production of methane, short chain fatty acids and on the microbial community composition in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Morten; Jensen, Bent Borg; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2012-02-01

    Methane emission from livestock, ruminants in particular, contributes to the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Therefore the focus on methane emission from ruminants has increased. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms for methanogenesis in a rumen fluid-based in vitro fermentation system as a consequence of carbohydrate source (pectin, wheat and corn starch and inulin) and pH (ranging from 5.5 to 7.0). Effects were evaluated with respect to methane and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and changes in the microbial community in the ruminal fluid as assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Fermentation of pectin resulted in significantly lower methane production rates during the first 10 h of fermentation compared to the other substrates (P = 0.001), although total methane production was unaffected by carbohydrate source (P = 0.531). Total acetic acid production was highest for pectin and lowest for inulin (P Methane production rates were significantly lower for fermentations at pH 5.5 and 7.0 (P = 0.005), sustained as a trend after 48 h (P = 0.059), indicating that there was a general optimum for methanogenic activity in the pH range from 6.0 to 6.5. Decreasing pH from 7.0 to 5.5 significantly favored total butyric acid production (P composition. This study demonstrates that both carbohydrate source and pH affect methane and SCFA production patterns, and the microbial community composition in rumen fluid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Minerals and rumen function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B 12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  4. Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Archunan, G

    2004-07-30

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher (P mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and fungal population in the rumen contents of higid beef steers or wih ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abrão F.O., Duarte E.R., Nigri A.C.A., Silva M.L.F., Ribeiro I.C.O., Silva K.L., Rosa C.A. & Rodriguez N.M. [Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and fungal population in the rumen contents of higid beef steers or wih ruminal acidosis.] Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica e população de fungos no conteúdo ruminal de novilhos de corte hígidos ou com acidose ruminal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:7-14, 2015. Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Universitária, 1000, Universitário, Montes Claros, MG 39404-006, Brasil. E-mail: duartevet@hotmail.com In cattle fed with diets without vegetable fibers the development of fungi and other microorganisms in the rumen environment can be altered. The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical, microbiological characteristics and fungal population in the rumen contents of steers raised on lignified pasture or in feedlot without forage. The experimental design was completely randomized, 50 steers were randomly bred in mature pasture and 20 steers fed without forage. Immediately after collection of ruminal fluid, its physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. Micromorphological examination, direct examination for the detection of strict anaerobes fungi and culture, quantification, identification of aerobic fungi were performed. On direct examination, anaerobic fungi of the rumen, monocentric and polycentric were detected in similar proportions (P> 0.05 for rumen fluid of steers raised in tropical pastures during the dry season. However, structures of these microorganisms were not identified for any of the samples obtained from steers fed without vegetal fiber. The average colony-forming units of aerobic fungi by mℓ of ruminal fluid from confined calves was significantly higher than that of animals raised on pasture (P <0.05. After microculture, the genus Aspergillus was the most

  6. In vitro rumen gas and methane production of grass silages differing in plant maturity and nitrogen fertilisation, compared to in vivo enteric methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macome, F. M.; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Schonewille, J. Th; Bannink, A.; Laar, H.; Hendriks, W. H.; Warner, D.; Cone, John W

    2017-01-01

    The potential of an in vitro gas production (GP) system to predict the in vivo enteric methane (CH4) production for various ryegrass-based silages was evaluated, using adapted rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid from 12 lactating rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used for in vitro

  7. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  8. The contribution of mathematical modeling to understanding the dynamic aspects of rumen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bannink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available All rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interaction between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine. Adding representations of new functional classes of micro-organisms (i.e. with new characteristics from the perspective of whole rumen function in rumen models only delivers new insights if complemented by the dynamics of their interactions with other functional classes. Rumen fermentation conditions have to be represented due to their profound impact on the dynamics of substrate degradation and microbial metabolism. Although the importance of rumen acidity is generally acknowledged, more emphasis is needed on predicting its variation as well as variation in the processes that underlie rumen fluid dynamics. The rumen wall has an important role in adapting to rapid changes in the rumen environment, clearing of volatile fatty acids (VFA, and maintaining rumen pH within limits. Dynamics of rumen wall epithelia and its role in VFA absorption needs to be better represented in models which aim to predict rumen responses across nutritional or physiological states. For a detailed prediction of rumen N balance there is merit in a dynamic modeling approach compared to the static approaches adopted in current protein evaluation systems. Improvement is needed on previous attempts to predict rumen VFA profiles, and this should be pursued by introducing factors that relate more

  9. Methodological factors affecting gas and methane production during in vitro rumen fermentation evaluated by meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarana, Laura; Cattani, Mirko; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bailoni, Lucia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Effects of some methodological factors on in vitro measures of gas production (GP, mL/g DM), CH4 production (mL/g DM) and proportion (% CH4 on total GP) were investigated by meta-analysis. These factors were considered: pressure in the GP equipment (0 = constant; 1 = increasing), incubation time (0 = 24; 1 = ≥ 48 h), time of rumen fluid collection (0 = before feeding; 1 = after feeding of donor animals), donor species of rumen fluid (0 = sheep; 1 = bovine), presence of N in the buffer solution (0 = presence; 1 = absence), and ratio between amount of buffered rumen fluid and feed sample (BRF/FS; 0 = ≤ 130 mL/g DM; 1 = 130-140 mL/g DM; 2 = ≥ 140 mL/g DM). The NDF content of feed sample incubated (NDF) was considered as a continuous variable. From an initial database of 105 papers, 58 were discarded because one of the above-mentioned factors was not stated. After discarding 17 papers, the final dataset comprised 30 papers (339 observations). A preliminary mixed model analysis was carried out on experimental data considering the study as random factor. Variables adjusted for study effect were analyzed using a backward stepwise analysis including the above-mentioned variables. The analysis showed that the extension of incubation time and reduction of NDF increased GP and CH4 values. Values of GP and CH4 also increased when rumen fluid was collected after feeding compared to before feeding (+26.4 and +9.0 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), from bovine compared to sheep (+32.8 and +5.2 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), and when the buffer solution did not contain N (+24.7 and +6.7 mL/g DM for GP and CH4). The increase of BRF/FS ratio enhanced GP and CH4 production (+7.7 and +3.3 mL/g DM per each class of increase, respectively). In vitro techniques for measuring GP and CH4 production are mostly used as screening methods, thus a full standardization of such techniques is not feasible. However, a greater harmonization

  10. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Taposh; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Choudhury, Dipankar; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Masjuki, H H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  11. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Exosomal and Non-Exosomal Transport of Extra-Cellular microRNAs in Follicular Fluid: Implications for Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication within the follicle involves many signaling molecules, and this process may be mediated by secretion and uptake of exosomes that contain several bioactive molecules including extra-cellular miRNAs. Follicular fluid and cells from individual follicles of cattle were grouped based on Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining of the corresponding oocytes. Both Exoquick precipitation and differential ultracentrifugation were used to separate the exosome and non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid. Following miRNA isolation from both fractions, the human miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT miRNA PCR array system was used to profile miRNA expression. This analysis found that miRNAs were present in both exosomal and non-exosomal fraction of bovine follicular fluid. We found 25 miRNAs differentially expressed (16 up and 9 down in exosomes and 30 miRNAs differentially expressed (21 up and 9 down in non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid in comparison of BCB- versus BCB+ oocyte groups. Expression of selected miRNAs was detected in theca, granulosa and cumulus oocyte complex. To further explore the potential roles of these follicular fluid derived extra-cellular miRNAs, the potential target genes were predicted, and functional annotation and pathway analysis revealed most of these pathways are known regulators of follicular development and oocyte growth. In order to validate exosome mediated cell-cell communication within follicular microenvironment, we demonstrated uptake of exosomes and resulting increase of endogenous miRNA level and subsequent alteration of mRNA levels in follicular cells in vitro. This study demonstrates for the first time, the presence of exosome or non-exosome mediated transfer of miRNA in the bovine follicular fluid, and oocyte growth dependent variation in extra-cellular miRNA signatures in the follicular environment.

  13. Comparison of rumen bacteria distribution in original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions in lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shoukun; Zhang, Hongtao; Yan, Hui; Azarfar, Arash; Shi, Haitao; Alugongo, Gibson; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Background Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. Methods To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas. Rumen digesta was then squeezed...

  14. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, Emine Gozde; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2018-02-14

    Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methanogenic communities of rumen and manure samples were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, respectively. Rumen fluid samples were dominated by Prevotellaceae (29%), whereas Ruminococcaceae was the most abundant family in the manure samples (31%). Fibrobacteraceae (12%) and Bacteroidaceae (13%) were the second most abundant families in rumen fluid and manure, respectively. The high abundances of fiber-degrading bacteria belonging to Prevotellaceae and Fibrobacteraceae might explain the better performance of anaerobic digesters inoculated with rumen fluid. Members of the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant methanogens in the rumen fluid, whereas methanogenic communities of the manure samples were dominated by the candidate genus Methanoplasma . Our results suggest that inoculation or bioaugmentation with fiber-digesting rumen microbiota can enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gozde Ozbayram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methanogenic communities of rumen and manure samples were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, respectively. Rumen fluid samples were dominated by Prevotellaceae (29%, whereas Ruminococcaceae was the most abundant family in the manure samples (31%. Fibrobacteraceae (12% and Bacteroidaceae (13% were the second most abundant families in rumen fluid and manure, respectively. The high abundances of fiber-degrading bacteria belonging to Prevotellaceae and Fibrobacteraceae might explain the better performance of anaerobic digesters inoculated with rumen fluid. Members of the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant methanogens in the rumen fluid, whereas methanogenic communities of the manure samples were dominated by the candidate genus Methanoplasma. Our results suggest that inoculation or bioaugmentation with fiber-digesting rumen microbiota can enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Fatty acid oxidation products ('green odour') released from perennial ryegrass following biotic and abiotic stress, potentially have antimicrobial properties against the rumen microbiota resulting in decreased biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, S A; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Lee, M R F

    2013-11-01

    In this experiment, we investigated the effect of 'green odour' products typical of those released from fresh forage postabiotic and biotic stresses on the rumen microbiota and lipid metabolism. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (HP), a combination of salicylic and jasmonic acid (T), and a combination of both (HPT) were incubated in vitro in the presence of freeze-dried ground silage and rumen fluid, under rumen-like conditions. 16S rRNA (16S cDNA) HaeIII-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism-based (T-RFLP) dendrograms, canonical analysis of principal coordinates graphs, peak number and Shanon-Weiner diversity indices show that HP, T and HPT likely had antimicrobial effects on the microbiota compared to control incubations. Following 6 h of in vitro incubation, 15.3% of 18:3n-3 and 4.4% of 18:2n-6 was biohydrogenated in control incubations, compared with 1.3, 9.4 and 8.3% of 18:3n-3 for HP, T and HPT treatments, respectively, with negligible 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation seen. T-RFLP peaks lost due to application of HP, T and HPT likely belonged to as yet uncultured bacteria within numerous genera. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid, T and HPT released due to plant stress potentially have an antimicrobial effect on the rumen microbiota, which may explain the decreased biohydrogenation in vitro. These data suggest that these volatile chemicals may be responsible for the higher summer n-3 content of bovine milk. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka

    2015-01-01

    and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted...

  18. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  19. Rumen microbial genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.; Nelson, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Improving microbial degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides remains one of the highest priority goals for all livestock enterprises, including the cattle herds and draught animals of developing countries. The North American Consortium for Genomics of Fibrolytic Ruminal Bacteria was created to promote the sequencing and comparative analysis of rumen microbial genomes, offering the potential to fully assess the genetic potential in a functional and comparative fashion. It has been found that the Fibrobacter succinogenes genome encodes many more endoglucanases and cellodextrinases than previously isolated, and several new processive endoglucanases have been identified by genome and proteomic analysis of Ruminococcus albus, in addition to a variety of strategies for its adhesion to fibre. The ramifications of acquiring genome sequence data for rumen microorganisms are profound, including the potential to elucidate and overcome the biochemical, ecological or physiological processes that are rate limiting for ruminal fibre degradation. (author)

  20. The effect of DNA extraction methods on observed microbial communities from fibrous and liquid rumen fractions of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaidya, Jueeli D.; Bogert, van den Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of

  1. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Sauer, Cathrine; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    camelopardalis), three of which were fed natural browse and four were fed Boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay, and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16S rRNA gene diversity using 454 FLX high-throughput sequencing. The microbial community composition varied according to diet, but differed little between...... the ruminal fluid and solid fraction. The giraffe rumen contained large levels of the phyla of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes independent of diet, while Prevotella, Succinclasticium, and Methanobrevibacter accounted for the largest abundant taxonomic assigned genera. However, up to 21% of the generated...

  2. Isolation of chitinolytic Clostridium sp. NCR from Mehsani buffalo rumen, its genomic analysis and potential role in rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nathani, Neelam M.; Duggirala, Srinivas M.; M., Chandra Shekar; Kothari, Ramesh K.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic analysis of Clostridium sp. NCR, an anaerobic Gram positive bacterium which was isolated from rumen fluid of Mehsani breed of buffalo revealed presence of various environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in pathways for utilizing a wide range of substrates. Here we report the sequence of this rumen isolate, its whole genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JQHY00000000. The genome comprises of a 3.62-Mb draft genome with a G + C content of 28....

  3. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S

    1987-11-01

    1. The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro. 2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate:propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions. 3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose. 4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.

  4. Isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria by dilution to extinction using a new liquid culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenters, Nikki; Henderson, Gemma; Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    A new anaerobic medium that mimics the salts composition of rumen fluid was used in conjunction with a dilution method of liquid culture to isolate fermentative bacteria from the rumen of a grass-fed sheep. The aim was to inoculate a large number of culture tubes each with a mean of 97% sequence identity to genes of uncultured bacteria detected in various gastrointestinal environments. This strategy has therefore allowed us to cultivate many novel rumen bacteria, opening the way to overcoming the lack of cultures of many of the groups detected using cultivation-independent methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-step in vitro maturation culture of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to evaluate the effect of three-step in vitro maturation (IVM culture system imitating estradiol-17β (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicles on in vitro bovine embryo production. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from follicles (2 to 8 mm in diameter of bovine ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For IVM, the COCs were cultured for 22 h in a three-step system: (1 culture in medium 199, containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 and 50 ng mL−1 P4, for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 and 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 and 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (EP group; (2 culture in the medium containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 for 6 h (E group; or (3 culture in the medium containing 50 ng mL−1 P4 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (P group. The COCs were cultured in the medium containing 1000 ng mL−1 E2 for 22 h (control group. After IVM, the COCs were co-incubated with sperm and further cultured. At 48 h after insemination, the cleavage rate of embryos was not different among the groups. At 192 h after insemination, the blastocyst formation rate of EP group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The total cell number of blastocysts did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the three-step IVM culture system of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of E2 and P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid improves the developmental potential of embryos in vitro.

  6. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  7. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  8. Rumen bacteria at work: bioaugmentation strategies to enhance biogas production from cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E G; Akyol, Ç; Ince, B; Karakoç, C; Ince, O

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia was evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36°C and 41°C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 ml CH 4 per gram VS at 41°C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture. Bacterial community profiles were investigated by Ion PGM Platform, and specific lignocellulolytic bacteria dynamics in batch tests were assessed by qPCR. The temperature had minor effects on the abundance of bacterial community; in which Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all digesters. Furthermore, Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. There was an important impact of Firmicutes flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus at 41°C, which in turn positively affected the methane production. The degree of enhancement in biogas production can be upgraded by the co-inoculation of rumen-derived bioaugmentation culture with anaerobic seed sludge with high methanogenic activity. A close look at the biotic interactions and their associations with abiotic factors might be valuable for evaluating rumen-related bioaugmentation applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  10. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Morgavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants forging their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions.

  11. Effect of apatite formation of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) on osteoblastogenesis using simulated body fluid (SBF) with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Department of Orthopaedic Trauma and Hand Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhou, Bo; Wu, Huayu [Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, School of Premedical Sciences, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zheng, Li, E-mail: zhengli224@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); The Medical and Scientific Research Center, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhao, Jinmin, E-mail: zhaojinmin@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Department of Orthopaedic Trauma and Hand Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China)

    2017-01-01

    Although biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) holds promise in therapy of bone defect, surface mineralization prior to implantation may improve the bioactivity to better integrate with the host. Immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and bovine serum albumin-simulated body fluid (BSA-SBF) are common methods to form apatite interface layer. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SBF and BSA-SBF treatment on the bioactivity of BCP in vitro. In this study, osteoblasts were grown on BCP with or without treatment of SBF or BSA-SBF, and detected with general observation, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cell proliferation assay, morphology observation, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, and osteogenic specific gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (BGLAP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) after culture of 2, 5 and 8 days. As the results shown, BCP pre-incubated in SBF and BSA-SBF up-regulated ALP activity and osteogenic related genes and proteins, which testified the positive effect of SBF and BSA-SBF. Especially, BSA-SBF enhanced the cell growth significantly. This study indicated that treatment by BSA-SBF is of importance for BCP before clinical application. - Highlights: • BCP pre-incubated in SBF and BSA-SBF significantly promoted osteogenic differetiation of osteoblasts. • BSA-SBF enhanced the cell growth more significantly than SBF. • SBF may be a little toxic to osteoblasts.

  12. Rumen bacteria: interaction with particulate dietary components and response to dietary variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Akin, D E; Costerton, J W

    1977-02-01

    The bovine rumen resembles many other ecosystems in that its component bacterial cells are universally surrounded and protected by extracellular structures. The most common form of these structures is a fibrous carbohydrate slime that extends away from the cell and may mediate the attachment of the bacterium to a surface. This attachment is relatively specific and it may occur at the surface of the rumen epithelium or on the cell walls of a specific tissue within the plant-derived food of the animal. The production of the extracellular slime is under nutritional control and slime may be overproduced when soluble carbohydrates are available in high concentration. This overproduction results in cell-cell adhesion among the rumen bacteria with the eventual formation of slime-enclosed microcolonies and, in extreme cases, the generation of sufficient viscosity to cause feedlot bloat.

  13. An in vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.; Cumming, G.J.; Graham, C.A.; Leng, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me- 14 C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo. A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo. (auth)

  14. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow Versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Beauchemin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec. In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of sixteen heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast > 4.18 % h-1 and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow 0.05 methane per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P < 0.05 acetate: propionate ratio for untreated straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P < 0.05 and increased microbial N production (P = 0.045 were observed in Fast rumen inoculum. AFEX straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013. These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  15. Presence and species identity of rumen flukes in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, H W; Ankum, L; Moll, L; van Doorn, D C K; Mitchell, G; Skuce, P J; Zadoks, R N; Holzhauer, M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle and 8.0% for sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher after 2012 than before, which may reflect a change in detection method as well as an increase in true prevalence. During November and December 2014, an abattoir survey was conducted to allow for scoring of rumen fluke burden and to obtain specimens for molecular species characterization. Over 8 visits to 5 abattoirs in areas deemed to pose a high risk for trematode infection, 116 cows and 41 sheep from 27 herds and 10 flocks were examined. Prevalence of RF was higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle and higher in cattle than in sheep. Median fluke burden was >100 specimens per animal for most positive animals. Using a semi-quantitative RF density score as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of a modified quantitative Dorsman egg counting method were estimated at 82.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Of 14 collected adult rumen flukes, twelve (8 bovine and 4 ovine specimens) were identified as Calicophoron daubneyi. The other two, of bovine origin, were identified as Paramphistomum leydeni, which was unexpected as in other European countries all recently collected rumen flukes in both cattle and sheep were identified as C. daubneyi. The findings implicate that multiple rumen fluke species, intermediate host species and transmission cycles may play a role in rumen fluke infections in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Srivastava, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. The animals were given their daily ration in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen were labelled either with 14 C or 35 S by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C)DL-leucine or 35 S-sodium sulphate. Labelled bacterial cells were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Samples from the ruminal fluid were drawn at various time intervals for 9 hours and the specific radioactivity of the bacteria was determined. The dilution in the specific radioactivity was used to calculate the turnover time and rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. (author)

  17. Comparison of organic matter degradation in several feedstuffs in the rumen as determined with the nylon bag and gas production techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, John W.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Bachmann, Herwig; Hindle, Vincent A.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) degradation of 21 feedstuffs was investigated with rumen fluid using a rumen in situ technique and a gas production technique. Fitting the nylon bag data to an exponential model showed that there was a high variation in the rate of OM degradation ranging from 1.7% h-1 for

  18. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique Using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Candace L; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Oba, Masahito; McAllister, Tim A; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast ≥ 4.18% h -1 ) and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow ≤ 3.17% h -1 ) were chosen as inoculum donors for this study. Two Rusitec apparatuses each equipped with eight fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with two blocks (apparatus) and four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (Fast or Slow rumen inoculum and untreated or AFEX treated straw). Fast rumen inoculum and AFEX straw both increased ( P 0.05) methane production per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P < 0.05) acetate: propionate ratio for untreated straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus ( P < 0.05) and increased microbial N production ( P = 0.045) were observed in Fast rumen inoculum. AFEX straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  19. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  20. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

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    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical grass will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457±20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon after. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates content were 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. DM intake was 1.6% live weight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92 %/h for fluid and solids respectively. EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter. It might be concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was below the minimum level for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards. ABSTRAK Tingkat pasokan protein mikroba rumen (MCP ke usus halus merupakan salah satu unsur kunci dalam meramal respon pertumbuhan ruminan terhadap ransum tertentu. Data MCP hijauan tropis selalu berada di bawah nilai prediksi model rumen yang dipakai saat ini. Dengan demikian, kuantifikasi pasokan MCP rumput tropis diharapkan menjadi masukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan prediksi model rumen untuk pakan daerah tropis. Empat sapi jantan muda Brahman persilangan (457±20,1 kg digunakan dalam sebuah penelitian metabolisme. Rumput pangola (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal dipanen setiap pagi dan langsung diberikan kepada ternak dalam kandang metabolis. Parameter yang diukur adalah produksi MCP dan efisiensi sintesis MCP (Emps, konsumsi, laju

  1. Metatranscriptome Sequencing Reveals Insights into the Gene Expression and Functional Potential of Rumen Wall Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    2018-01-01

    digestion, as well as oxidative stress response and oxygen scavenging at the rumen wall. Archaea, mainly Methanocaldococcus and Methanobrevibacter, were found to be metabolically active with a high number of transcripts matching to methane and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings enhance our understanding of the metabolic function of the bovine rumen wall microbiota.

  2. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  3. Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevel, C.J. Van; Demeyer, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32 P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32 P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

  4. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  5. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litai Zhang

    Full Text Available Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  6. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  7. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pandey; N. Goel; S.K. Sirohi

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and r...

  8. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Baldwin, Ransom L; Rowland, Lisa J; Li, Robert; Oh, Sunghee; Li, Congjun; Connor, Erin E; Ranilla, Maria-Jose

    2017-01-01

    The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  9. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  10. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2013-02-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37%, late: NDF 44% in dry matter (DM)), and from each harvest, a chopped (theoretical cutting length: 19 mm) and an unchopped crop was ensiled in bales. The silages were fed restrictively to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (391 ± 26 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The cows were fed restrictively 80% of their ad libitum intake twice daily. Chewing activity was recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen content, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500 and 0.212 mm pore sizes into six fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) of particles within each fraction was measured by the use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg dry matter intake (P rumen content, rumen fluid and faeces was affected by harvest time (P rumen content and faeces were identified. Chopping of the silage decreased the mean PL and PW, the most frequent PL (mode) and 95% percentile PL and PW values in boli. In the rumen content, chopping increased the mean PW (P rumen content and faeces than in boli (P rumen contents (P rumen content and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaf and the stem residues.

  11. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Comparison of Detection of Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus Antigen in Various Types of Tissue and Fluid Samples Collected from Persistently Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most new infections are acquired from animals persistently infected with the virus. Surveillance programs rely on skin biopsies for detection of persistently infected cattle. The purpose of this study was to compare ant...

  14. In vitro digestion of bloat-safe and bloat-causing legumes by rumen microorganisms: gas and foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Leaves of three bloat-safe legumes -- birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), and cicer milkvetch (Astralagus cicer L.) -- and of three bloat-causing legumes -- alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) -- were incubated with strained rumen fluid or with mixed rumen fluid and solids. Gas released was measured during the early period (0 to 22 h) of this in vitro digestion. Gas volume was greater with a 1:1 (wt/vol) mixture of solid and fluid rumen contents than with rumen fluid alone. It was greater with whole and chewed leaves from the bloat-causing legumes than with whole leaves from the bloat-safe legumes. However, when leaves were homogenized, volumes of gas from bloat-causing and bloat-safe legumes were similar. More gas was released from homogenized leaves than from the same weight of whole leaves. The amount of foam produced on chewed herbage and homogenized leaves of bloat-causing legumes was greater than on those of bloat-safe legumes. These results are consistent with the rate of disintegration and digestion of legumes by rumen bacteria being an important determinant in pasture bloat. Measurement of gas produced early in in vitro digestion may provide a useful bioassay for evaluating the bloat-causing potential of legumes in breeding selections if variability of the method can be reduced.

  15. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  16. Nutrient Digestibility and Performances of Frisian Holstein Calves Fed with Pennisetum purpureum and Inoculated with Buffalo’s Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prihantoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB are potential in digesting fiber feed. BRB already adapted well with low quality forages and agricultural byproducts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB consortium inoculated into preweaning Frisian Holstein calves on nutrient digestibility, physiological status, mineral uptake, and blood profile. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of four local buffalos. The research units consisted of seven Frisian Holstein calves at two weeks old with the average body weight of 43.6±4.5 kg. Calves were inoculated with 20 mL of buffalo’s rumen bacteria isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/mL] every morning for 10 weeks. The calves were divided into two groups i.e., three calves received bacterial inoculation and four calves without any inoculation. The variables which were analyzed in the preweaning and weaning period were feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, rumen fermentation characteristics, body weight, physiological status, blood profile, and mineral status. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test. The results showed that inoculation of buffalo’s rumen bacteria into Frisian Holstein calves effectively increased feed intake, characteristics of leukocytes and neutrophils, and cobalt (Co uptake during the weaning period. Inoculation of rumen bacteria improved rumen pH during preweaning and weaning periods. Inoculation of rumen bacteria also had no negative effects on digestibility, feed conversion (FCR, average daily gain (ADG, and physiological status.

  17. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a new hydrogen-utilizing bacterium from the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu-Lesme, F; Fonty, G; Doré, J

    1995-01-01

    A new H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacterium was isolated from the rumen of a mature deer. This is the first report of a spore-forming Gram-negative bacterial species from the rumen. The organism was a strictly anaerobic, motile rod and was able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetate was the major product detected. Glucose, fructose and lactate were also fermented heterotrophically. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-7.5, and the optimum temperature was 37-42 degrees C. Yeast extract was required for growth and rumen fluid was highly stimulatory. The DNA base ratio was 52.9 +/- 0.5 mol% G+C. On the basis of these characteristics and fermentation products, the isolate was considered to be different from acetogenic bacteria described previously.

  19. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CN significantly affected the concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), rumen peptide nitrogen (Pep-N) and the ratio of rumen ammonia nitrogen/ rumen peptide nitrogen (P < 0.05) and consequently blood urea nitrogen, milk urea nitrogen and urinary urea nitrogen concentrations. However digestibility of dry ...

  20. Isolation and Identification of Sodium Fluoroacetate Degrading Bacteria from Caprine Rumen in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito K. A. Camboim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the isolation of two fluoroacetate degrading bacteria from the rumen of goats. The animals were adult goats, males, crossbred, with rumen fistula, fed with hay, and native pasture. The rumen fluid was obtained through the rumen fistula and immediately was inoculated 100 μL in mineral medium added with 20 mmol L−1 sodium fluoroacetate (SF, incubated at 39°C in an orbital shaker. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain DSM 8341 was used as positive control for fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity. Two isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pigmentiphaga kullae (ECPB08 and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus (ECPB09. These bacteria degraded sodium fluoroacetate, releasing 20 mmol L−1 of fluoride ion after 32 hours of incubation in Brunner medium containing 20 mmol L−1 of SF. There are no previous reports of fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity for P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus. Control measures to prevent plant intoxication, including use of fences, herbicides, or other methods of eliminating poisonous plants, have been unsuccessful to avoid poisoning by fluoroacetate containing plants in Brazil. In this way, P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus may be used to colonize the rumen of susceptible animals to avoid intoxication by fluoroacetate containing plants.

  1. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Cairan Rumen Sapi Bali sebagai Kandidat Biopreservatif ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ACID LACTIC BACTERIA FROM BALI CATTLE’S GASTRIC FLUID AS A POTENTIAL CANDIDATE OF BIOPRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify of lactic acid bacteria originated from gastric fluid of bali cattle, and to determine their potential as the candidates of biopreservative. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated by culturing the gastric fluid of bali cattle in de Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS medium; screening the bacteria, and identification of bacteria species by Analytical Profile Index (API 50 CHL Kit. The results showed that, the new species of lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified as Lactococcus lactis spp lactis 1 (SR21 isolate and Lactobacillus brevis 1 (SR54 isolate that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. It is clear from this study that a potential lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial agent can be isolated from the gastric fluid of bali cattle.

  3. Clinical diseases of the rumen: a physiologist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, B F

    1983-07-02

    An interpretation of many of the classical signs of ruminal dysfunction is possible by extrapolation from the results of research in rumen physiology. Correlation of motility and ruminal fluid characteristics will often provide a means of establishing the degree, the duration and the differential diagnosis of the dysfunction detected. In the case of disorders of ruminal motility, general anaesthesia and diseases at any sites which produce pain or fever can inhibit the hindbrain reflex centres responsible for evoking primary and secondary cycle contractions of the reticulorumen. Simple indigestion/rumen impaction, vagus indigestion and hypocalcaemic milk fever cause ruminal stasis, probably because they relax the reticuloruminal smooth muscle and hence decrease the reflexly excitable sensory inputs from tension receptors. Grain engorgement/ruminal acidosis and extreme bloat are likely to excite other sensory receptors (epithelial receptors), which reflexly inhibit cyclical motility. Bloat occurs when eructation is inadequate either because the oesophagus is obstructed or because cardiac opening is reflexly inhibited by the presence of ruminal fluid rather than gas at the cardia in conditions of subnormal motility or of leguminous frothing.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of rumen microbial population in dairy heifers fed a high grain diet supplemented with dicarboxylic acids or polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Li, Shucong; Khafipour, Ehsan; Plaizier, Kees J C; Gianesella, Matteo; Ricci, Rebecca; Andrighetto, Igino; Segato, Severino

    2016-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two feed supplements on rumen bacterial communities of heifers fed a high grain diet. Six Holstein-Friesian heifers received one of the following dietary treatments according to a Latin square design: no supplement (control, C), 60 g/day of fumarate-malate (organic acid, O) and 100 g/day of polyphenol-essential oil (P). Rumen fluid was analyzed to assess the microbial population using Illumina sequencing and quantitative real time PCR. The P treatment had the highest number of observed species (P PCoA with unweighted Unifrac distance showed a separation among dietary treatments (P = 0.09), above all between the C and P (P = 0.05). The O and P treatments showed a significant increase of the family Christenenellaceae and a decline of Prevotella brevis compared to C. Additionally, the P treatment enhanced the abundance of many taxa belonging to Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Tenericutes phyla due to a potential antimicrobial activity of flavonoids that increased competition among bacteria. Organic acid and polyphenols significantly modified rumen bacterial populations during high-grain feeding in dairy heifers. In particular the polyphenol treatment increased the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota, which are usually high in conditions of physiological rumen pH and rumen function.

  5. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effect of DNA extraction and sample preservation method on rumen bacterial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegerova, Katerina; Tapio, Ilma; Bonin, Aurelie; Mrazek, Jakub; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Bani, Paolo; Bayat, Alireza; Vilkki, Johanna; Kopečný, Jan; Shingfield, Kevin J; Boyer, Frederic; Coissac, Eric; Taberlet, Pierre; Wallace, R John

    2014-10-01

    The comparison of the bacterial profile of intracellular (iDNA) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) isolated from cow rumen content stored under different conditions was conducted. The influence of rumen fluid treatment (cheesecloth squeezed, centrifuged, filtered), storage temperature (RT, -80 °C) and cryoprotectants (PBS-glycerol, ethanol) on quality and quantity parameters of extracted DNA was evaluated by bacterial DGGE analysis, real-time PCR quantification and metabarcoding approach using high-throughput sequencing. Samples clustered according to the type of extracted DNA due to considerable differences between iDNA and eDNA bacterial profiles, while storage temperature and cryoprotectants additives had little effect on sample clustering. The numbers of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were lower (P rumen fluid subjected to the eDNA isolation procedure considerably changed the ratio of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Intracellular DNA extraction using bead-beating method from cheesecloth sieved rumen content mixed with PBS-glycerol and stored at -80 °C was found as the optimal method to study ruminal bacterial profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Repeated inoculation of cattle rumen with bison rumen contents alters the rumen microbiome and improves nitrogen digestibility in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Gabriel O.; Oss, Daniela B.; He, Zhixiong; Gruninger, Robert J.; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Forster, Robert J.; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2017-01-01

    Future growth in demand for meat and milk, and the socioeconomic and environmental challenges that farmers face, represent a ?grand challenge for humanity?. Improving the digestibility of crop residues such as straw could enhance the sustainability of ruminant production systems. Here, we investigated if transfer of rumen contents from bison to cattle could alter the rumen microbiome and enhance total tract digestibility of a barley straw-based diet. Beef heifers were adapted to the diet for ...

  8. Differences in monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 expression in rumen epithelium of newborn calves due to age and milk or milk replacer feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaga, J; Górka, P; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether besides age and solid feed intake, monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 (MCT1) expression in the rumen epithelium of calves is affected by liquid feed type [whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR)]. Thirty bull calves at the mean age of 5 days were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (six calves/group). Six calves were slaughtered immediately after allocation to the trial (5 days of life), eighteen calves were fed MR and slaughtered at week intervals (on 12, 19, 26 days of life respectively), and six calves were fed WM and slaughtered at the 26 days of life. MCT1 protein abundance and the MCT1 mRNA level were investigated in the dorsal and ventral sack of the rumen. Solid feed intake and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in the rumen fluid increased linearly with calves' age. The amount of the MCT1 protein and mRNA in the dorsal sac of rumen as well as the amount of MCT1 protein in the cranial ventral sac of rumen also increased linearly with calves' age. Calves fed WM had greater solid feed intake in the last week of the study as compared to calves fed MR, but SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid was not different. MCT1 mRNA expression in the cranial dorsal sac of rumen and protein MCT1 expression in both dorsal and ventral cranial sack of the rumen were higher in calves fed WM as compared to calves fed MR. This study confirmed age-dependent changes of MCT1 expression in the rumen epithelium of newborn calves and showed that its expression might be affected by liquid feed type. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Comtet-Marre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6 were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  11. Enhancing the Resolution of Rumen Microbial Classification from Metatranscriptomic Data Using Kraken and Mothur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Neves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools have greatly advanced our knowledge about the phylogenetic diversity and ecological role of microbes inhabiting the mammalian gut. However, there is a lack of information on the evaluation of these computational tools in the context of the rumen microbiome as these programs have mostly been benchmarked on real or simulated datasets generated from human studies. In this study, we compared the outcomes of two methods, Kraken (mRNA based and a pipeline developed in-house based on Mothur (16S rRNA based, to assess the taxonomic profiles (bacteria and archaea of rumen microbial communities using total RNA sequencing of rumen fluid collected from 12 cattle with differing feed conversion ratios (FCR. Both approaches revealed a similar phyla distribution of the most abundant taxa, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria accounting for approximately 80% of total bacterial abundance. For bacterial taxa, although 69 genera were commonly detected by both methods, an additional 159 genera were exclusively identified by Kraken. Kraken detected 423 species, while Mothur was not able to assign bacterial sequences to the species level. For archaea, both methods generated similar results only for the abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae (previously referred as RCC, which comprised more than 65% of the total archaeal families. Taxon R4-41B was exclusively identified by Mothur in the rumen of feed efficient bulls, whereas Kraken uniquely identified Methanococcaceae in inefficient bulls. Although Kraken enhanced the microbial classification at the species level, identification of bacteria or archaea in the rumen is limited due to a lack of reference genomes for the rumen microbiome. The findings from this study suggest that the development of the combined pipelines using Mothur and Kraken is needed for a more inclusive and representative classification of microbiomes.

  12. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bouzid, Ourdia; Mosoni, Pascale; Bayat, Ali R; Peyret, Pierre; Forano, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi) represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  13. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  14. The effect of different physical forms of starter feed on rumen fermentation indicators and weight gain in calves after weaning

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    Leoš Pavlata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different physical forms of starter feed on rumen fermentation indicators of calves after weaning and their weight gain. The experiment was performed with Czech Fleckvieh calves after weaning. The calves were fed ad libitum completely pelleted starter feed or texturized starter feed with chopped straw. The rumen fluid samples were collected after a month of feeding the starter feeds. The calves were weighed monthly. The pH, total acidity, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactic acid, ammonia and the number of rumen ciliate protozoa were determined in the rumen fluid samples. The calves receiving the starter feed with straw showed significantly higher rumen pH (6.24 ± 0.51 vs. 5.58 ± 0.30, total volatile fatty acids (98.02 ± 20.46 vs. 61.40 ± 26.51 mmol/l, molar proportion of acetate (61.20 ± 4.87 vs. 50.53 ± 4.66%, and the acetate:propionate ratio (2.38 ± 0.53 vs. 1.34 ± 0.18 and lower molar proportion of propionate (26.55 ± 4.48 vs. 37.92 ± 3.58% compared with the calves receiving pelleted starter feed. Average daily gain of the calves did not differ significantly. The feeding of starter feed with chopped straw compared with the pelleted starter feed led to better development of the rumen fermentation evaluated by rumen pH, by total volatile fatty acids production, and by the proportion and ratio of acetic and propionic acids. The feeding of starter feed with chopped straw reduced the occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis in the weaned calves.

  15. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis, and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5. There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3 and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4 in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the

  16. Impact of high-concentrate feeding and low ruminal pH on methanogens and protozoa in the rumen of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; Steele, Michael A; Northwood, Korinne S; Wright, André-Denis G; McBride, Brian W

    2011-07-01

    Non-lactating dairy cattle were transitioned to a high-concentrate diet to investigate the effect of ruminal pH suppression, commonly found in dairy cattle, on the density, diversity, and community structure of rumen methanogens, as well as the density of rumen protozoa. Four ruminally cannulated cows were fed a hay diet and transitioned to a 65% grain and 35% hay diet. The cattle were maintained on an high-concentrate diet for 3 weeks before the transition back to an hay diet, which was fed for an additional 3 weeks. Rumen fluid and solids and fecal samples were obtained prior to feeding during weeks 0 (hay), 1, and 3 (high-concentrate), and 4 and 6 (hay). Subacute ruminal acidosis was induced during week 1. During week 3 of the experiment, there was a significant increase in the number of protozoa present in the rumen fluid (P=0.049) and rumen solids (P=0.004), and a significant reduction in protozoa in the rumen fluid in week 6 (P=0.003). No significant effect of diet on density of rumen methanogens was found in any samples, as determined by real-time PCR. Clone libraries were constructed for weeks 0, 3, and 6, and the methanogen diversity of week 3 was found to differ from week 6. Week 3 was also found to have a significantly altered methanogen community structure, compared to the other weeks. Twenty-two unique 16S rRNA phylotypes were identified, three of which were found only during high-concentrate feeding, three were found during both phases of hay feeding, and seven were found in all three clone libraries. The genus Methanobrevibacter comprised 99% of the clones present. The rumen fluid at weeks 0, 3, and 6 of all the animals was found to contain a type A protozoal population. Ultimately, high-concentrate feeding did not significantly affect the density of rumen methanogens, but did alter methanogen diversity and community structure, as well as protozoal density within the rumen of nonlactating dairy cattle. Therefore, it may be necessary to monitor the

  17. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

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    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  18. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  19. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of probiotics on rumen liquor characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics has been noted to work synergistically with rumen microbes and improved rumen liquor characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics inclusion on rumen liquor characteristics (physical, chemical and fermentative qualities) and microbiology in WAD goats. In a completely randomised design, ...

  1. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  2. Effect of roughage on rumen microbiota composition in the efficient feed converter and sturdy Indian Jaffrabadi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Mootapally, Chandra Shekar; Reddy, Bhaskar; Shah, Shailesh V; Lunagaria, Pravin M; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-12-29

    The rumen microbiota functions as an effective system for conversion of dietary feed to microbial proteins and volatile fatty acids. In the present study, metagenomic approach was applied to elucidate the buffalo rumen microbiome of Jaffrabadi buffalo adapted to varied dietary treatments with the hypothesis that the microbial diversity and subsequent in the functional capacity will alter with diet change and enhance our knowledge of effect of microbe on host physiology. Eight adult animals were gradually adapted to an increasing roughage diet (4 animals each with green and dry roughage) containing 50:50 (J1), 75:25 (J2) and 100:0 (J3) roughage to concentrate proportion for 6 weeks. Metagenomic sequences of solid (fiber adherent microbiota) and liquid (fiber free microbiota) fractions obtained using Ion Torrent PGM platform were analyzed using MG-RAST server and CAZymes approach. Taxonomic analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter and Proteobacteria. Functional analysis revealed protein (25-30 %) and carbohydrate (15-20 %) metabolism as the dominant categories. Principal component analysis demonstrated that roughage proportion, fraction of rumen and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. Rumen metabolite study revealed that rumen fluid nitrogen content reduced in high roughage diet fed animals and pathway analysis showed reduction in the genes coding enzymes involved in methanogenesis pathway. CAZyme annotation revealed the abundance of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GH), with the GH3 family most abundant followed by GH2 and GH13 in all samples. Results reveals that high roughage diet feed improved microbial protein synthesis and reduces methane emission. CAZyme analysis indicated the importance of microbiome in feed component digestion for fulfilling energy requirements of the host. The findings help determine the role of rumen microbes in plant

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes. Four healthy male River (Azari buffaloes with no previous history of gastrointestinal dysfunction were chosen. There are several surgical techniques that can be used for rumen cannulation in farm animals, including buffaloes. This procedure was performed in a modified two-stage technique. In the first stage, the dorso – lateral portion of the dorsal sac of the rumen wall was sutured to the skin incision in the left para lumbar fossa region. In the second – stage, after six days left, the exposed rumen wall area was incised and the cannula was inserted and fixed manually in the rumenal opening incision site. In order to evaluate the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters, this study was achieved with different levels of NDF, and chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, was measured in a change over design. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00 and 21:00. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility. Increasing NFC reduced ruminal pH at 0.5, 1.0, 4.5, 6.0 9.0 and 10.0 h post feeding. In addition, there were not significant differences on eating time, rumination time and total chewing activity between diets. All data obtained in this study were in normal range may indicating the efficacy of this cannulation method. More investigation should be done to determine the efficacy and comparison of the other surgical rumen cannulation techniques on Azari buffaloes of Iran.

  4. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P rumen epithelial injury and upregulated (P rumen pH, LPS level, and rumen epithelial bacteria abundance. In conclusion, our results indicated that the alterations in the rumen environment and epithelial bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus plantarumU40 on the in vitro rumen fermentation quantified with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Astuti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of L. plantarumU40 quantified with real-time PCR during in vitro rumen fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. Treatments were control, rumen fermentation inoculated with L. plantarumU40and L. plantarumU40 + glucose solution. Population of L. plantarum U40 was higher at inoculation treatment. After 8 hours incubation, glucose addition tended to decrease L. plantarum U40 population. Control treatment showed lowest population of L. plantarum U40 along in vitro fermentation compared with other treatment. Inoculation of L. plantarumU40 significantly (p<0.05 increased population of LAB until 12 hours incubation compared with control. Control treatment had highest pH at all incubation time. Glucose addition significantly (P<0.05 decreased final rumen pH (24 hours (6.30, compared with control treatment (6.85. Inoculation of L. plantarum U40 with glucose addition significantly (P<0.05increased propionic acid, decreased acetic acid and A/P ratio compared with other treatments. Lactobacillus plantarum U40 without glucose addition did not affect propionic acid production significantly. As conclusion, Lactobacillus plantarum U40 can survive in rumen fluid and changes rumen fermentation when glucose is added as carbon source.

  6. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  7. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.; Nolan, J.V.; Preston, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  8. Effects of essential oil from Cordia verbenacea D.C. on in vitro rumen fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V; Mattos, W R.S., [Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Abdalla, A L; Pecanha, M R.S.R.; Castilho, L A [Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A.F. [Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Research Center, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sallam, S M.A.; Nasser, M E.A. [Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil (EO) on ruminal fermentation by using the in vitro gas production technique. Two substrates were independently assessed: i) Coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay, and ii) 80:20 concentrate:forage diet. Treatments were defined as: Control i.e. without monensin or EO; MON i.e. monensin at 3 mM as a positive control; COR37.5 i.e. 37.5 mL of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid; and COR75 i.e. 75 mL of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid. Considering both substrates, MON reduced gas and methane (CH{sub 4}) production, increased propionate concentration, and decreased acetate:propionate ratio when compared with the Control. The most promising effect observed with EO inclusion was related to the inhibition of methanogenesis using hay as substrate. Methane produced per unit of OM{sub incubated} was reduced by 30% when COR75 was compared with Control. Although not statistically different, CH{sub 4} production expressed as mL/g OM{sub degraded} showed an intermediary value for COR75 (32.9) compared with the Control (38.9) and MON (25.8). No effects were observed with EO inclusion when the high concentrate diet was used as substrate. In this condition, the doses tested seemed too low to manipulate rumen fermentation. The results indicate that the EO from Cordia verbenacea D.C. was able to modify in vitro ruminal fermentation using hay as substrate and that doses greater than 1 mL/mL of buffered rumen fluid may decrease CH{sub 4} production as much as monensin. (author)

  9. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  10. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.

  11. Comparison of buffalo rumen liquor and buffalo faeces as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT, Theodorou et al., 1994 requires a rumen liquor (RL inoculum, as the other methods utilising a microbial fermentation approach to feedstuff evaluation. However, the RL is collected either from animals fitted with rumen cannula or at slaughtering. This raises a number of practical, economical and ethical problems, thus several studies have been carried out to test alternative inocula. To this aim faeces (FA have been demonstrated to have high potentiality for the Tilley and Terry (1963 technique (El Saher et al., 1987; Akther et al., 1999; Cone et al., 2002. Mauricio et al. (2001, evaluating the forages fermentative characteristics by IVGPT, found lower potential gas production and longer lag times for bovine FA compared to RL as inoculum. Aim of present paper was to compare buffalo RL and FA as inoculum for IVGPT.

  12. Specific characterization of non-steroidal selective androgen peceptor modulators using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry: application to the detection of enobosarm in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Laure; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Penot, Mylène; Gicquiau, Audrey; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Currently under development for therapeutic purposes in human medicine, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth associated pathways. As such, they present a potential for abuse in sports and food-producing animals as interesting alternative anabolic substances. Forbidden since 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) these compounds are however easily available and could be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. To prevent such practices, dedicated analytical strategies have to be developed for specific and sensitive detection of these compounds in biological matrices. Using an innovative analytical platform constituted of supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to ion mobility-mass spectrometry, the present study enabled efficient separation and identification in urine of 4 of these drugs (andarine, bicalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and enobosarm) in accordance with European Union criteria (Commission Decision 2002/657/EC). Besides providing information about compounds structure and behaviour in gas phase, such a coupling enabled reaching low limits of detection (LOD < 0.05 ng.mL -1 for andarine and limits of detection < 0.005 ng.mL -1 for the three others) in urine with good repeatability (CV < 21 %). The workflow has been applied to quantitative determination of enobosarm elimination in urine of treated bovine (200 mg, oral). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ammonia Production by Ruminal Microorganisms and Enumeration, Isolation, and Characterization of Bacteria Capable of Growth on Peptides and Amino Acids from the Sheep Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Eschenlauer, S. C. P.; McKain, N.; Walker, N. D.; McEwan, N. R.; Newbold, C. J.; Wallace, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Excessive NH3 production in the rumen is a major nutritional inefficiency in ruminant animals. Experiments were undertaken to compare the rates of NH3 production from different substrates in ruminal fluid in vitro and to assess the role of asaccharolytic bacteria in NH3 production. Ruminal fluid was taken from four rumen-fistulated sheep receiving a mixed hay-concentrate diet. The calculated rate of NH3 production from Trypticase varied from 1.8 to 19.7 nmol mg of protein−1 min−1 depending on...

  14. Rumen management during aphagia : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants that for any reason are unable to eat enough to survive can be supported via rumen fistulation. To successfully accomplish this task, an understanding of rumen physiology is necessary. Some adaptation and modification of the normal physiological processes will be necessary because the extended time normally required to ingest food will, for obvious practical reasons, be reduced to a few minutes repeated once to three times a day. The physiology of significance to aphagic or dysphagic animals is discussed and relevant examples of clinical cases are used to illustrate practical applications.

  15. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  16. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Larsen, Mogens; Lund, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed diets together with grass silage and soya bean meal and allocated ad libitum to fistulated dairy cows. The starch content varied between 13 and 35% in ration dry matter for the different starch sources. The design...... was a series of cross-over experiments with two cows and two periods. Ruminal starch pool was estimated from rumen evacuation and starch flow was estimated by duodenal and faeces sampling. Fractional rate of rumen degradation was estimated from the equation [kd = rumen degraded/rumen pool] and rumen and total...

  17. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  18. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  19. Supplementing goat kids with coconut medium chain fatty acids in early life influences growth and rumen papillae development until 4 months after supplementation but effects on in vitro methane emissions and the rumen microbiota are transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Sieglinde; Ruiz-González, Alexis; Artiles-Ortega, Einar; Ampe, Bart; Van Den Broeck, Wim; De Keyser, Ellen; Vandaele, Leen; Goossens, Karen; Fievez, Veerle

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into two experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation. Twin kids from 10 does of each group were split up into a treated (K+) and nontreated (K-) group, resulting in four experimental groups: D+K+, D+K-, D-K+, and D-K-. The K+ kids received 1.8 mL/d of CO MCFA from birth until 2-wk postweaning (11 wk). Irrespective of treatment, the experimental rearing conditions resulted in absence of rumen protozoa at all sampling times, assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro incubations with rumen fluid at 4 wk old showed 82% lower CH4 production of inoculum from D+K+ kids compared to D-K- kids (P = 0.01). However, this was accompanied by lower total volatile fatty acids (tVFA) production (P = 0.006) and higher hydrogen accumulation (P = 0.008). QPCR targeting the mcrA and rrs genes confirmed a lower abundance of total methanogens (P kids at 4 wk old. Methanogenic activity, as assessed by mcrA expression by RT-qPCR, was also lower in these kids. However, activity did not always reflect methanogen abundance. At 11 and 28 wk old, prenatal and postnatal effects on in vitro fermentation and rumen microbiota disappeared. Nevertheless, lower milk replacer intake in the first 4 wk resulted in reduced BW in K+ kids, persisting until 28 wk of age. Additionally, differences assigned to postnatal treatment were found in papillae density, width, and length in different areas of the rumen, recorded at 28 wk old. prenatal and postnatal

  20. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  1. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Digestibilidade in vitro de alimentos com inóculos de líquido de rúmen ou de fezes de bovinos In vitro digestibility of foodstuffs with inoculum of bovine feces or ruminal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi desenvolvido na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual de Maringá e no Laboratório de Digestibilidade in vitro e Metabolismo Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia (UEM Estado do Paraná, com a finalidade de comparar o líquido de rúmen em dois tipos de colheita (via fístula ruminal ou sonda esofágica com as fezes de bovino em duas diluições, ou seja, 200/200 (tampão/fezes ou 100/300, como inóculos para a determinação da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS pela metodologia do fermentador ruminal (DAISYII/ANKOM® do farelo de trigo, milho moído, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, feno de Coast-cross e feno de Tifton 85. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (inóculos e três repetições. Os diferentes tipos de inóculos não influenciaram (P > 0,05 nas digestibilidades da matéria seca (DIVMS do farelo de trigo e do milho. Entretanto, as digestibilidades do farelo de soja e do feno de Coast-cross com o inóculo fezes 200/200 foram menores (P The present experiment was developed to compare ruminal fluid collected by ruminal cannula or esophageal probe and bovine feces in two dilutions, 200/200 (buffer/feces or 100/300, as inoculum source, for the determination of in vitro (DAISYII/ANKOM® digestibility of wheat meal, ground corn, soybean and canola meal, and Coast-cross and Tifton 85 hay, with three replications. Different inoculum did not influence (p > 0.05 in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of wheat meal and ground corn. However, the digestibility of soybean meal and Coast-cross hay with inoculum of feces dilution 200/200 was lower (p < 0.05 than that of the other food. In the case of canola meal and Tifton 85 hay, the IVDMD with inoculum from ruminal cannula and esophageal probe was better (p < 0.05 than the others. Except for canola meal and Tifton 85 hay, the bovine feces as an inoculum source (100/300 was efficient to evaluate IVDMD.

  3. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  4. Effects of Geraniol and Camphene on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joch M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of geraniol and camphene at three dosages (300, 600, and 900 mg l-1 on rumen microbial fermentation and methane emission in in vitro batch culture of rumen fluid supplied with a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein, 33.1% neutral detergent fibre. The ionophore antibiotic monensin (8 mg/l was used as positive control. Compared to control, geraniol significantly (P 0.05 methane production and slightly decreased (P < 0.05 VFA production. Due to the strong antimethanogenic effect of geraniol a careful selection of dose and combination with other antimethanogenic compounds may be effective in mitigating methane emission from ruminants. However, if a reduction in total VFA production and dry matter digestibility persisted in vivo, geraniol would have a negative effect on animal productivity.

  5. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  6. Effects of inclusion levels of banana (Musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Sabiiti, Elly Nyambobo; Bareeba, Felix Budara; Sporndly, Eva; Kabi, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The effect of feeding varying banana peeling (BP) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. The steers were fed BP at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (EG) to constitute four diets. Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and Gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. The nylon bag technique was used to measure BP and EG dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Effective DM, CP, and NDF degradabilities of BP ranged between 574 and 807, 629-802, and 527-689 g/kg, respectively, being lower at higher BP levels. Elephant grass degradability behaved similarly with relatively high effective CP degradability (548-569 g/kg) but low effective DM and NDF degradability (381-403 and 336-373 g/kg, respectively). Rumen pH and VFA reduced with increasing BP in the diets. Rumen pH dropped to 5.8 and 5.9 at the 40 and 60% BP feeding levels, respectively. Banana peelings were better degraded than EG but higher BP levels negatively affected feed degradability and rumen environment.

  7. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  8. INFLUENCE OF TIME BETWEEN RUMINAL GLUCOSE CHALLENGES ON RUMEN FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín F. Montaño-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal lactic acidosis is one of the most important metabolic problems in feedlot cattle. Gradually transitioning cattle to finishing-feedlot diets may reduce the risk for ruminal acidosis by providing sufficient time for adaptation. This adaptation of feedlot cattle to high-concentrate diets may causes marked changes in the ruminal environment, and time is required to establish stable ruminal conditions.   However, few studies have evaluated the ruminal adaptation in steers. A metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two consecutive glucose challenges on rumen function in steers fed a high-energy finishing diet. Four Holstein steers (320 kg LW with cannula in the rumen were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were used and consisted of the time elapsed between both challenges of glucose (2, 4, 6 or 8 d. Ruminal fluid samples were taken at 0700 h (just prior the first glucose challenge, and from the second challenge (d 2, 4, 6, or 8 at 1 h before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 28, 52, 124, 196 and 268 h. As the time between fluctuation of energy intake increased, ruminal fluid pH (P 0.10. During the first 6 h following the second glucose challenge ruminal fluid pH decreased. No effects of treatments on ruminal pH were observed (P >0.10 among treatments from 3 days after the second challenge. Ruminal fluid osmotic pressure increased (P <0.10 after dosed glucose with all treatments. Ruminal osmolality increased (P <0.10 as the time between challenges were 2 or 4 days. After dosed glucose, total volatile fatty acids increased, except by treatment 1 after second challenge. Total volatile fatty acid and pH were related positively (R2 =0.69. As the time increased, a tendency on increment of concentrations of protozoa was observed. Ruminal glucose concentration decreased linearly (P <0.10 2 h after the second fluctuation of energy intake. We conclude that ruminal alterations are magnified as the time between glucose challenge

  9. Non-protein nitrogen utilization and microbial synthesis in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Akkada, A.R.; El-Shazly, K.

    1976-01-01

    The distinction between bacterial and protozoal proteins in the rumen has been a difficult task. The use of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) as a marker for bacterial protein and 2-aminoethanephosphonic acid (AEP) for protozoal protein has been examined in the present studies in sheep fed on a semi-purified diet. The microbial protein predicted from DAP and AEP determination was similar to that obtained by the precipitation of proteins. From rates of VFA determination by the in vitro zero-time rate technique, and from measurements of rumen volume using Cr-EDTA colour determination at 550 nm, the total VFA production in 24 h could be calculated, and the ATP generated (mol/day) was calculated using Baldwin and co-workers' transformation value of 2.44. The yield of microbial cells (g/mol ATP) was found to be 28.15, similar to that suggested by Hobson and Summers and Gunzalus and Schuster. Using a sheep double-fistulated in the duodenum proximal to the pyloric sphincter, and blocking the path of the abomasal fluid by inserting an inflated baloon in the second fistula, the abomasal fluid could be collected for 12 h. The total microbial-N as predicted from DAP and AEP was approximately similar to the total non-ammonia-N in the abomasal digesta. It could be concluded that DAP and AEP determination could be used within reasonable limits to differentiate between bacterial and protozoal proteins. A good agreement was found between rates of outflow of the rumen digesta and microbial growth (percentage hourly) as measured by different techniques. The agreement between values of microbial growth rates and rates of outflow of digesta from the rumen with the differences between production and absorption of VFA is an indication of the validity of the techniques employed in the present studies. (author)

  10. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The rumen microbial metaproteome as revealed by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2017-01-07

    Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies. The aim of this study was to explore the metaproteome of bovine and ovine ruminal digesta using 2D SDS-PAGE. Digesta samples were taken via ruminal fistulae and by gastric intubation, or at slaughter, and stored in glycerol at -80 °C. A protein extraction protocol was developed to maximise yield and representativeness of the protein content. The proteome of ruminal digesta taken from dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet was dominated by a few very highly expressed proteins, which were identified by LC-MS/MS to be structural proteins, such as actin and α- and β-tubulins, derived from ciliate protozoa. Removal of protozoa from digesta before extraction of proteins revealed the prokaryotic metaproteome, which was dominated by enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase. The enzymes were predominantly from the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Enzymes from methanogenic archaea were also abundant, consistent with the importance of methane formation in the rumen. Gels from samples from dairy cows fed a high proportion of grass silage were consistently obscured by co-staining of humic compounds. Samples from beef cattle and fattening lambs receiving a predominantly concentrate diet produced clearer gels, but the pattern of spots was inconsistent between samples, making comparisons difficult. This work demonstrated for the

  12. Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P rumen mat (P rumen fluid (P rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR.

  13. Media lacking nrmen fluid for enumeration of rumen bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ed and mineral solution B and sodium bicarbonate (Table. 1) were added aseptically to the sterile medium using a sy- ringe. The dilution medium had a similar composition, ex- cept that carbohydrates and vitamins were omitted and 13070. (v/v) of each of Minerals A and Band 0,18% agar were used. A pump incorporating a ...

  14. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  15. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  16. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  17. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  18. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  19. Absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids by rumen and omasum Absorção e metabolismo de ácidos graxos voláteis pelo rúmen e omaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pratti Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFA absorption and metabolic capacity of rumen and omasum were compared, in vitro. Fragments of rumen wall and omasum laminae were taken from eight adult crossbred bovines. An isolated fragment of the mucosa was fitted in a tissue diffusion chamber. Valeric acid and CrEDTA were added to ruminal fluid and placed on the mucosal side and buffer solution was placed on the serosal side. Fractional absorption rates were measured by exponential VFA:Cr ratio decay over time. Metabolism rate was determined as the difference between VFA absorbed and VFA which appeared on the serosal side over time. Mitotic index was higher in omasum (0.52% than in rumen epithelium (0.28%. VFA fractional absorption rate was higher in omasum (4.6%/h.cm² than in rumen (0.4%/h.cm². Acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate showed similar fractional absorption rates in both fragments. Percentage of metabolized acetate and propionate was lower than butyrate and valerate in both stomach compartments. In the rumen, individual VFA metabolism rates were similar (mean of 7.7 , but in the omasum, valerate (90.0 was more metabolized than butyrate (59.6 propionate (69.8 and acetate (51.7 . Correlation between VFA metabolism and mitotic index was positive in the rumen and in the omasum. In conclusion, VFA metabolism and absorption potential per surface of the omasum is higher than that of the rumen. Variations on rumen and omasum absorption capacities occur in the same way, and there are indications that factors capable of stimulating rumen wall proliferation are similarly capable of stimulating omasum walls.A capacidade de absorção e metabolismo de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV pelo rúmen e omaso foi comparada, in vitro. Fragmentos da parede do rúmen e das lâminas do omaso foram coletados de oito bovinos mestiços adultos. Um fragmento isolado da mucosa foi colocado em uma câmara de difusão tecidual. Ácido valérico e CrEDTA foram adicionados ao fluido

  20. Rumen bacterial community evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in dairy sheep fed marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Carrera, T; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; McEwan, N R; Hervás, G; Abecia, L; Pinloche, E; Girdwood, S E; Belenguer, A

    2014-03-01

    Developing novel strategies to increase the content of bioactive unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant-derived products requires a deeper understanding of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria involved in this process. Although high-throughput pyrosequencing may allow for a great coverage of bacterial diversity, it has hardly been used to investigate the microbiology of ruminal FA metabolism. In this experiment, 454 pyrosequencing and a molecular fingerprinting technique (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; T-RFLP) were used concurrently to assess the effect of diet supplementation with marine algae (MA) on the rumen bacterial community of dairy sheep. Eleven lactating ewes were divided in 2 lots and offered a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrate (40:60), supplemented with 0 (control) or 8 (MA) g of MA/kg of dry matter. After 54 d on treatments, animals were slaughtered and samples of rumen content and fluid were collected separately for microbial analysis. Pyrosequencing yielded a greater coverage of bacterial diversity than T-RFLP and allowed the identification of low abundant populations. Conversely, both molecular approaches pointed to similar conclusions and showed that relevant changes due to MA addition were observed within the major ruminal phyla, namely Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Decreases in the abundance of unclassified Bacteroidales, Porphyromonadaceae, and Ruminococcaceae and increases in as-yet uncultured species of the family Succinivibrionaceae, might be related to a potential role of these groups in different pathways of rumen FA metabolism. Diet supplementation with MA, however, had no effect on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio genera. In addition, results from both 454 pyrosequencing and T-RFLP indicate that the effect of MA was rather consistent in rumen content or fluid samples, despite inherent differences between these fractions in their bacterial composition

  1. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Longitudinal shifts in bacterial diversity and fermentation pattern in the rumen of steers grazing wheat pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, D W; Pinchak, W E; Dowd, S; Dorton, K; Yoon, I; Min, B R; Fulford, J D; Wickersham, T A; Malinowski, D P

    2014-12-01

    Grazing steers on winter wheat forage is routinely practiced in the Southern Great Plains of the US. Here, we investigated the dynamics in bacterial populations of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions of steers grazing on maturing wheat forage of changing nutritive quality. The relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in the liquid fraction was also investigated. During the first 28 days, the wheat was in a vegetative phase with a relatively high crude protein content (CP; 21%), which led to the incidence of mild cases of frothy bloat among steers. Rumen samples were collected on days 14, 28, 56 and 76, separated into solid and liquid fractions and analyzed for bacterial diversity using 16S pyrotag technology. The predominant phyla identified were Bacteroidetes (59-77%) and Firmicutes (20-33%) across both ruminal fractions. Very few differences were observed in the rumen bacterial communities within solid and liquid fractions on day 14. However, by day 28, the relatively high CP content complemented a distinct bacterial and chemical composition of the rumen fluid that was characterized by a higher ratio (4:1) of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and a corresponding lower acetate:propionate (3:1) ratio. Further, a greater accumulation of biofilm (mucopolysaccharide complex) on day 28 was strongly associated with the abundance of Firmicutes lineages such as Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira and Moryella (Prumen microbiome and their association with fermentation activity in the rumen of steers during the vegetative (bloat-prone) and reproductive stages of wheat forage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Changes in Microbiota in Rumen Digesta and Feces Due to a Grain-Based Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaizier, Jan C.; Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on bacteria in the rumen and feces of lactating dairy cows were determined. Six lactating, rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with two periods. Periods included two cows on a control diet...... and two cows on a SARA challenge. The control diet was a total mixed ration containing 45.5% dry matter (DM), 43.8% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 19.6% DM starch. The SARA challenge was conducted by gradually substituting the control diet with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley over 3 days...... to reach a diet containing 55.6% DM, 31.3% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 31.8% DM starch, which was fed for four more days. Rumen fluid samples were collected at day 7 and 10 of experimental periods. Feces samples were collected on days 8 and 10 of these periods. Extracted DNA from the rumen and feces...

  5. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, S K; Goel, N; Pandey, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern, while sequential incubations (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h) were carried out for gas production kinetics. Results showed that methane production was reduced, ammonia nitrogen was increased significantly, while no significant effect was found on pH and protozoal population following addition of different plant extracts in both diets except mehandi. Green chili significantly reduced digestibility of dry matter, total fatty acid and acetate concentration at incubation with sorghum based high and low fiber diets. Among all treatments, green chili increased potential gas production, while jaiphal decreased the gas production rate constant significantly. The present results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of different plants are promising rumen modifying agents. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, potential gas production, gas production rate constant, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  6. Effects of dietary changes and yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on rumen microbial fermentation of Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, D; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Blanch, M; Fandiño, J I; Castillejos, L; Yoon, I

    2009-09-01

    The effects of a dietary challenge to induce digestive upsets and supplementation with yeast culture on rumen microbial fermentation were studied using 12 Holstein heifers (277 +/- 28 kg of BW) fitted with a ruminal cannula, in a crossover design with 2 periods of 5 wk. In each period, after 3 wk of adaptation to a 100% forage diet, the dietary challenge consisted of increasing the amount of grain at a rate of 2.5 kg/d (as-fed basis) over a period of 4 d, until a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet was reached, and then it was maintained for 10 d. Between periods, animals were fed again the 100% forage diet without any treatment for 1 wk as a wash-out period. Treatments started the first day of each period, and they were a control diet (CL) or the same diet with addition of yeast culture (YC, Diamond V XPCLS). Digestive upsets were determined by visual observation of bloat or by a reduction in feed intake (as-fed basis) of 50% or more compared with intake on the previous day. Feed intake was determined daily at 24-h intervals during the adaptation period and daily at 2, 6, and 12 h postfeeding during the dietary challenge. Ruminal liquid samples were collected daily during the dietary challenge to determine ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding, and total and individual VFA, lactic acid, ammonia-N, and rumen fluid viscosity at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. The 16s rRNA gene copies of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii were determined by quantitative PCR. Foam height and strength of the rumen fluid were also determined the day after the digestive upset to evaluate potential foam production. A total of 20 cases (83.3%) of digestive upsets were recorded in both periods during the dietary challenge, all diagnosed due to a reduction in feed intake. Rumen fermentation profile at 0 h on the digestive upset day was characterized by low ruminal pH, which remained under 6.0 for 18 h, accompanied by elevated total VFA concentration and, in some cases, by elevated lactate

  7. Effect of garlic oil and four of its compounds on rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Carro, M D; Kamel, C

    2005-12-01

    Different concentrations (3, 30, 300, and 3000 mg/L of culture fluid) of garlic oil (GAR), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DAD), allicin (ALL), and allyl mercaptan (ALM) were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet (17.7% crude protein; 30.7% neutral detergent fiber) to evaluate their effects on rumen microbial fermentation. Garlic oil (30 and 300 mg/L), DAD (30 and 300 mg/L), and ALM (300 mg/L) resulted in lower molar proportion of acetate and higher proportions of propionate and butyrate. In contrast, at 300 mg/L, DAS only increased the proportion of butyrate, and ALL had no effects on volatile fatty acid proportions. In a dual-flow continuous culture of rumen fluid fed the same 50:50 forage:concentrate diet, addition of GAR (312 mg/L), DAD (31.2 and 312 mg/L), and ALM (31.2 and 312 mg/L) resulted in similar changes to those observed in batch culture, with the exception of the lack of effect of DAD on the proportion of propionate. In a third in vitro study, the potential of GAR (300 mg/L), DAD (300 mg/L), and ALM (300 mg/L) to decrease methane production was evaluated. Treatments GAR, DAD, and ALM resulted in a decrease in methane production of 73.6, 68.5, and 19.5%, respectively, compared with the control. These results confirm the ability of GAR, DAD, and ALM to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen.

  8. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  9. In vitro fermentation characteristics of diets with different forage/concentrate ratios: comparison of rumen and faecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicarelli, Fabio; Calabrò, Serena; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Infascelli, Federico; Tudisco, Raffaella; Bovera, Fulvia; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the replacement of rumen fluid with faeces as inoculum in studying the in vitro fermentation characteristics of diets for ruminants using the in vitro gas production technique. Six iso-protein diets with different forage/concentrate ratios were incubated with rumen fluid (RI) or faeces (FI) collected from sheep. Most of the fermentation parameters were influenced by diet and inoculum (P < 0.01). With both inocula, organic matter degradability (dOM), cumulative gas production (OMCV) and maximum fermentation rate (R(max) ) increased as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. R(max) was lower with FI vs RI (P < 0.01); dOM was higher with FI vs RI and the diet × inoculum interaction was significant. As expected, with both inocula, R(max) increased as the neutral detergent fibre content of the diet decreased. Significant correlations were obtained using both inocula between OMCV/dOM and gas/volatile fatty acid (VFA), while the correlation VFA/dOM was significant only with FI. The microbial biomass yield calculated by stoichiometric analysis for all diets was higher with FI vs RI. With FI the organic matter used for microbial growth showed an overall decreasing trend as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. The results indicate that both faeces and rumen fluid from sheep have the potential to be used as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos: digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais Rumen degradable protein on bovine diet: total and partial nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ferreira Caldas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (450 kg portadores de cânula ruminal e duodenal, recebendo dietas com níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR de 50, 60, 65 e 70%, associadas a uma fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal (farinha de varredura de mandioca, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4 para se avaliarem as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminal. Foi utilizada, como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal, a cinza insolúvel em ácido. Não foi observado efeito do nível de PDR sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade total, digestibilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não-estruturais e energia bruta. O aumento do nível de PDR na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade total e ruminal da proteína bruta e reduziu a digestibilidade intestinal desse nutriente como porcentagem do digerido. Não houve efeito dos níveis de PDR no pH ruminal, no entanto, maior concentração ruminal de amônia foi observada para as dietas com maior teor de PDR. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o aumento no teor de PDR acarretou maior produção de nitrogênio na forma de amônia, independentemente da presença da fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal, contudo, o aporte de proteína intestinal foi semelhante para todas as dietas.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (450 kg were fed diets with rumen degradable protein (RDP levels of 50.0 60.0 65.0 and 70.0% associated with a high ruminal degradability starch (cassava by-product meal were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design for the evaluation of total and partial digestibility of the nutrients, ruminal ammonia concentration and pH. The acid insoluble ash was used as a marker of the duodenal and fecal flow. No effects were observed on the level of RDP on total digestibility coefficient, ruminal digestibility and

  11. Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U; Bartle, S J; Osterstock, J B; Prouty, F L; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-06-01

    An array of management tools exists within the beef industry to improve animal welfare and productivity; however, the ability to assess the outcomes of these tools is needed. Deficiencies in management commonly manifest as bovine respiratory disease complex or nutritional disorders such as acidosis; therefore, lung, liver, and rumen gross pathology lesions present at slaughter were measured as part of the Harvest Audit Program (HAP) and associations with performance determined. Individual gross pathology data from 19,229 cattle at commercial packing plants in Kansas and Texas were collected. Corresponding individual preharvest and carcass data were obtained on a subset of 13,226 cattle. Associations between lesions and performance were modeled using multivariable mixed effect models. Regression coefficients were used for estimation of lesion associative effects on continuous outcomes and odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Across the entire population, 67.3% of the cattle had no pulmonary lesions; 22.5 and 9.8% of cattle displayed mild and severe lesions, respectively. Severe pulmonary lesions were associated with a decreased ADG of 0.07 kg and a HCW 7.1 kg less than cohorts with no pulmonary lesions (P < 0.01). Overall, 68.6% of cattle observed had normal livers. Of cattle severely affected by liver abscesses (A+; 4.6%), 14.9% also displayed severe pulmonary lesions and 28.3% displayed mild pulmonary lesions. Rumenitis lesions were observed in 24.1% of the overall study population. Of cattle with mildly abscessed livers (A-), moderately abscessed livers (A), and severely abscessed livers, 20.6, 21.6, and 9.24% displayed mild or severe rumenitis lesions at slaughter. Severe rumenitis lesions were associated with a significant decrease in ADG and HCW (0.025 and 2.20 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). Although the majority of the cattle in this population would be considered low risk, after adjustments for cattle with multiple lesions, 22.9% of cattle in the overall

  12. Reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminant animals lack enzymes to break down fibrous feeds but they harbor microorganisms capable of degrading their feeds. Rumen microbes are affected by feed substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary feeds. Two protein supplements ...

  13. Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on Sepharose- Cibacron Blue F3GA. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pseudo affinity adsorption of bioproducts on Sepharose-cibacron blue F3-GA was subjected to rumen microbial enzyme evaluation through batch binding and column chromatography of ...

  14. Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and ...

  15. Title: Effects of supplementing humic/fulvic acid on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey McMurphy

    Effects of supplementing humates on rumen fermentation in Holstein ... research on the utilization of humates in beef cattle diets and their effect on rumen fermentation. .... potassium chloride, 80 g/kg; magnesium oxide, 34.5 g/kg; ammonium ...

  16. Variability of Actinobacteria, a minor component of rumen microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suľák, M; Sikorová, L; Jankuvová, J; Javorský, P; Pristaš, P

    2012-07-01

    Actinobacteria (Actinomycetes) are a significant and interesting group of gram-positive bacteria. They are regular, though infrequent, members of the microbial life in the rumen and represent up to 3 % of total rumen bacteria; there is considerable lack of information about ecology and biology of rumen actinobacteria. During the characterization of variability of rumen treponemas using non-cultivation approach, we also noted the variability of rumen actinobacteria. By using Treponema-specific primers a specific 16S rRNA gene library was prepared from cow and sheep rumen total DNA. About 10 % of recombinant clones contained actinobacteria-like sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of 11 clones obtained showed the high variability of actinobacteria in the ruminant digestive system. While some sequences are nearly identical to known sequences of actinobacteria, we detected completely new clusters of actinobacteria-like sequences, representing probably new, as yet undiscovered, group of rumen Actinobacteria. Further research will be necessary for understanding their nature and functions in the rumen.

  17. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  18. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few

  19. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Leng, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are needed to maximize the synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen from readily available, inexpensive (usually non-protein N) sources and thereby to reduce the requirements for true protein in the diet. Some currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for estimating microbial protein synthesis in the rumen are discussed. The factors that alter maintenance ATP requirements of microorganisms, and thereby potentially alter the efficiency of cell growth per unit of fermented organic matter (Ysub(ATP)), are discussed: e.g. continuity and level of supply of substrates; dietary and recycled N and other nutrients; dilution rate; the presence of large protozoal populations in the rumen; cell lysis and N cycling in the rumen. Quantitative studies of these factors have been made by using a variety of isotope tracer techniques and have been applied to a quantitative model of N transactions in the rumen. (author)

  20. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and dietary starch content on rumen fermentation and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A L G; Freitas, J A; Micai, B; Azevedo, R A; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of feeding a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on rumen metabolism and digestibility when cows are fed diets varying in starch content. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were low starch (LS; 23% of diet DM) and no yeast culture (YC; LS-control), LS and 15 g of YC/d (LS-YC), high starch (HS; 29% of diet DM) and no YC (HS-control), and HS and 15 g of YC/d (HS-YC). Periods lasted 28 d, with the last 9 d for data collection. Days 20 to 24 were used to determine production, nutrient flow, and digestibility. On d 25, 3 kg of corn grain DM was placed in the rumen 1 h before the morning feeding, and yields of milk and milk components were measured after the challenge. Blood was sampled -1, 3, 7, and 11 h relative to the morning feeding on d 24 and 25. Rumen pH was measured continuously on d 24 and 25. Rumen papillae were collected on d 24 and 28 to quantify mRNA expression of select genes. Supplementing YC increased yields of milk (26.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 26.5 vs. 30.3 kg/d), fat (0.94 vs. 1.08 kg/d), true protein (0.84 vs. 0.96 kg/d), and ECM/dry matter intake (1.15 vs. 1.30) compared with the control but did not affect dry matter intake (22.6 vs. 22.9 kg/d). Cows fed HS had increased milk true protein percentage (3.18 vs. 3.31%) and yield (0.87 vs. 0.94 kg/d) compared with cows fed LS. Feeding HS-YC increased the proportion of dietary N incorporated into milk true protein from 24.9% in the other 3 treatments to 29.6%. Feeding HS increased the concentration of propionate (21.7 vs. 32.3 mM) and reduced that of NH 3 -N (8.3 vs. 6.7 mg/dL) in rumen fluid compared with the control, and combining HS with YC in HS-YC tended to increase microbial N synthesis compared with LS-YC (275 vs. 322 g/d). Supplementing YC to cows fed HS reduced plasma haptoglobin and rumen lactate concentrations

  1. Rumen content stratification in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Clauss, Marcus; Bertelsen, Mads F; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. The feeding ecology, as well as the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), suggest that it is a 'moose-type' ruminant. Correspondingly, the giraffe should have an unstratified rumen content and an even rumen papillation pattern. Digesta samples were collected from along the digestive tract of 27 wild-caught giraffes kept in bomas for up to 2months, and 10 giraffes kept in zoological gardens throughout their lives. Samples were analysed for concentration of dry matter, fibre fractions, volatile fatty acids and NH 3 , as well as mean particle size and pH. There was no difference between the dorsal and ventral rumen region in any of these parameters, indicating homogenous rumen content in the giraffes. In addition to the digesta samples, samples of dorsal rumen, ventral rumen and atrium ruminis mucosa were collected and the papillary surface enlargement factor was determined, as a proxy for content stratification. The even rumen papillation pattern observed also supported the concept of an unstratified rumen content in giraffes. Zoo giraffes had a slightly more uneven papillation pattern than boma giraffes. This finding could not be matched by differences in physical characteristics of the rumen content, probably due to an influence of fasting time ante mortem on these parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  3. Effects of dietary Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) supplementation on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevakis, N

    2017-10-14

    This study was conducted to examine in vivo long-term effects of dietary dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) whole plant on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities. For this purpose, eight healthy, adult, non-lactating Alpine goats were kept in tie stalls equipped for individual feeding and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: one fed 0.6 kg of a concentrate mixture and 0.6 kg of wheat straw without any supplementation and served as control group (CON) while the other group (OR) fed the same diet of CON but supplemented with 20 g of dried oregano plants (OPs) to provide daily dosage of 1 ml of essential oil (EO) per animal. The experimental period lasted 69 days and individual rumen fluid samples were obtained every 2 weeks at 0 and 4 hr after feeding. The results showed that dietary supplementation with OPs increased the protease activity (p < .001) and ammonia concentration (p < .05) in the rumen. Among the studied microbial populations, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (p = .028) and Clostridium sticklandii (p < .001) were found to be the most sensitive to oregano at the current dosage. Furthermore, the total methanogen population significantly decreased (p < .05). It is concluded that a long-term dietary administration of OPs can suppress specific rumen micro-organisms and modify rumen fermentation favourably at least by means of suppressing methanogens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03 was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0, 5% (C1, and 10% (C2 AOFC (w/w. Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF. Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05 digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05 in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05, as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05 were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.

  6. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jueeli D; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Edwards, Joan E; Boekhorst, Jos; van Gastelen, Sanne; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini) differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100), 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33), 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67), or 100% MS (MS100). An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method ( p anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction ( p = 0.012), and that PBB ( p = 0.012) and FDSS ( p = 0.024) also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In summary, the comprehensive assessment of observed communities of bacteria, archaea and anaerobic fungi described here provides insight into a rational basis for selecting an optimal methodology to obtain a representative picture of the rumen microbiota.

  7. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  8. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  9. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in learning avoidance of bloat-inducing plants and preferences for plants and supplements that relieve the incidence of bloat.

  10. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  11. An Investigation into Rumen Fungal and Protozoal Diversity in Three Rumen Fractions, during High-Fiber or Grain-Induced Sub-Acute Ruminal Acidosis Conditions, with or without Active Dry Yeast Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; AlZahal, Ousama; Walker, Nicola; McBride, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Diet-induced SARA dramatically increased the number and abundance of rare fungal taxa, even in fluid fractions where total reads were very low, and reduced protozoal diversity. SARA selected for more lactic-acid utilizing taxa, and fewer fiber-degrading taxa. ADY treatment increased fungal richness (OTUs) but not diversity (Inverse Simpson, Shannon), but increased protozoal richness and diversity in some fractions. ADY treatment itself significantly ( P PERMANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0452, P = 0.0068, Monte Carlo correction, respectively, and location was a significant factor ( P = 0.001, Monte Carlo correction) for protozoa. Diet-induced SARA shifts diversity of rumen fungi and protozoa and selects against fiber-degrading species. Supplementation with ADY mitigated this reduction in protozoa, presumptively by triggering microbial diversity shifts (as seen even in the high-fiber diet) that resulted in pH stabilization. ADY did not recover the initial community structure that was seen in pre-SARA conditions.

  12. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  13. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  14. A Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Rumen Microbiome Influenced by Various Diets and Microenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Deusch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture. Samples were fractionated into ruminal fluid, particle-associated rumen liquid, and solid matter. DNA, proteins and metabolites were analyzed subsequently. DNA extracts were used for Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the metabolomes of rumen fluids were determined by 500 MHz-NMR spectroscopy. Tryptic peptides derived from protein extracts were measured by LC-ESI-MS/MS and spectra were processed by a two-step database search for quantitative metaproteome characterization. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD006070. Protein- and DNA-based datasets revealed significant differences between sample fractions and diets and affirmed similar trends concerning shifts in phylogenetic composition. Ribosomal genes and proteins belonging to the phylum of Proteobacteria, particularly Succinivibrionaceae, exhibited a higher abundance in corn silage-based samples while fiber-degraders of the Lachnospiraceae family emerged in great quantities throughout the solid phase fractions. The analysis of 8163 quantified bacterial proteins revealed the presence of 166 carbohydrate active enzymes in varying abundance. Cellulosome affiliated proteins were less expressed in the grass silage, glycoside hydrolases appeared in slightest numbers in the corn silage. Most expressed glycoside hydrolases belonged to families 57 and 2. Enzymes analogous to ABC transporters for amino acids and

  15. Analysis of rumen microbial populations in lactating dairy cattle fed diets varying in carbohydrate profiles and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Mamedova, L K; Carpenter, A J; Ying, Y; Allen, M S; Yoon, I; Bradford, B J

    2013-09-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a critical factor that links diets to bovine physiology and productivity; however, information about dietary effects on microbial populations has generally been limited to small numbers of samples and qualitative assessment. To assess whether consistent shifts in microbial populations occur in response to common dietary manipulations in dairy cattle, samples of rumen contents were collected from 2 studies for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In one study, lactating Holstein cows (n=8) were fed diets in which a nonforage fiber source replaced an increasing proportion of forages and concentrates in a 4×4 Latin square design, and samples of ruminal digesta were collected at 9-h intervals over 3 d at the end of each period. In the second study, lactating Holstein cows (n=15) were fed diets with or without the inclusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) in a crossover design. In this study, rumen liquid and solid samples were collected during total rumen evacuations before and after feeding in a 42-h period. In total, 146 samples of ruminal digesta were used for microbial DNA isolation and analysis by qPCR. Validated primer sets were used to quantify total bacterial and anaerobic fungal populations as well as 12 well-studied bacterial taxa. The relative abundance of the target populations was similar to those previously reported. No significant treatment effects were observed for any target population. A significant interaction of treatment and dry matter intake was observed, however, for the abundance of Eubacterium ruminantium. Increasing dry matter intake was associated with a quadratic decrease in E. ruminantium populations in control animals but with a quadratic increase in E.ruminantium populations in cows fed SCFP. Analysis of sample time effects revealed that Fibrobacter succinogenes and fungal populations were more abundant postfeeding, whereas Ruminococcus albus tended to be more abundant

  16. Rumen microbiota and dietary fat: a mutual shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Combes, S; Zened, A; Meynadier, A

    2017-10-01

    Although fat content in usual ruminant diets is very low, fat supplements can be given to farm ruminants to modulate rumen activity or the fatty acid (FA) profile of meat and milk. Unsaturated FAs, which are dominant in common fat sources for ruminants, have negative effects on microbial growth, especially protozoa and fibrolytic bacteria. In turn, the rumen microbiota detoxifies unsaturated FAs (UFAs) through a biohydrogenation (BH) process, transforming dietary UFAs with cis geometrical double-bonds into mainly trans UFAs and, finally, into saturated FAs. Culture studies have provided a large amount of data regarding bacterial species and strains that are affected by UFAs or involved in lipolysis or BH, with a major focus on the Butyrivibrio genus. More recent data using molecular approaches to rumen microbiota extend and challenge these data, but further research will be necessary to improve our understanding of fat and rumen microbiota interactions. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary .... conditions and altitude of 2400 m.a.s.l. Animal ... temperature in water bath with continuous supply ... llowed by boiling for 5 minutes.

  18. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    produce volatile fatty acids, also called short chain fatty acids, and ... resources and enhance productivity in ruminants in the world in general and in the tropics in ... toxic to rumen protozoa, suggesting a nutritional value beyond simply their ...

  19. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  20. Effect of monensin on fermentation characteristics of the artificial rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, R J; Cheng, K J; Czerkawski, J W

    1980-01-01

    Addition of monensin (Rumensin, Eli Lilly and Co.) to an artificial rumen immediately depressed the digestion of roughage and of roughage/concentrate (50:50) feeds. Methane and propionate production were affected only with the roughage/concentrate feed.

  1. Maintenance of Laboratory Strains of Obligately Anaerobic Rumen Bacteria †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, Ronald M.

    1982-01-01

    Cultures of rumen bacteria can be stored at −20°C for at least 2 years in a liquid medium containing 20% glycerol. Thawing, sampling, and refreezing do not significantly affect viability. PMID:7125660

  2. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  3. Influence of phenolic compounds on rumen microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Silva Filho, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An 'in vitro' experiment is carried out to examine the effect of tannic acid on rumen microbial activity, due to the toxicity of phenolic acids on many microrganisms. Rumen content is incubated with sodium bicarbonate, glucose and different quantities of tannic acid. 1 μCi of 32 p-labelled phosphate is added and after 6 hours the incorporated activity is measured. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  5. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  6. Resistance of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrP(c from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrP(Sc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie in the environment.

  7. Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149

  8. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  9. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. II. Relation between in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and anatomical and chemical features within a single internode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Engels, F.M.; Struik, P.C.; Cone, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Internode 7 of the stem of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars was studied anatomically and chemically at anthesis and subjected to fermentation tests in rumen fluid, using an automated gas production system. For anatomical studies internode 7 was sectioned at the top, middle and base. For

  10. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of starch content of calf starter on growth and rumen pH in Holstein calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting high fiber byproducts for dry ground corn in calf starter on growth and rumen pH during the weaning transition. Holstein bull calves were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 26% CP and 18% fat. Calves were fed a texturized calf starter containing either dry ground corn at 18.8% of dry matter (DM; CRN), beet pulp replacing dry ground corn at 10.2% dietary DM (BP), or triticale dried distillers grains with solubles replacing dry ground corn and high-protein feedstuffs at 18.6% of dietary DM (DDGS) in the pellet; treatment calf starters differed only in the pellet portion. Starch concentrations of CRN, BP, and DDGS were 35.3, 33.4, and 31.4%, respectively. After a calf consumed 2.50 kg of starter for 3 consecutive days, a small ruminant rumen pH data logger was inserted orally and rumen pH was measured continuously for 4d. Calves were then killed and rumen fluid was sampled to determine volatile fatty acid profile. No difference was found in overall average daily gain or growth rates of hip height, withers height, and heart girth. During the weaning transition, rate of increase in calf starter intake was greater for calves fed DDGS compared with those fed CRN (87.7 vs. 77.5 g/d), but lower for calves fed BP compared with CRN (68.1 vs. 77.5 g/d). The area under pH 5.8 (470 vs. 295 min × pH/d) or pH 5.2 (72.7 vs. 16.4 min × pH/d) was greater for calves fed DDGS than those fed CRN. Rumen pH profile was not affected by BP treatment compared with CRN, but calves fed BP tended to have greater water intake than those fed CRN (6.6 vs. 5.8 L/d). Volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by treatment with the exception of molar proportion of butyrate, which tended to be lower for calves fed BP compared with those fed CRN (15.0 vs. 16.6%). Hay intake was positively correlated to mean rumen pH for calves used in this study (r=0.48). Decreasing dietary starch

  12. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, A.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  13. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khateri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO, containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control, 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05 compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05 in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent

  14. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH 4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH 4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH 4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH 4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters ( P microbial population or host genetic differences that is reflected in bacterial and archaeal (or methanogens) populations.

  15. Comparing the responses of rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria to excess carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, César R V; Lana, Rogério de Paula; Tao, Junyi; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose. Compared with bacteria, ciliates consumed glucose >3-fold faster and synthesized reserve carbohydrate 4-fold faster. They incorporated 53% of glucose carbon into reserve carbohydrate-nearly double the value (27%) for bacteria. Energy spilling was not detected for ciliates, as all heat production (104%) was accounted by synthesis of reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism. For bacteria, reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism accounted for only 68% of heat production, and spilling was detected within 11 min of dosing glucose. These results suggest that ciliates alter the course of ruminal carbohydrate metabolism by outcompeting bacteria for excess carbohydrate, maximizing reserve carbohydrate synthesis, and minimizing energy spilling. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Tapio

    Full Text Available Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint.

  17. Ginkgo fruit extract as an additive to modify rumen microbiota and fermentation and to mitigate methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S; Shintani, R; Koike, S; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-03-01

    Ginkgo fruit, an unused byproduct of the ginkgo nut industry, contains antimicrobial compounds known as anacardic acids. Two major cultivars of ginkgo, Kyuju (K) and Tokuro (T), were evaluated for their potential as a feed additive for ruminants. In batch culture, we incubated a mixture of hay and concentrate in diluted rumen fluid with or without 1.6% (fruit equivalent) ginkgo fruit extract. We conducted another series of batch culture studies to determine the dose response of fermentation. We also conducted continuous culture using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) with cultivar K and carried out a pure culture study to monitor the sensitivity of 17 representative rumen bacterial species to ginkgo extract and component phenolics. Although both K and T extracts led to decreased methane and increased propionate production, changes were more apparent with K extract, and were dose-dependent. Total gas production was depressed at doses ≥3.2%, suggesting that 1.6% was the optimal supplementation level. In RUSITEC fermentation supplemented with 1.6% ginkgo K, methane decreased by 53% without affecting total gas or total VFA production, but with decreased acetate and increased propionate. Disappearance of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were not affected by ginkgo, but ammonia levels were decreased. Quantitative PCR indicated that the abundance of protozoa, fungi, methanogens, and bacteria related to hydrogen and formate production decreased, but the abundance of bacteria related to propionate production increased. MiSeq analysis (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) confirmed these bacterial changes and identified archaeal community changes, including a decrease in Methanobrevibacter and Methanomassiliicoccaceae and an increase in Methanoplanus. Pure culture study results supported the findings for the above bacterial community changes. These results demonstrate that ginkgo fruit can modulate rumen fermentation toward methane mitigation

  18. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Rumen Biohydrogenation and Microbial Community Changes Upon Early Life Supplementation of 22:6n-3 Enriched Microalgae to Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Dewanckele

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-enriched products inhibits the final step of biohydrogenation in the adult rumen, resulting in the accumulation of 18:1 isomers, particularly of trans(t-11 18:1. Occasionally, a shift toward the formation of t10 intermediates at the expense of t11 intermediates can be triggered. However, whether similar impact would occur when supplementing DHA-enriched products during pregnancy or early life remains unknown. Therefore, the current in vivo study aimed to investigate the effect of a nutritional intervention with DHA in the early life of goat kids on rumen biohydrogenation and microbial community. Delivery of DHA was achieved by supplementing DHA-enriched microalgae (DHA Gold either to the maternal diet during pregnancy (prenatal or to the diet of the young offspring (postnatal. At the age of 12 weeks, rumen fluid was sampled for analysis of long-chain fatty acids and microbial community based on bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Postnatal supplementation with DHA-enriched microalgae inhibited the final biohydrogenation step, as observed in adult animals. This resulted particularly in increased ruminal proportions of t11 18:1 rather than a shift to t10 intermediates, suggesting that both young and adult goats might be less prone to dietary induced shifts toward the formation of t10 intermediates, in comparison with cows. Although Butyrivibrio species have been identified as the most important biohydrogenating bacteria, this genus was more abundant when complete biohydrogenation, i.e. 18:0 formation, was inhibited. Blautia abundance was positively correlated with 18:0 accumulation, whereas Lactobacillus spp. Dialister spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were more abundant in situations with greater t10 accumulation. Extensive comparisons made between current results and literature data indicate that current associations between biohydrogenation intermediates and rumen bacteria in young goats

  20. In vitro-in vivo study on the effects of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial abundances and methane emissions in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, G; Abecia, L; Martín-García, A I; Ramos-Morales, E; Hervás, G; Molina-Alcaide, E; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2013-12-01

    Two in vitro and one in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a selection of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial concentration and methane emissions in goats. Treatments were: control (no additive), carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN), eugenol (EUG), propyl propane thiosulfinate (PTS), propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), diallyl disulfide (DDS), a mixture (40 : 60) of PTS and PTSO (PTS+PTSO), and bromochloromethane (BCM) as positive control with proven antimethanogenic effectiveness. Four doses (40, 80, 160 and 320 µl/l) of the different compounds were incubated in vitro for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid from goats using two diets differing in starch and protein source within the concentrate (Experiment 1).The total gas production was linearly decreased (Prumen content per day) and BCM (50, 100 and 160 mg/l rumen content per day) during the 9 days on methane emissions (Experiment 3). The addition of PTS and BCM resulted in linear reductions (33% and 64%, respectively, P≤ 0.002) of methane production per unit of dry matter intake, which were lower than the maximum inhibition observed in vitro (87% and 96%, respectively). We conclude that applying the same doses in vivo as in vitro resulted in a proportional lower extent of methane decrease, and that PTS at 200 mg/l rumen content per day has the potential to reduce methane emissions in goats. Whether the reduction in methane emission observed in vivo persists over longer periods of treatments and improves feed conversion efficiency requires further research.

  1. Effects of addition of Aspergillus oryzae culture and 2-hydroxyl-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Chong; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    To investigate effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture (AOC) and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows. Sixty-four multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly allocated into four experimental diets: (i) Control diet; (ii) AOC diet: 5 g AOC/day per head; (iii) HMB diet: 25 g HMB/day; and (iv) AH diet: 5 g AOC plus 25 g HMB/day. Added HMB tended to increase the yield of milk protein (P = 0.06) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (P = 0.08) and milk fat content (P = 0.09). Milk fat yield (P = 0.03) and the contents of milk protein (P = 0.05) were increased by adding HMB. The cows fed on AOC diet had a tendency for higher body weight (BW) gain (P = 0.08). Addition of AOC, HMB and AH increased content of microbial protein (MCP) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (P rumen fluid. Populations of rumen fungi, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to total bacterial 16S rDNA (P ≤ 0.03) and activity of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) (P contents of MCP and total VFA potentially by stimulating rumen microbe populations and CMCase activity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effect of feeding various forms of oxalate on the rumen metabolism and the fate of calcium in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, L.K.; Ahuja, S.P.; Sareen, V.K.; Singh, Sudarshan; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The degradation of 45 Ca oxalate in the rumen and the absorption of 45 Ca released (experiment 2), the production of bicarbonates and TVFA in the rumen, and the rumen pH value (experiment 1) were studied in male buffalo calves consuming paddy straw (group 1), wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate (group 2) and wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate plus potassium oxalate (group 3). The radioactivity 1n the blood appeared with 1 hr in all the animals. Maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the blood was observed at 18,24 and 36 hr in groups 1 to 3, respectively, after intraruminal infusion of 15 mCi 45 Ca oxalate. Paddy-straw feeding caused polyurea. In all the animals the very first micturition showed the presence of radioactivity, and maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the urine and feaces was obtained around 31 and 25 hr, respectively, after infusion. However, during the following 5 days, the decline in 45 Ca specific activity in the feaces was sharper in group 1 than in the other groups indicating less absorption of calcium in group 1. Higher bicarbonates contents and pH of the rumen fluid were observed in group 3. The results indicated a slow and continuous release of oxalates from paddy straw. The ruminal TVFA concentration was lower and pH was relatively higher in group 3. Group 1 showed uniformly higher amounts of TVFA. (auth.)

  3. Effect of Dietary Chestnut or Quebracho Tannin Supplementation on Microbial Community and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Dairy Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants derived products have a prominent role in diets and economy worldwide; therefore, the capability to control the rumen microbial ecosystem, for ameliorating their quality, is of fundamental importance in the livestock sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with chestnut and quebracho tannins on microbial community and fatty acid profile, in the rumen fluid of dairy ewes. Multivariate analysis of PCR-DGGE profiles of rumen microbial communities showed a correlation among the presence of chestnut or quebracho in the diet, the specific Butyrivibrio group DGGE profiles, the increase in 18:3 cis9, cis12, and cis15; 18:2 cis9 and cis12; 18:2 cis9 and trans11; 18:2 trans11 and cis15; and 18:1 trans11 content, and the decrease in 18:0 concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of DGGE band sequences revealed the presence of bacteria representatives related to the genera Hungatella, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium and unclassified Lachnospiraceae family members, suggesting that these taxa could be affected by tannins presence in the diets. The results of this study showed that tannins from chestnut and quebracho can reduce the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids through changes in rumen microbial communities.

  4. Determination of succession of rumen bacterial species in nursing beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminants are typically born with a non-functional rumen essentially devoid of microorganisms. The succession of the microbial population in the rumen from birth to animal maturity is of interest due to the key role that the rumen microbial population plays in the overall health and productivity of ...

  5. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... addition of yellow grease and corn oil increased in vitro rumen degradation and gas production. ... Culturing of rumen anaerobic fungi. Rumen anaerobic fungi were isolated from wheat straw residues, ... concentrate : forage diet (corn grain, barley grain and wheat bran : sugarcane silage, corn silage, alfalfa ...

  6. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: Leading the way in microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not ...

  7. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen - in: GGAA2013 Conference Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    -beating procedure. DNA was removed and double-stranded complementary DNA (ds-cDNA) was synthetized from purified RNA. The ds-cDNA was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 system (≈160bp; paired-end sequenced from 2×100bp read lengths). Concatenated small subunit (SSU) rRNA reads were analyzed according to Urich...... et al. (2008) and putative messenger RNA (mRNA)-related reads were analyzed by Meta-Genome Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology, v. 3.1.2. (MG-RAST) with subsystem-based annotation based on the SEED database and with MEGAN4 analysis of BlastX searches against the Genbank Refseq protein...... database (e-value cut-off 1e-5). Results RSO significantly reduced CH4 emission from the cows, resulting in a 6.2% lower CH4-to-CO2 emission ratio (Preads per sample, of which putative mRNAs comprised between 380,000 and 485,000 reads...

  8. Characterisation of two bifunctional cellulase-xylanase enzymes isolated from a bovine rumen metagenome library

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ample raw material for fuel production [21] without causing reduction in food stock. Bio-fuel can be produced by pre-treatment, either physical or chemical, of cellulosic material, followed by fermentation of released sugars to yield fuel ethanol.... Currently cellulytic enzymes are used in the pre-treatment step [21, 19] to assist in degradation of cellulose to yield fermentable sugars. To reduce cost in biofuel production there is a need for enzyme preparations with broader substrate ranges...

  9. Toward Understanding Phage:Host Interactions in the Rumen; Complete Genome Sequences of Lytic Phages Infecting Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen is known to harbor dense populations of bacteriophages (phages predicted to be capable of infecting a diverse range of rumen bacteria. While bacterial genome sequencing projects are revealing the presence of phages which can integrate their DNA into the genome of their host to form stable, lysogenic associations, little is known of the genetics of phages which utilize lytic replication. These phages infect and replicate within the host, culminating in host lysis, and the release of progeny phage particles. While lytic phages for rumen bacteria have been previously isolated, their genomes have remained largely uncharacterized. Here we report the first complete genome sequences of lytic phage isolates specifically infecting three genera of rumen bacteria: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus. All phages were classified within the viral order Caudovirales and include two phage morphotypes, representative of the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families. The phage genomes displayed modular organization and conserved viral genes were identified which enabled further classification and determination of closest phage relatives. Co-examination of bacterial host genomes led to the identification of several genes responsible for modulating phage:host interactions, including CRISPR/Cas elements and restriction-modification phage defense systems. These findings provide new genetic information and insights into how lytic phages may interact with bacteria of the rumen microbiome.

  10. Cellulosomics, a gene-centric approach to investigating the intraspecific diversity and adaptation of Ruminococcus flavefaciens within the rumen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Brulc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bovine rumen maintains a diverse microbial community that serves to break down indigestible plant substrates. However, those bacteria specifically adapted to degrade cellulose, the major structural component of plant biomass, represent a fraction of the rumen microbiome. Previously, we proposed scaC as a candidate for phylotyping Ruminococcus flavefaciens, one of three major cellulolytic bacterial species isolated from the rumen. In the present report we examine the dynamics and diversity of scaC-types both within and between cattle temporally, following a dietary switch from corn-silage to grass-legume hay. These results were placed in the context of the overall bacterial population dynamics measured using the 16S rRNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As many as 117 scaC-types were estimated, although just nineteen were detected in each of three rumens tested, and these collectively accounted for the majority of all types present. Variation in scaC populations was observed between cattle, between planktonic and fiber-associated fractions and temporally over the six-week survey, and appeared related to scaC phylogeny. However, by the sixth week no significant separation of scaC populations was seen between animals, suggesting enrichment of a constrained set of scaC-types. Comparing the amino-acid translation of each scaC-type revealed sequence variation within part of the predicted dockerin module but strong conservation in the N-terminus, where the cohesin module is located. CONCLUSIONS: The R. flavefaciens species comprises a multiplicity of scaC-types in-vivo. Enrichment of particular scaC-types temporally, following a dietary switch, and between fractions along with the phylogenetic congruence suggests that functional differences exist between types. Observed differences in dockerin modules suggest at least part of the functional heterogeneity may be conferred by scaC. The polymorphic nature of scaC enables the relative distribution of R

  11. Isolation and Identification of the Chitinolytic Bacteria from Rumen Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumen is an interesting ecosystem for microbial exploration and their products. Isolation of the chitinolytic bacteria from the rumen ecosystem found 109 colonies that produced clear zone, 84 colonies (86% anaerobic and 17 colonies (14% aerobic. Clear zone appeared in the third and fourth days incubation. Four potential isolates were chosen for identification purposes. Results showed that the bacteria were sticky, gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, mesophilic and aerobic. It was supposed to Bacillus spp. the optimal pH and temperature to produce chitinase from isolate 18 are pH 6.0 and temperature of 35-40ºC. Divalent cations Mg, Ca, Zn, and Mn increase chitinase activity, while Cu and Co inhibit enzyme activity. When isolate 18 was grown on shrimp waste meal, it showed aptimal activity on the fifth days incubation. (Animal Production 5(2: 73-78 (2003   Key Words : Isolation, Identification, Chitinolytic Bacteria, Rumen

  12. Manipulation of the rumen to increase ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Leng, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Manipulation of the rumen should be undertaken with a view to optimizing the supply of specific nutrients to the host animal. Especially important are the volatile fatty acids (glucogenic and non-glucogenic), and dietary and bypass amino acids and lipids. The animal's requirement for these nutrients varies according to its physiological state (growing, pregnant or lactating), its health (disease or parasite load), previous dietary history and also the prevailing climatic conditions. Often the availability of total protein (amino acids) relative to oxidizable substrates (the protein/energy or P/E ratio) is the primary limitation to voluntary feed intake and to efficient use of absorbed nutrients. In these instances, the first objective should be to maximize the yield of microbial amino acids from the rumen by manipulations that increase the net efficiency of microbial synthesis, e.g. by altering methods of feed processing, supplementing with urea and minerals, or eliminating protozoa. Further improvements in the P/E ratio can be attained by supplementing the animal with a dietary protein source with good rumen bypass characteristics in order to provide additional amino acids for intestinal absorption. Other potential manipulations of the rumen include the use of chemicals to modify rumen fermentation patterns and supplementation with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) (as a dense source of energy supplying substrate) in rumen-inert forms (e.g. as Ca-LCFA). However, when energy dense dietary supplements are given, it may be necessary to include a bypass protein source to maintain the P/E ratio. Novel possibilities for manipulation include the use of molecular biology techniques to create microorganisms with enhanced production of enzymes that promote degradation of structural carbohydrates, or with an ability to secrete chemicals that are toxic to protozoa. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  14. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 d...

  15. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  16. Effects of monolaurin on ruminal methanogens and selected bacterial species from cattle, as determined with the rumen simulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Meile, Leo; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2011-10-01

    Before being able to implement effective ruminal methane mitigation strategies via feed supplementation, the assessment of side effects on ruminal fermentation and rumen microbial populations is indispensable. In this respect we investigated the effects of monolaurin, a methane-mitigating lipid, on methanogens and important carbohydrate-degrading bacteria present in ruminal fluid of dairy cattle in continuous culture employing the rumen simulation technique. In six experimental runs, each lasting for 10 days, four diets with different carbohydrate composition, based on hay, maize, wheat and a maize-wheat mixture, either remained non-supplemented or were supplemented with monolaurin and incubated in a ruminal-fluid buffer mixture. Incubation liquid samples from days 6 to 10 of incubation were analyzed with relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes to assess monolaurin-induced shifts in specific rumen microbial populations in relation to the corresponding non-supplemented diets. Monolaurin completely inhibited Fibrobacter succinogenes in all diets while the response of the other cellulolytic bacteria varied in dependence of the diet. Megasphaera elsdenii remained unaffected by monolaurin in the two diets containing maize, but was slightly stimulated by monolaurin with the wheat and largely with the hay diet. The supply of monolaurin suppressed Methanomicrobiales below the detection limit with all diets, whereas relative 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Methanobacteriales increased by 7-fold with monolaurin in case of the hay diet. Total Archaea were decreased by up to over 90%, but this was significant only for the wheat containing diets. Thus, monolaurin exerted variable effects mediated by unknown mechanisms on important ruminal microbes involved in carbohydrate degradation, along with its suppression of methane formation. The applicability of monolaurin for methane mitigation in ruminants thus depends on the extent to which adverse

  17. SEVILLA and U.M. LUSTRIA. 2006. Changes in rumen ecosystem and feed dry matter degradability of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle through cross inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Dicky Pamungkas; Cesar C Sevilla; Ulysses M Lustria

    2006-01-01

    The research was done to identify changes in rumen ecosystem of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle. As much as three head of fistulated male buffaloes (live weight of 450-550 kg) and three fistulated female cattle (live weight 250-380 kg) were used. This experiment was done three stage as follows: pre-inoculation, inoculation and post-inoculation. In Pre-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken two hours before morning feeding and directly observed for pH rumen liquor, a...

  18. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  19. L'équilibre des rations alimentaires des bovins : quelques pistes pour améliorer l'efficience azotée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced diet for bovines: strategies to improve the efficiency of nitrogen use. The main aim of this paper was to present some feeding recommendations, which, when applied on the farm, would increase nitrogen use by bovines and to give information as to how the effects of the nitrogen produced can be reduced. Ruminants have the ability to digest structural carbohydrates and to produce meat and milk proteins for human consumption. At the animal cells level, amino acids are essential for biological functions, mainly involving their maintenance and production. These amino acids are supplied by the intestinal digestion of microbial protein and feed protein that escapes microbial degradation in the rumen. Today, the efficiency of nitrogen utilization is typically low and highly variable in ruminants. Nitrogen excretion by ruminants mainly depends on the level of nitrogen intake and of the animal's productivity. Optimal N utilization may be achieved through an understanding of the key mechanisms involved in the control of N digestion and metabolism. These include the efficiency of N capture in the rumen and the protein degradation according to the type of diet and forage, the control of the rumen microorganisms involved in protein degradation and the proper formulation of the diet, avoiding feeding excess protein in relation to requirements. The dependence on energy supply in transferring feed nitrogen into milk and meat protein is strong both at the rumen and the cell levels of ruminants. The rumen metabolism is identified as the single most important factor contributing to the low level of efficient use of nitrogen in ruminants and partially depends on practical farming operations.

  20. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Supplementation on in-vivo Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Population in Goats Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan, N.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Four fistulated Boer cross-bred bucks with 25 kg average body weight was used to test the effects of dietary treated rice straw supplemented with A. paniculata and O. stamineus on in-vivo rumen parameters and microbial population in goats. The study was conducted in 4 periods (4 x 4 Latin square design, where each period was for a duration of 22 d; 10 dof adaptation period, 5 dof sampling and 7 dof change-over. The animals were fed once daily at 0800 (3% body weight with 60% of urea-treated rice straw and 40 % of one of four concentrate diets: T1-basal diet + 1% A. paniculata, T2-basal diet + 1% O. stamineus, T3-basal diet + 0.5% of A. paniculata and 0.5% O. stamineus (AO and T4-basal diet without supplementation of herbs. Clean water was provided ad libitum and the animals were individually penned. Rumen contents were sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 hafter the onset feeding and the pH was recorded. Rumen pH, VFA's, concentration of ammonia and microbial population in the rumen fluid were measured. The mean rumen pH was the highest (P<0.05 at 2 h in T3 after the onset feeding while the mean concentration (mg/L of ammonia in the rumen fluid was the lowest at 6 and 12 h in T2 (P<0.05. The molar proportion of valerate was higher (P<0.05 at 6 h in T1. Meanwhile, the acetate to propionate ratio was affected by time where it was significantly higher at 12 h in T3. Significant reduction of total protozoa, methanogens, F. succinogens and R. albus number was observed in the herb-supplemented groups (P<0.05. The results suggest that urea-treated rice straw with herbs supplementation can be fed to goats without impairing their performance. However, further study could be done by increasing the supplementation of herbs in order to observe more effective results.

  1. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangosteen peel (MP), an agricultural by-product of tropical countries, has been reported to contain condensed tannins and saponins, which can affect rumen microbes to reduce enteric methane emission. In the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane ...

  2. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  3. Yields Components and 48-H Rumen Dry Matter Degradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato varieties (TIS-87/0087, TIS-8164 and TIS-2532.OP.1.13). Fodder yields and leaf-to-stem ratio decreased (P < 0.05), while harvest index and 48-h rumen DM degradation increased with maturity from 12 to 20 weeks after ...

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  5. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  6. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  7. Effects of rumen-protected tryptophan on performance, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... sources high in rumen-protected Trp (RPT) can be fed to complement the ... collected into plastic containers containing 50 ml of 50% HCl to prevent NH3 .... growth, higher Trp availability could have exerted an effect also on ...

  8. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  9. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  10. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the effects of dietary roughage: concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia ... several factors which include the potential rate and extent of degradation of the test feedstuff and the prevailing rate of ... diet effects have be,en designed to examine either the influence of dietary ...

  11. Defined bacterial populations in the rumens of gnotobiotic lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, R J; Alexander, T J; Wellstead, P D; Hobson, P N; Mann, S O; Stewart, C S

    1976-06-01

    Five gnotobiotic lambs were fed on sterile diets until they were killed at 13 to 21 weeks of age. They were dosed orally with different combinations of 11 species of rumen bacteria. The biochemical reactions of each of the bacteria inoculated had been determined in pure culture in vitro, and they were chosen to perform the main reactions known to be associated with digestion in the normal mature rumen. Two of the bacteria could not be reisolated, but the remainder had established readily in the rumen, forming stable, mixed, defined populations. The total numbers of bacteria in the rumen, and the viable counts of most of the individual species were comparable to those of normal sheep. The concentration of volatile fatty acids was lower, however, and in four of the lambs there was a higher proportion of butyric acid and a lower proportion of propionic acid than in normal sheep. Cellulolytic, ureolytic, and methanogenic activities appeared to be taking place and lactate-utilizing bacteria appeared to reverse the accumulation of lactate which resulted from the activity of lactate-producing bacteria. Some of the bacteria also established at high levels in the caecum.

  12. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TROPIKA 18

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... especially total protozoa and total methanogens. ..... (10−1/slope − 1) × 100 ..... http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/k7930e/k7930e00.pdf. .... on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility and voluntary feed intake in ...

  13. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  14. An Investigation into Rumen Fungal and Protozoal Diversity in Three Rumen Fractions, during High-Fiber or Grain-Induced Sub-Acute Ruminal Acidosis Conditions, with or without Active Dry Yeast Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Ishaq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Diet-induced SARA dramatically increased the number and abundance of rare fungal taxa, even in fluid fractions where total reads were very low, and reduced protozoal diversity. SARA selected for more lactic-acid utilizing taxa, and fewer fiber-degrading taxa. ADY treatment increased fungal richness (OTUs but not diversity (Inverse Simpson, Shannon, but increased protozoal richness and diversity in some fractions. ADY treatment itself significantly (P < 0.05 affected the abundance of numerous fungal genera as seen in the high-fiber diet: Lewia, Neocallimastix, and Phoma were increased, while Alternaria, Candida Orpinomyces, and Piromyces spp. were decreased. Likewise, for protozoa, ADY itself increased Isotricha intestinalis but decreased Entodinium furca spp. Multivariate analyses showed diet type was most significant in driving diversity, followed by yeast treatment, for AMOVA, ANOSIM, and weighted UniFrac. Diet, ADY, and location were all significant factors for fungi (PERMANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0452, P = 0.0068, Monte Carlo correction, respectively, and location was a significant factor (P = 0.001, Monte Carlo correction for protozoa

  15. A model of ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics and rumen epithelial blood flow in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Hanigan, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids (VFA) is quantitatively the most important nutrient flux in cattle. Historically, VFA absorption models have been derived primarily from ruminal variables such as chemical composition of the fluid, volume, and pH. Recently, a mechanistic model incorporated...... exchange across the rumen wall that incorporates epithelial blood flow as a driving force for ruminal VFA removal. The bidirectional fluxes between the ruminal and epithelial pool of VFA were assumed mass action driven, given that passive diffusion of nonionized VFA is the dominant transmembrane VFA flux...... of body weight. The rate constants related to the flux from ruminal fluid to epithelium were in the order isobutyrate rate constants for fluxes of isobutyrate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate...

  16. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  17. Role and function of short chain fatty acids in rumen epithelial metabolism, development and importance of the rumen epithelium in understanding control of transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epithelial lining of the rumen is uniquely placed to have impact on the nutrient metabolism of the animal. The symbiotic relationship with the microbial populations that inhabit the rumen, serves to provide a constant supply of nutrients from roughage that would otherwise be unusable. Metaboli...

  18. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Jarltoft, Terese Christel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control...

  19. The effect of fermented cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) husk supplemented with mineral on in vitro digestibility, rumen bacteria population and rumen liquid characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaita; Definiati, N.; Santoso, U.; Akbar, S. A.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mineral supplementation, such as S, P and Zn on the nutrients digestibility of fermented cocoa pod husk, the population of rumen bacteria and rumen liquid characteristics in vitro. The study used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments tested were: T0 = without minerals; T1 = 0.2% S mineral; T2 = 0.27% P mineral; T3 = S and P; and T4 = S, P and Zn at 50 ppm. Parameters measured were: (1) digestibility of dry matter and organic matter; (2) rumen bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial populations; (3) characteristics of rumen liquid in vitro. The results of the study showed that mineral supplementation significantly (P digestibility. Mineral supplementation had no effect on the total population of rumen bacteria and cellulolytic rumen bacterial populations. The characteristics of rumen liquid such pH, VFA and NH3 were in optimal condition. In conclusion supplementation of S, P and Zn simultaneously gave the best results to improve the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and to maintain rumen liquid characteristics under optimal conditions for growth and microbial activity

  20. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1,PARAINFLUENZA-3,BOVINE ROTAVIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-7,BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke

    1983-01-01

    Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...

  1. In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, A.; Aleksandrov, S.; Aleksiev, I.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15 N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120 o C for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39 o C for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 μCi/100 ml of 35 S (from Na 2 35 SO 4 ). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15 N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35 S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35 S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15 N-method. (author)

  2. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using /sup 51/Cr-labelled EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, G; Ekern, A [Agricultural University of Norway. Dept. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-06-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 ..mu..Vi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate rumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA through feces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days.

  3. Effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production kinetics and rumen fermentation profiles of three common straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production (GP and rumen fermentation profiles of common straws, in vitro cultivation was conducted for 96 h with the rumen fluid collected from steers. Different types of straw had various chemical compositions, which were affected by steam explosion (P<0.01. Steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the rate and volume of GP, lag time disappeared and asymptotic GP decreased, which were also affected (P<0.01 by the type of straw. The type of straw influenced (P<0.05 the final pH, while steam explosion exerted an effect (P<0.01 on the ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The proportions of individual volatile fatty acid (VFA, except acetate (A, differed (P<0.05 among the feeds. Steam explosion increased total VFA production and the proportion of propionate (P, while decreased the proportions of A, isobutyrate and valerate as well as the ratio A/P (P<0.01. The type of straw had an effect (P<0.05 on the activities of avicelase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, while steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the activities of avicelase, CMCase, β-glucanase and xylanase. The available energy concentrations and digestibilities differed (P<0.01 in the feeds and were increased (P<0.05 with steam explosion processing. The interaction straw type×treatments was significant (P<0.05 for most monitored parameters. These results suggest that steam explosion could improve rumen fermentability and energy utilisation of straw, being an effective pre-treatment method in feed industry.

  4. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  5. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Prumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  6. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  7. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of short bowel syndrome (SBS) aims to achieve intestinal autonomy to prevent fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient deficiencies and maintain adequate development. Remnant intestinal adaptation is required to obtain autonomy. In the newborn pig, colostrum has been shown to support...... intestinal development and hence adaptive processes. Aim: The efficacy of bovine colostrum to improve intestinal function in children with SBS was evaluated by metabolic balance studies. Materials and Methods: Nine children with SBS were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty percent...... of enteral fluid intake was replaced with bovine colostrum or a mixed milk diet for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Intestinal absorption of energy and wet weight was used to assess intestinal function and the efficacy of colostrum. Results: Colostrum did not improve energy or wet weight...

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  9. Estimation of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of bacterial cell growth in the rumen of buffalo calves has been measured applying the isotope dilution technique by injecting labelled mixed rumen bacteria into the rumen, and expressing the specific radioactivity either per mg dry bacterial cells or per μg DAPA in whole rumen samples. The animals were fed daily about 15-20 kg chopped green maize in 12 equal amounts at 2-h intervals. There was no significant difference in the rate of production of bacteria estimated by either method. (author)

  10. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Ting; Nian, Fang; Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Fei; Pan, Xiangyu; La, Yongfu; Mo, Futao; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and increased the amylase and carboxymethylcellulase activities of rumen micro-organisms. RNA-seq analysis revealed 225 differentially expressed genes between the rumens of breast milk- and starter feed-fed lambs. These DEGs were involved in many metabolic pathways, particularly lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and included HMGCL and HMGCS2. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that ruminal bacterial communities were more diverse in breast milk-than in starter feed-fed lambs, and each group had a distinct microbiota. We conclude that early starter feeding is beneficial to rumen development and physiological function in lambs. The underlying mechanism may involve the stimulation of ruminal ketogenesis and butanoate metabolism via HMGCL and HMGCS2 combined with changes in the fermentation type induced by ruminal microbiota. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rumen development in sheep. PMID:27576848

  11. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.

  12. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric Acid coupled addition on the in vitro rumen fermentation with special regard to methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdl-Rahman, M A; Sawiress, F A R; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (Y(ATP)). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH(3)-N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency.

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  14. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2002-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. 32 P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  15. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  16. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, G.; Cox, F.; Ganesh, S.; Jonker, A.; Young, W.; Janssen, P.H.; Bannink, A.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was

  17. The yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain 47 as manipulator of rumen fermentation in postpartal period of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on rumen fermentation of cows. Animals received a diet consisting of good maize silage with a higher dry matter content (16  kg, 16  kg of clovergrass haylage, 3  kg of meadow hay and 7.5  kg feed mixture. The yeast culture was added to the mixture in the dose 6  g/day and cow. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on VFA production in comparison with control (1.16±0.013B vs. 0.84±0.063A  g/ 100 ml, and lower production of lactic acid. The utilisation of ammonia was higher by cows in treated group (8.68±0.084A mmol/L. The difference in number of protozoa of cows in the control and experimental groups was significant (302.0±12.349A vs. 359.2±1.304B ths /1 ml of rumen fluid.

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  19. Shifts in the rumen microbiota due to the type of carbohydrate and level of protein ingested by dairy cattle are associated with changes in rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Doreau, Michel; Edwards, Joan E; Moorby, Jon M; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, Charles J

    2012-09-01

    Balancing energy and nitrogen in the rumen is a key to both profitability and environmental sustainability. Four dairy cows were used in a Latin square experimental design to investigate the effect of severe nitrogen underfeeding (110 vs. 80% of requirements) and the type of carbohydrate consumed [neutral detergent fiber rich (FIB) vs. starch rich (STA)] on the rumen ecosystem. These dietary treatments modified both rumen fermentation and microbial populations. Compared with STA diets, consumption of FIB diets increased bacterial and fungal diversity in the rumen and also increased the concentrations of cellulolytic microorganisms, including protozoa (+38%), anaerobic fungi (+59%), and methanogens (+27%). This microbial adaptation to fiber utilization led to similar digestibility values for the 2 carbohydrate sources and was accompanied by a shift in the rumen fermentation patterns; when the FIB diets were consumed, the cows had greater ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate compared with when they consumed the STA diets. Certain rumen microorganisms were sensitive to a shortage of nitrogen; rumen concentrations of ammonia were 49% lower when the low-protein (LP) diets were consumed as were total bacteria (-13%), anaerobic fungi (-28%), methanogens (-27%), protozoa (-19%), cellulolytic bacteria, and microbial diversity compared with when the high-protein (HP) diets were consumed. As a result, the digestibility of the LP diets was less than that of the HP diets. These findings demonstrated that the rumen microbial ecosystem is directly linked to the rumen fermentation pattern and, to some extent, to the efficiency of diet utilization by dairy cattle.

  20. The effect of dietary Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on micro-organism community, enzyme activities and fatty acid profile in the rumen liquid of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Abdullah, M A M; Skliros, D; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Flemetakis, E; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae might be considered as an alternative source of fat and/or protein for ruminant's diets. However, changes in populations of ruminal micro-organisms associated with biohydrogenation process, methane and ammonia production in response to microalgae dietary supplementation have not been well characterized. Thus, 16 cross-bred goats were divided into two groups. Each goat of both groups was fed individually with alfalfa hay and concentrates separately. The concentrates of the control group had no microalgae while those of the treated group were supplemented with 10 g lyophilized Chlorella vulgaris/kg concentrate (chlor). On the 30th experimental day, samples of rumen fluid were collected for microbial DNA extraction, fatty acid profile and enzyme activity analyses. The results showed that the chlor diet compared with the control increased significantly the populations of Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanogens bacteria and protozoa in the rumen of goats. A significant reduction in the cellulase activity and in the abundance of Ruminococcus albus, and a significant increase in the protease activity and in the abundance of Clostridium sticklandii in the rumen liquid of goats fed with the chlor diet, compared with the control, were found. Chlorella vulgaris supplementation promoted the formation of trans C 18:1 , trans-11 C 18:1 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), while the proportions of C 18:0 and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) reduced significantly in the rumen liquid of goats. This shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathway was accompanied by a significant increase in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens trans C 18:1 -producing bacteria. In conclusion, the supplementation of diets with microalgae needs further investigation because it enhances the populations of methane-producing bacteria and protozoa. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Detoksifikasi Mikotoksin Melalui Optimalisasi Fungsi Rumen dengan Pemberian Ragi (MYCOTOXIN DETOXIFICATION THROUGH OPTIMIZATION THE RUMEN FUNCTION BY YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadik Pantaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungal species commonly found in food and feed,particularly in cereals. In intensive production systems, dairy cattle are commonly fed with cereal-richdiets and, consequently, are more exposed to micotoxins. Besides, such diet is often associated with ahigher risk of rumen acidosis which can also affect the performance and the helath of animal. In addition,the efficacy of microbial detoxification can be reduced during acidosis. For instance, some authors observeda decrease in the number of protozoa that are responsible for the degradation of some mycotoxins. Anotherconsequence of acidosis is the potential modification of ruminal absorption of mycotoxins, which until nowhas received scarce attention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic additives have been shown toreduce the post-feeding drop in rumen pH and to increase the number of ruminal protozoa. This effect canbe positive in reducing the absorption and toxicity of mycotoxins in ruminantia.

  2. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B J; Van Reenen, C G; Beldman, G; van Delen, J; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) milk replacer control, 2) pectin-based concentrate, 3) neutral detergent fiber-based concentrate, 4) starch-based concentrate, and 5) mixed concentrate (equal amounts of concentrates of treatments 2, 3, and 4). Concentrate diets were provided as pellets in addition to a commercial milk replacer. Calves were euthanized either at the end of 8 or 12 wk of age. The overall dry matter intake of the concentrate diets varied between 0.37 and 0.52 kg/d. Among the concentrate diets, the dry matter intake was lower in the starch diet (0.37 kg/d of dry matter) and differed between the NDF and pectin diets. The average daily gain for all the dietary treatments varied between 0.70 and 0.78 kg/d. The mixed- and NDF-fed calves had an increased average daily gain (0.78 and 0.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with the starch- and pectin-fed calves (0.70 and 0.71 kg/d, respectively). Rumen fermentation in the calves fed concentrates was characterized by a low pH (4.9 to 5.2), volatile fatty acid concentrations between 100 and 121 mmol/L, and high concentrations of reducing sugars (33 to 66 g/kg of dry matter). The volatile fatty acid concentrations of calves fed concentrates were higher than those of the control calves. All concentrate treatments showed a low acetate-to-propionate ratio in rumen fluid (between 1.3 and 1.9). Among the concentrates, the NDF diet had the highest (55.5%) and starch the lowest (45.5%) molar proportions of acetate. Calves fed the mixed, pectin, and starch diets had significantly higher molar proportions of butyrate (13.1 to 15.8%) than the NDF- and control-fed groups (9

  3. Rumen fermentation dynamics of concentrate containing the new feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Shintia NW Hardani; Teguh Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of "3"2P for measuring of microbial protein synthesis in rumen liquid has potential role for obtaining a new formula of feed supplement (SPB). New Feed Supplements (SPB) was a new generation of ruminant feed supplement produced by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement was applied to complete commercial concentrate function as feed for ruminants. In vitro testing used semi continuous in vitro such as Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPB as feed supplement and palm oil industry by product, and also to determine the dynamics of rumen fermentation from concentrate containing SPB. Two in vitro's analyzes that have been studied were "3"2P incubation and RUSITEC's methods. "3"2P in vitro's study used five treatments: palm oil leaf (P), palm oil bunches (TKS), Palm oil shell kernel (KC), P+TKS+KC and SPB. Parameter's measurement was microbial protein synthesis (mg/h/l). RUSITEC treatments were: control (K) (commercial concentrate); KS 30 (70 % commercial concentrate + 30 % SPB) and KS 40 (60 % commercial concentrate + 40 % SPB). Observed variables were fermented rumen product (24 hours incubation) such as pH, ammonia concentration (NH_3) (mg/100 ml), total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) (mM), total gas production (ml/d) and methane production (CH_4) (ml/d). Rumen fermentation dynamics represented descriptively on six days incubation. The average variable was analyzed using completely randomized design with 12 replicates (six days incubation x two replications) followed by Duncan test. Highest microbial protein synthesis was on SPB compared with P, TKS, KC and P+TKS+KC (67.6 vs 11.9; 0,67; 1,87 and 42.55 mg/h/l respectively). The RUSITEC results were pH value of three treatments in normal range between 6.40 to 7.15. The dynamics of NH_3 concentration and TVFA production of commercial concentrates always lower than the KS 30 and KS 40. The KS 40 treatment resulted in TVFA production 56

  4. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  5. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, A.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-Da-Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment

  6. Shorten fungal treatment of lignocellulosic waste with additives to improve rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selective lignin degrading fungi can be used as pre-treatment to make cellulose in plant cell walls accessible for rumen microbes. According to previous studies, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes can increase the in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in 7 to 8 weeks.

  7. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of dairy cows. The rumen microbiota harbored 54.5±6.1 genera (mean ± SD and 127.3±4.4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, respectively. However, the core microbiome comprised of 26 genera and 82 OTUs. Butyrate infusion altered molar percentages of 3 major VFAs. Butyrate perturbation had a profound impact on the rumen microbial composition. A 72 h-infusion led to a significant change in the numbers of sequence reads derived from 4 phyla, including 2 most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. As many as 19 genera and 43 OTUs were significantly impacted by butyrate infusion. Elevated butyrate levels in the rumen seemingly had a stimulating effect on butyrate-producing bacteria populations. The resilience of the rumen microbial ecosystem was evident as the abundance of the microorganisms returned to their pre-disturbed status after infusion withdrawal. Our findings provide insight into perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbial ecosystem and should guide efforts in formulating optimal uses of probiotic bacteria treating human diseases.

  8. Characterization of differentially expressed genes in calf rumen epithelium in response to weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen grows to represent from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, directly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion...

  9. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  10. A simple technique for measurement of pressure in the tympanitic rumen of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C B; Whyte, T D

    1978-05-13

    The construction and method of use of a simple device for the non-invasive measurement of intra-rumenal pressure is outlined. Results obtained from calves suffering from increased intra-rumenal pressure (bloat) are shown. The method is capable of quantifying pressures involved in bloat and could be used to augment the visual assessment of bloat scoring.

  11. A note on the insertion of rumen cannulae in pregnant ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modifications to a simple and rapid technique for the insertion of rumen cannulae in sheep are described. The modified technique, executed in three phases, was developed to facilitate the fistula- tion and insertion of rumen cannulae in pregnant ewes, especially during late pregnancy. Wysigings van 'n eenvoudige en ...

  12. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Huyen Thi; Dao, Khoa Trong; Nguyen, Viet Khanh Hoang; Le Ngoc, Giang; Nguyen, Phuong Thi Mai; Le, Lam Tung; Phung, Nguyet Thu; M. van Straalen, Nico; Roelofs, Dick; Truong, Hai Nam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen

  13. A Study on Rumen Cilliate Protozoa Population, pH and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on rumen ciliate protozoa population, pH and some metabolites (total volatile fatty acids, rumen ammonia Nitrogen) was conducted on two fistulated WAD rams fed forage and concentrate diets. The 12-week study focused on the sequence of production of these parameters under each dietary regime.

  14. Degradation of lucerne stem cell walls by five rumen bacterial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.; Weimer, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The rumen bacterial strains Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Lachnospira multiparus 40, Ruminococcus albus 7 and R. flavefaciens FD-1 were compared individually and as a five-species mixture with a rumen inoculum for their ability to degrade lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)

  15. Comparison of the production rates of protozoa in the rumen estimated by using labelled live and formaldehyde treated mixed protozoal cells as marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    14 C-labelled mixed protozoal cells of rumen origin, treated with formaldehyde to protect their metabolism in the rumen, were used to estimate protozoa production in the rumen, and comparison was made of the growth obtained by injecting live labelled mixed rumen protozoal cells used earlier. (auth.)

  16. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, G.; Ekern, A.

    1974-01-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 μVi 51 Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate fumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker 51 Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of 51 Cr-EDTA through faeces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days. (author)

  17. PADRÃO DE FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL DE BOVINOS RECEBENDO PRODUTO HOMEOPÁTICO STANDARD OF FERMENTATION RUMINAL OF BOVINES RECEIVING HOMEOPATHIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Jacomini Abud

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à avaliação de um produto homeopático, a partir de seu uso continuado e ação bioestimulatória sobre o padrão de fermentação ruminal de bovinos. Foram realizadas as seguintes determinações no fluido ruminal: a concentração hidrogeniônica (pH, a prova de redução do azul de metileno (PRAM, o tempo de sedimentação e flotação (TAS, a concentração dos ácidos graxos voláteis (AGVs e do nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3, a contagem de protozoários ciliados do rúmen, além da degradação in situ da matéria seca através de incubações. Compararam-se os tratamentos mediante a avaliação da inclusão do carbonato de cálcio (Ca ao suplemento e a comparação do carbonato de Ca ao produto homeopático. A suplementação com carbonato de Ca causou mudanças no pH e nas porcentagens molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis do fluido ruminal. Em razão da redução na concentração de N-NH3 no fluido ruminal observada duas horas após a alimentação, conclui-se que a suplementação com o produto homeopático alterou a atividade proteolítica da microbiota ruminal. Os demais parâmetros analisados não foram sensíveis à suplementação com produto homeopático.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Avaliação ruminal, bovinos, suplementação homeopática. The work mentions the evaluation of a homeopathic product, from its continued use and bio-stimulation action on the standard of ruminal fermentation of bovines. It was evaluated pH, methylene blue reduction (RAM, time of sedimentation activity (TAS, volatile fatty acid and ammoniac nitrogen concentration, counting of the ciliated protozoa in the rumen and in situ dry matter degradation at rumen. The treatments through the evaluation of the inclusion of carbonate of calcium (Ca with the supplement and of the comparison of carbonate of Ca had been compared with the homeopathic product. The supplementation with carbonate of Ca caused changes in pH and in the molar

  18. Proteomic analyses of host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Jamie L

    2011-12-01

    The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced.

  19. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  20. Thiamine supplementation facilitates thiamine transporter expression in the rumen epithelium and attenuates high-grain-induced inflammation in low-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X H; Yang, L; Beckers, Y; Xue, F G; Tang, Z W; Jiang, L S; Xiong, B H

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis), and HG diet supplemented with 180 mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake. On d 19 and 20 of each period, milk performance was measured. On d 21, ruminal pH, endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and thiamine contents in rumen and blood, and plasma inflammatory cytokines were detected; a rumen papillae biopsy was taken on d 21 to determine the gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways. The HG diet decreased ruminal pH (5.93 vs. 6.49), increased milk yield from 17.9 to 20.2 kg/d, and lowered milk fat and protein from 4.28 to 3.83%, and from 3.38 to 3.11%, respectively. The HG feeding reduced thiamine content in rumen (2.89 vs. 8.97 μg/L) and blood (11.66 vs. 17.63 μg/L), and the relative expression value of thiamine transporter-2 (0.37-fold) and mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (0.33-fold) was downregulated by HG feeding. The HG-fed cows exhibited higher endotoxin LPS in rumen fluid (134,380 vs. 11,815 endotoxin units/mL), and higher plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines when compared with the control group. The gene and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL1B, and IL6 in rumen epithelium increased when cows were fed the HG diet, indicating that local inflammation occurred. The depressions in ruminal pH, milk fat, and protein of HG-fed cows were reversed by thiamine

  1. Magnesium requirement of some of the principal rumen cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M S; Dehority, B A

    2014-09-01

    Information available on the role of Mg for growth and cellulose degradation by rumen bacteria is both limited and inconsistent. In this study, the Mg requirements for two strains each of the cellulolytic rumen species Fibrobacter succinogenes (A3c and S85), Ruminococcus albus (7 and 8) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (B34b and C94) were investigated. Maximum growth, rate of growth and lag time were all measured using a complete factorial design, 2(3)×6; factors were: strains (2), within species (3) and Mg concentrations (6). R. flavefaciens was the only species that did not grow when Mg was singly deleted from the media, and both strains exhibited a linear growth response to increasing Mg concentrations (PR. flavefaciens B34b was estimated as 0.54 mM; whereas the requirement for R. flavefaciens C94 was >0.82 as there was no plateau in growth. Although not an absolute requirement for growth, strains of the two other species of cellulolytic bacteria all responded to increasing Mg concentrations. For F. succinogenes S85, R. albus 7 and R. albus 8, their requirement estimated from maximum growth was 0.56, 0.52 and 0.51, respectively. A requirement for F. succinogenes A3c could not be calculated because there was no solution for contrasts. Whether R. flavefaciens had a Mg requirement for cellulose degradation was determined in NH3-free cellulose media, using a 2×4 factorial design, 2 strains and 4 treatments. Both strains of R. flavefaciens were found to have an absolute Mg requirement for cellulose degradation. Based on reported concentrations of Mg in the rumen, 1.0 to 10.1 mM, it seems unlikely that an in vivo deficiency of this element would occur.

  2. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  3. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  4. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GOAT KIDS RAISED UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Solaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five wether goat kids (BW of 21.76 + 0.76 were randomly assigned to one of three production systems for 14 weeks to evaluate intake, digestibility and goat performance. Production systems were: 1 feedlot (FL, housed in individual pens and fed 40% protein pellets, 40% soybean hulls and 20% bermudagrass hay; 2 grazing continuously on 1 hectare bahiagrass pasture (BP supplemented daily with 150 g of protein pellets/hd; and 3 browsing rotationally on 4, 0.5 hectare mimosa (MB supplemented daily with 100 g cracked corn/hd. Body weights were recorded every two weeks. Feed intake and digestibility were measured on eight goats from each treatment groups. Goats were fitted with canvas fecal collection bags, allowed for 3 days of adjustments followed by 5 days of fecal collection. Feces, feed offered, pasture and browse samples were analyzed for acid insoluble ash to determine digestibility and predict intake. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected to measure volatile fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Total feed and medication costs also were recorded. Goats on FL system gained faster (P 0.10 in butyrate and valerate. However, acetate: propionate was lower (P 0.10 BUN. Numerically, browse system was most cost effective and bahaigrass pasture was most expensive in terms of animal production.

  5. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  6. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  7. Infusion of Soybean Small Peptides into Rumen: Effects on Rumen Fermentation of Beef Cattle%瘤胃灌注大豆小肽对肉牛瘤胃发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 万发春; 杨维仁; 宋恩亮; 刘晓牧; 谭秀文; 刘桂芬

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of infusion of different levels of soybean small peptides ( SSP) on rumen fermentation and rumen microbes in Luxi cattle. Four heads of Luxi cattle fixed with permanent ruminal cannula were used in a 4 ×4 Latin square design. Cattle were infused SSP by 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/d, respectively. Ruminal fluid was collected for the analysis of rumen fermentation indices, as well as the relative content of rumen microbes by real-time PCR. The results showed as follows: the mean of ruminal pH was not significantly affected by SSP infusion (P >0.05), the means of NH3-N and MCP concentrations were significantly increased (P 0. 05) , compared with those in 0 g/d group, the proportions of pro-pionate in 200 g/d group and 300 g/d group were increased significantly (P <0.05), while the proportions of acetate in 100 g/d group and 200 g/d group, as well as the proportions of butyrate in 300 g/d group were decreased significantly (P <0. 05) ; the ratio of acetate to propionate was significantly decreased by SSP infusion (P <0.05); the relative content of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly increased by SSP infusion (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, infusion of SSP can promote microbial protein synthesis, increase Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens content and improve rumen metabolism. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23 (8) : 1324-1331]%本试验旨在探讨瘤胃灌注不同水平大豆小肽对内牛瘤胃发酵指标和瘤胃微生物的影响.选用4头安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的鲁西黄牛阉牛,采用4×4拉丁方试验设计,分别瘤胃灌注0、100、200和300 g/d的大豆小肽.采集瘤胃液,测定瘤胃发酵指标,实时定量PCR法测定瘤胃微生物相对含量.结果表明,灌注大豆小肽对瘤胃液pH平均值无显著影响(P>0.05),显著提高了瘤胃液氨态氮(NH3-N)与微生物蛋白(MCP)平均浓度(P<0.05);灌注大豆小肽显著提高了瘤胃液总挥

  8. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported......, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. Case presentation. Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid...... pregnant and delivered a normal calf at term, while the two others were not bred. Conclusions. Candida kefyr is commonly isolated from milk of cows with mastitis, but has not been reported in association with other diseases of cattle. The infection was present as a monoculture in all three cows...

  10. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  11. The position of rumenic acid on triacylglycerols alters its bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardigny, J M; Masson, E; Sergiel, J P; Darbois, M; Loreau, O; Noël, J P; Sébédio, J-L

    2003-12-01

    The metabolic fate of rumenic acid (9cis,11trans-octadecenoic acid) related to its position on the glycerol moiety has not yet been studied. In the present work, synthetic triacylglycerols (TAG) esterified with oleic and rumenic acids were prepared. Rats were force-fed synthetic dioleyl monorumenyl glycerol with (14)C labeled rumenic acid in the internal (sn-2) or in the external position (sn-1 or sn-3). Rats were then placed in metabolic cages for 16 h. At the end of the experiment, the radioactivity in tissues, carcass and expired CO(2) was measured. Rumenic acid that was esterified at the external positions on the TAG was better absorbed and oxidized to a greater extent than when esterified at the internal position. The fatty acid from the 2-TAG form was also better incorporated into the rat carcass. In the liver, rumenic acid appeared mainly in TAG (50%) and to a lesser extent in phospholipids (33%) whatever its dietary form. Moreover, analyses of lipids from Camembert cheese and butter revealed that rumenic acid was located mainly on the sn-1 or sn-3 positions (74%). Taken together, these data suggest that rumenic acid from dairy fat may be well absorbed and used extensively for energy production.

  12. Potential of Selected Rumen Bacteria for Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Zorec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous animals harbour potent cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms that supply the host with nutrients acquired from degradation of ingested plant material. In addition to protozoa and fungi, rumen bacteria contribute a considerable part in the breakdown of recalcitrant (hemicellulosic biomass. The present review is focused on the enzymatic systems of three representative fibrolytic rumen bacteria, namely Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. R. flavefaciens is known for one of the most elaborated cellulosome architectures and might represent a promising candidate for the construction of designer cellulosomes. On the other hand, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans produce multiple free, but highly efficient xylanases. In addition, P. xylanivorans was also shown to have some probiotic traits, which makes it a promising candidate not only for biogas production, but also as an animal feed supplement. Genomic and proteomic analyses of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species aim to identify novel enzymes, which can then be cloned and expressed in adequate hosts to construct highly active recombinant hydrolytic microorganisms applicable for different biotechnological tasks.

  13. [Screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dengdi; Zhu, Yanlei; Tang, Jing; Ye, Yongxia; Zeng, Xianchun

    2010-08-01

    Peganum harmala, a famous traditional Chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. Camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms. Camel rumen content was used as the inoculant to inoculate medium M98-5 which contains 100 mg x L(-1) harmin and cultivated for 5 days. Upto 5 subculturings, strains that could degrading or tolerant harmine were isolated. Their conversion activity was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The taxonomic position of the strains were identified based on 16S rRNA sequences analysis. 15 out of the 29 isolates have harmine degrading activity. Most of the isolates are identified as the members of the Genera Lactobacillus (16 strains, 55%), Shigella (7 strains, 24%) and Bacillus (4 strains, 13.8%). Only one strain belong to genus Enterococcus and one belong to genus Megasphaera. The results indicated that the harmine tolerance/degrading communities of camel rumen are limited and only Lactobacillus have harmine-degrading activity.

  14. Studies on fibrolytic bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated from sheep rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawanon, S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was an attractive target for genetic engineering in rumen bacteria. The experiment was initiated in making culture collection of this species, some of which may be useful ascandidate strain in the future. Hay suspended in sheep rumen was used as the source of isolates. The source was enriched with filter paper degradation, diluted with an anaerobic solution and used for pure culturing bya roll tube technique. After colony forming, Gram-negative curved rods bacteria were selected and screened for further identification with volatile fatty acid (VFA profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Fibrolyticstrains were selected to find fibrolytic enzymes and attachment to and digestion of various fibers. Fortyseven strains of Gram-negative curved rods were isolated. After determining cellulase, xylanase activities and VFA profile, 2 strains were chosen and employed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Both strains producingbutyrate were B. fibrisolvens. Of these 2 strains, most fibrolytic S-28 was selected. The strain S-28 could degrade natural fibers but not cellulose and showed strong attachment to them. A strong xylanase activitywas detected and presence of cellulase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β- cellobiosidase were also demonstrated.

  15. Omics insights into rumen ureolytic bacterial community and urea metabolism in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Di

    2017-01-01

    Urea has been used in the diets of ruminants as a non-protein nitrogen source. Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia (NH3), and the NH3 is used as nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis. In the rumen, hydrolysis of urea to NH3 occurs at a greater rate than NH3 can be utilized by rumen bacteria, and excess ammonia absorbed into blood may be harmful to the animals. Nowadays, little is known about the information...

  16. Determination of the retention time of feed in rumen using Sc-46 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai, E.A. de; Castro, F.B. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Machado, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The retention time of fibrous feed materials in rumen is of prime importance by providing parameters to evaluate its nutritional value. Some existing marker methods have been presenting serious problems such as physico-chemical alterations of feedstuff during the treatment and also marker migration in rumen conditions. In this study, the rare-earth element Scandium-46 has been applied to marking sugarcane bagasse physically processed. The data showed no significant migration of marker to liquid phase. The retention time in the rumen fistulated cow was 23.06 hours. Correlation coefficient of elapsed time after marking with logarithm of specific activity of ruminal content was 0.9986**. (author) [pt

  17. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wakita, M.; Hoshino, S.

    1987-01-01

    1.The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro.2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate: propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent p...

  18. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  19. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  20. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  1. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  2. In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Huo, Wenjie; Liu, Junhua; Zhang, Ruiyang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-03-01

    Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a rapid decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of LPS and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio and Prevotella. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high-grain diet conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Survey of chemical compounds tested in vitro against rumen protozoa for possible control of bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, F L; Kodras, R

    1967-09-01

    Over 170 chemical agents were screened for antiprotozoal action in bovine ruminal fluid. Compounds were tested at 0.1 and 0.05% concentrations. Tested compounds included inorganic compounds, antibiotics, biocides, neuromuscular agents, arsenicals, plant and animal hormones, antimalarials, surface-active agents, anthelmintics, and many others. The most active compounds were cupric sulfate, nickel sulfate, nitrofurazone, hydrogen peroxide, dodecyl sodium sulfate, pelargonic acid, iodoacetic acid, 1-diethylaminoethylamino-4-methylthiaxanthrone, sodium arsanilate, sodium arsenate, bismuth glycolyl arsanilate, 1-beta-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, and p-nitroaniline. Copper ion was not particularly effective against entodinia; nickel ion had no effect on holotrichs. Hydrogen peroxide and iodoacetic acid were effective at a concentration of 0.005%. Anionic surface-active agents were very effective, especially long-chain sulfates and phosphates. These antiprotozoal agents warrant further in vivo studies for possible use in treating or curing bloat in ruminants.

  4. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  5. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). ... Keywords: Dairy cows, milk production, non-fibre carbohydrates, rumen .... Van Soest, 1970) with sodium sulphite using heat stable alpha-amylase.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen fungi growth and population by direct (quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction) and indirect (dry matter and neutral detergent fibre disappearance) methods.

  7. Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity of goats during shift from forage to concentrate diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grilli, D. J.; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kopečný, Jan; Lama, S. P.; Egea, V.; Sohaefer, N.; Pereyra, C.; Ruiz, M. J.; Sosa, M. A.; Arenas, G. N.; Mrázek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 17-26 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : creole goats * rumen * bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2016

  8. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and its intestinal digestibility after steam flaking of cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrenková, M; Formelová, Z; Ceresnáková, Z

    2018-01-01

    While it is known that heat treatment of cereal grains generally improves the nutritional value for ruminants, simultaneous information on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of the rumen by-pass is scarce, especially for non-starch constituents. The effect of steam flaking at 90°C...... flaking on chemical composition of cereal grains (crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and starch) were observed. The protein fractions that are relevant to rumen degradability were significantly influenced by the steam flaking: the non-protein nitrogen fraction (A) was reduced (P...... hand, steam flaking markedly increased buffer insoluble but neutral detergent soluble protein fraction (B2) by 15–25% for all three cereal grains, whereas effects on B3 fraction were not significant. Steam flaking was also associated with an increase of the rumen undegradable protein fraction (C...

  9. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as minerals, protein, or rumen ammonia were maintained at adequate ... The relationship between voluntary feed intake and starch infusion was tested for .... artificial saliva (Tilley & Terry, 1%3) before filtering according to the same in ...

  10. Effects of Defaunation on Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production by Rumen Microbes When Incubated with Starchy Feed Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to examine the effects of defaunation (removal of protozoa on ruminal fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and degradation by rumen microbes when incubated with cereal grains (corn, wheat and rye. Sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunation reagent was added into the culture solution at a concentration of 0.000375 g/ml, and incubated anaerobically for up to 12 h at 39°C. Following defaunation, live protozoa in the culture solution were rarely observed by microscopic examination. A difference in pH was found among grains regardless of defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.01 to 0.001. Defaunation significantly decreased pH at 12 h (p<0.05 when rumen fluid was incubated with grains. Ammonia-N concentration was increased by defaunation for all grains at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05 incubation times. Total VFA concentration was increased by defaunation at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.01 for all grains. Meanwhile, defaunation decreased acetate and butyrate proportions at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.01 and 12 h (p<0.01, p<0.001, but increased the propionate proportion at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h incubation (p<0.01 to 0.001 for all grains. Defaunation increased in vitro effective degradability of DM (p<0.05. Production of total gas and CO2 was decreased by defaunation for all grains at 1 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and then increased at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05, p<0.05. CH4 production was higher from faunation than from defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.05.

  11. Molecular cloning, purification, expression, and characterization of β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene ( from sp. isolated from Holstein steers’ rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansol Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to isolate the cellulolytic microorganism from the rumen of Holstein steers and characterize endoglucanase gene (Cel5A from the isolated microorganism. Methods To isolate anaerobic microbes having endoglucanase, rumen fluid was obtained from Holstein steers fed roughage diet. The isolated anaerobic bacteria had 98% similarity with Eubacterium cellulosolvens (E. cellulosolvens Ce2 (Accession number: AB163733. The Cel5A from isolated E. cellulolsovens sp. was cloned using the published genome sequence and expressed through the Escherichia coli BL21. Results The maximum activity of recombinant Cel5A (rCel5A was observed at 50°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was constant at the temperature range of 20°C to 40°C but also, at the pH range of 3 to 9. The metal ions including Ca2+, K+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ increased the endoglucanase activity but the addition of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ decreased. The Km and Vmax value of rCel5A were 14.05 mg/mL and 45.66 μmol/min/mg. Turnover number, Kcat and catalytic efficiency, Kcat/Km values of rCel5A was 96.69 (s−1 and 6.88 (mL/mg/s, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicated that rCel5A of E. cellulosolvens isolated from Holstein steers had a broad pH range with high stability under various conditions, which might be one of the beneficial characteristics of this enzyme for possible industrial application.

  12. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  13. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  14. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rumen Microbiome of Steers with Wheat-Induced Frothy Bloat

    OpenAIRE

    Pitta, D. W.; Pinchak, W. E.; Indugu, N.; Vecchiarelli, B.; Sinha, R.; Fulford, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Frothy bloat is a serious metabolic disorder that affects stocker cattle grazing hard red winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains causing reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality. We hypothesize that a microbial dysbiosis develops in the rumen microbiome of stocker cattle when grazing on high quality winter wheat pasture that predisposes them to frothy bloat risk. In this study, rumen contents were harvested from six cannulated steers grazing hard red winter wheat (three with bl...

  15. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Gozde Ozbayram; Orhan Ince; Bahar Ince; Hauke Harms; Sabine Kleinsteuber

    2018-01-01

    Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methan...

  16. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  17. Infusorial concentration in rumen fluid of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer and moufflon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (1999), s. 247-252 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.227, year: 1999 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol68/pdf/68_247.pdf

  18. In vitro fermentation of key dietary compounds with rumen fluid: A genome-centric perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Cattani, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    involved in the degradation of dietary compounds and in the biosynthesis of crucial products like propionate, methane and ammonia. The identification of genomes belonging to poorly characterized phyla such as Thermoplasmata and Elusimicrobia shed light on their putative role. The high abundance...

  19. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  20. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat.

  1. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics of buffaloes and bovine fed additived sugar cane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. Cecato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated nutrients total digestibility (TD and dry matter (DM intake, pH and NH3 ruminal concentration in buffaloes and bovine, fed sugar cane silages treated with Lactobacillus buchneri (SSL, plus 10% - cassava by-product meal (SSLC, plus 10% - soybean hulls (SSLS or plus 1% - urea (SSLU. The experimental design was a double 4x4 Latin squares with a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between species x treatment for evaluated parameters except for TD of CP, NDF and ADF. The soybean hulls addition increased (P<0.05 TD of DM, OM and total carbohydrate (TC while the urea addition reduced (P<0.05 DM intake and TD of DM, OM, TC and no fiber carbohydrate (NFC. Buffaloes showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with SSL and the highest TD of NDF and ADF with SSLS. Bovines showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with the SSL and SSLS; the last increased TD of NDF and ADF. The rumen pH in buffalo was higher than in cattle (6.62 vs. 6.48, respectively. The NH3 ruminal concentration did not differ between species and SSLU treatment presented the highest values (12.9 mg / 100 mL.

  2. Changes in microbial and nutrient composition associated with rumen content compost incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Adetutu, Eric M; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-02-01

    Physico-chemical and microbiological investigations were carried out on rumen content material composted for nine months, fresh vermicasts (obtained after passing the same compost through the guts of a mixture of three species of earthworms: Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Perionyx excavates) and microbially enhanced extracts derived from rumen compost, vermicast and vermicast leachate incubated for up to 48 h. Compared to composted rumen contents, vermicast was only improved in terms of microbial biomass C, while vermicast leached extract was significantly higher in NH(4)(+)-N,PO(4)(-)-P, humic acid, bacterial counts and total microbial activity compared to rumen compost extract. Although no difference between treatments was observed in genetic diversity as indicated by DGGE analysis, community level functional diversity of vermicast leached extract (Biolog™) was higher than that of composted rumen contents, vermicast and rumen compost extract indicating an enhancement of microbial activity rather than diversity due to liquid incubation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insights into resistome and stress responses genes in Bubalus bubalis rumen through metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Bhaskar; Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Antony, Ancy; Panchasara, Harshad J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiota experience variety of diets and represents a huge reservoir of mobilome, resistome and stress responses. However, knowledge of metagenomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of buffalo rumen in the liquid and solid phase of the rumen biomaterial from river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages, using high-throughput sequencing to know the occurrence of antibiotics resistance genes, genetic exchange between bacterial population and environmental reservoirs. A total of 3914.94 MB data were generated from all three treatments group. The data were analysed with Metagenome rapid annotation system tools. At phyla level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all the treatments followed by Firmicutes. Genes coding for functional responses to stress (oxidative stress and heat shock proteins) and resistome genes (resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, phages, transposable elements and pathogenicity islands) were prevalent in similar proportion in liquid and solid fraction of rumen metagenomes. The fluoroquinolone resistance, MDR efflux pumps and Methicillin resistance genes were broadly distributed across 11, 9, and 14 bacterial classes, respectively. Bacteria responsible for phages replication and prophages and phage packaging and rlt-like streptococcal phage genes were mostly assigned to phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and proteaobacteria. Also, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the buffalo rumen. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to different diet, antibiotics and other stresses in buffalo rumen, reflecting the proportional representation of major bacterial groups.

  4. High-throughput Methods Redefine the Rumen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Nutrition and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Joshua C.; Wickersham, Tryon A.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the forestomach microbiome is one of the key features of ruminant animals. The diverse microbial community adapts to a wide array of dietary feedstuffs and management strategies. Understanding rumen microbiome composition, adaptation, and function has global implications ranging from climatology to applied animal production. Classical knowledge of rumen microbiology was based on anaerobic, culture-dependent methods. Next-generation sequencing and other molecular techniques have uncovered novel features of the rumen microbiome. For instance, pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene has revealed the taxonomic identity of bacteria and archaea to the genus level, and when complemented with barcoding adds multiple samples to a single run. Whole genome shotgun sequencing generates true metagenomic sequences to predict the functional capability of a microbiome, and can also be used to construct genomes of isolated organisms. Integration of high-throughput data describing the rumen microbiome with classic fermentation and animal performance parameters has produced meaningful advances and opened additional areas for study. In this review, we highlight recent studies of the rumen microbiome in the context of cattle production focusing on nutrition, rumen development, animal efficiency, and microbial function. PMID:24940050

  5. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Fumaric Acid Coupled Addition on the In Vitro Rumen Fermentation with Special Regard to Methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abdl-Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N, total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (YATP. Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH3–N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency.

  7. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Tan, Chuanyan; Zhong, Rongzhen; Hea, Zhixiong; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and an alkyl polyglycoside (APG) supplementation on parameters of rumen and blood metabolism were investigated in goats. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was arranged within a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four 22-day periods), using four wether goats equipped with permanent ruminal cannulas. The experimental diets included two F:C levels (40:60 vs. 60:40), and two APG supplementation levels (None or 13 ml APG daily per animal). Rumen contents and blood samples were collected at the end of each period. Dietary F:C alteration affected plasma urea and influenced the proportions of leucine, histidine, arginine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, cysteine and tyrosine in rumen content, and the proportions of methionine, threonine and proline in solid-associated bacteria (SAB) significantly. Dietary APG decreased the proportions of valine and phenylalanine in rumen content, and the histidine content of liquid-associated bacteria. The interaction between dietary F:C and APG was significant for the proportions of glycine and alanine in rumen content, and the proportions of lysine and threonine in SAB. The proportion of lysine was greater, but the proportion of threonine was less in SAB for goats fed high F:C diet without APG supplementation. The proportions of plasma free amino acids and glucose concentration were not affected by experimental treatments. These results indicated that dietary APG addition affected the amino acid composition of the rumen content and ruminal bacteria, but this depended on the dietary F:C ratio. It is necessary to validate the effectiveness of dietary APG supplementation in further studies with more animals.

  8. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  9. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, M; Jarltoft, T C; Kristensen, N B; Børsting, C F

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control) concentrate. Control was based on finely ground ingredients, whereas in Coarse, the same ingredients were coarsely ground resulting in a mean particle size before pelleting of 1.5 in Coarse and 0.6 mm in Control. Slow compared with Control and Coarse contained finely ground sorghum and corn instead of barley and wheat which increased the amount of rumen-escape starch to 59 compared with 22 g/kg in Control and Coarse. All concentrates had the same total starch (362 g/kg), NDF (168 g/kg), CP (154 g/kg) and DE (15.5 MJ/kg DM) content and a pellet diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm. Use of an 'indicator of starch digestibility' method gave a value of 98.6% for Control and Coarse and 91.1% for Slow (P 0.05). Papillae length and shape evaluated in atrium ruminis and the cranial part of the ventral rumen sac at slaughter were not affected by type of concentrate (P > 0.05). Rumen wall characteristics showed degrees of plaque formation (i.e., papillary aggregation), hyperaemia and necrotic areas in all treatment groups, but with no general difference between type of concentrate (P > 0.05). Incidence of liver abscesses (LAs, 16%) was not affected by type of concentrate (P > 0.05). There were no differences in performance or rumen wall characteristics between liver-abscessed and non-abscessed calves. The results show a high level of production performance with the three types of pelleted concentrates and indicates that neither the more coarse ingredients nor the additional rumen-escape starch tested, when fed ad libitum, could improve rumen wall characteristics or reduce LAs of rosé veal calves.

  10. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P<0.05. Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P<0.05 silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P<0.05, which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR and crude protein recovery (CPR (P<0.05. Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  11. Experimental acute rumen acidosis in sheep: consequences on clinical, rumen, and gastrointestinal permeability conditions and blood chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Jahan, N; Bani, P

    2014-09-01

    Acute acidosis was induced in sheep, and gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by using lactulose as a permeability marker. Metabolism was evaluated by monitoring blood metabolites. Four rams (72.5 ± 4.6 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 changeover design experiment. The experimental period lasted 96 h from -24 to 72 h. After 24 h of fasting (from -24 to 0 h) for both controls and acidosis-induced rams (ACID), 0.5 kg of wheat flour was orally dosed at 0 and 12 h of the experimental period to ACID, while the basal diet (grass hay, ad libitum) was restored to control. At 24 h, a lactulose solution (30 g of lactulose in 200 mL of water) was orally administered. Blood samples were collected at -24, 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of the experimental periods for the analysis of metabolic profiles and during the 10 h after lactulose dosage to monitor lactulose changes in blood. In addition, rumen and fecal samples were collected at 24 h of the experimental period. The acidotic challenge markedly reduced (P < 0.01) rumen pH and VFA but increased rumen d- and l-lactic acid (P < 0.01). Concurrently, a decrease of fecal pH and VFA occurred in ACID (P < 0.01), together with an abrupt increase (P < 0.01) of lactate and fecal alkaline phosphatase. Blood lactulose was significantly increased in ACID peaking 2 h after lactulose dosage. Blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, Ca, K, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) at 24 h, whereas urea and NEFA declined (P < 0.05) from 48 to 72 h. A strong inflammatory acute phase response with oxidative stress in ACID group was observed from 24 to 72 h; higher values of haptoglobin (P < 0.01) were measured from 24 to 72 h and of ceruloplasmin from 48 (P < 0.05) to 72 h (P < 0.01). Among the negative acute phase reactants, plasma albumin, cholesterol, paraoxonase, and Zn concentration also decreased (P < 0.05) in ACID at different time points between 24 and 72 h after acidotic challenge start. A rise (P < 0.05) of reactive

  12. 16S/18S ribosomal DNA clone library analysis of rumen microbial diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.G.; Kiyoshi Tajima; Aminov, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen contains a complex ecosystem where billions of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi reside. This diverse microbiota is well adapted to live in the rumen and play an important role in the digestion of feed and nutrient supply to the host in the form of microbial protein and volatile fatty acids. It is estimated that the rumen microbial population consists of about 10 6 protozoa/ml, 10 3 -10 7 fungi/ml, 10 10 bacteria/ml, and 10 9 methanogens/ml. To better understand the complex relationships in the rumen, it is necessary to gain an insight into the diversity of the rumen microbes and how the quantity and composition of rumen micro-organisms are altered by a number of different host factors such as age, genetics and diet. In the past, the diversity of micro-organisms from the digestive tracts of domesticated ruminants has been identified by classical microbiological techniques. However, given the fastidious growth requirements of rumen micro-organisms, it is reasonable to concede that the culture-dependent methods may select against some species, or taxonomic groups, leading researchers to underestimate the microbial diversity that is actually present in the rumen. In fact, it has been speculated that 90% of micro-organisms in nature have escaped traditional cultivation methods. Therefore, a major challenge in microbial ecology has been to assess the diversity and structure of natural microbial communities. The field of molecular biology has advanced with many innovative technological breakthroughs. The ability to extract and to isolate high-molecular weight DNA from rumen digesta, PCR amplify genes from specific microbial groups and obtain gene sequence data is now a routine event. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, called 16S in prokaryotes and 18S in eukaryotes, is the most widely used molecular marker to presumptively identify morphologically indistinguishable species, to infer their phylogenetic relationships, and to elucidate microbial

  13. Host Immune Selection of Rumen Bacteria through Salivary Secretory IgA

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    Janelle M. Fouhse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria. We hypothesized that SIgA-tagged bacteria would differ from total bacteria, thus supporting a potential host-derived mechanism in commensal bacterial selection. Whole rumen (n = 9 and oral secretion samples (n = 10 were incubated with magnetic beads conjugated with anti-secretory IgA antibodies to enrich SIgA-tagged microbiota. Microbial DNA from the oral secretion, whole rumen, SIgA-tagged oral secretion, and SIgA-tagged rumen was isolated for amplicon sequencing of V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA genes. Whole rumen and oral secretion had distinctive (P < 0.05 bacterial compositions indicated by the non-parametric multidimensional scaling plot using Euclidean distance metrics. The SIgA-tagged microbiota from rumen and oral secretion had similar abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fibrobacter, candidate phyla TM7, and Tenericutes and are clustered tightly. Composition of SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota was more similar to whole rumen microbiota than whole oral secretion due to enrichment of rumen bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and depletion of oral taxa (Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseriaceae, and Lactobacillales. In conclusion, SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota had an increased resemblance to whole rumen microbiota, suggesting salivary SIgA-coating may be one host

  14. Possible effects of glyphosate on Mucorales abundance in the rumen of dairy cows in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Susanne; Konstantinova-Müller, Theodora; Shehata, Awad A; Rulff, Ramon; Krüger, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is registered as a herbicide for many food and non-food crops, as well as non-crop areas where total vegetation control is desired. Glyphosate influences the soil mycobiota; however, the possible effect of glyphosate residues in animal feed (soybean, corn, etc.) on animal mycobiota is almost unknown. Accordingly, the present study was initiated to investigate the mycological characteristics of dairy cows in relationship to glyphosate concentrations in urine. A total of 258 dairy cows on 14 dairy farms in Germany were examined. Glyphosate was detected in urine using ELISA. The fungal profile was analyzed in rumen fluid samples using conventional microbiological culture techniques and differentiated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. LPS-binding protein (LBP) and antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM) against fungi were determined in blood using ELISA. Different populations of Lichtheimia corymbifera, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor, and Rhizopus were detected. L. corymbifera and L. ramosa were significantly more abundant in animals containing high glyphosate (>40 ng/ml) concentrations in urine. There were no significant changes in IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies toward isolated fungi that were related to glyphosate concentration in urine; however, IgA antibodies against L. corymbifera and L. ramosa were significantly lower in the higher glyphosate groups. Moreover, a negative correlation between IgM antibodies against L. corymbifera, L. ramosa, and Rhizopus relative to glyphosate concentration in urine was observed. LBP also was significantly decreased in animals with higher concentrations of glyphosate in their urine. In conclusion, glyphosate appears to modulate the fungal community. The reduction of IgM antibodies and LBP indicates an influence on the innate immune system of animals.

  15. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  16. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE

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    Rr. Dewi Artanti Putri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi  yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi  5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml. Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand. With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester

  17. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

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    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  18. Characterization and optimization of bovine Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid to be used in immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease by ELISA Caracterização e otimização do líquido vesicular de Echinococcus granulosus bovino para utilização no imunodiagnóstico da hidatidose por ELISA

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    Oscar IRABUENA

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the influence in the diagnostic value for human hydatid disease of the composition of bovine hydatid cyst fluid (BHCF obtained from fertile (FC and non-fertile cysts (NFC. Eight batches from FC and 5 from NFC were prepared and analysed with respect to chemical composition: total protein, host-derived protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. No differences were observed in the first two parameters but carbohydrate and lipid contents were shown to be higher in batches from FC than in those from NFC. Bands of 38 and 116 kD in SDS-PAGE profiles were observed to be present in BHCF from FC only. Two pools were prepared from BHCF batches obtained from FC (PFC and NFC (PNFC, respectively. Antigen recognition patterns were analysed by immunoblot. Physicochemical conditions for adsorption of antigens to the polystyrene surface (ELISA plates were optimized. The diagnostic value of both types of BHCF as well as the diagnostic relevance of oxidation of their carbohydrate moieties with periodate were assessed by ELISA using 42 serum samples from hydatid patients, 41 from patients with other disorders, and 15 from healthy donors. Reactivity of all sera against native antigen were tested with and without free phosphorylcholine. The best diagnostic efficiency was observed using BHCF from periodate-treated PFC using glycine buffer with strong ionic strength to coat ELISA plates.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar a composição química do líquido hidático bovino (BHCF obtido de cistos hidáticos férteis (FC e não férteis (NFC. Oito lotes de FC e 5 de NFC foram preparados e testados quanto à composição química, proteínas totais, proteínas derivadas do hospedeiro, conteúdo de carbohidratos e lipídeos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os dois primeiros parâmetros sendo que o conteúdo de carbohidratos e lipídeos foi maior nos lotes FC do que nos NFC. Por SDS-PAGE foram observadas bandas de 38 e 116 k

  19. The effect of pineapple waste (Ananas comosus (L. Merr subtitution on mixed basal diet of Elephant grass and calliandra on rumen ecosystem of sheep

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    Y. Widiawati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pineapple waste substitution to mixed basal diet of Elephant grass and calliandra on rumen ecosystem. Pineapple waste was substituted to basal of Elephant grass and calliandra leaves (3:2 at the level of 0% (RA; 10% (RB; 20% (RC; 30% (RD; 40% (RE and 50% (RF. In this experiment 24 Indonesian local male sheep (9-10 months old, 15.3 kg average body weight were used, and were divided into 6 groups of dietary treatment (4 sheep each. Every group was offered one of the experimental diets (RA to RF in a Completely Randomized Design. Pineapple waste was offered gradually for one month until the level of 50% (RF was reached. The animals were adapted to experimental diets for about 14 days prior to the data collection period. Rumen fluids from each animal was taken (5 hours after morning feeding for pH, ammonia concentration; bacteria and protozoa population analysis. The results showed that substitution of pineapple waste up to 30% had no effect on pH, but when the level was increased up to 40 and 50%, the pH (P0.05. Increasing pineapple waste given increased population of amyllolytic bacteria but decreased the population of cellulolytic bacteria. On the Elephant grass and calliandra basal diet with the proportion of 3 : 2, the best substitution of pineapple waste was up to 20%.

  20. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Stonecipher, C A; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated. Cattle were dosed with ground pine needles twice daily for 7 d. Rumen samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, and 14 (7 d after treatment stopped) and ruminal bacterial microbiome analyses were performed. There were 372 different genera of bacteria identified in the rumen samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the rumen bacterial composition between the time points. There were 18 genera that increased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. Twenty three genera decreased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. The results from this study demonstrated that exposure of cattle to pine needles caused a clear shift in the rumen microbiome composition. In general, this shift lasted less than 1 wk post exposure, which indicates that any prophylactic treatment to manipulate the ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in pine needles would need to be continuously administered to maintain the necessary microbial composition in the rumen.

  1. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lingen, Henk J; Plugge, Caroline M; Fadel, James G; Kebreab, Ermias; Bannink, André; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate) in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without considering NADH

  2. The Metabolic Conversion of Arginine in the Rumen Wall and its Importance in Ruminant Nitrogen Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmeyer, J.; Kurelec, B.; Hill, H. [Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-07-01

    The functions of arginase and urease of the rumen wall were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Surviving ruminal mucosae of cattle were incubated for four hours. {sup 14}C-arginine-HCl, uniformly labelled, was added to the serosal side at a concentration of 10 pmol/mi. About 25% of the added arginine was used during the incubation by the ruminal tissue. In comparison with controls an increased amount of {sup 14}C-omithine, urea, and ammonia were formed in the mucosa and appeared on both sides. The increase was due to arginase and urease functions. It was estimated that about 50% of the urea formed by arginine breakdown were present at the mucosa side, mainly in the form of ammonia. Of the omithine simultaneously formed, 85% remained on the serosa side. Remarkable individual variations of omithine and urea formation were found from animal to animal. The in-vivo experiments were performed using goats with catheters placed in the right ruminal artery and vein. We injected 90 {mu}Ci of {sup 14}C-arginine into the ruminal artery. When 80 g of soluble starch were added to the rumen the activity and concentration of ornithine increased in the ruminal venous blood showing an arterial-venous difference. The radioactivity of urea in blood taken from the ruminal vein and the carotid artery did not show any difference. When starch was omitted from the rumen a comparable difference of omithine concentration was not found. It is assumed that the enzymes arginase and urease of the rumen wall are involved in nitrogen recycling processes. Blood arginine may be hydrolysed in the rumen wall forming urea and ornithine. Urea formed by arginine breakdown may be split to CO{sub 2} and ammonia. The experiments produced evidence that the ammonia formed preferably enters the rumen content. The nitrogen transfer through the rumen wall may be affected by varying activities of arginase. (author)

  3. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J van Lingen

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA. Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2, has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT, which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without

  4. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome of Norwegian reindeer on natural summer pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A; Edwards, Joan E; Cheng, Yan Fen; Senosiain, Roberto S; Fraile, Maria N; Northwood, Korinne S; Praesteng, Kirsti E; Glad, Trine; Mathiesen, Svein D; Wright, André-Denis G

    2009-02-01

    The molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome was investigated in five semi-domesticated adult female Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) grazing on natural summer pastures on the coast of northern Norway (71.00 degrees N, 25.30 degrees E). Mean population densities (numbers per gram wet weight) of methanogenic archaea, rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa, estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were 3.17x10(9), 5.17x10(11) and 4.02x10(7), respectively. Molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was revealed using a 16S rRNA gene library (54 clones) constructed using pooled PCR products from the whole rumen contents of the five individual reindeer. Based upon a similarity criterion of rumen exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity to methanogens affiliated with the families Methanobacteriaceae (14 OTUs) and Methanosarcinaceae (one OTU). Four of the OTUs detected belonged to a group of uncultivated archaea previously found in domestic ruminants and thought to be dominant in the rumen together with Methanobrevibacter spp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the protozoal 18S rRNA gene indicated a high degree of animal variation, although some bands were common to all individuals. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) profiling of the ruminal Neocallimastigales population indicated that the reindeer are likely to contain more than one type of anaerobic fungus. The ARISA profile from one animal was distinct from the other four. This is the first molecular investigation of the ruminal methanogenic archaea in reindeer, revealing higher numbers than expected based on methane emission data available. Also, many of the reindeer archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were similar to those reported in domesticated ruminants in Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand and Venezuela, supporting previous findings that there seems to be no host type or geographical

  6. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D O; Nagaraja, T G; Wright, A D G; Callaway, T R

    2013-01-01

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not only in delineating the complex ecosystem of the rumen but also in clinical microbiology and in the exploration of a number of other anaerobic ecosystems, including the human hindgut. Rumen microbiology has pioneered our understanding of much of microbial ecology and has broadened our knowledge of ecology in general, as well as improved the ability to feed ruminants more efficiently. The discovery of anaerobic fungi as a component of the ruminal flora disproved the central dogma in microbiology that all fungi are aerobic organisms. Further novel interactions between bacterial species such as nutrient cross feeding and interspecies H2 transfer were first described in ruminal microorganisms. The complexity and diversity present in the rumen make it an ideal testing ground for microbial theories (e.g., the effects of nutrient limitation and excess) and techniques (such as 16S rRNA), which have rewarded the investigators that have used this easily accessed ecosystem to understand larger truths. Our understanding of characteristics of the ruminal microbial population has opened new avenues of microbial ecology, such as the existence of hyperammonia-producing bacteria and how they can be used to improve N efficiency in ruminants. In this review, we examine some of the contributions to science that were first made in the rumen, which have not been recognized in a broader sense.

  7. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  8. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on rumen papillae protein turnover in growing lambs. Under the feeding conditions used and the rate of continuous butyrate infusion into the rumen in the present studies, butyrate does not affect overall N retention in growing sheep. However, butyrate may play a role in the redistribution of urea N fluxes in the overall scheme of N metabolism.

  9. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, Leticia; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Pinloche, Eric; Denman, Stuart E; Newbold, C Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  10. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Abecia

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART while the other remained with the mother (NAT. Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001. Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28. Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  11. Metagenomic insights into the rumen microbial fibrolytic enzymes in Indian crossbred cattle fed finger millet straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, V Lyju; Appoothy, Thulasi; More, Ravi P; Arun, A Sha

    2017-12-01

    The rumen is a unique natural habitat, exhibiting an unparalleled genetic resource of fibrolytic enzymes of microbial origin that degrade plant polysaccharides. The objectives of this study were to identify the principal plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and the taxonomic profile of rumen microbial communities that are associated with it. The cattle rumen microflora and the carbohydrate-active enzymes were functionally classified through a whole metagenomic sequencing approach. Analysis of the assembled sequences by the Carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis Toolkit identified the candidate genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes belonging to different classes of glycoside hydrolases(11,010 contigs), glycosyltransferases (6366 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (4945 contigs), carbohydrate-binding modules (1975 contigs), polysaccharide lyases (480 contigs), and auxiliary activities (115 contigs). Phylogenetic analysis of CAZyme encoding contigs revealed that a significant proportion of CAZymes were contributed by bacteria belonging to genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fibrobacter, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus. The results indicated that the cattle rumen microbiome and the CAZymes are highly complex, structurally similar but compositionally distinct from other ruminants. The unique characteristics of rumen microbiota and the enzymes produced by resident microbes provide opportunities to improve the feed conversion efficiency in ruminants and serve as a reservoir of industrially important enzymes for cellulosic biofuel production.

  12. Monensin and Nisin Affect Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Differently In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshi Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisin, a bacteriocin, is a potential alternative to antibiotics to modulate rumen fermentation. However, little is known about its impacts on rumen microbes. This study evaluated the effects of nisin (1 and 5 μM on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics, microbiota, and select groups of rumen microbes in comparison with monensin (5 μM, one of the most commonly used ionophores in ruminants. Nisin had greater effects than monensin in inhibiting methane production and decreasing acetate/propionate ratio. Unlike monensin, nisin had no adverse effect on dry matter digestibility. Real-time PCR analysis showed that both monensin and nisin reduced the populations of total bacteria, fungi, and methanogens, while the population of protozoa was reduced only by monensin. Principal component analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a clear separation between the microbiota shaped by monensin and by nisin. Comparative analysis also revealed a significant difference in relative abundance of some bacteria in different taxa between monensin and nisin. The different effects of monensin and nisin on microbial populations and bacterial communities are probably responsible for the discrepancy in their effects on rumen fermentation. Nisin may have advantages over monensin in modulating ruminal microbial ecology and reducing ruminant methane production without adversely affecting feed digestion, and thus it may be used as a potential alternative to monensin fed to ruminants.

  13. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  14. Effect of media composition, including gelling agents, on isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyo, T; Shinkai, T; Tajima, A; Mitsumori, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel anaerobic media using gellan gum for the isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Four anaerobic media, a basal liquid medium (BM) with agar (A-BM), a modified BM (MBM) with agar (A-MBM), an MBM with phytagel (P-MBM) and an MBM with gelrite (G-MBM) were used for the isolation of rumen bacteria and evaluated for the growth of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Of the 214 isolates composed of 144 OTUs, 103 isolates (83 OTUs) were previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Most of the previously uncultured strains were obtained from A-MBM, G-MBM and P-MBM, but the predominant cultural members, isolated from each medium, differed. A-MBM and G-MBM showed significantly higher numbers of different OTUs derived from isolates than A-BM (P rumen bacteria were isolated from all media used, the ratio of previously uncultured bacteria to total isolates was increased in A-MBM, P-MBM and G-MBM. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  16. Rumen escape nitrogen from forages in sheep: comparison of in situ and in vitro techniques using in vivo data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Dulphy, J.P.; Poncet, C.; Aufrère, J.; Tamminga, S.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate in vivo data of rumen escape N (REN) of forages with REN estimated from models and with determinations of rumen undegradable N. For these determinations and models measurements from in situ and in vitro techniques were used. Eleven forages were investigated

  17. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijhoek, D.W.; Hellwing, A.L.F.; Brask, M.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Højberg, O.; Larsen, M.K.; Dijkstra, Jan; Erlandsen, E.J.; Lund, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient

  18. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  19. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  20. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  1. The effect of cation source and dietary cation-anion difference on rumen ion concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterton, T L; Erdman, R A

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have focused on the influence of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on animal performance but few have examined the effect of DCAD on the rumen ionic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of DCAD, cation source (Na vs. K), and anion source (Cl vs. bicarbonate or carbonate) on rumen environment and fermentation. The study used 5 rumen-fistulated dairy cows and 5 dietary treatments that were applied using a 5×5 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Treatments consisted of (1) the basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na (dry matter basis) using NaCl; (3) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using KCl; (4) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na using NaHCO3; and (5) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using K2CO3. On the last day of each experimental period, rumen samples were collected and pooled from 5 different locations at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12h postfeeding for measurement of rumen pH and concentrations of strong ions and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Dietary supplementation of individual strong ions increased the corresponding rumen ion concentration. Rumen Na was decreased by 24mEq/L when K was substituted for Na in the diet, but added dietary Na had no effect on rumen K. Rumen Cl was increased by 10mEq/L in diets supplemented with Cl. Cation source had no effect on rumen pH or total VFA concentration. Increased DCAD increased rumen pH by 0.10 pH units and increased rumen acetate by 4mEq/L but did not increase total VFA. This study demonstrated that rumen ion concentrations can be manipulated by dietary ion concentrations. If production and feed efficiency responses to DCAD and ionophores in the diet are affected by rumen Na and K concentrations, then manipulating dietary Na and K could be used either to enhance or diminish those responses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  3. Measurements of carbon dioxide production rates in the rumen of buffalo-calves fed on two levels of crude proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, A.; Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Agarwal, Ranjana

    1974-01-01

    The production rates of carbon dioxide in the rumen of buffalo calves have been measured by single injection isotope dilution technique. One group of calves received 11 percent less proteins and the other 20 percent more than that recommended by the NRC. About 258 Ci of NaH 1 CO 3 was injected in a single dose into the rumen through a cannula and mixed manually with the rumen contents. Samples of the rumen liquor were drawn for 560 min and were analysed for the specifiradioactivity of carbon dioxide. The decline in the specific radioactivity as a function of time was fitted to an equation. The dilution curves were described by a sum of 2 exponential components. Mathematical equations were used to estimate the total CO 2 entry rates in the rumen. There was a wide individual variation in the production rates of CO 2 between the individual animals. The production rates were not satistically significant between the two groups. (author)

  4. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  5. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis. PMID:15109423

  6. Effects of yeast culture supplement on digestion of nutrients and rumen fermentation in cattle fed on grass silage barley diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Huhtanen

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium; 5 x 106 organisms/g on the digestion of dietary constituents in the rumen and total digestive tract were studied in a pair of monozygote twin bulls. The animals were fitted with cannulae in the rumen and in the proximal duodenum. A diet of grass silage, barley and rapeseed meal (445, 445 and 90 g/kg total dry matter (DM was fed, with and without addition of 10 g per day of yeast culture (YC, in two treatment sequences. The addition of YC had no effect on the mean values of rumen pH, ammonia N concentration or molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. Also, the postprandial changes in rumen fermentation pattern were similar when the diet did and did not contain the YC supplement. The peak concentration of lactic acid 1 h after feeding tended to be higher in cattle receiving the YC diet (13.9 v 6.0 mmol/l. Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM (mean 0.780 and the proportion of OM digestion occurring in the rumen (mean 0.603 were not affected by YC. Likewise, there was no effect on rumen or total digestion of cell wall carbohydrates, and the results for the degradation of hay DM in the rumen and for particle-associated carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities indicated that YC had no effect on the rumen environment that could affect fibre digestion. Supplemental yeast did not affect the rate of microbial N synthesis (28.0 and 28.6 g/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen. The results indicate that the addition of YC to the diet is not likely to improve the efficiency of digestion and fermentation in the rumen of cattle given a diet based on grass silage and barley.

  7. Metabolism of diet urea in the rumen in vitro by 15N-tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhanfeng; Lu Lin; Wang Hongyun; Fu Cai; Huang Zhiguo; Liu Bin; Luo Xugang; Zhao Guangyong

    2011-01-01

    A completely randomized design involving 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate effects of urea in diet (urea replaced diet CP of 0, 10%, 20% and 40%) and fermentation time (24 and 48 h) on rumen fermentation parameters and the metabolism of urea in the rumen in vitro. Results showed that different amendments of urea in diets and fermentation time had no significant effect on pH of rumen digesta (P>0.05); the concentration of NH 3 -N, however, was increased significantly from 24 to 48 h in each treatment (P undigested feed (27.83% ∼ 37.56%) > liquid-associated microbe (7.99% ∼ 10.18%) > particle-associated microbe (4.50% ∼ 6.17%). The quantity of urea in diets and fermentation time did not affect the trend of the distribution. (authors)

  8. Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate derived fiber in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    , were used in a completely randomized block experiment. Treatments differed in forage type (corn silage versus grass silage) and forage:concentrate ratio (50:50 versus 75:25 on organic matter basis). Fiber passage kinetics were studied based on rumen evacuations and on marker excretion profiles in feces....... The forage type itself (corn silage and grass silage) rather than ration composition seemed to determine the total tract retention time of forage fiber......Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 + 37 kg body weight, 120 + 21 days in milk, mean + SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas...

  9. In vitro studies on magnesium uptake by rumen epithelium using magnesium-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.; Harmeyer, J.; Breves, G.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium-28 transfer across the rumen epithelium has been studied using surviving epithelia in an in vitro system. Net absorption of magnesium in the direction from lumen to blood could be observed as the result of two opposite unidirectional fluxes of different magnitude. Net uptake of magnesium occurred against an electrical potential difference, and was associated with the presence of an unaltered transmural potential difference in the mucosal tissue. Both the net transfer of magnesium and the transmural potential difference decreased during two hours of incubation. Unidirectional fluxes of magnesium and net efflux from the lumen were markedly reduced although not completely inhibited by the addition of ouabain (10 -4 mol/l). The findings suggest that the mechanism of magnesium absorption by the rumen epithelium can be considered as an active transport process, and that the rumen is the main area of magnesium absorption in the living animal. (author)

  10. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  11. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Use of Brucella abortus species specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisi, Songelwayo L; Schmidt, Tracy; Akol, George W; Van Heerden, Henriette

    2017-09-27

    Serology is primarily used in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Bacterial culture and isolation is the gold standard in diagnosing brucellosis but, like serology, it does not offer complete (100%) diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been suggested to offer better specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Brucella abortus species specific (BaSS) PCR directly from different samples in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture. The BaSS PCR had a low diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of 70%, but was able to identify vaccine strains using abomasal fluid from aborted foetuses and detect Brucella DNA from decomposing samples. The best sample for the BaSS PCR was abomasal fluid.

  13. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  14. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Esubacute acidosis in rumen of high-yield dairy cows: Prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Branko T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations presented in this paper was to establish the frequency of the incidence of subacute acidosis in the rumen of cows (SARA in the first three months of lactation and the possibilities for its prevention using a mineral mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide, and sodium bicarbonate (Mix plus. The values obtained for the rumen pH content show that subacute rumen acidosis occurs in in 20 percent of the examined cows in the early stage of lactation. For these investigations, cows in early stages of lactation were chosen and divided into 2 groups. Cows of the experimental group were administered a fodder mix which contained the mineral mix for a buffer effect (Mix plus. The average values of the rumen pH content in the control and the experimental group of cows at the beginning and on the 30th day of the experiment were approximately the same and did not differ significantly (p>0.05. On the 60th day of the experiment, the values for the electrochemical reaction of the rumen content for the control group amounted to an average of 6.219±0.18, and for the experimental group of cows it was 6.772±0.23. The obtained difference was statistically very significant (p<0.001. At the end of the experiment, on the 90th day, the average pH value of the rumen content of cows of the control group was 6.308±0.16, while this value in the experimental group of cows was significantly higher and amounted to 6.676±0.29 (p<0.01.

  16. In-depth diversity analysis of the bacterial community resident in the camel rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Javad; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    The rumen compartment of the ruminant digestive tract is an enlarged fermentation chamber which houses a diverse collection of symbiotic microorganisms that provide the host animal with a remarkable ability to digest plant lignocellulosic materials. Characterization of the ruminal microbial community provides opportunities to improve animal food digestion efficiency, mitigate methane emission, and develop efficient fermentation systems to convert plant biomasses into biofuels. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied in order to explore the structure of the bacterial community inhabiting the camel rumen. Using 76,333 quality-checked, chimera- and singleton-filtered reads, 4954 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at a 97% species level sequence identity. At the phylum level, more than 96% of the reads were affiliated to OTUs belonging to Bacteroidetes (51%), Firmicutes (31%), Proteobacteria (4.8%), Spirochaetes (3.5%), Fibrobacteres (3.1%), Verrucomicrobia (2.7%), and Tenericutes (0.95%). A total of 15% of the OTUs (746) that contained representative sequences from all major taxa were shared by all animals and they were considered as candidate members of the core camel rumen microbiome. Analysis of microbial composition through the solid and liquid fractions of rumen digesta revealed differential enrichment of members of Fibrobacter, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, and Treponema in the solid fraction, as well as members of Prevotella, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, and Succinivibrio in the liquid fraction. The results clearly showed that the camel rumen microbiome was structurally similar but compositionally distinct from that of other ruminants, such as the cow. The unique characteristic of the camel rumen microbiome that differentiated it from those of other ruminants was the significant enrichment for cellulolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. PENGARUH SUBSTITUSI SILASE ISI RUMEN SAPI PADA PAKAN BASAL RUMPUT DAN KONSENTRAT TERHADAP KINERJA SAPI POTONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Ainul Yakin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian silase isi rumen sapi sebagai pakan pengganti rumput terhadap kinerja sapi potong. Sapi persilangan Simmental-Peranakan Ongole (SimPO jantan sebanyak 12 ekor, umur 1,5-2 tahun, digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan selama 8 minggu (2 bulan dengan pemberian pakan sebesar 3% dari bobot badan berdasarkan bahan kering dan air minum diberikan secara ad libitum. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola searah dilanjutkan Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Perlakuan yang diberikan yaitu mengganti sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sapi, yaitu P0 = pemberian pakan 100% rumput , P1= pemberian pakan 25% silase isi rumen sapi dan 75% rumput, dan P2 = pemberian pakan 50% silase isi rumen sapi dan 50% rumput. Imbangan pakan antara rumput dan konsentrat adalah 20% : 80%. Variabel yang diamati adalah konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan harian (PBBH, dan konversi pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap konsumsi bahan kering (BK (13,23±0,63 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi bahan organik (BO (10,41±0,50 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi total digestible nutrients (TDN (7,38±0,37 kg/ekor/hari, PBBH (0,95±0,04 kg/ekor/hari, dan konversi pakan (7,38±0,37. Perlakuan berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap konsumsi protein kasar (PK (P0 = 0,94±0,03, P1 = 1,00±0,06 dan P2 = 0,98±0,01, dan serat kasar (SK (P0 = 3,26±0,10, P1 = 3,44±0,22 dan P2 = 3,27±0,04. Disimpulkan bahwa penggantian sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sampai 50% tidak mempengaruhi kinerja sapi potong. (Kata kunci: Isi rumen sapi, Sapi potong, Silase

  18. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  19. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  20. Characterization of rumen bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in concentrate fed cattle with and without forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, R M; Forster, R J; Yang, W; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of the removal of forage in high-concentrate diets on rumen fermentation conditions and rumen bacterial populations using culture-independent methods. Detectable bacteria and fermentation parameters were measured in the solid and liquid fractions of digesta from cattle fed two dietary treatments, high concentrate (HC) and high concentrate without forage (HCNF). Comparison of rumen fermentation conditions showed that duration of time spent below pH 5·2 and rumen osmolality were higher in the HCNF treatment. Simpson's index of 16S PCR-DGGE images showed a greater diversity of dominant species in the HCNF treatment. Real-time qPCR showed populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0·01) were lower in HCNF than HC diets. Ruminococcus spp., F. succinogenes and Selenomonas ruminantium were at higher (P ≤ 0·05) concentrations in the solid vs the liquid fraction of digesta regardless of diet. The detectable bacterial community structure in the rumen is highly diverse. Reducing diet complexity by removing forage increased bacterial diversity despite the associated reduction in ruminal pH being less conducive for fibrolytic bacterial populations. Quantitative PCR showed that removal of forage from the diet resulted in a decline in the density of some, but not all fibrolytic bacterial species examined. Molecular techniques such as DGGE and qPCR provide an increased understanding of the impacts of dietary changes on the nature of rumen bacterial populations, and conclusions derived using these techniques may not match those previously derived using traditional laboratory culturing techniques. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Ammonia production by ruminal microorganisms and enumeration, isolation, and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids from the sheep rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenlauer, S C P; McKain, N; Walker, N D; McEwan, N R; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2002-10-01

    Excessive NH(3) production in the rumen is a major nutritional inefficiency in ruminant animals. Experiments were undertaken to compare the rates of NH(3) production from different substrates in ruminal fluid in vitro and to assess the role of asaccharolytic bacteria in NH(3) production. Ruminal fluid was taken from four rumen-fistulated sheep receiving a mixed hay-concentrate diet. The calculated rate of NH(3) production from Trypticase varied from 1.8 to 19.7 nmol mg of protein(-1) min(-1) depending on the substrate, its concentration, and the method used. Monensin (5 micro M) inhibited NH(3) production from proteins, peptides, and amino acids by an average of 28% with substrate at 2 mg/ml, compared to 48% with substrate at 20 mg/ml (P = 0.011). Of the total bacterial population, 1.4% grew on Trypticase alone, of which 93% was eliminated by 5 micro M monensin. Many fewer bacteria (0.002% of the total) grew on amino acids alone. Nineteen isolates capable of growth on Trypticase were obtained from four sheep. 16S ribosomal DNA and traditional identification methods indicated the bacteria fell into six groups. All were sensitive to monensin, and all except one group (group III, similar to Atopobium minutum), produced NH(3) at >250 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), depending on the medium, as determined by a batch culture method. All isolates had exopeptidase activity, but only group III had an apparent dipeptidyl peptidase I activity. Groups I, II, and IV were most closely related to asaccharolytic ruminal and oral Clostridium and Eubacterium spp. Group V comprised one isolate, similar to Desulfomonas piger (formerly Desulfovibrio pigra). Group VI was 95% similar to Acidaminococcus fermentans. Growth of the Atopobium- and Desulfomonas-like isolates was enhanced by sugars, while growth of groups I, II, and V was significantly depressed by sugars. This study therefore demonstrates that different methodologies and different substrate concentrations provide an explanation

  2. Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Biricik, H; Cetin, I; Kara, C; Meral, Y; Cengiz, S S; Orman, A; Udum, D

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0.4 ml/kg (G2), 0.8 ml/kg (G3) or 2 ml/kg (G4). There were no differences (p > 0.05) in live weight, live weight gain or feed consumption between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant improvement (p rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile or faecal pH of the control and experimental groups. The rumen NH 3 N values were similar at the middle and end of the experiment, but at the start of the experiment, the rumen NH 3 N values differed between the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The faecal score value was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the experimental groups. The addition of juniper essential oil supplementation to the rations caused significant effects on the kids' antioxidant blood parameters. Although the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the experimental groups (G2, G3 and G4), especially group G4, the blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) value significantly decreased in the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that supplementation of juniper oil is more effective on antioxidant parameters than on performance parameters and may be used as a natural antioxidant product. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  4. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J

    2017-01-01

    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only.......1%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.8%). This community differed between the seasons, returning to close to that observed in the same season one year later. These seasonal differences were only small, but were statistically significant (p diet...

  5. The complete genome sequence of Eubacterium limosum SA11, a metabolically versatile rumen acetogen

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, William J.; Henderson, Gemma; Pacheco, Diana M.; Li, Dong; Reilly, Kerri; Naylor, Graham E.; Janssen, Peter H.; Attwood, Graeme T.; Altermann, Eric; Leahy, Sinead C.

    2016-01-01

    Acetogens are a specialized group of anaerobic bacteria able to produce acetate from CO2 and H2 via the Wood?Ljungdahl pathway. In some gut environments acetogens can compete with methanogens for H2, and as a result rumen acetogens are of interest in the development of microbial approaches for methane mitigation. The acetogen Eubacterium limosum SA11 was isolated from the rumen of a New Zealand sheep and its genome has been sequenced to examine its potential application in methane mitigation ...

  6. Bacterial Population Adherent to the Epithelium on the Roo of the Dorsal Rumen of Sheep †

    OpenAIRE

    Dehority, Burk A.; Grubb, Jean A.

    1981-01-01

    By anaerobic procedures, the total number of adherent bacteria was determined on tissue samples obtained from the roof of the dorsal rumen of three sheep. After four washings, 1.91 × 107, 0.34 × 107, and 1.23 × 107 bacteria per cm2 were still attached to the rumen epithelium in sheep 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A total of 95 strains of bacteria were isolated from these three samples. Based on morphology, Gram stain, anaerobiosis, motility, and fermentation end products, they were presumptively...

  7. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  8. Rumen morphometrics and the effect of digesta pH and volume on volatile fatty acid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L Q; Costa, S F; Lopes, F; Guerreiro, M C; Armentano, L E; Pereira, M N

    2013-04-01

    The effects of rumen digesta volume and pH on VFA absorption and its relation to rumen wall morphology were evaluated. Nine rumen cannulated cows formed 3 groups based on desired variation in rumen morphology: The High group was formed by Holsteins yielding 25.9 kg milk/d and fed on a high-grain total mixed ration (TMR); the Medium group by Holstein-Zebu crossbreds yielding 12.3 kg milk/d and fed on corn silage, tropical pasture, and a commercial concentrate; and the Dry group by nonlactating grazing Jerseys fed exclusively on tropical pasture. Within each group, a sequence of 3 ruminal conditions was induced on each cow in 3 × 3 Latin Squares, with 7-d periods: high digesta volume and high pH (HVHP), low volume and high pH (LVHP), and low volume and low pH (LVLP). Rumen mucosa was biopsied on the first day of Period 1. Ruminal morphometric variables evaluated were mitotic index, absorptive surface and papillae number per square centimeter of wall, area per papillae, papillae area as a percentage of absorptive surface, and epithelium, keratinized layer, and nonkeratinized layer thickness. There was marked variation in rumen morphology among the groups of cows. Grazing Jerseys had decreased rumen wall absorptive surface area and basal cells mitotic index, and increased thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer compared with cows receiving concentrates. Mean rumen pH throughout the 4 h sampling period was: 6.78 for HVHP, 7.08 for LVHP, and 5.90 for LVLP (P rumen wall to absorb VFA was estimated by the Valerate/CrEDTA technique. The fractional exponential decay rate for the ratio of valeric acid to Cr (k Val/Cr) was determined by rumen digesta sampling at 20-min intervals during 4 h, after the mixing of markers and the return of the evacuated ruminal content. The k Val/Cr values for treatments HVHP, LVHP, and LVLP were, respectively: 19.6, 23.9, and 35.0 %/h (SEM = 2.01; P = 0.21 for contrast HVHP vs. LVHP and P rumen wall and the mean of the 3 k Val

  9. In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

  10. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  11. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  12. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  13. Ciliados nas cavidades do estômago de bovinos Ciliates present in the stomach chambers of bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.M. Salvio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar os gêneros de ciliados do rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso de bovinos abatidos em matadouro municipal. Foram coletados 45ml de conteúdo de cada cavidade de 30 animais. No momento da coleta foram medidos temperatura e pH e as amostras posteriormente analisadas em laboratório. Os resultados mostraram que o ambiente do rúmen e do retículo é bastante estável com temperatura média entre 36 e 37ºC e pH 6,5. Os gêneros mais encontrados no rúmen foram Entodinium (65,0%, Isotricha (7,0%, Diplodinium (5,7%, Ostracodinium (5,1%, Eremoplastron (4,5%, Dasytricha (3,8% e outros sete gêneros que totalizaram os 8,7% restantes. No retículo os resultados foram Entodinium (35,2%, Isotricha (23,4%, Dasytricha (15,4% Eodinium (7,2%, Eremoplastron (5,0%, Diplodinium (4,3%, Ostracodinium (3,8% e outros cinco gêneros totalizando os 5,6% restantes. No omaso foram encontrados os mesmos gêneros, porém em menor quantidade que no rúmen e retículo. No abomaso não foram encontrados ciliados. A análise do perfil populacional das amostras do rúmen mostrou predominância do tipo 0 (87%, seguido do tipo B (13%.The objective of this study was to collect and to quantify the ciliate genera present in the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum in 30 slaughtered bovines. Rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum were sampled and their contents (45ml were collected and evaluated for temperature, pH and ciliates population. The results showed that the rumen and reticulum environments are quite stable with average temperature between 36 and 37ºC and pH 6.5. The ciliate population in the rumen was Entodinium (65.0%, Isotricha (7.0%, Diplodinium (5.7%, Ostracodinium (5.1%, Eremoplastron (4.5%, Dasytricha (3.8% and seven other genera which made 8.7%. In the reticulum, the population was Entodinium (35.2%, Isotricha (23.4%, Dasytricha (15.4% Eodinium (7.2%, Eremoplastron (5.0%, Diplodinium (4

  14. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  15. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  16. Detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid composition of rumen content from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate supplemented with soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Bessa, Rui J B

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18:1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18:0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18:3n-3.

  17. Roles of Dietary Cobalt and Administration of Mixed Rumen Bacteria in Regulating Hematological Parameters of Pre-weaning Twin Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt (Co is required by rumen microorganism for vitamin B12 synthesis. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for methionine synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In young ruminants up to 6–8 wk old, the rumen has not been completely developed and rumen microorganisms are not ready to supply vitamin B12. The aim of this research was to determine the potency of mixed rumen bacteria and dietary supplementation of Co and its effect on plasma glucose, blood minerals (Co, Fe, and Zn concentrations, and hematology of pre-weaning twin lambs. Twelve one month-old local twin lambs were assigned to 4 groups in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were fed cow milk at 10% body weight, adjusted weekly for 80 d. Mixed rumen bacteria were offered at 15 mL/d (8.295x1010 cfu. Dietary treatments were: 1 basal diet (Control, 2 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM cyanocobalamin (VitB12 and 3 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM of Co + administration of 15 mL mixed rumen bacteria (CoBac. There were no treatment effects on neither plasma glucose and blood mineral concentrations nor hematological profiles. This study demonstrated that pre-weaning twin lambs are not responsive to supplementation of Co and administration of mixed rumen bacteria.

  18. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  19. The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Mavrommatis, A; Kalogeropoulos, T; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Koutsouli, P; Sotirakoglou, K; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile and (ii) blood plasma glutathione transferase (GST) activity of periparturient ewes. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] were also determined in plasma and milk of ewes. Thus, 45 ewes were divided into three equal groups. Each animal of the control group fed daily with a basal diet. The same diet was offered also in each animal of the other two groups. However, the concentrate fed to M group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg rumen-protected methionine, while the concentrate fed to MCB group with 5 g/kg of a commercial product which contained a combination of methionine, choline and betaine, all three in rumen-protected form. The results showed that the M diet, compared with the control, increased significantly the ewe's milk fat and the total solids content. Likewise, a tendency for higher milk fat and total solids content in ewes fed the MCB diet was also observed. Both M and MCB diets had not noticeable impact on ewes milk FA profile. Significantly higher FRAP values in the blood plasma of ewes fed the MCB and in the milk of ewes fed with the M diet compared with the control were found. Additionally, significantly higher GST activity in the blood plasma of ewes fed the M diet, compared with the control, was observed. Moreover, a significant increase (by 20%) and a tendency for increase (by 16.72%) in the growth rate of lambs nursing ewes fed with M and MCB diets, respectively, compared to controls, were found. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effects of purified lignin on rumen metabolism and growth performance of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objectives were to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. Methods In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50 forage mixture (48 h and barley grain (24 h with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL of rumen fluid (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet. Productions of CH4 and total gas, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, dry matter (DM disappearance (DMD and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF or starch were measured. Sixty Hereford-Angus cross weaned steer calves were individually fed a typical barley silage-barley grain based total mixed ration and supplemented with SHDL at 0, 4, 8, and 16 g/kg DM for 70 (growing, 28 (transition, and 121 d (finishing period. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass traits were assessed. Results With forage, SHDL linearly (p<0.001 reduced 48-h in vitro DMD from 54.9% to 39.2%, NDF disappearance from 34.1% to 18.6% and the acetate: propionate ratio from 2.56 to 2.41, but linearly (p<0.001 increased CH4 production from 9.5 to 12.4 mL/100 mg DMD. With barley grain, SHDL linearly increased (p<0.001 24-h DMD from74.6% to 84.5%, but linearly (p<0.001 reduced CH4 production from 5.6 to 4.2 mL/100 mg DMD and NH3 accumulation from 9.15 to 4.49 μmol/mL. Supplementation of SHDL did not affect growth, but tended (p = 0.10 to linearly reduce feed intake, and quadratically increased (p = 0.059 feed efficiency during the finishing period. Addition of SHDL also tended (p = 0.098 to linearly increase the saleable meat yield of the carcass from 52.5% to 55.7%. Conclusion Purified lignin used as feed additive has potential to improve feed efficiency for finishing feedlot cattle and carcass quality.

  1. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  2. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer.

  3. Kinetics of radiolysis of irradiated ligno celluloses into soluble products in water and rumen liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Bakioglu, A.T.; Ersen, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to increase the low bio hydrolysis of ligno celluloses in biotechnological and biological processes where these materials are used as raw materials and ruminant feed, the substrates were pretreated with irradiation to induce radiolytic depolymerisation and then kinetics of their radiolysis into soluble products in water and rumen liquid were analyzed. Wheat straw used as a representative lignocellulose substrate was irradiated at 0-2.5 MGy doses at 20''o''C with an optimum equilibrium humidity of 6.6% in Cs-137 gamma irradiator with a dose rate of 1.8 kGy/h, and soluablefractions in water and in situ rumen liquid were determined gravimetrically. Based on these data, a reaction mechanism was proposed for the radiolysis of ligno celluloses into soluble fractions. From the corresponding reaction rate equations with this mechanism a dose dependent kinetics was derived for the radiolysis of ligno celluloses into water/rumen liquid-soluble products. Defined by this kinetics, the threshold doses for the radiolysis of the substrate into water/rumen liquid-soluble products were respectively found 80.6 kGy and 186.0 kGy, and fractional radiolytic decomposition yields 0.193 MGy''-1''.It was emphasized that developed kinetic models may be used for the process design of irradiation pretreatments to improve the bio hydrolysis of ligno celluloses.(2figs. and 17 refs.)

  4. Kualitas Nutrisi Silase Berbahan Baku Singkong yang Diberi Enzim Cairan Rumen Sapi dan Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the nutrient quality of cassava-based materials silage with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and Leuconostoc mesenteroides as poultry feed. The cassava material was hydrolyzed with cattle rumen liquor enzyme and incubated for 24 hours. The hydrolyzed product was added L. mesenteroides and ensiled in mini silo for 30 days. The experiment was designed in completely randomized design with 15 treatments and 3 replications. The result showed that temperature of cassava-based silage ranged from 26 to 30 oC. The flavor was sour and fresh fragrant and changed in color. Addition of cattle rumen liquor enzyme and L. mesenteroides bacteria significantly affected (P<0.05 pH (3.73-4.86, dry matter(30.14%-43.28%, cyanide (86.71%-96.50% and crude fiber content (0.78%-5.05%, but gave a fluctuate effect on protein content (-1.92%-2.39%. However, the treatment didnot affect dry matter losses (1.20%-2.66%. It is concluded that nutrient quality of cassava-based silage improved when it was added with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and L. mesenteroides by decreasing crude fiber and cyanide content. The best silage quality was obtained on tuber substrate and it increased protein KDUO (peel+leaves+tuber+tapioca waste silage.

  5. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

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    Laura Cauquil

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle and batch level (81%. Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level. Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70 and 47.1% (33/70, respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  6. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed

  7. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of fermentable nutrients in the rumen is an important parameter in modern feed evaluation systems based on mechanistic models. Estimates of kd for starch was obtained on 19 starch sources originating from barley, wheat, oat, maize and peas and treated in different ways both chemically ...

  8. Effect of diets differing in rumen soluble nitrogen on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lapop

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... The treatments had various proportions of urea to Optigen® II ... utilize the rumen NH3-N, resulting in a loss of N for synthesis of microbial protein .... the urine are positively related to microbial nitrogen flow, because of the ...

  9. Rumen Microbiome Composition in Cattle during Grain-Induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Li, Shucong

    2014-01-01

    at the genus level. The rumen bacterial communities were altered in response to SARA (P=0.01). The proportion of several taxa was significantly higher in SARA samples, including S24-7, Erysipelotrichales. Lactobacillus, C lostridia, Moryella, Butyrivibrio, Olsenella, and C oprococcus. Microbiome profiling...

  10. Transcriptomic impacts of rumen epithelium induced by butyrate infusion in dairy cattle in dry period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomics and bioinformatics are utilized to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is an HDAC inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methyl...

  11. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  12. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  13. Variation between individual cows in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J. W.; van Duinkerken, G.; Klop, A.; Blok, M. C.; Bruinenberg, M.; Khan, N. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Different numbers of animals have been used in different studies to cover the variation between individual animals in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages. The objective of this study was to determine whether three cows are sufficient or not to cover the variation

  14. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and ... and stimulating glucose and cholesterol synthesis. .... The in vitro gas production indicates that half of herbal choline is fermented at 18 hours (Table 2),.

  16. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L. F.; Smith, L. M J; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  17. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle's feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le Luo; Nkrumah, Joshua D; Basarab, John A; Moore, Stephen S

    2008-11-01

    Linkage of rumen microbial structure to host phenotypical traits may enhance the understanding of host-microbial interactions in livestock species. This study used culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the microbial profiles in the rumen of cattle differing in feed efficiency. The analysis of detectable bacterial PCR-DGGE profiles showed that the profiles generated from efficient steers clustered together and were clearly separated from those obtained from inefficient steers, indicating that specific bacterial groups may only inhabit in efficient steers. In addition, the bacterial profiles were more likely clustered within a certain breed, suggesting that host genetics may play an important role in rumen microbial structure. The correlations between the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and feed efficiency traits were also observed. Significantly higher concentrations of butyrate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P = 0.006) were detected in the efficient steers. Our results revealed potential associations between the detectable rumen microbiota and its fermentation parameters with the feed efficiency of cattle.

  18. Snapshot of the eukaryotic gene expression in muskoxen rumen--a metatranscriptomic approach.

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    Meng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herbivores rely on digestive tract lignocellulolytic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to derive energy and carbon from plant cell wall polysaccharides. Culture independent metagenomic studies have been used to reveal the genetic content of the bacterial species within gut microbiomes. However, the nature of the genes encoded by eukaryotic protozoa and fungi within these environments has not been explored using metagenomic or metatranscriptomic approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to investigate the functional diversity of the eukaryotic microorganisms within the rumen of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus, with a focus on plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Polyadenylated RNA (mRNA was sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer II system and 2.8 gigabases of sequences were obtained and 59129 contigs assembled. Plant cell wall degrading enzyme modules including glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases and polysaccharide lyases were identified from over 2500 contigs. These included a number of glycoside hydrolase family 6 (GH6, GH48 and swollenin modules, which have rarely been described in previous gut metagenomic studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The muskoxen rumen metatranscriptome demonstrates a much higher percentage of cellulase enzyme discovery and an 8.7x higher rate of total carbohydrate active enzyme discovery per gigabase of sequence than previous rumen metagenomes. This study provides a snapshot of eukaryotic gene expression in the muskoxen rumen, and identifies a number of candidate genes coding for potentially valuable lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  19. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  20. Degradation of spent craft brewer’s yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent brewer’s yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) compounds than traditional recipes. These compounds include alpha and beta-acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-produci...