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Sample records for bovine respiratory disease complex

  1. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M.; Herrler, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this pu...

  2. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gershwin, LJ; Van Eenennaam, AL; Anderson, ML; McEligot, HA; Shao, MX; Toaff-Rosenstein, R; Taylor, JF; Neibergs, HL; Womack, J.; Complex, BRD

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella ...

  3. Susceptibility loci revealed for bovine respiratory disease complex in pre-weaned holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Neibergs, Holly L.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Kiser, Jennifer N; Neupane, Mahesh; Womack, James E.; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Hagevoort, Gerald Robert; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Taylor, Jeremy F; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High ...

  4. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  5. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  6. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  7. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC): Viral and bacterial pathogens in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurćubić V.; Đoković R.; Vidanović D.; Šekler M.; Matović K.; Ilić Z.; Stojković J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens causing BRDC in Serbia were investigated. Two herds of beef cattle with bovine respiratory disease were included, with twenty diseased calves (10 from each farm) were chosen for isolation of bacteria on artificial culture media and determination by aerobic cultivation. The most common bacterial pathogen was isolated was Pasteurella multocida. Diffusion method of sensitivity to antibiotics (antibiogram), revealed that Enrofloxacin and Floron were m...

  8. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to cr...

  9. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Thea; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serol...

  10. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aswathy N.; William B. Epperson; Bindu Nanduri

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional ge...

  11. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  12. Veterinary college's researchers receive grant to explore bovine respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Thomas J. Inzana of Blacksburg, Va., the Tyler J. and Frances F. Young Professor of Bacteriology in the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, has been awarded a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture to study the role biofilm plays in the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

  13. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  14. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  15. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  16. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  17. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  18. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  19. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  1. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M.; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L.; ,; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and gene...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica Strain 42548 from a Case of Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eidam, Christopher; Poehlein, Anja; Brenner Michael, Geovana; Kadlec, Kristina; Liesegang, Heiko; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Daniel, Rolf; Sweeney, Michael T.; Murray, Robert W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the major bacterial component in the bovine respiratory disease complex, which accounts for considerable economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. The complete genome sequence of M. haemolytica strain 42548 was determined. It has a size of 2.73 Mb and contains 2,888 genes, including several antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent. PMID:26121276

  4. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Drake, Christiana M; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B; Aly, Sharif S

    2016-03-01

    The California (CA) and Wisconsin (WI) clinical scoring systems have been proposed for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) detection in preweaned dairy calves. The screening sensitivity (SSe), for estimating BRDC prevalence in a cohort of calves, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), for confirming BRDC in ill calves, and specificity (Sp) were estimated for each of the scoring systems, as well as for nasal swab cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma species. Thoracic ultrasound and auscultation were used as the reference standard tests interpreted in parallel. A total of 536 calves (221 with BRDC and 315 healthy) were sampled from 5 premises in California. The SSe of 46.8%, DSe of 72.6%, and Sp of 87.4% was determined for the CA system. The SSe of 46.0%, DSe of 71.1%, and Sp of 91.2% was determined for the WI system. For aerobic culture, the SSe was 43.4%, DSe was 52.6%, and Sp was 71.3%; for Mycoplasma spp. culture, the SSe was 57.5%, DSe was 68.9%, and Sp was 59.7%. The screening and diagnostic sensitivities of the scoring systems were not significantly different but the Sp of the WI system was greater by 3.8%. Scoring systems can serve as rapid on-farm tools to determine the burden of BRDC in preweaned dairy calves. However, users may expect the SSe to be less than the DSe when confirming BRDC in an ill calf. PMID:26796957

  6. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  7. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  8. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  9. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  11. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  12. The detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in formalin fixed bovine lung with commercially available monoclonal antibodies and avidin biotin complex immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, D M; Clark, E.G.; Chelack, B J

    1989-01-01

    Eight commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus antigens were tested for ability to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bovine lung using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining. Monoclonal antibodies from clone 18B2 purchased from Biosoft, Paris, France and those from clone 8G12 purchased from the Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska sta...

  13. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  14. Transcriptome profile of a bovine respiratory disease pathogen: Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational methods for structural gene annotation have propelled gene discovery but face certain drawbacks with regards to prokaryotic genome annotation. Identification of transcriptional start sites, demarcating overlapping gene boundaries, and identifying regulatory elements such as small RNA are not accurate using these approaches. In this study, we re-visit the structural annotation of Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213, a bovine respiratory disease pathogen. M. haemolytica is on...

  15. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  16. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  17. The upper respiratory tract microbiome and its potential role in bovine respiratory disease and otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Svetlana F.; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo V.; Higgins, Catherine H.; Lima, Fabio S.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed. The URT of Holstein dairy calves aged 3 to 35 days revealed to host a highly diverse bacterial community. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Mannheimia, Moraxella, and Mycoplasma were significantly higher in diseased versus healthy animals, and the total bacterial load of newborn calves at day 3 was higher for animals that developed pneumonia than for healthy animals. Our results corroborate the existing knowledge that species of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma are important pathogens in pneumonia and otitis. Furthermore, they suggest that species of Moraxella can potentially cause the same disorders (pneumonia and otitis), and that high neonatal bacterial load is a key contributor to the development of pneumonia. PMID:27363739

  18. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  19. Bovine Respiratory Disease: from clinic to etiologic diagnosis, a short step

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Respiratory Disease, or BRD, are common in young cattle in the first year of life but occurs mainly before 6 months. A peak of incidence is noticed between 2-10 weeks, due to a decline of immunity. BRD is associated with the well-known shipping-fever that may come from cumulative stress. This condition can reach 5-20% case fatality rate and a morbidity rate up to 100%. Most of the time, the treatment administered is effective. In other cases, a relapse within 2 weeks, associated or not...

  20. Fine mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eZanella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.

  1. Comparison of Penicillin, Oxytetracycline, and Trimethoprim-Sulfadoxine in the Treatment of Acute Undifferentiated Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mechor, Gerald D.; Jim, G. Kee; Janzen, Eugene D.

    1988-01-01

    Penicillin, oxytetracycline, and a trimethoprimsulfadoxine combination were compared as first choice antibiotics for the treatment of acute bovine respiratory disease in weaned beef calves. There was no statistical difference in the mortality losses due to respiratory disease; however, the case fatality rate in the trimethoprim-sulfadoxine treatment group (3%) was markedly lower than in the penicillin (10%) and oxytetracycline (8%) treatment groups. The trimethoprim-sulfadoxine group also had...

  2. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P yield (P yield (P yield (P < 0.01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass

  3. Characterization of an Experimental Vaccine for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Kefei; Blodörn, Krister; Makabi-Panzu, Boby; Gaillard, Anne-Laure; Ellencrona, Karin; Chevret, Didier; Hellman, Lars; Bengtsson, Karin Lövgren; Riffault, Sabine; Taylor, Geraldine; Valarcher, Jean François; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are major causes of respiratory disease in calves and children, respectively, and are priorities for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that an experimental vaccine, BRSV-immunostimulating complex (ISCOM), is effective in calves with maternal antibodies. The present study focuses on the antigenic characterization of this vaccine for the design of new-generation subunit vaccines. The results of ...

  4. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  5. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. PMID:26709177

  6. The Use of Kosher Phenotyping for Mapping QTL Affecting Susceptibility to Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Ehud; Strillacci, Maria Giuseppina; Eitam, Harel; Yishay, Moran; Schiavini, Fausta; Soller, Morris; Bagnato, Alessandro; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle, caused by multiple pathogens that become more virulent in response to stress. As clinical signs often go undetected and various preventive strategies failed, identification of genes affecting BRD is essential for selection for resistance. Selective DNA pooling (SDP) was applied in a genome wide association study (GWAS) to map BRD QTLs in Israeli Holstein male calves. Kosher scoring of lung adhesions was used to allocate 122 and 62 animals to High (Glatt Kosher) and Low (Non-Kosher) resistant groups, respectively. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip according to the Infinium protocol. Moving average of -logP was used to map QTLs and Log drop was used to define their boundaries (QTLRs). The combined procedure was efficient for high resolution mapping. Nineteen QTLRs distributed over 13 autosomes were found, some overlapping previous studies. The QTLRs contain polymorphic functional and expression candidate genes to affect kosher status, with putative immunological and wound healing activities. Kosher phenotyping was shown to be a reliable means to map QTLs affecting BRD morbidity. PMID:27077383

  7. The Use of Kosher Phenotyping for Mapping QTL Affecting Susceptibility to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Harel; Yishay, Moran; Schiavini, Fausta; Soller, Morris; Bagnato, Alessandro; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle, caused by multiple pathogens that become more virulent in response to stress. As clinical signs often go undetected and various preventive strategies failed, identification of genes affecting BRD is essential for selection for resistance. Selective DNA pooling (SDP) was applied in a genome wide association study (GWAS) to map BRD QTLs in Israeli Holstein male calves. Kosher scoring of lung adhesions was used to allocate 122 and 62 animals to High (Glatt Kosher) and Low (Non-Kosher) resistant groups, respectively. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip according to the Infinium protocol. Moving average of -logP was used to map QTLs and Log drop was used to define their boundaries (QTLRs). The combined procedure was efficient for high resolution mapping. Nineteen QTLRs distributed over 13 autosomes were found, some overlapping previous studies. The QTLRs contain polymorphic functional and expression candidate genes to affect kosher status, with putative immunological and wound healing activities. Kosher phenotyping was shown to be a reliable means to map QTLs affecting BRD morbidity. PMID:27077383

  8. Comparison of two formulations of oxytetracycline given prophylactically to reduce the incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee

    1993-01-01

    A trial involving 1,803 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative effectiveness of a new oxytetracycline formulation, administered either intramuscularly (BMI) or subcutaneously (BMS), to a currently available oxytetracycline formulation, administered intramuscularly (LAB), for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. All experimental treatments were administered upon arrival at the feedlot and again...

  9. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status. PMID:25794838

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  11. Comparison of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbolt, S; Pillai, D K; Lubbers, B V; Moore, M; Davis, R; Amrine, D; Mosier, D

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the clonal relatedness of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates responsible for an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease in a commercial feedlot. The isolates were obtained from the lungs of 21 calves with fatal pneumonia that were part of a group of 206 total calves. All isolates were serotyped and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and for antibiotic sensitivity patterns. ELISA and immunoblotting assays were performed to compare serum antibody levels to M. haemolytica antigens in calves with fatal pneumonia to those calves that survived the outbreak. Isolates were categorized into 14 different PFGE groups based on 90% similarity. Two Group D isolates (1 and 6), and 3 Group H isolates (14, 15, and 16) were characterized as 100% similar. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles defined 8 groups based on differences in patterns of resistance between isolates. The two 100% similar isolates from PFGE Group D were both in susceptibility Group 1. All but isolate 14 from PFGE Group H (3, 15, 16, and 19) were in susceptibility Group 4a. Serum antibody levels to M. haemolytica antigens in the dead calves were not different than the antibody levels in the 185 calves that survived the outbreak. Immunoblots of selected isolates from each of the PFGE groups demonstrated only minimal differences in antigenic profiles between strains when reacted with serum from calves that either died from or survived the outbreak. Based on the characteristics of these isolates, multiple strains of M. haemolytica were responsible for fatal pneumonia during this outbreak. PMID:26711032

  12. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P detection and could be considered in commercial feedlot

  13. Characterization of the reaction of decoupling ubiquinone with bovine mitochondrial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, Takahiro; Okuda, Kenji; Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-08-01

    We previously produced the unique ubiquinone QT ("decoupling" quinone), the catalytic reduction of which in NADH-quinone oxidoreduction with bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is completely decoupled from proton translocation across the membrane domain. This feature is markedly distinct from those of typical short-chain quinones such as ubiquinone-1. To further characterize the features of the QT reaction with complex I, we herein synthesized three QT analogs, QT2-QT4, and characterized their electron transfer reactions. We found that all aspects of electron transfer (e.g. electron-accepting activity and membrane potential formation) vary significantly among these analogs. The features of QT2 as decoupling quinone were slightly superior to those of original QT. Based on these results, we conclude that the bound positions of QTs within the quinone binding cavity susceptibly change depending on their side-chain structures, and the positions, in turn, govern the behavior of QTs as electron acceptors. PMID:27140857

  14. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Bisgaard, M.; Flachs, E. M.; Nielsen, O. L.

    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC. There...... than enzootic pneumonia among Danish finishing pigs and has complex and varied histopathology....

  15. Effects of adriamycin on respiratory chain activities in mitochondria from rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart. Evidence for a preferential inhibition of complex III and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, K.; de Kruijff, B.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of respiratory chain activities in rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart mitochondria by the anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was measured in order to determine the adriamycin-sensitive sites. It appeared that complex III and IV are efficiently affected such that their activities were reduced to 50% of control values at 175 ± 25 μM adriamycin. Complex I displayed a minor sensitivity to the drug. Of the complex-I-related activities tested, only duroquinone oxidation appeared ...

  16. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  17. Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R

    2016-09-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060

  18. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Jodi L McGill; Sacco, Randy E.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  19. Genetic parameters estimated at receiving for circulating cortisol, immunoglobulin G, interleukin 8, and incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrum, R R; Speidel, S E; Salak-Johnson, J L; Chase, C C L; Peel, R K; Weaber, R L; Loneagan, G H; Wagner, J J; Boddhireddy, P; Thomas, M G; Prayaga, K; DeNise, S; Enns, R M

    2016-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (i.e., shipping fever and bacterial bronchopneumonia) is a multifaceted respiratory illness influenced by numerous environmental factors and microorganisms. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is just one component of BRD complex. Because BRD is moderately heritable, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of BRD through genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to determine the heritability and associative genetic relationships among immune system traits (i.e., cortisol, total IgG, IgG isotypes, and IL-8) in cattle monitored for BRD incidence. At an average of 83 d after weaning (219 d age and mean = 221.7 kg [SD 4.34]), crossbred steer calves ( = 2,869) were received at a commercial feedlot in southeastern Colorado over a 2-yr period. At receiving, jugular blood samples were collected at 212 (yr 1) and 226 d (yr 2) of age for immune trait analyses. The BRD phenotype was defined as a binomial variable (0 = no and 1 = yes) and compared with immune system traits measured at receiving (prior to illness onset). An animal identified as BRD positive exhibited ≥ 2 clinical signs (i.e., eye or nasal discharge, cough, lethargy, rapid breathing, acute interstitial pneumonia, or acute upper respiratory syndrome and/or a rectal temperature > 39.7°C). Heritability and genetic correlation estimates for categorical variable BRD, cortisol, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IL-8 were estimated from a sire model using ASREML. Heritability estimates were low to moderate for BRD (0.17 ± 0.08), cortisol (0.13 ± 0.05), IgG (0.15 ± 0.05), IgG1 (0.11 ± 0.05), IgG2 (0.24 ± 0.06), and IL-8 (0.30 ± 0.06). A moderate negative genetic correlation was determined between BRD and cortisol ( = -0.19 ± 0.32). Moderate positive correlations were found between BRD with IgG (0.42 ± 0.28), IgG1 (0.36 ± 0.32), and IL-8 ( = 0.26 ± 0.26). Variation in the BRD phenotype and immune system traits suggested herd health improvement may be achieved through genetic

  20. Evaluation of the diagnostic and prognostic utility of ultrasonography at first diagnosis of presumptive bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Pollock, Colleen M; Wildman, Brian K; Perrett, Tye; Schunicht, Oliver C; Fenton, R Kent; Hannon, Sherry J; Vogstad, Amanda R; Jim, G Kee; Booker, Calvin W

    2012-01-01

    This project investigated the use of ultrasonography at first diagnosis of presumptive early bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle from western Canada. One hundred seventy-four cattle (116 cases and 58 controls) at high risk of developing BRD were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study over 2 y (2006-2007). Cattle with clinical signs relating to the respiratory system and assessed as sick at the time of feedlot arrival (arrival fever cases) or assessed as sick in the pen 3 to 30 d post-arrival (post-arrival fever cases, post-arrival no fevers cases) were eligible for enrollment. Control animals were identified at the time of case enrollments. Ultrasonography was done using a 3.5 sector transducer at enrollment and at 2, 4, and 6 wk post-enrollment. Lung lesions were identified at least 1 time over the course of the trial in 32/116 (28%) cases and 9/58 (16%) controls. At enrollment, lung lesions were identified in 20/115 (17%) cases and 2/55 (4%) controls (data unreadable n = 4). Post-arrival fever cases (14/48) were the most likely to have a lesion identified using ultrasound. In arrival fever cases, average daily gain (enrollment to last ultrasound, average 34 d) was improved (P = 0.007) in cattle identified with a lesion at enrollment using ultrasound compared with those not identified with a lesion at that time, potentially demonstrating the effects of gut fill at arrival weighing, as these sicker animals may have eaten less prior to arrival and, therefore, had more room for improvement in weight over time due to restoration of normal gut fill. None of the ultrasound time points explored (enrollment, 2, 4, or 6 wk post-enrollment) were associated with the animal health outcomes of interest (subsequent treatment, chronicity, wastage, or mortality) for cattle enrolled at arrival or post-arrival.Ultrasonography using a 3.5 sector transducer was not particularly effective as a prognostic/diagnostic tool for early detection of BRD, but may be

  1. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. PMID:27527782

  2. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes severe disease in naive cattle of all ages and is a common pathogen in the respiratory disease complex of calves. Simplified methods for rapid BRSV diagnosis would encourage sampling during outbreaks and would consequently lead to an extended...

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarmudji; Supar

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal p...

  4. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vaughan; Yuko Nakamura-Lopez; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    2012-01-01

    The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enor...

  5. Human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Gilles; Deplanche, Martine; Schelcher, François

    2008-01-01

    Human (HRSV) and bovine (BRSV) respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) are two closely related viruses, which are the most important causative agents of respiratory tract infections of young children and calves, respectively. BRSV vaccines have been available for nearly 2 decades. They probably have reduced the prevalence of RSV infection but their efficacy needs improvement. In contrast, despite decades of research, there is no currently licensed vaccine for the prevention of HRSV disease. Devel...

  6. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  7. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

  8. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tråvén Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4) and...... animals immunized with CV (n = 5) developed moderate to severe respiratory disease, whereas calves immunized with ISCOMS (17 = 5) remained clinically healthy. BRSV was re-isolated from the nasopharynx of all controls and from all calves immunized with CV, but from none of the calves immunized with ISCOMs...

  10. Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

  11. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  12. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PMID:27256017

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  14. Randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing a nitric oxide releasing solution with a macrolide antibiotic for control of bovine respiratory disease in beef feedlot calves at high-risk of developing respiratory tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepieux, T; Miller, C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A; Dorin, C; Alexander, T; Timsit, E

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide, a molecule produced in most mammalian cells, has bactericidal and virucidal properties. Nasal instillation of a nitric oxide releasing solution (NORS) on arrival at the feedlot was recently reported as non-inferior to a parenteral injection of a macrolide antibiotic, tilmicosin, for control of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle at low-to-moderate risk of developing BRD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether NORS was non-inferior to tilmicosin for control of BRD in cattle at high-risk of developing BRD (the target population for many BRD control programs). High-risk Angus-cross heifers (n=840) were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups on arrival at a feedlot and received either NORS or tilmicosin for BRD control. Non-inferiority was assessed by calculating the difference in prevalence of heifers diagnosed with BRD during the first 40d after arrival between NORS and tilmicosin treatment groups. The non-inferiority margin (δ) was set at 8.5%. Thirty-six and 19% of heifers were diagnosed with BRD in the NORS and tilmicosin groups, respectively. Because the lower bound of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in BRD prevalence between the 2 treatment groups (17%; 95% CI=11-23%) was higher than δ, an inferiority of NORS was concluded. Although on-arrival nasal administration of NORS can be viewed as a more rational control strategy than parental injection of antibiotics, further research is needed to improve NORS efficacy before it can be recommended to prevent BRD in high-risk cattle. PMID:27033936

  15. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Amrine, David E; Booker, Calvin; Wildman, Brian; Perrett, Tye

    2016-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. PMID:26879058

  16. Evaluation of multiple ancillary therapies used in combination with an antimicrobial in newly received high-risk calves treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Step, D L; Maxwell, C L; Wagner, J J; Richards, C J; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-07-01

    Ancillary therapy (ANC) is commonly provided in conjunction with an antimicrobial when treating calves for suspected bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in an attempt to improve the response to a suspected BRD challenge. The first experiment evaluated the effects of 3 ANC in combination with an antimicrobial in high-risk calves treated for BRD during a 56-d receiving period. Newly received crossbred steers (n = 516; initial BW = 217 ± 20 kg) were monitored by trained personnel for clinical signs of BRD. Calves that met antimicrobial treatment criteria (n = 320) were then randomly assigned to experimental ANC treatment (80 steers/experimental ANC treatment): intravenous flunixin meglumine injection (NSAID), intranasal viral vaccination (VACC), intramuscular vitamin C injection (VITC), or no ANC (NOAC). Animal served as the experimental unit for all variables except DMI and G:F (pen served as the experimental unit for DMI and G:F). Within calves treated 3 times for BRD, those receiving NOAC had lower (P risk calves receiving antimicrobial treatment for suspected BRD. PMID:26440032

  17. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    OpenAIRE

    Lekeux, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  18. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes with bovine respiratory disease and presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Garcia, M D; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes are associated with incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle. Two independent populations were used. The first population (BRD-affected; N = 90) was composed of 31 half-sib progeny, from a Brahman × Angus sire, that were treated for BRD. Untreated offspring from the sire were selected to serve as controls. The second population (MAP-infected) of 330 animals of unknown parentage was evaluated for the presence of MAP in ileocecal lymph node and classified as positive or negative. Markers in both genes were assessed for association in these two populations. In the BRD-affected population, five SNPs in the ANKRA2 gene were significantly associated (P < 0.05), and two SNPs were highly associated (P < 0.01) with incidence of BRD. In addition, two SNPs in the CD180 gene were found to be associated with this trait. In the MAP-infected population, one SNP in the ANKRA2 gene was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the presence or absence of MAP, and a SNP in the CD180 gene was highly associated (P < 0.01) with the trait. Haplotypes, using significant markers, showed a positive association with both incidence of BRD (P = 0.0001) and with the presence of MAP (P = 0.0032). Markers in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes are associated with the ability of the animal to cope with pathogens. PMID:22034997

  19. Mycoplasmas and bovine respiratory disease: studies related to pathogenicity and the immune response--a selective review.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three species of mycoplasma have been established as being of importance as causes of pneumonia in housed calves, based on pathogenicity studies and frequency of association with the disease. These three species are Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum. M. bovis is the most pathogenic of these species but the disease outbreaks with which it is associated are sporadic. M. dispar is regularly isolated from pneumonic calves but is also found causing mild superficial and asymptoma...

  20. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  1. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish; Apicella, Michael A.; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Saunders, Geoffrey K.; Inzana, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for...

  2. Purification of Active Respiratory Supercomplex from Bovine Heart Mitochondria Enables Functional Studies*

    OpenAIRE

    Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Shimomura, Harunobu; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Shimada, Satoru; Takahashi, Ryoko; Oosaki, Marika; Ogura, Takashi; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2015-01-01

    To understand the roles of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes, methods for consistently separating and preparing supercomplexes must be established. To this end, we solubilized supercomplexes from bovine heart mitochondria with digitonin and then replaced digitonin with amphipol (A8–35), an amphiphilic polymer. Afterward, supercomplexes were separated from other complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-six grams of bovine myocardium yielded 3.2 mg of amphipol-s...

  3. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  4. Respiratory System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  6. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik; Røntved, C.M.; Uttenthal, Åse; Rønsholt, L.; Alexandersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of severe respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and in immunocompromised adults. Similarly, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is causing severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in calves. Both viruses are pneumovirus...... replication and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was...... and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral...

  7. The effect of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 in pigs suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Vicky; Bischoff, Ralf; Jedidia, Samir Ben; Saalmüller, Armin; Elbers, Knut

    2008-03-10

    A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). A total of 1542 pigs were allocated randomly into two treatment groups at approximately 20 days of age. Groups received either a Baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 vaccine or placebo by single intramuscular injection. Median onset of PCV2 viraemia and respiratory signs occurred when animals were 18 weeks old. Vaccination reduced the mean PCV2 viral load by 55-83% (p < 0.0001) and the mean duration of viraemia by 50% (p < 0.0001). During the period of study (from 3 to 25 weeks of age) vaccinated animals exhibited a reduced mortality rate (6.63% vs. 8.67%, difference -2.04%; p = 0.1507), an improved average daily weight gain (649 g/day vs. 667 g/day; difference +18 g/day; p < 0.0001) and a reduced time to market (164.8 days vs. 170.4 days; difference -5.6 days; p < 0.0001). The effects on performance were greatest in the 8-week period between the onset of PCV2 viraemia and the end of finishing. These data demonstrate that vaccination against PCV2 alone can significantly improve the overall growth performance of pigs in a multi-factorial, late occurring disease complex such as PRDC. PMID:18304705

  8. Mycoplasma hyorhinis is a potential pathogen of porcine respiratory disease complex that aggravates pneumonia caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-09-01

    The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) caused by numerous bacterial and viral agents has a great impact on pig industry worldwide. Although Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) has been frequently isolated from lung lesions from pigs with PRDC, the pathological importance of Mhr may have been underestimated. In this study, 383 serum samples obtained from seven herds with a history of PRDC were tested for specific antibodies to Mhr, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Seropositive rates of PRRSV were significantly correlated with those of Mhr (correlation coefficient, 0.862; P-value, 0.013), but not with those of Mhp (correlation coefficient, -0.555; P-value, 0.196). In vivo experiments demonstrated that pigs co-infected with Mhr and PRRSV induced more severe lung lesions than pigs infected with Mhr or PRRSV alone. These findings suggest that Mhr is closely associated with pneumonia caused by PRRSV and provide important information on Mhr pathogenesis within PRDC. Therefore, effective PRDC control strategies should also consider the potential impact of Mhr in the pathogenesis of PRDC. PMID:27436444

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the...... outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the...

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  11. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lin

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2 epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2 and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo.

  12. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  13. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  14. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  15. Efficacy of intranasal vaccination with a multivalent vaccine containing temperature-sensitive modified-live bovine herpesvirus type 1 for protection of seronegative and seropositive calves against respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Suman M; Sobecki, Brian; Johnson, John; Oien, Nancee L; Meinert, Todd R; Verhelle, Sarah; Mattern, Sally J; Bowersock, Terry L; Leyh, Randy D

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy and duration of immunity of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) fraction of a trivalent vaccine also containing parainfluenza virus-3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus fractions administered intranasally (IN) for protection of calves against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). DESIGN Controlled challenge study. ANIMALS 120 dairy calves (3 to 8 days old) seronegative for antibody against BHV-1 (experiments 1 and 2) or seropositive for maternally derived antibody against BHV-1 (experiment 3). PROCEDURES In 3 separate experiments, calves were vaccinated IN via 2 nostrils (experiment 1) or 1 nostril (experiments 2 and 3) with a vaccine containing or not containing a BHV-1 fraction. For seronegative calves, the test vaccine contained a minimum immunizing dose of BHV-1; for seropositive calves, it contained a commercial dose of BHV-1. Calves were challenged IN with virulent BHV-1 on day 28 or 193 (seronegative calves) or day 105 (seropositive calves) after vaccination to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Frequency and duration of clinical signs, rectal temperatures, virus shedding, and serologic responses were compared between treatment groups within experiments. RESULTS In all experiments, BHV-1 vaccinated calves had lower frequencies or shorter durations of clinical signs of IBR than did control calves. Following viral challenge, peak rectal temperatures and degrees of virus shedding were lower and serologic responses were higher in vaccinated versus control calves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IN vaccination against BHV-1 protected all calves against clinical IBR disease, regardless of serologic status at the time of vaccination, and suppressed virus shedding. A single dose of this IN vaccine has the potential to protect seronegative calves for at least 193 days and override maternally derived antibody to protect seropositive calves for at least 105 days. PMID:27172345

  16. Supramolecular Organization of Respiratory Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the existence of superassemblies between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, such superassemblies have been the object of a passionate debate. It is accepted that respiratory supercomplexes are structures that occur in vivo, although which superstructures are naturally occurring and what could be their functional role remain open questions. The main difficulty is to make compatible the existence of superassemblies with the corpus of data that drove the field to abandon the early understanding of the physical arrangement of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a compact physical entity (the solid model). This review provides a nonexhaustive overview of the evolution of our understanding of the structural organization of the electron transport chain from the original idea of a compact organization to a view of freely moving complexes connected by electron carriers. Today supercomplexes are viewed not as a revival of the old solid model but rather as a refined revision of the fluid model, which incorporates a new layer of structural and functional complexity. PMID:26734886

  17. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carian E. Boorsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper will give an overview of what macrophage phenotypes have been described, what their known functions are, what is known about their presence in the different obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases (asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis, and how they are thought to contribute to the etiology and resolution of these diseases.

  18. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Boorsma, Carian E.; Christina Draijer; Barbro N. Melgert

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmon...

  19. Antiviral Efficacy of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Inhibitor in a Bovine Model of RSV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert; Shao, Matt; Mackman, Richard L.; Perron, Michel; Cihlar, Tomas; Lewis, Sandy A.; Eisenberg, Eugene J.; Carey, Anne; Strickley, Robert G.; Chien, Jason W.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Behrens, Nicole E.; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Effective treatment for RSV infection is a significant unmet medical need. While new RSV therapeutics are now in development, there are very few animal models that mimic the pathogenesis of human RSV, making it difficult to evaluate new disease interventions. Experimental infection of Holstein calves with bovine RSV (bRSV) causes a severe respiratory infection that is similar to human RSV infecti...

  20. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  1. Quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Leach

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501 which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected.Heifers from the same population (n = 195 were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA, and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the

  2. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaperi Kerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Immune Response to a Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, R J; O'Neill, R. G.; Fitzpatrick, J.L; Williams, J.L.; Glass, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV...

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Immune Response to a Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard J; O'Neill, Ronan G; Fitzpatrick, Julie L.; Williams, John L; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV...

  5. Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV Pneumonia in Beef Calf Herds Despite Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV vaccine 2 months prior to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the vaccine induced only sparse levels of antibodies probably due to the presence of maternally derived antibodies at the time of vaccination. Necropsy findings in 5 calves revealed changes typical for infectious pneumonia with involvment of BRSV. In conclusion, vaccination of calves against BRSV in 2 Danish beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.

  6. Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F.; Valayudhan, Binu T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (BPI3V) are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection against the virus, but there is no current information regarding the BPI3V strains that are circulating in the U.S. Results A project was initiated to sequence archival BPI3V isolates to study vira...

  7. Approaches to the control of respiratory virus diseases*

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Viruses of various biological types are known to cause a wide range of acute respiratory infections, ranging from mild colds and catarrh to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Bacteria also cause respiratory diseases including serious conditions such as otitis media and pneumonia. The whole situation is complex and to understand the epidemiology we also need to consider nutrition, environment, climate, and chronic diseases. Acute respiratory viral diseases are very common in all areas of the ...

  8. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna;

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium...... dioxide and MS. The results, complemented by analyses of purified samples of complex I, showed phosphorylation of five subunits of the complex, 42 kDa (human gene NDUFA10), ESSS, B14.5a (human gene NDUFA7), B14.5b (human gene NDUFC2) and B16.6 (GRIM-19). MS also revealed the presence of phosphorylated...... programmed cell death protein 8(AIF) in native and purified samples of complex I analysed. The possible physiological relevance of these findings is discussed....

  9. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26807915

  10. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  11. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  12. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement. PMID:19251790

  13. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  14. Identification of Mannheimia haemolytica Adhesins Involved in Binding to Bovine Bronchial Epithelial Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica, a commensal organism of the upper respiratory tract in cattle, is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex. Adherence to the respiratory mucosa is a crucial event in its pathogenesis. However, the bacterial components that contribute to this process are not fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that M. haemolytica adhered to bovine bronchial epithelial cells (BBEC) in vitro and that adherence was inhibited by...

  15. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent)Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810

  16. Purification of Active Respiratory Supercomplex from Bovine Heart Mitochondria Enables Functional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Shimomura, Harunobu; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Shimada, Satoru; Takahashi, Ryoko; Oosaki, Marika; Ogura, Takashi; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2016-02-19

    To understand the roles of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes, methods for consistently separating and preparing supercomplexes must be established. To this end, we solubilized supercomplexes from bovine heart mitochondria with digitonin and then replaced digitonin with amphipol (A8-35), an amphiphilic polymer. Afterward, supercomplexes were separated from other complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-six grams of bovine myocardium yielded 3.2 mg of amphipol-stabilized supercomplex. The purified supercomplexes were analyzed based on their absorption spectra as well as Q10 (ubiquinone with ten isoprene units) and lipid assays. The supercomplex sample did not contain cytochrome c but did contain complexes I, III, and IV at a ratio of 1:2:1, 6 molecules of Q10, and 623 atoms of phosphorus. When cytochrome c was added, the supercomplex exhibited KCN-sensitive NADH oxidation; thus, the purified supercomplex was active. Reduced complex IV absorbs at 444 nm, so we measured the resonance Raman spectrum of the reduced amphipol-solubilized supercomplex and the mixture of amphipol-solubilized complexes I1, III2, and IV1 using an excitation wavelength of 441.6 nm, allowing measurement precision comparable with that obtained for complex IV alone. Use of the purified active sample provides insights into the effects of supercomplex formation. PMID:26698328

  17. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1) isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  18. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  19. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray Surveillance Program (CWXSP) Frequently Asked Questions Coal Miner Health Surveillance Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases CWHSP Data Query System CWHSP Public Data Digital Imaging Activity ...

  20. In Vitro Infection of Bovine Monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis Delays Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of Gamma Interferon and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but Not Interleukin-10

    OpenAIRE

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Scruten, Erin; Napper, Scott; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the major causative pathogens of bovine respiratory complex disease (BRD), which is characterized by enzootic pneumonia, mastitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis. M. bovis enters and colonizes bovine respiratory epithelial cells through inhalation of aerosol from contaminated air. The nature of the interaction between M. bovis and the bovine innate immune system is not well understood. We hypothesized that M. bovis invades blood monocytes and regulates cellular functi...

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  2. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  3. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  4. Comparative analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from bovine respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Szilárd; Makrai, László

    2015-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration. PMID:26689880

  5. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  8. In vivo evidence for quasispecies distributions in the bovine respiratory syncytial virus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Deplanche, Martine; Lemaire, Mylène; Mirandette, Carole; Bonnet, Marion; Schelcher, François; Meyer, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) isolate W2-00131, from its isolation in bovine turbinate (BT) cells to its inoculation in calves. Results showed that the BRSV genomic region encoding the highly variable glycoprotein G remains genetically stable after virus isolation and over 10 serial infections in BT cells, as well as following experimental inoculation in calves. This remarkable genetic stability led us to examine the mutant spectrum of several ...

  9. Infection of the upper respiratory tract of hamsters by the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-1 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Minakuchi, Moeko; Sagai, Mami; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is an important pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). We have generated a recombinant BPIV3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rBPIV3-EGFP) based on the BN-1 strain isolated in Japan. After intranasal infection of hamsters with rBPIV3-EGFP, EGFP fluorescence was detected in the upper respiratory tract including the nasal turbinates, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. In the nasal turbinates, rBPIV3-EGFP attained high titers (>10(6) TCID50/g of tissue) 2-4 days after infection. Ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates and trachea were infected with rBPIV3-EGFP. Histopathological analysis indicated that mucosal epithelial cells in bronchi were shed by 6 days after infection, leaving non-ciliated cells, which may have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection leading to the development of BRDC. These data indicate that rBPIV3-EGFP infection of hamsters is a useful small animal model for studying the development of BPIV3-associated BRDC. PMID:25543964

  10. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV),...

  11. Challenges and opportunities for managing respiratory disease in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amy

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is important for the Ontario dairy industry due to the large economic and welfare costs of this disease. Practical science-based management techniques are needed to control and reduce the risk of this disease. Currently, the emphasis on BRD is focused on early detection of disease and prevention. These areas are important but it is not practical to assume this disease will be eliminated in the near future. It is necessary to determine the best practices for caring for sick animals, monitoring their recovery and making changes to their management to facilitate health and recovery. If management changes can be made for animals that are failing to thrive in a current situation, a more complete recovery may be possible and the welfare and economic costs of BRD may be minimized. PMID:20003645

  12. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  13. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  14. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  15. Modeling of longitudinal polytomous outcome from complex survey data - application to investigate an association between mental distress and non-malignant respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahwa Punam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repeated measurements. Special statistical methods are required to analyze longitudinal complex survey data. Methods Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS dataset from the first five cycles (1994/1995 to 2002/2003 was used to investigate the effects of demographic, social, life-style, and health-related factors on the longitudinal changes of mental distress scores among the NPHS participants who self-reported physician diagnosed respiratory diseases, specifically asthma and chronic bronchitis. The NPHS longitudinal sample includes 17,276 persons of all ages. In this report, participants 15 years and older (n = 14,713 were considered for statistical analysis. Mental distress, an ordinal outcome variable (categories: no/low, moderate, and high was examined. Ordered logistic regression models based on the weighted generalized estimating equations approach were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory diseases and mental distress adjusting for other covariates of interest. Variance estimates of regression coefficients were computed by using bootstrap methods. The final model was used to predict the probabilities of prevalence of no/low, moderate or high mental distress scores. Results Accounting for design effects does not vary the significance of the coefficients of the model. Participants suffering with chronic bronchitis were significantly at a higher risk (ORadj = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12-1.66 of reporting high levels of mental distress compared to those who did not self-report chronic bronchitis. There was no significant association between asthma and mental distress. There was a significant interaction between sex and self-perceived general health status indicating a dose

  16. Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R

    2000-05-01

    Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

  17. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  18. Energy transduction by respiratory complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ana P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this dissertation was to provide a contribution to the understanding of the energy transducing mechanism of respiratory complex I. This enzyme is present in most bacteria and in all mitochondrial systems and it is characterized by its large number of subunits, its prosthetic groups (flavin and iron-sulfur centers), and its NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity sensitive to specific inhibitors and coupled with charge translocation across the membrane.(...)

  19. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease. PMID:26037608

  20. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu; Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez; Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez Garcia; Marcelo Marcos Morales; Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions ne...

  1. Interaction of complexes I, III, and IV within the bovine respirasome by single particle cryoelectron tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dudkina, N V; Kudryashev, M.; Stahlberg, H; Boekema, E J

    2011-01-01

    The respirasome is a multisubunit supercomplex of the respiratory chain in mitochondria. Here we report the 3D reconstruction of the bovine heart respirasome, composed of dimeric complex III and single copies of complex I and IV, at about 2.2-nm resolution, determined by cryoelectron tomography and subvolume averaging. Fitting of X-ray structures of single complexes I, III2, and IV with high fidelity allows interpretation of the model at the level of secondary structures and shows how the ind...

  2. Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Adam; Aramini, Jeff; Edge, Graham; Moore, Kieran M.

    2009-01-01

    To validate the utility of a chief complaint–based emergency department surveillance system, we compared it with respiratory diagnostic data and calls to Telehealth Ontario about respiratory disease. This local syndromic surveillance system accurately monitored status of respiratory diseases in the community and contributed to early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks.

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... damages the central nervous system of cattle. More Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. About BSE ...

  4. A bovine model of respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection: challenge dose titration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Reinhold

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2-3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 10(6 to 10(9 inclusion-forming units (ifu per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 10(6 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 10(7 and 10(8 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2-3 days post inoculation (dpi and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 10(9 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite. At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 10(6 and 10(7 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 10(8 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 10(9 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 10(6 or 10(8 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 10(8 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial

  5. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01) and weight gain (p = 0.08) seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune

  6. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Devendra K.; Paul Lawrence; Steve J. Pauszek; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Elizabeth Rieder

    2016-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhini...

  7. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  8. Alterations of complex I of the respiratory chain in tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many solid tumors exhibit a shift in the energy metabolism from aerobic oxidation in the mitochondria to anaerobic glycolysis, which was first observed by Otto Warburg. In accordance with the Warburg hypothesis, we assume that an irreversible damage to the respiratory chain is a fundamental property of cancer cells and can be a primary event in tumor formation. The aim of this PhD thesis was to elucidate deficiencies of the respiratory chain in mitochondria rich (oncocytic) tumors of the kidney, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the salivary gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland and the eyelid. Additionally Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease of the thyroid containing oncocytic cells and non-oncocytic thyroid tumors (follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas) were investigated for alterations in the mitochondrial energy metabolism. In oncocytomas (n =57) a specific loss of respiratory chain complex I was detected in 97% of investigated cases by immunohistochemistry, enzymatic measurements and immunoblot analysis. Other complexes of the respiratory chain were compensatory upregulated. In half of the cases, complex I deficiency was caused by disruptive mutations, either frame shift or nonsense mutations in complex I subunits encoded on the mitochondrial genome. Oncocytic nodules in ten cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis also demonstrated a loss of complex I, whereas complex IV expression was very heterogenous. Thyroid cancers, especially papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, exhibited in most cases a reduction or complete loss of complex I. In some cases oncocytic cells were found in a low percentage, all lacking complex I. Follicular thyroid adenomas are characterized by a general reduction of respiratory chain enzymes, compared to the mitochondrial marker protein porin. In anaplastic thyroid carcinomas neither a specific defect nor a general down regulation was found in this

  9. Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin Binds to Lipid Rafts in Bovine Lymphoblastoid Cells and Is Internalized in a Dynamin-2- and Clathrin-Dependent Manner▿

    OpenAIRE

    Atapattu, Dhammika N.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Its most important virulence factor is a leukotoxin (LKT), which is a member of the RTX family of exotoxins produced by many gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies demonstrated that LKT binds to the β2-integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on bovine leukocytes, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrated that depletion of lipid rafts significantly decreases LKT-induced bovine lymphoblasto...

  10. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  11. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.;

    2012-01-01

    vulnerable to genetic and sporadic pathological factors. Complex I dysfunction has, indeed, been found, to be associated with several human diseases. Knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases can help to develop new therapeutic strategies. (C) 2011 Federation of European Biochemical...... Societies. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved....

  12. 28 CFR 79.46 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease... nonmalignant respiratory disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed a nonmalignant respiratory disease following pertinent employment as a miner, the Assistant Director shall resolve all...

  13. 28 CFR 79.55 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease... nonmalignant respiratory disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed a nonmalignant respiratory disease following pertinent employment as a miller, the Assistant Director shall resolve all...

  14. 28 CFR 79.65 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease... nonmalignant respiratory disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed a nonmalignant respiratory disease following pertinent employment as an ore transporter, the Assistant Director shall resolve...

  15. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in multiple organs, primarily heart, kidneys, skin, CNS, and lungs. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed...... remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...... examinations are seldom performed. Pulmonary function tests primarily show obstructive airway limitation, but a few articles also report of patients with restrictive limitation and a mixture of both. No significant association has been found between smoking and the development of symptoms or spirometry...

  16. An experimental infection model for reproduction of calf pneumonia with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) based on one combined exposure of calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.; Larsen, Lars Erik; Rontved, C.; Ronsholt, L.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been recognised as an important pathogen in calf pneumonia for 30 years, but surprisingly few effective infection models for studies of the immune response and the pathogenesis in the natural host have been established. We present a reproducible...... experimental infection model for BRSV in 2-5-month-old, conventionally reared Jersey calves. Thirty-four colostrum-fed calves were inoculated once by aerosol and intratracheal injection with BRSV. Respiratory disease was recorded in 91% of the BRSV-inoculated calves, 72% had an accompanying rise in rectal...... temperature and 83% exhibited >5%, consolidation of the lung tissue. The disease closely resembled natural outbreaks of BRSV-related pneumonia, and detection of BRSV in nasal secretions and lung tissues confirmed the primary role of BRSV. Nine mock-inoculated control calves failed to develop respiratory...

  17. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方法。牛呼吸道合胞体病在全球范围内流行,对各国养牛业造成极大危害。论文综述了牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法的研究进展,为牛呼吸道合胞体病的诊断和预防提供参考。%Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article

  18. 牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测方法研究进展%Progress on the Detection Methods for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洺扬; 王炜; 李真光; 董鹏; 胡桂学; 武华; 陈立志; 程世鹏; 冷雪

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is recognized as one of the crucial causes of bovine respiratory disease,which has a marked impact on the cattle industry and the dairy industry.Bovine respiratory syncy-tial virus is preliminarily diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and pathological anatomy changes,and then through the laboratory tests.The laboratory tests of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mainly rely on etiology diagnosis and serological diagnosis.The methods for etiology diagnosis consists of cell-culture iso-lation techniques,polymerase chain reaction.And the serological methods consists of neutralization tests, immunofluorescence method,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.For the past few years,the experimen-tal methods,such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were developed rapidly,and became the main methods for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus due to their high efficiency,rapidness and high sensitivity.The bovine respiratory syncytial disease has spread world-wide and impacted production and animal welfare in the cattle industry.The article summarized the re-search progress on the laboratory test methods of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.The overview of thesis will provide some references for the diagnosis and prevention of the bovine respiratory syncytial disease.%牛呼吸道合胞体病毒是引起牛呼吸道疾病的主要病原之一。进行牛呼吸道合胞体病诊断时,首先通过临床症状观察以及病理剖检变化进行初诊,然后再进行实验室诊断。其实验室检测主要依赖于病原学诊断和血清学诊断,病原学诊断方法主要包括细胞分离培养鉴定、聚合酶链反应。血清学方法包括中和试验、免疫荧光试验、酶联免疫吸附试验等。近年来聚合酶链反应!酶联免疫吸附试验等方法得到快速发展,凭借其高效、快速、灵敏性高的特点成为牛呼吸道合胞体病毒检测的常用方

  19. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Sara M

    2008-06-01

    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  20. Mannheimia haemolytica and Its Leukotoxin Cause Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation by Bovine Neutrophils▿

    OpenAIRE

    Aulik, Nicole A.; Hellenbrand, Katrina M.; Klos, Heather; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important member of the bovine respiratory disease complex, which is characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration into the alveoli and fibrin deposition. Recently several authors have reported that human neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are protein-studded DNA matrices capable of trapping and killing pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that the leukotoxin (LKT) of M. haemolytica causes NET formation by bovine neutrophils in a CD18-...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  2. Inhibition of respiratory complex I by copper(ii)-bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Donnelly, Paul S; McEwan, Alastair G

    2014-12-01

    Several copper(ii) complexes of bis(thiosemicarbazones) [Cu(btsc)s] show promise as therapeutics for the treatment of neurological diseases, cancers and bacterial infections. These complexes are thought to act primarily as copper ionophores or "copper boosting" agents, whereby the Cu(II) centre is reduced by cytosolic reductants and Cu(I) is released as "free" or "bioavailable" ion. It is then assumed that the dissociated Cu(I) ion is the species responsible for many of the observed biological effects of Cu(btsc)s. We recently showed that Cu(btsc) complexes inhibited NADH dehydrogenases in the bacterial respiratory chain. In this work, we demonstrate that Cu(btsc) complexes also inhibit mitochondrial respiration and that Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is a specific target of inhibition. However, bioavailable Cu ions do not appear to contribute to the action of Cu(btsc) as a respiratory inhibitor. Instead, an intact Cu(btsc) molecule may bind reversibly and competitively to the site of ubiquinone binding in Complex I. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that the intact complex may be important in the overall cellular activity of Cu(btsc) complexes and further the understanding of their biological effects as a potential therapeutic. PMID:25366244

  3. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  4. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  5. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during the laryngeal chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Aidan K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laryngeal chemoreflex exists in infants as a primary sensory mechanism for defending the airway from the aspiration of liquids. Previous studies have hypothesized that prolonged apnea associated with this reflex may be life threatening and might be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Methods In this study we quantified the output of the respiratory neural network, the diaphragm EMG signal, during the laryngeal chemoreflex and eupnea in early postnatal (3–10 days piglets. We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm EMG activity corresponding to reflex-related events involved in clearance (restorative mechanisms such as cough and swallow exhibit lower complexity, suggesting that a synchronized homogeneous group of neurons in the central respiratory network are active during these events. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using the approximate entropy to asses the complexity of respiratory patterns. Results Diaphragm EMG, genioglossal activity EMG, as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume were recorded from 5 unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets. Approximate entropy values of the EMG during cough and swallow were found significantly (p p Conclusion Reduced complexity values of the respiratory neural network output corresponding to coughs and swallows suggest synchronous neural activity of a homogeneous group of neurons. The higher complexity values exhibited by eupneic respiratory activity are the result of a more random behaviour, which is the outcome of the integrated action of several groups of neurons involved in the respiratory neural network.

  6. Effect of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae on pulmonary function parameters in a bovine respiratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, M; Prohl, A; Ostermann, C; Diller, R; Greub, G; Reinhold, P

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary dysfunction induced by experimental infection with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in calves. Intrabronchial inoculation with P. acanthamoebae was performed in 31 calves aged 2-3 months old at two different challenge doses of 10(8) and 10(10) inclusion-forming units (IFU) per animal. Control animals received heat inactivated bacteria. The effects on pulmonary gas exchange were determined by arterial blood gas analysis and haemoximetry during the 7 days post inoculation (DPI). For pulmonary function testing (PFT), impulse oscillometry, capnography, and measurement of O2 uptake were undertaken in spontaneously breathing animals 7 and 3 days before inoculation and were repeated until 10 DPI. In the early phase after challenge (1-3 DPI), mild hypoxaemia occurred, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in both tidal and alveolar volumes (each related to bodyweight, BW). In parallel, expiratory flow rate and specific ventilation (i.e. minute ventilation related to O2 uptake) were significantly increased. Minute and alveolar ventilations (each related to metabolic BW) increased significantly due to higher respiratory rates, lasting until 4 and 5 DPI, respectively. Oxygen uptake was slightly reduced during the first 2 days after challenge, but increased significantly during the recovery phase, from 4 to 8 DPI. No deterioration in respiratory mechanics or acid-base balance was observed. Respiratory infection with 10(10) IFU P. acanthamoebae per calf induced mild respiratory dysfunction, mainly characterised by hypoxaemia. The study's findings do not indicate severe pathophysiological consequences of P. acanthamoebae infection on pulmonary function in the bovine host. PMID:27240907

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its pulmonary manifestation is well known however the exact underlying mechanism is unclear. The medical literature is deluged with studies on relationship between Gear and its pulmonary manifestations. The aim of this study was to 1) determine prevalence of GER in children with rLRTI, wheezing and asthma. 2) determine prevalence of asymptomatic respiratory anomalies in children with clinical reflux 3) determine effectiveness of anti-reflux therapy in clinical control of asthma, wheezing and rLRTI. Children were included in the study if they presented either with rLRTI, wheezing, Bronchial asthma or Clinical suspicion of GER without any respiratory symptoms. The GER study comprised esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux and lung aspiration studies. Acquisition and processing were according to predetermined protocol. Segmental and global esophageal transit times, GER according to duration of episode and volume of refluxed liquid, Reflux severity, Gastric retention at 30 minutes, Gastric emptying time, Presence of lung aspiration were calculated for each study. All children underwent Barium studies on a separate day. Clinical follow-up was done every 3 months and GER study was repeated every 6 months up to one year. The patient's therapy was determined by local protocols at discretion of clinicians. GER scintigraphy was performed in 43 patients (age range 5 months -12 years). Gastroesophageal reflux of varying degrees was observed in 10 children (23.25%) in all groups. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to severity of GER. The direct correlation was found between GER and reflux index. The results of GER scintigraphy were compared with Barium studies and results were found to be superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting disease. It was possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to therapy after medical treatment in few cases with help of follow

  8. Screening for Common Respiratory Diseases among Israeli Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Bar Dayan; Keren Elishkevits; Liav Goldstein; Avishay Goldberg; Michel Fichler; Nisim Ohana; Yehezkel Levi; Yosefa Bar Dayan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of serious morbidity among adolescents. There are few reports on the prevalence of common respiratory disorders in this population. The previous studies focused on specific diseases and screened relatively small samples.OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence of different common respiratory disorders among 17-year-old Israeli conscripts.DESIGN: All 17-year-old Israeli nationals are obliged by law to appear at the Israel...

  9. Respiratory Conditions Update: Restrictive Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H Coleman

    2016-09-01

    Restrictive lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a restrictive pattern on spirometry and confirmed by a reduction in total lung volume. Patients with more severe symptoms may have a reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Etiologies can be intrinsic with lung parenchymal involvement, as in interstitial lung diseases, or extrinsic to the lung, as in obesity and neuromuscular disorders. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis for which treatment is primarily supportive with oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and management of comorbid conditions. Newer drugs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, such as pirfenidone and nintedanib, can slow disease progression. Referral for evaluation for lung transplantation is recommended for appropriate patients. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome increasingly are common health issues, with symptoms that can include snoring, daytime somnolence, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, witnessed apneas, and morning headaches. Serum bicarbonate may serve as a biomarker in screening for subclinical obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Preoperative evaluations should assess pulmonary risk in addition to cardiac risk with a thorough history, laboratory tests, and functional capacity assessments. Optimization of management may include weight loss, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support. PMID:27576233

  10. A randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen for respiratory syncytial infection in a bovine model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to ...

  11. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n

  12. Respiratory system impedance from 4 to 40 Hz in paralyzed intubated infants with respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorkin, H L; Stark, A. R.; Werthammer, J W; Strieder, D J; Fredberg, J.J.; Frantz, I D

    1983-01-01

    To describe the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system in intubated neonates with respiratory disease, we measured impedance and resistance in six paralyzed intubated infants with respiratory distress syndrome, three of whom also had pulmonary interstitial emphysema. We subtracted the effects of the endotracheal tube after showing that such subtraction was valid. Oscillatory flow was generated from 4 to 40 Hz by a loudspeaker, airway pressure was measured, and flow was calculate...

  13. A putative quantitative trait locus on chromosome 20 associated with bovine pathogenic disease incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Snowder, G D

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to detect QTL associated with the incidence of multiple pathogenic diseases in offspring from half-sib bovine families. Four F(1) sires were used to produce offspring: Brahman x Hereford (BH; n = 547), Piedmontese x Angus (PA; n = 209), Brahman x Angus (n = 176), and Belgian Blue x MARC III (n = 246). Treatment records for bovine respiratory disease, infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye), and infectious pododermatitis (footrot) were available for all of the offspring from birth to slaughter. The incidences of these 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were combined into a single binary trait to represent an overall pathogenic disease incidence. Offspring diagnosed and treated for 1 or more of the previously mentioned pathogenic diseases were coded as a 1 for affected. Cattle with no treatment record were coded as 0 for healthy. A putative QTL for pathogenic disease incidence was detected in the family derived from the BH sire at the genome-wise suggestive level. This was supported by evidence, in the same chromosomal region, of a similar QTL in the family derived from the PA sire. The maximum F-statistic (F = 13.52; P = 0.0003) was located at cM 18. The support interval of the QTL spanned from cM 9 to 28. Further studies should explore this QTL by using other bovine populations to further confirm the QTL and refine the QTL support interval. Offspring inheriting the Hereford allele, in the family from the BH sire, and the Angus allele, in the family from the PA sire, were less susceptible to incidence of pathogenic diseases, when compared with those inheriting the Brahman allele and Piedmontese allele, from the BH and PA sires, respectively. PMID:18502878

  14. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  15. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

  16. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25322747

  17. The respiratory complexes I from the mitochondria of two Pichia species

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Hannah R.; Grgic, Ljuban; Harbour, Michael E.; Hirst, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is an entry point for electrons into the respiratory chain in many eukaryotes. It couples NADH oxidation and ubiquinone reduction to proton translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Because complex I deficiencies occur in a wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson?s disease, there is a clear need for model eukaryotic systems to facilitate structural, functional and mutational studies. Here, we desc...

  18. Structural studies on aerobic and anaerobic respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Törnroth, Susanna

    2002-01-01

    All respiratory pathways, whether aerobic or anaerobic, are based on formation of an electrochemical proton gradient called proton motive force (pmf) that drives ATP formation. Membrane-bound respiratory complexes translocate protons across the membrane from a region of low [H+] and negative electrical potential to a region of high [H+] and positive electrical potential. This establishes a proton gradient and a membrane potential that together form pmf. The crystal structures of the respirat...

  19. Pathological examination and pathogen detection of porcine respiratory disease complex in a finisher swine herd%育肥猪呼吸道疾病综合征病理学观察和病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷; 李玉峰; 王先炜; 李文良; 姜平

    2011-01-01

    猪呼吸道疾病综合征是一种由病毒、细菌、环境应激和猪体免疫力低下等多因素相互作用引起的呼吸道疾病.2009年2~4月,上海农场某猪场一批育肥猪出现疑似病例,表现为食欲下降,咳嗽,呼吸困难,生长缓慢和料肉比降低.本研究在流行病学调查的基础上,剖检8头病猪观察其病理变化,主要表现为肺脏弥慢性实变,弹性降低,间质增宽,有的水肿、气肿,或纤维素性胸膜肺炎.病原检测结果显示,该发病猪群主要病原为猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒、猪圆环病毒2型和副猪嗜血杆菌.本研究为猪呼吸道疾病综合征的防治提供了依据.%The porcine respiratory disease complex ( PRDC) is a complex disease caused by many factors , including virus, bacteria, environmental stress and low immunity. Some cases susceptive of PRDC were found in a swine farm of Shanghai in April 2009. The pigs showed anorexia, cough, dyspnea. slow growth and reduction of feed efficiency. After epidemiological investigation, eight fattening pigs with respiratory syndrome were selected for gross pathological analysis. The lungs showed mainly diffused consolidation, reduced flexibility , interstitial thicking, emphysema or fibrinous pleuropneumonia. The results of pathogen detection showed that these pigs were mainly infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV) , porcine circovirus cype 2 ( PCV2) and Haemophilus parasuis ( Hps) . This study would be useful for the prevention and control of PRDC.

  20. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health.

  1. Respiratory disease and the role of oral bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac S. Gomes-Filho; Passos, Johelle S.; Seixas da Cruz, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between oral health and systemic conditions, including the association between poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, and respiratory disease, has been increasingly debated over recent decades. A considerable number of hypotheses have sought to explain the possible role of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, and some clinical and epidemiological studies have found results favoring such an association. This review discusses the effect of oral bacteria o...

  2. A Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Mutant Virus Specifying a Carboxyl-Terminal Truncation of Glycoprotein E Is Defective in Anterograde Neuronal Transport in Rabbits and Calves▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z. F.; M.C.S. Brum; Doster, A.; Jones, C.; Chowdhury, S I

    2008-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important component of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle. The ability of BHV-1 to transport anterogradely from neuronal cell bodies in trigeminal ganglia (TG) to nerve ending in the noses and corneas of infected cattle following reactivation from latency plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of BRDC and maintenance of BHV-1 in the cattle population. We have constructed a BHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone by i...

  3. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3...... months and 3 weeks of age, served as controls. Replication of BRSV took place in the luminal lining of the respiratory tract. In one of the BRSV infected animals (calf No. 1), replication was especially seen in the bronchi, whereas in the two other animals (calf Nos. 2 and 3) replication of BRSV was...

  4. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  5. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens p...

  6. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  7. Tuberculosis and chronic respiratory disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Byrne

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: In tuberculosis endemic areas, tuberculosis is strongly associated with the presence of chronic respiratory disease in adults. Efforts to improve long-term lung health should be part of tuberculosis care.

  8. Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow...

  9. Local IL2 and IL12 treatment of Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma and Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC) in Cattle in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, R.J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of local IL-2 application on bovine cancer In tropical countries there is an increased prevalence of two important cancers in cattle: Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC). Both cancers are associated with increased annual hours of

  10. Chronic respiratory disease in premature infants caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Numazaki, K; Chiba, S.; Kogawa, K; Umetsu, M; Motoya, H; Nakao, T.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between chronic respiratory disease and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in premature infants was investigated to ascertain the aetiological importance of intrauterine C trachomatis infection and chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. Serum IgM antibodies against C trachomatis were determined by enzyme linked fluorescence assay. Sections of lung tissues obtained by biopsy and at necropsy were also tested for the presence of antigens using fluorescein conjugated mon...

  11. Modeling of longitudinal polytomous outcome from complex survey data - application to investigate an association between mental distress and non-malignant respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa Punam; Karunanayake Chandima P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repeated measurements. Special statistical methods are required to analyze longitudinal complex survey data. Methods Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS) dataset from the first five cycles (1994/1995 to 2002/2003) was used to investiga...

  12. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh. PMID:25160760

  13. Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin Induces Apoptosis of Bovine Lymphoblastoid Cells (BL-3) via a Caspase-9-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Atapattu, Dhammika N.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a key pathogen in the bovine respiratory disease complex. It produces a leukotoxin (LKT) that is an important virulence factor, causing cell death in bovine leukocytes. The LKT binds to the β2 integrin CD11a/CD18, which usually activates signaling pathways that facilitate cell survival. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which LKT induces death in bovine lymphoblastoid cells (BL-3). Incubation of BL-3 cells with a low concentration of LKT results in the act...

  14. Binding of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin to bovine leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J F; Leite, F; Czuprynski, C J

    1997-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen in the bovine respiratory disease complex. This organism produces an exotoxin (referred to as leukotoxin) during logarithmic-phase growth that is a potent leukocyte-modulating agent. At low concentrations, it activates neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes to release inflammatory mediators, while at the same time making these cells destined to undergo apoptotic cell death. At higher concentrations, the toxin causes rapid swelling an...

  15. A triad of bovine inherited diseases (abstract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F I

    2003-02-01

    Three inherited diseases of cattle seen in the past 2 years were described. Familial acantholysis of Angus cattle was seen in 9/54 calves born to cows inadvertently mated to a full sibling bull. Sloughing skin from the joints, nose and palate were seen at 1 day of age, confirmed as suprabasilar clefts on histopathology. A 2-year-old Charolais steer was noted at ante-mortem slaughter inspection with a whole body tremor and nystagmus. Histopathologically, eosinophilic plaques expanded white matter throughout the brain, consistent with a syndrome of 'progressive ataxia' of Charolais cattle. Two calves born from Red Devon cattle had marked hyperkeratosis, microtia and periocular reddening with deep fissuring of the keratin, characteristic of congenital ichthyosis. PMID:16032297

  16. A retrospective search for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antigens in histological specimens by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry Pesquisa retrospectiva de antígenos do Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em cortes histológicos por imunofluorescência e imunohistoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Eduardo F; Rudi Weiblen; Margareti Medeiros; Sônia A. Botton; Luiz F. Irigoyen; David Driemeier; Luis F. Schuch; Mauro Moraes

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been only sporadically identified as a causative agent of respiratory disease in Brazil. This contrasts with frequent reports of clinical and histopathological findings suggestive of BRSV-associated disease. In order to examine a possible involvement of BRSV in cases of calf pneumonia, a retrospective search was performed for BRSV antigens in histological specimens submitted to veterinary diagnostic services from the states of Rio Grande do Sul an...

  17. Respiratory complexes III and IV can each bind two molecules of cytochrome c at low ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Guerra-Castellano, Alejandra; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2015-02-13

    The transient interactions of respiratory cytochrome c with complexes III and IV is herein investigated by using heterologous proteins, namely human cytochrome c, the soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1 and bovine cytochrome c oxidase. The binding molecular mechanisms of the resulting cross-complexes have been analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. Our data reveal that the two cytochrome c-involving adducts possess a 2:1 stoichiometry - that is, two cytochrome c molecules per adduct - at low ionic strength. We conclude that such extra binding sites at the surfaces of complexes III and IV can facilitate the turnover and sliding of cytochrome c molecules and, therefore, the electron transfer within respiratory supercomplexes. PMID:25595453

  18. Immunoglobulin G2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia and chronic respiratory disease in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoz, David; Lapointe, Jean-Martin; Wellemans, Vincent; Desrochers, André; Caswell, Jeff L; Stott, Jeff L; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2004-09-01

    A 6-month-old Holstein heifer that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease. Complete blood count and serum chemistry revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis and low globulin levels. Assays for bovine leukemia virus, bovine virus diarrhea, and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were negative. Serum globulin subclass assays revealed transient low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgA, persistent low IgG2, and subnormal IgM. Vaccination with 2 doses of multiple, inactived viruses induced seroconversion for most viruses. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulation demonstrated an increase in CD5+ B-cells. Blood lymphocyte proliferation and neutrophil function tests were normal. Results of immunologic assays indicated IgG2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:15460327

  19. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Fawzi; Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

  20. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  1. Indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on respiratory diseases of camels in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O

    2016-08-01

    The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively. PMID:27435647

  2. All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal Significant Differences in Interaction between Antimycin and Conserved Amino Acid Residues in Bovine and Bacterial bc1 Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kokhan, Oleksandr; Shinkarev, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    Antimycin A is the most frequently used specific and powerful inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We used all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the dynamic aspects of the interaction of antimycin A with the Qi site of the bacterial and bovine bc1 complexes embedded in a membrane. The MD simulations revealed considerable conformational flexibility of antimycin and significant mobility of antimycin, as a whole, inside the Qi pocket. We conclude that many of the dif...

  3. Update on the Management of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Kathleen M; Laidlaw, Tanya M

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset upper and lower airway disease consisting of eosinophilic nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory reactions to cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Management includes guideline-based treatment of asthma and sinus disease, avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors, and for some patients aspirin desensitization followed by high-dose aspirin therapy. Despite this, many patients have inadequately controlled symptoms and require multiple sinus surgeries. In this review, we discuss the current standard approaches to the management of AERD, and we introduce several therapeutics under development that may hold promise for the treatment of AERD. PMID:27126722

  4. Genetic Testing for Respiratory Disease: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Paré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genome project promised a revolution in health care – the development of ‘personalized medicine’, where knowledge of an individual’s genetic code enables the prediction of risk for specific diseases and the potential to alter that risk based on preventive measures and lifestyle modification. The present brief review provides a report card on the progress toward that goal with respect to respiratory disease. Should generalized population screening for genetic risk factors for respiratory disease be instituted? Or not?

  5. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis

  6. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  7. Exogenous Glutamine in Respiratory Diseases: Myth or Reality?

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    Gisele P. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several respiratory diseases feature increased inflammatory response and catabolic activity, which are associated with glutamine depletion; thus, the benefits of exogenous glutamine administration have been evaluated in clinical trials and models of different respiratory diseases. Recent reviews and meta-analyses have focused on the effects and mechanisms of action of glutamine in a general population of critical care patients or in different models of injury. However, little information is available about the role of glutamine in respiratory diseases. The aim of the present review is to discuss the evidence of glutamine depletion in cystic fibrosis (CF, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and lung cancer, as well as the results of exogenous glutamine administration in experimental and clinical studies. Exogenous glutamine administration might be beneficial in ARDS, asthma, and during lung cancer treatment, thus representing a potential therapeutic tool in these conditions. Further experimental and large randomized clinical trials focusing on the development and progression of respiratory diseases are necessary to elucidate the effects and possible therapeutic role of glutamine in this setting.

  8. Prediction of respiratory disease and diarrhea in veal calves based on immunoglobulin levels and the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Alliët, Jeroen; Boone, Randy; Roelandt, Sophie; Valgaeren, Bonnie; Deprez, Piet

    2015-06-15

    Failure of passive transfer is a common problem in calves destined for veal production. At present it is unknown whether the risk for respiratory disease (BRD) or neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) in the veal herd is associated with total immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or on the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival. Therefore, the first objective of this prospective longitudinal cohort study was to determine associations between serum protein fractions as determined by routine electrophoresis (total protein, albumin, alpha-1 and -2 globulins, beta-globulins and Ig's) at arrival and BRD and NCD in the first 3 weeks of the production cycle. The second objective was to determine whether the serostatus (seropositive/seronegative) of seven respiratory pathogens (bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenzavirus-3, bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis) of these arrival serum samples could be associated with the risk of having BRD. The third objective was to determine which of the electrophoresis proteins and respiratory serostatuses were associated with average daily gain (ADG) in the study period. The study population consisted of 150 rosé veal calves housed in a single air-space. The study period ended at day 18 post arrival, when BRD incidence was judged to be too high to further postpone a group treatment. A Cox regression model was used to determine the effect of the studied protein fractions and antibodies on the time to BRD and NCD occurrence. The effect of the studied predictors on ADG was determined by linear regression. Calves with Ig levels under 7.5g/L had an increased BRD hazard (hazard ratio (HR)=1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0)). NCD was only positively associated with the alpha-2 globulin concentration. Calves with a negative serostatus for BCV (HR=1.7 (95% CI=1.0-2.8)) or BRSV (HR=2.0 (95% CI=1.0-3.9)) had an increased BRD hazard. Average

  9. Neonatal calf infection with respiratory syncytial virus: drawing parallels to the disease in human infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia ...

  10. Neonatal calf infection with respiratory syncytial virus: drawing parallels to the disease in human infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in...

  11. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Smola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Smola1,2, Thierry Vandamme1, Adam Sokolowski21Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de Pharmacie, Département de Chimie Bioorganique, Illkirch Graffenstaden, France; 2Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Wroclaw, PolandAbstract: The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocarriers, nanoparticle, liposome, lung, pulmonary drug delivery, drug targeting, respiratory disease, microemulsion, bioavailability, micelle

  12. Environmental Attributes to Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are the major disease crisis in small ruminants. A number of pathogenic microorganisms have been implicated in the development of respiratory disease but the importance of environmental factors in the initiation and progress of disease can never be overemphasized. They irritate the respiratory tree producing stress in the microenvironment causing a decline in the immune status of the small ruminants and thereby assisting bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections to break down the tissue defense barriers. Environmental pollutants cause acute or chronic reactions as they deposit on the alveolar surface which are characterized by inflammation or fibrosis and the formation of transitory or persistent tissue manifestation. Some of the effects of exposures may be immediate, whereas others may not be evident for many decades. Although the disease development can be portrayed as three sets of two-way communications (pathogen-environment, host-environment, and host-pathogen, the interactions are highly variable. Moreover, the environmental scenario is never static; new compounds are introduced daily making a precise evaluation of the disease burden almost impossible. The present review presents a detailed overview of these interactions and the ultimate effect on the respiratory health of sheep and goat.

  13. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum

    2002-10-01

    BVDV-2 foram capazes de reproduzir a enfermidade aguda quando inoculadas em bezerros e que as conseqüências clínico-patológicas da infecção foram mais severas nos animais mais jovens.Two Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2 were inoculated in calves to evaluate their virulence and to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Previously to virus inoculation, the calves were immunossupressed with dexamethasone. Four 45 to 90-days-old calves (group A were inoculated with isolate SV-260 (n=2 or LV-96 (n=2, and four 6 to 8-months-old calves (group B were inoculated with isolate SV-260. Following virus inoculation, group A calves showed anorexia, depression, hyperthermia, signs of respiratory infection and profuse diarrhea, bloody in two cases. The respiratory and digestive signs progressed and the animals died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 12 post-inoculation. Ulcers and erosions in the digestive tract (tongue, n=4; esophagus, n=1; rumen, n=1 and abomasum, n=3, edema of the lung (n=4 and abomasal mucosa (n=3; echimosis and suffusions in the spleen serosa (n=2, rumen, small intestine and ceccum (n=1, heart (n=1 and urinary bladder mucosa (n=1 and intestinal intussuseption (n=1 were the most prominent findings. Ulcerations and erosions accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates in the digestive tract mucosa and submucosa, and lymphoid depletion in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches were frequently observed. Infectious virus was detected in several tissues and organs. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in mononuclear cells of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces; in lymph node septae and capsule; and in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells of the spleen and Peyer’s patches. Group B calves showed depression, hyperthermia, moderate signs of respiratory and digestive infection, small ulcerations in the tongue and recovered after a few days. These

  14. Respiratory complex I: A dual relation with H(+) and Na(+)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paulo J; Silva, Andreia F; Marreiros, Bruno C; Batista, Ana P; Pereira, Manuela M

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory complex I couples NADH:quinone oxidoreduction to ion translocation across the membrane, contributing to the buildup of the transmembrane difference of electrochemical potential. H(+) is well recognized to be the coupling ion of this system but some studies suggested that this role could be also performed by Na(+). We have previously observed NADH-driven Na(+) transport opposite to H(+) translocation by menaquinone-reducing complexes I, which indicated a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in these systems. Such activity was also observed for the ubiquinone-reducing mitochondrial complex I in its deactive form. The relation of Na(+) with complex I may not be surprising since the enzyme has three subunits structurally homologous to bona fide Na(+)/H(+) antiporters and translocation of H(+) and Na(+) ions has been described for members of most types of ion pumps and transporters. Moreover, no clearly distinguishable motifs for the binding of H(+) or Na(+) have been recognized yet. We noticed that in menaquinone-reducing complexes I, less energy is available for ion translocation, compared to ubiquinone-reducing complexes I. Therefore, we hypothesized that menaquinone-reducing complexes I perform Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in order to achieve the stoichiometry of 4H(+)/2e(-). In agreement, the organisms that use ubiquinone, a high potential quinone, would have kept such Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity, only operative under determined conditions. This would imply a physiological role(s) of complex I besides a simple "coupling" of a redox reaction and ion transport, which could account for the sophistication of this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26711319

  15. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Pauszek, Steve J.; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhinitis A virus (BRAV). Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models for Aphthoviruses, including BRAV RS3X and foot-and-mouth disease virus, we observed no clear evidence for genomic regions undergoing positive selection. However, within each of the BRV species, multiple sites under positive selection were detected. The results also suggest that the probability (determined by Recombination Detection Program) for recombination events between BRVs and other Aphthoviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus was not significant. In contrast, within BRVs, the probability of recombination increases. The data reported here provide genetic information to assist in the identification of diagnostic signatures and research tools for BRAV. PMID:27081310

  16. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinke JW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available John W Steinke, Jeff M Wilson Asthma and Allergic Disease Center, Carter Immunology Center, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD, which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. Keywords: leukotriene, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, arachidonic acid

  17. [Serological studies of the role of the respiratory syncytial virus in acute respiratory diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancea, D; Saşcă, C; Matinca, D; Ivanof, A

    1975-01-01

    The presence of the syncytial respiratory virus was determined by CF in 281 children admitted with acute respiratory diseases between 15 Sept. 1971 and 30 Dec. 1973, using the Long antigen prepared in the "St. Nicolau" Institute of Virology, Bucharest. In 38 children (13.5%) a serologic diagnosis of infection with the syncytial virus was established; in the other cases of respiratory infection of different etiology, antibodies to the syncytial virus were found in low but constant titers in both serum samples. The presence of these antibodies in a high proportion of the children points to the wide circulation of the syncytial virus in the infantile population, with all its clinico-epidemiologic implications. PMID:173009

  18. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. PMID:23368813

  19. Assembly of a chimeric respiratory chain from bovine heart submitochondrial particles and cytochrome bd terminal oxidase of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrikova, Eleonora V.; Grivennikova, Vera G.; Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Cecchini, Gary; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome bd is a terminal quinol oxidase in Escherichia coli. Mitochondrial respiration is inhibited at cytochrome bc1 (complex III) by myxothiazol. Mixing purified cytochrome bd oxidase with myxothiazol-inhibited bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) restores up to 50% of the original rotenone-sensitive NADH oxidase and succinate oxidase activities in the absence of exogenous ubiquinone analogues. Complex III bypassed respiration and is saturated at amounts of added cytochrome bd s...

  20. Has the airway microbiome been overlooked in respiratory disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, Olawale; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Editorial summary The respiratory disease field is changing because of recent advances in our understanding of the airway microbiome. Central to this is dysbiosis, an imbalance of microbial communities that can lead to and flag inflammation in the airways. The increasing momentum of research in this area holds promise for novel treatment strategies.

  1. Solvent Binding Analysis and Computational Alanine Scanning of the Bovine Chymosin-Bovine κ-Casein Complex Using Molecular Integral Equation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Sørensen, Jesper; Schiøtt, Birgit; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2013-12-10

    We demonstrate that the relative binding thermodynamics of single-point mutants of a model protein-peptide complex (the bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex) can be calculated accurately and efficiently using molecular integral equation theory. The results are shown to be in good overall agreement with those obtained using implicit continuum solvation models. Unlike the implicit continuum models, however, molecular integral equation theory provides useful information about the distribution of solvent density. We find that experimentally observed water-binding sites on the surface of bovine chymosin can be identified quickly and accurately from the density distribution functions computed by molecular integral equation theory. The bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex is of industrial interest because bovine chymosin is widely used to cleave bovine κ-casein and to initiate milk clotting in the manufacturing of processed dairy products. The results are interpreted in light of the recent discovery that camel chymosin is a more efficient clotting agent than bovine chymosin for bovine milk. PMID:26592300

  2. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  3. Respiratory chain complexes in dynamic mitochondria display a patchy distribution in life cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, the main suppliers of cellular energy, are dynamic organelles that fuse and divide frequently. Constraining these processes impairs mitochondrial is closely linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. It is proposed that functional mitochondrial dynamics allows the exchange of compounds thereby providing a rescue mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The question discussed in this paper is whether fusion and fission of mitochondria in different cell lines result in re-localization of respiratory chain (RC complexes and of the ATP synthase. This was addressed by fusing cells containing mitochondria with respiratory complexes labelled with different fluorescent proteins and resolving their time dependent re-localization in living cells. We found a complete reshuffling of RC complexes throughout the entire chondriome in single HeLa cells within 2-3 h by organelle fusion and fission. Polykaryons of fused cells completely re-mixed their RC complexes in 10-24 h in a progressive way. In contrast to the recently described homogeneous mixing of matrix-targeted proteins or outer membrane proteins, the distribution of RC complexes and ATP synthase in fused hybrid mitochondria, however, was not homogeneous but patterned. Thus, complete equilibration of respiratory chain complexes as integral inner mitochondrial membrane complexes is a slow process compared with matrix proteins probably limited by complete fusion. In co-expressing cells, complex II is more homogenously distributed than complex I and V, resp. Indeed, this result argues for higher mobility and less integration in supercomplexes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics favours the re-mixing of all RC complexes within the chondriome. This permanent mixing avoids a static situation with a fixed composition of RC complexes per mitochondrion.

  4. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hyun Jung Jin; Eui-Kyung Hwang; Young Hee Nam; Hae-Sim Park

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the resp...

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and respiratory diseases: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Roussos, Anastasios; Philippou, Nikiforos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2003-01-01

    In the past few years, a variety of extradigestive disorders, including cardiovascular, skin, rheumatic and liver diseases, have been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The activation of inflammatory mediators by H. pylori seems to be the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the observed associations. The present review summarizes the current literature, including our own studies, concerning the association between H. pylori infection and respiratory diseases.

  6. Binding of dihydromyricetin and its metal ion complexes with bovine serum albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qingquan; Yuan, Juan; Zeng, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    The binding mechanisms of the interaction of three dihydromyricetin (DMY)–metal complexes (DMY–Cu (II) complex, DMY–Mn (II) complex, DMY–Zn (II) complex) and DMY with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using fluorescence and ultraviolet spectroscopy at different temperatures. The results indicated some differences in the binding process between different DMY–metal complexes and BSA compared with that of free DMY. All of the complexes and DMY quenched the fluorescence of BSA based on...

  7. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  8. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. PMID:21601815

  9. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr) on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Abdul Adjid; M Saepulloh

    2010-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial inseminat...

  10. Genetics of Complex Airway Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, William O C; Moffatt, Miriam F

    2011-01-01

    The past 3 years have seen highly significant genetic effects identified for a wide variety of common complex diseases, including the airway disorders of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It appears that only a portion of the genetically mediated susceptibility to complex diseases has been identified, and there is much left to be discovered. This review briefly describes the results of the genome-wide association studies of asthma and gives an overview of the parallel and incr...

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Histophilus somni genome; a comparison of new and old isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Madampage, Claudia Avis; Rawlyk, Neil; Crockford, Gordon; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Dorin, Craig; Potter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Histophilus somni, a causative agent of the bovine respiratory disease complex, can also cause a variety of systemic disorders, including bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, pericarditis, arthritis, pleuritis, and infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if currently circulating strains differ from those of the 1980s by identifying genomic changes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (INDEL) sites were examined by whole-gen...

  12. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  13. Allosteric nucleotide-binding site in the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I)

    OpenAIRE

    Grivennikova, Vera G.; Gladyshev, Grigory V.; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2011-01-01

    The rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III (HAR) oxidoreductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart and Yarrowia lipolytica submitochondrial particles or purified bovine complex I are stimulated by ATP and other purine nucleotides. The soluble fraction of mammalian complex I (FP) and prokaryotic complex I homolog NDH-1 in Paracoccus denitrificans plasma membrane lack stimulation of their activities by ATP. The stimulation appears as a decrease in apparent Km values for NADH and HAR...

  14. [Respiratory disease caused by MMVF fibers and yarn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, L; Rivolta, G; Barducci, M; Errigo, G; Picchi, O

    1999-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic effects of vitreous fibres on the human respiratory apparatus have been the subjects of numerous studies on large exposed populations. No evidence seems to have been produced of the existence of a fibrogenic effect. However, no definite and agreed opinion has yet been expressed by the main Agencies and Institutions working in the field of prevention. As a contribution to the discussion, the paper presents the experience of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milano involving 1000 subjects who underwent broncho-alveolar lavage during assessment and checking for suspected occupational respiratory disease. A group of 23 cases was selected who were exposed to vitreous fibres without other significant exposures to factors considered hazardous for the respiratory apparatus, especially asbestos. We observed 7 cases of alveolitis; 6 cases with pleural thickening; 2 cases of interstitial disease. On the basis of the nature of exposure (duration, latency from beginning and from the end of hazardous occupation), of the data obtained from the examination of the bronchial lavage liquid (presence of vitreous fibres, siderocytes, cellularity), and of the clinical and laboratory data (X-ray, PFR), the view expressed is tendentially reassuring concerning the possible effects of vitreous fibres on the respiratory apparatus. Although the existence of an irritative type of lesion that manifests in the form of alveolitis and localised pleural thickening seems possible, albeit in a limited number of cases, it does however appear much more difficult to admit the existence of a fibrogenic effect. PMID:10339954

  15. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, John W; Wilson, Jeff M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. PMID:27022293

  16. The global burden of respiratory disease-impact on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Heather J; Ferkol, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with infants and young children especially susceptible. The spectrum of disease ranges from acute infections to chronic non-communicable diseases. Five respiratory conditions dominate-acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, tuberculosis (TB), and lung cancer. Pneumonia remains the predominant cause of childhood mortality, causing nearly 1.3 million deaths each year, most of which are preventable. Asthma is the commonest non-communicable disease in children. Pediatric TB constitutes up to 20% of the TB caseload in high incidence countries. Environmental exposures such as tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, and poor nutrition are common risk factors for acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Pediatric and adult respiratory disease is closely linked. Early childhood respiratory infection or environmental exposures may lead to chronic disease in adulthood. Childhood immunization can effectively reduce the incidence and severity of childhood pneumonia; childhood immunization is also effective for reducing pneumonia in the elderly. The Forum of International Respiratory Societies (FIRS), representing the major respiratory societies worldwide, has produced a global roadmap of respiratory diseases, Respiratory Disease in the World: Realities of Today-Opportunities for Tomorrow. This highlights the burden of respiratory diseases globally and contains specific recommendations for effective strategies. Greater availability and upscaled implementation of effective strategies for prevention and management of respiratory diseases is needed worldwide to improve global health and diminish the current inequities in health care worldwide. PMID:24610581

  17. Update on respiratory disease from coal mine and silica dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.; Velho, V. [Cooks City Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA)

    2002-12-01

    Excessive exposure to coal, coal mine, and silica dust causes a variety of pathological responses in susceptible hosts, including pulmonary fibrosis or pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their resultant restrictive, obstructive, or mixed pattern pulmonary function impairments. For many years, much of the discussion on the respiratory health effects of exposure to these dusts was restricted to the fibrosing pulmonary tissue reactions in response to retained dust. It excluded other reactions of the pulmonary parenchyma and airways to the dust, which are extremely important, and can result in significant impairment in sensitive individuals. This article discusses the broad spectrum of pulmonary toxicity to these inorganic dusts, clinical evaluation, and management of patients with respiratory disease from dust exposure, as well as the association between silica exposure and an increased risk of pulmonary malignancy.

  18. Firing Patterns of Muscle Vasoconstrictor Neurons in Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the cardiovascular system and respiration are so intimately coupled, disturbances in respiratory control often lead to disturbances in cardiovascular control. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Bronchiectasis (BE) are all associated with a greatly elevated muscle vasoconstrictor drive (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA). Indeed, the increase in MSNA is comparable to that seen in congestive heart failure (CHF), in which the increase i...

  19. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity....

  20. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been crosssectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of t...

  1. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: The Past Present and Future of Mad Cow Disease in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotthauer, Brent G.

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to provide an introductory, yet thorough, discussion of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and its ramifications in the United States, this paper shall: discuss the history of and explain the disease known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; explain Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease; outline the history, responsibility and structure of the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine; provide a comparative analysis of the steps that the United States and other countries ha...

  2. Relation of meteorological elements and air pollutants to respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Makra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the characteristic weather types over the Carpathian Basin for the summer – early autumn period (July 15 – October 15 and the winter months (December, January, and February, with the levels of chemical (CO, NO, NO2, NO2/NO, O3, O3max, SO2, PM10 and biological [Ambrosia (ragweed pollen] air pollutants, and with their effect to the respiratory diseases. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time were prepared for each weather type (cluster in order to detect the relation between, on the one hand, the sea-level pressure patterns and, on the other, the levels of the chemical and biological air pollutants as well as the frequency of the respiratory diseases in Szeged. Objective definition of the characteristic weather types occurred by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. As a result, in the summer – early autumn period the total patient number is proportional to the mean monthly temperature, the maximum and minimum temperatures; however, respiratory diseases occur more frequently, when relative humidity is low. On the other hand, in the winter months there is no relation between the meteorological variables and the patient numbers.

  3. Inhaled protein/peptide-based therapies for respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Robert C; Terryah, Shawn T; Tarran, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) are all chronic pulmonary diseases, albeit with different etiologies, that are characterized by airflow limitation, chronic inflammation, and abnormal mucus production/rheology. Small synthetic molecule-based therapies are commonly prescribed for all three diseases. However, there has been increased interest in "biologicals" to treat these diseases. Biologicals typically constitute protein- or peptide-based therapies and are often more potent than small molecule-based drugs. In this review, we shall describe the pros and cons of several different biological-based therapies for respiratory disease, including dornase alfa, a recombinant DNAase that reduces mucus viscosity and short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1)-derived peptides that treat Na(+) hyperabsorption and rebalance CF airway surface liquid homeostasis. PMID:27098663

  4. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods: Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results: From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion: The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  5. Definition of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux for studies on respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Össur Ingi; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Ólafsson, Ísleifur; Cook, Elizabeth; Júlíusson, Sigurður; Berg, Sören; Nordang, Leif; Björnsson, Einar Stefán; Guðlaugsdóttir, Sunna; Guðmundsdóttir, Anna Soffía; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-05-01

    Objective Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) has been associated with respiratory diseases. Our aim was to study a questionnaire method to identify nGER subjects with respiratory involvement in a general population. Material and methods A subgroup of Icelandic participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) reporting symptoms of nGER (n  =  48) as well as age and gender paired controls (n  =  42) were studied further by a structured interview, questionnaires, laryngeal fibrescopy, and exhaled breath condensate. A subgroup underwent 24-h oesophageal pH impedance (24-h MII-pH) measurements. Symptoms of nGER were assessed with a modified version of the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ), where symptoms were divided into daytime and nocturnal. A report of nGER both at baseline and at follow-up was defined as persistent nGER. Results Participants reporting persistent nGER had significantly more signs of laryngopharyngeal reflux according to the reflux finding score than those without nGER (Mean ± SD: 5.1 ± 2.3 vs. 3.9 ± 2.2, p  =  0.02). Of the 16 persistent nGER subjects that underwent 24-h MII-pH, 11 had abnormal gastroesophageal reflux, but none of three control subjects (69% vs. 0%). Pepsin was more commonly found in exhaled breath condensate in the nGER group (67% vs. 45%, p  =  0.04). Conclusions Participants with nGER symptoms at least once a month, reported on two occasions, had a high level of positive 24-h MII-pH measurements, laryngeal inflammation and pepsin in exhaled breath condensate. This nGER definition identified a representable group for studies on nGER and respiratory diseases in a general population. PMID:26825677

  6. Effects of Air Pollution on Disease Respiratory: Structures Lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little evidence is available on the association between ozone exposure and health in Campo Grande, Brazil. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of surface ozone concentrations (O3 on respiratory morbidity in Campo Grande, Brazil during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. Methods: Daily data on respiratory hospital admissions, O3, mean temperature, and relative humidity were collected at Campo Grande, Brazil. A Poisson time series model was used to examine the effects of O3 on hospital admissions, while controlling for seasonality, long-term trend, temperature and relative humidity. A distributed lag non-linear function was used for O3, temperature, and relative humidity. We examined the effects of O3 on different age groups (0 - 4 years, 5 - 60 years and >60 years. Results: The ozone-respiratory morbidity relationship was non-linear, with a threshold at 13 ppb (less than 25% percentile of ozone distribution. We estimated the relative risk of hospital admission at 75% percentile of O3 distribution compared with associated with 25% of percentile of O3 distribution. The O3 effect on respiratory morbidity was delayed by two days and lasted for 4 days for all age groups except people aged 5 - 60 years. Children and the elderly were much more vulnerable to ozone pollution than people aged 5 - 60 years. Conclusions: This study suggests that ozone pollution has negative impacts on respiratory diseases in Campo Grande, Brazil. Children and the elderly were susceptible to O3 exposure. These findings should be used to develop policies for protecting people from O3 pollution.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  8. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Pardon, Bart; Callens, Benedicte; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001) and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012). These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance. PMID:26820134

  9. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  10. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory chain disease presenting as progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld-Versteegh, A.B.; Braun, K.P.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Dorland, L.; Koning, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    We report two siblings with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect who presented with progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood (Fazio-Londe disease). Mitochondrial respiratory chain defects should be considered in differential diagnosis of this rare clinical entity.

  12. Mitochondrial respiratory chain disease presenting as progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld-Versteegh, ABC; Braun, KPJ; Smeitink, JAM; Dorland, L; de Koning, TJ

    2004-01-01

    We report two siblings with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect who presented with progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood ( Fazio-Londe disease). Mitochondrial respiratory chain defects should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this rare clinical entity.

  13. Pompe Disease: Cyanosed Hypotonic Infant with Normal Respiratory Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, S; Poudel, A; Basnet, R; Subedi, K

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hypotonia or floppy infant is a diagnostic challenge when it presents with other presenting complaints such as fever, cough or diarrhea. Many times the hypotonia goes unnoticed when other symptom covers the hypotonia and child continues to receive the treatment for other symptoms. We report a rare case from Nepal of infantile Pompe disease who presented with the history of fever and cough in the recent earthquake disaster camp at remote part of Sindhupalchowk, Nepal. He was being treated as a case of pneumonia. Pompe disease can be diagnosed clinically by taking detailed history and correlating the clinical findings during the presentation with other symptoms. In our case the normal respiratory rate, reduced Spo2 and presence of crackles dominated the hypotonia and was mistreated as pneumonia. High index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing Pompe disease. PMID:26643838

  14. Toll-Like Receptor 7-Targeted Therapy in Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebold, Katie M; Jacoby, David B; Drake, Matthew G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract characterized by an excessive type-2 T helper cell (Th2) immune response. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded viral RNA receptor expressed in the airway that initiates a Th1 immune response and has garnered interest as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. In animal models, synthetic TLR7 agonists reduce airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway remodeling while decreasing Th2-associated cytokines. Furthermore, activation of TLR7 rapidly relaxes airway smooth muscle via production of nitric oxide. Thus, TLR7 has dual bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Two TLR7 ligands with promising pharmacologic profiles have entered clinical trials for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Moreover, TLR7 agonists are potential antiviral therapies against respiratory viruses. TLR7 agonists enhance influenza vaccine efficacy and also reduce viral titers when given during an active airway infection. In this review, we examine the current data supporting TLR7 as a therapeutic target in allergic airway diseases. PMID:27226793

  15. Complex disease, gender and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Zachary; Wang, Sun-Chong; Petronis, Arturas

    2006-01-01

    Gender differences in susceptibility to complex disease such as asthma, diabetes, lupus, autism and major depression, among numerous other disorders, represent one of the hallmarks of non-Mendelian biology. It has been generally accepted that endocrinological differences are involved in the sexual dimorphism of complex disease; however, specific molecular mechanisms of such hormonal effects have not been elucidated yet. This paper will review evidence that sex hormone action may be mediated via gene-specific epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. The epigenetic modifications can explain sex effects at DNA sequence polymorphisms and haplotypes identified in gender-stratified genetic linkage and association studies. Hormone-induced DNA methylation and histone modification changes at specific gene regulatory regions may increase or reduce the risk of a disease. The epigenetic interpretation of sexual dimorphism fits well into the epigenetic theory of complex disease, which argues for the primary pathogenic role of inherited and/or acquired epigenetic misregulation rather than DNA sequence variation. The new experimental strategies, especially the high throughput microarray-based epigenetic profiling, can be used for testing the epigenetic hypothesis of gender effects in complex diseases. PMID:17438668

  16. Relation of meteorological elements and air pollutants to respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    László Makra; Szintia Tombácz

    2007-01-01

    This paper determines the characteristic weather types over the Carpathian Basin for the summer – early autumn period (July 15 – October 15) and the winter months (December, January, and February), with the levels of chemical (CO, NO, NO2, NO2/NO, O3, O3max, SO2, PM10) and biological [Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen] air pollutants, and with their effect to the respiratory diseases. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) were pr...

  17. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection. PMID:26243537

  18. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  19. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann, Carola; Linde, Susanna; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Reinhold, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inocu...

  20. What have transgenic and knockout animals taught us about respiratory disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spina Domenico

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decade there has been a significant shift to the use of murine models for investigations into the molecular basis of respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These models offer the exciting prospect of dissecting the complex interaction between cytokines, chemokines and growth related peptides in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, the receptors and the intracellular signalling pathways that are subsequently activated are amenable for study because of the availability of monoclonal antibodies and techniques for targeted gene disruption and gene incorporation for individual mediators, receptors and proteins. However, it is clear that extrapolation from these models to the human condition is not straightforward, as reflected by some recent clinical disappointments. This is not necessarily a problem with the use of mice itself, but results from our continued ignorance of the disease process and how to improve the modelling of complex interactions between different inflammatory mediators that underlie clinical pathology. This review highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of murine models of respiratory disease.

  1. Vaccine-induced antibodies linked to bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP recognize cattle major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutskens Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mysterious disease affecting calves, named bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP, emerged in 2007 in several European countries. Epidemiological studies revealed a connection between BNP and vaccination with an inactivated vaccine against bovine virus diarrhea (BVD. Alloantibodies reacting with blood leukocytes of calves were detected in serum and colostrum of dams, which have given birth to calves affected by BNP. To understand the linkage between vaccination and the development of alloantibodies, we determined the antigens reacting with these alloantibodies. Immunoprecipitation of surface proteins from bovine leukocytes and kidney cells using sera from dams with a confirmed case of BNP in their gestation history reacted with two dominant protein species of 44 and 12 kDa. These proteins were not detected by sera from dams, free of BVDV and not vaccinated against BVD, and from sera of animals vaccinated with a different inactivated BVD vaccine. The 44 kDa protein was identified by mass spectrometry analysis as MHC I, the other as β-2-microglobulin. The presence of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I in the vaccine was confirmed by Western blot using a MHC I specific monoclonal antibody. A model of BNP pathogenesis is proposed.

  2. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla P; Rankin, Sara M

    2011-07-01

    Adult bone marrow contains a number of discrete populations of progenitor cells, including endothelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial progenitor cells and fibrocytes. In the context of a range of diseases, endothelial progenitor cells have been reported to promote angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells are potent immunosuppressors but can also contribute directly to tissue regeneration, and fibrocytes have been shown to induce tissue fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the basic biology of these different subsets of progenitor cells, reporting their distinct phenotypes and functional activities. The differences in their secretomes are highlighted, and the relative role of cellular differentiation vs paracrine effects of progenitor cells is considered. The article reviews the literature examining the contribution of progenitor cells to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, and discusses recent studies using bone marrow progenitor cells as stem cell therapies in the context of pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and asthma. PMID:21729891

  3. Toxicological aspects and applications of nanoparticles in paediatric respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dobson [Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Most research in the area of micro- and nano-particles as applied to respiratory disease has been on potential toxic effects. Particulate emissions from industrial processes, coal burning and diesel exhaust have been shown to cause a variety of adverse effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the vast majority of these studies has focused on larger, micron-sized particles. It is only within the last few years that the emphasis has shifted to nanoparticles as nanotechnology research and its applications have increased. Investigations have also begun into how nanoparticles may be used for therapeutic and imaging purposes in pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. Some of these applications, along with recent studies on the toxic effects of nanoparticulate emissions will be reviewed in this article.

  4. Chronic pulmonary disease - a multifacted disease complex in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews chronic pulmonary disease (CPD) as an insidiously developing disease capable of being manifest in many degrees. Horses may suffer mild, sub-clinical degrees of lower respiratory tract inflammation or small airway disease withouth showing symptoms at rest. This form of disease becomes manifest as poor performance when these horses take part in athletic competition. Factors relating to the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of all degrees of small airway disease of horses are discussed. 30 refs

  5. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  6. Azithromycin does not improve disease course in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease : A randomized equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Uijtendaal, Esther; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nearly halt of all hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) are treated with (parenteral) antibiotics. The present study was designed to test our hypothesis that the use of antibiotics would not lead to a reduced duration of hospi

  7. [Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeckenjan, G

    2003-05-01

    Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) designates interstitial lung changes in smokers, characterized histologically by bronchiolocentric accumulation of pigmented alveolar macrophages and fibrotic or cellular inflammatory changes of pulmonary interstitium. The definition is nearly identical to that of condensate pneumopathy, smoker's pneumopathy or smoker's lung, defined by accumulation of pigmented alveolar macrophages with bland alveoloseptal or peribronchial fibrosis and cellular inflammation of the bronchial wall. In addition to respiratory bronchiolitis, which is found in nearly all smokers, RB-ILD comprises a broad spectrum of varying degrees of the interstitial reaction to the exogenous injury of inhalation smoking with gradual transition to desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). In most cases RB-ILD manifestations are subclinical and detected coincidentally. Radiographic features are reticulonodular and ground glass opacities of the lung. The high resolution computed tomography reveals centrilobular nodules, ground glass opacities, thickening of bronchial walls, and in some cases a reticular pattern. Mild emphysema is frequent. Lung function analysis reveals only minor restrictive or obstructive defects in most cases, often combined with hyperinflation. CO diffusing capacity is slightly to moderately impaired. Pronounced interstitial lung diseases with serious restrictive defects and arterial hypoxemia have been reported infrequently. In differential diagnosis smoking related interstitial lung diseases (DIP, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) and other interstitial lung diseases have to be excluded. In most cases diagnosis can be achieved by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. In cases of pronounced interstitial lung disease or assumption of an additional interstitial lung disease besides RB-ILD a thoracoscopic or open lung biopsy can be necessary. RB-ILD has a favourable

  8. Firing patterns of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan G Macefield

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the cardiovascular system and respiration are so intimately coupled, disturbances in respiratory control often lead to disturbances in cardiovascular control. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Bronchiectasis (BE are all associated with a greatly elevated muscle vasoconstrictor drive (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA. Indeed, the increase in MSNA is comparable to that seen in congestive heart failure (CHF, in which the increase in MSNA compensates for the reduced cardiac output and thereby assists in maintaining blood pressure. However, in OSA – but not COPD or BE – the increase in MSNA can lead to hypertension. Here, the features of the sympathoexcitation in OSA, COPD and BE are reviewed in terms of the firing properties of post-ganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor neurones. Compared to healthy subjects with low levels of resting MSNA, single-unit recordings revealed that the augmented MSNA seen in OSA, BE, COPD and CHF were each associated with an increase in firing probability and mean firing rates of individual neurones. However, unlike patients with heart failure, all patients with respiratory disease exhibited an increase in multiple within-burst firing which, it is argued, reflects an increase in central sympathetic drive. Similar patterns to those seen in OSA, COPD and BE were seen in healthy subjects during an acute increase in muscle vasoconstrictor drive. These observations emphasise the differences by which the sympathetic nervous system grades its output in health and disease, with an increase in firing probability of active neurones and recruitment of additional neurones being the dominant mechanisms.

  9. Firing patterns of muscle vasoconstrictor neurons in respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macefield, Vaughan G

    2012-01-01

    Because the cardiovascular system and respiration are so intimately coupled, disturbances in respiratory control often lead to disturbances in cardiovascular control. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Bronchiectasis (BE) are all associated with a greatly elevated muscle vasoconstrictor drive (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA). Indeed, the increase in MSNA is comparable to that seen in congestive heart failure (CHF), in which the increase in MSNA compensates for the reduced cardiac output and thereby assists in maintaining blood pressure. However, in OSA - but not COPD or BE - the increase in MSNA can lead to hypertension. Here, the features of the sympathoexcitation in OSA, COPD, and BE are reviewed in terms of the firing properties of post-ganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor neurons. Compared to healthy subjects with low levels of resting MSNA, single-unit recordings revealed that the augmented MSNA seen in OSA, BE, COPD, and CHF were each associated with an increase in firing probability and mean firing rates of individual neurons. However, unlike patients with heart failure, all patients with respiratory disease exhibited an increase in multiple within-burst firing which, it is argued, reflects an increase in central sympathetic drive. Similar patterns to those seen in OSA, COPD, and BE were seen in healthy subjects during an acute increase in muscle vasoconstrictor drive. These observations emphasize the differences by which the sympathetic nervous system grades its output in health and disease, with an increase in firing probability of active neurons and recruitment of additional neurons being the dominant mechanisms. PMID:22654767

  10. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    , progress has been made In particular, a site in the ventrolateral medulla, the preBötzinger Complex, is hypothesized to contain neuronal circuits generating respiratory rhythm. Lesions or disruption of synaptic transmission within the preBötzinger Complex, either in vivo or in vitro, can abolish...... respiratory activity. Furthermore, the persistence of respiratory rhythm following interference with postsynaptic inhibition and the subsequent discovery of neurons with endogenous bursting properties within the preBötzinger Complex have led to the hypothesis that rhythmogenesis results from synchronized...

  11. Neutrophil extracellular traps cause airway obstruction during respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; de Boer, Onno J; de Jong, Rineke; Antonis, Adriaan Fg; Sabogal Piñeros, Yanaika S; Lutter, René; van Woensel, Job Bm; Bem, Reinout A

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in young children worldwide. Extensive neutrophil accumulation in the lungs and occlusion of small airways by DNA-rich mucus plugs are characteristic features of severe RSV-LRTD. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular networks of DNA covered with antimicrobial proteins, as part of the first-line defence against pathogens. NETs can trap and eliminate microbes; however, abundant NET formation may also contribute to airway occlusion. In this study, we investigated whether NETs are induced by RSV and explored their potential anti-viral effect in vitro. Second, we studied NET formation in vivo during severe RSV-LRTD in infants and bovine RSV-LRTD in calves, by examining bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue sections, respectively. NETs were visualized in lung cytology and tissue samples by DNA and immunostaining, using antibodies against citrullinated histone H3, elastase and myeloperoxidase. RSV was able to induce NET formation by human neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, NETs were able to capture RSV, thereby precluding binding of viral particles to target cells and preventing infection. Evidence for the formation of NETs in the airways and lungs was confirmed in children with severe RSV-LRTD. Detailed histopathological examination of calves with RSV-LRTD showed extensive NET formation in dense plugs occluding the airways, either with or without captured viral antigen. Together, these results suggest that, although NETs trap viral particles, their exaggerated formation during severe RSV-LRTD contributes to airway obstruction. PMID:26468056

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease)

    OpenAIRE

    G.K. Bruckner

    1997-01-01

    Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect o...

  13. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids. PMID:25519785

  14. Pasteurella multocida involved in respiratory disease of wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Köndgen

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes.

  15. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the response to medication. Potential genetic biomarkers contributing to the AERD phenotype include HLA-DPB1, LTC4S, ALOX5, CYSLT, PGE2, TBXA2R, TBX21, MS4A2, IL10, ACE, IL13, KIF3A, SLC22A2, CEP68, PTGER, and CRTH2 and a four-locus SNP set composed of B2ADR, CCR3, CysLTR1, and FCER1B. Future areas of investigation need to focus on comprehensive approaches to identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis.

  16. Respirable antisense oligonucleotides: a new drug class for respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Makoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respirable antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs, which attenuate specific disease-associated mRNAs, represent a new class of respiratory therapeutics with considerable potential. RASONs overcome previous obstacles that have impeded the development of antisense therapeutics targeting diseases in other organ systems. RASONs are delivered directly to the target tissue via inhalation; their uptake seems to be enhanced by cationic properties inherent in pulmonary surfactant, and, because of the markedly different target properties of mRNA and proteins, they can have very long durations of effect compared with traditional drugs targeting the protein of the same gene. RASONs contain chemical modifications that decrease their degradation by cellular nucleases. However, total insensitivity to nucleases is probably not an optimal design criterion for RASONs, because moderate nuclease sensitivity can prevent their systemic delivery, decreasing the potential for systemic toxicity. EPI-2010 is a 21-mer phosphorothioate RASON that attenuates bronchoconstriction, inflammation and surfactant depletion in preclinical models of human asthma, has a duration of effect of seven days, and seems to undergo minimal systemic delivery.

  17. CURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASE PROBLEM AND THE PROBES IN CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hasan. K. Ahmad, N. Fawad, B. Siddique and H Rehman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, high mortality was recorded in broiler flocks in various areas of Pakistan. The samples from six broiler flocks were studied. The blood samples collected were analyzed for antibodies to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV, mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Salmonella organisms (SPG. It was found that the samples had no antibodies against NDV, AIV, MG, MS and SPG but variable levels of antibodies were recorded against IBV and IBDV. Bacteriological examination of the respiratory organs of clinically sick birds yielded Haemophilus and pathogenic E. coli. The absence of any pathogen activity in filtrates of 0.2 and 0.1 µm inoculated through CAM and CAS routes in embryonated eggs ruled out the possibility of the involvement of AIV and NDV. Unfiltered homogenate and 0.45 µm filtrate activity indicated the presence of Mycoplasma in the homogenate. It is concluded that: I. The problem primarily resulted from the interplay of Mycoplasma, IBDV, IBHV and IBV, 2. Quality of the chicks in carrying vertical Mycoplasma infection played basic role in the development of the problem, 3. The associated bacterial pathogens i.e. Infectious Coryza and Colibacillosis played precipitating role in the problem, 4. Extreme environmental temperature played a conducive role in the episode and 5. Predisposing role of mycotoxins in the malady cannot be overlooked.

  18. Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Andrei; Akay, Yasemin; Curran, Aidan K.; Akay, Metin

    2008-06-01

    Since sleep is known to influence respiratory activity we studied whether the sleep state would affect the complexity value of the respiratory network output. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the complexity values of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) activity would be lower during REM compared to NREM. Furthermore, since REM is primarily generated by a homogeneous population of neurons in the medulla, the possibility that REM-related respiratory output would be less complex than that of the awake state was also considered. Additionally, in order to examine the influence of neuron vulnerabilities within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) on the complexity of the respiratory network output, we inhibited respiratory neurons in the RVM by microdialysis of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Diaphragm EMG, nuchal EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) were recorded from five unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets (3-10 days old). Complexity of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) signal during wakefulness, NREM and REM was evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn). ApEn values of the EMGdia during NREM and REM sleep were found significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower than those of awake EMGdia after muscimol inhibition. In the absence of muscimol, only the differences between REM and wakefulness ApEn values were found to be significantly different.

  19. Short communication. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 using serum neutralisation (SN and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73% out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69% out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively. Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23% and Aomori (14.28%. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  20. Serological detection of infection dynamics for respiratory viruses among dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Pelin; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-11-18

    The aim of this study is to reveal infection dynamics of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which are important viral pathogens of respiratory disease complex in ruminants. Through such an analysis, the regression period of maternally derived antibodies and optimum vaccination time in calves can be recommended. A total of 10 farms were grouped as large (4)-, medium (2)- and small (4)- sized enterprises according to their animal population. Newborn calves (n: 94) delivered during a calendar month on the farms were studied. Blood samples were collected from these calves during their 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th months of age. Blood samples were also taken from their dams during the first sampling. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected using the serum neutralization test (SN50). New PI-3 and BVDV infections at the early stages of life were determined in the calves. Maternal antibodies began to decrease in the 2nd month for BRSV, BHV-1 and BAV-3 (97.8%, 25.5% and 91.4%) and in the 3rd month for PI-3, BVDV and BCoV (85.1%, 67% and 93.6%). It was concluded that maternal antibodies begin to decrease after the 1st month and that the possible first exposure of calves to respiratory viruses is after the 2nd month. Therefore, it is recommended that the first vaccination program including prime and booster doses can be applied between 2 and 4 months of age. Furthermore, re-vaccination of animals at 6 months after the booster dose is also suggested. PMID:26380946

  1. THE MEDICO-SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC OF HEALTH STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alekseevich Zhmakin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with recurrent respiratory diseases according to various authors comprise from 20% to 90% of children’s population of the Russian Federation. In such children neurotic reactions can develop easier, they get tired quicker, study worse, all that in turn provokes formation of pedagogical problems and deterioration of psychological climate in a family.The purpose of this research was detection of medico-social features of health status and quality of life in children with recurrent respiratory diseases for scientifically based development of improving and correctional actions. Under our supervision there were 195 children aged from 5 to 12 years with various levels of health.Methods of research included a complex assessment of level of health, functional, laboratory and biochemical techniques, assessment of quality of life with a questionnaire PedsQL™4.0. As a result of the conducted research ball scaling was carried out and groups of high and moderate risk for decline in quality of life of children with recurrent respiratory diseases were allocated. The comprehensive correctional and improving program for children from group of «high risk» for decline in quality of life and level of health was developed. After intervention more than 16% of examined children began to attend sports sections (physical functioning improved, and because of reduction of absence from schools, their role, emotional and social functioning improved (children became more attentive at lessons, progress increased. The received results allow to confirm efficiency of the developed program in comparison with temporary industry standards of rendering medical care to children.

  2. Bovine proteins containing poly-glutamine repeats are often polymorphic and enriched for components of transcriptional regulatory complexes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whan, Vicki

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background About forty human diseases are caused by repeat instability mutations. A distinct subset of these diseases is the result of extreme expansions of polymorphic trinucleotide repeats; typically CAG repeats encoding poly-glutamine (poly-Q) tracts in proteins. Polymorphic repeat length variation is also apparent in human poly-Q encoding genes from normal individuals. As these coding sequence repeats are subject to selection in mammals, it has been suggested that normal variations in some of these typically highly conserved genes are implicated in morphological differences between species and phenotypic variations within species. At present, poly-Q encoding genes in non-human mammalian species are poorly documented, as are their functions and propensities for polymorphic variation. Results The current investigation identified 178 bovine poly-Q encoding genes (Q ≥ 5) and within this group, 26 genes with orthologs in both human and mouse that did not contain poly-Q repeats. The bovine poly-Q encoding genes typically had ubiquitous expression patterns although there was bias towards expression in epithelia, brain and testes. They were also characterised by unusually large sizes. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed that the encoded proteins were strongly enriched for functions associated with transcriptional regulation and many contributed to physical interaction networks in the nucleus where they presumably act cooperatively in transcriptional regulatory complexes. In addition, the coding sequence CAG repeats in some bovine genes impacted mRNA splicing thereby generating unusual transcriptional diversity, which in at least one instance was tissue-specific. The poly-Q encoding genes were prioritised using multiple criteria for their likelihood of being polymorphic and then the highest ranking group was experimentally tested for polymorphic variation within a cattle diversity panel. Extensive and meiotically stable variation was identified

  3. Evaluation of a Nested Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Based on the Nucleoprotein Gene for Diagnosis of Spontaneous and Experimental Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Valarcher, Jean-François; Bourhy, Hervé; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Schelcher, François

    1999-01-01

    The first nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR based on the nucleoprotein gene (n RT-PCR-N) of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been developed and optimized for the detection of BRSV in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells of calves. This test is characterized by a low threshold of detection (0.17 PFU/ml), which is 506 times lower than that obtained by an enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) test (RSV TESTPACK ABBOTT). During an experimental infection of 17 immunocompetent calves ...

  4. Chronic Respiratory Disease: Considerations within the Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Durán Palomino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD is a publichealth problem in Colombia. Its severity increasesby the presence of risk factors like firesmoke, which tend to prevail in young populationand that leads consequences at physical,social and mental level in the long run. The CRDincludes a series of clinical entities with theirown characteristics, caused by the suffering, socialisolation, physiological deterioration andthe associated morbidity. All these contributeto the functional limitation, the lost quality oflife and, ultimately, can turn the individual thatsuffers it in a dependent being without future.All this takes to a greater consumption of healthresources without this means one better attention,since in many opportunities the isolated efforts, the lack of clear rules, sustained proposalsand the non use of clinical guidelines amongother causes, allow that the intervention wouldbe destined to only palliate the present symptoms,but is far from including an integral, effectivehandling and that responds to individualnecessities. This article analyze the public norms and policies that cover patients with CRD, theaspects related to the rights to an integral, safeand real treatment in the affected individualalong with the obstacles for its accomplishment.

  5. The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Poulain, Magali; Doucet, Mariève; Major, Geneviève C.; Drapeau, Vicky; Sériès, Frédéric; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo; Maltais, François

    2006-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyles and increased pollution brought about by industrialization pose major challenges to the prevention of both obesity and chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Obesity has emerged as an important risk factor for these respiratory diseases, and in many instances weight loss is associated with important symptomatic improvement. Moreover, obesity may influence the ...

  6. A Case Study of Respiratory Disease in a Veal Calf Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Palechek, Neil P.; Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Perry, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a central Alberta veal operation, after production capacity had been increased fourfold. Mortality rate reached 24.6% despite agressive antibiotic therapy. A review of the records revealed a cyclical disease pattern in each room. Weekly cleaning of occupied calf rooms was correlated with the disease pattern. Aerosols generated by a high pressure sprayer appeared to trigger transmission of respiratory pathogens in malnourished neonatal calves.

  7. Olfactomedin 4 Serves as a Marker for Disease Severity in Pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, H.K.; Ahout, I.M.; D de Ridder; A van Diepen; Li, Y.; Zaalberg, M.; Andeweg, A.; Roeleveld, N.; de Groot, R.; Warris, A.; Hermans, P W; Ferwerda, G.; Staal, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundRespiratory viral infections follow an unpredictable clinical course in young children ranging from a common cold to respiratory failure. The transition from mild to severe disease occurs rapidly and is difficult to predict. The pathophysiology underlying disease severity has remained elusive. There is an urgent need to better understand the immune response in this disease to come up with biomarkers that may aid clinical decision making.MethodsIn a prospective study, flow cytometric...

  8. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  9. Stimulation of Respiratory Motor Output and Ventilation in a Murine Model of Pompe Disease by Ampakines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMallah, Mai K; Pagliardini, Silvia; Turner, Sara M; Cerreta, Anthony J; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Greer, John J; Fuller, David D

    2015-09-01

    Pompe disease results from a mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene leading to lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory insufficiency is common, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment, enzyme replacement, has limited effectiveness. Ampakines are drugs that enhance α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor responses and can increase respiratory motor drive. Recent work indicates that respiratory motor drive can be blunted in Pompe disease, and thus pharmacologic stimulation of breathing may be beneficial. Using a murine Pompe model with the most severe clinical genotype (the Gaa(-/-) mouse), our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that ampakines can stimulate respiratory motor output and increase ventilation. Our second objective was to confirm that neuropathology was present in Pompe mouse medullary respiratory control neurons. The impact of ampakine CX717 on breathing was determined via phrenic and hypoglossal nerve recordings in anesthetized mice and whole-body plethysmography in unanesthetized mice. The medulla was examined using standard histological methods coupled with immunochemical markers of respiratory control neurons. Ampakine CX717 robustly increased phrenic and hypoglossal inspiratory bursting and reduced respiratory cycle variability in anesthetized Pompe mice, and it increased inspiratory tidal volume in unanesthetized Pompe mice. CX717 did not significantly alter these variables in wild-type mice. Medullary respiratory neurons showed extensive histopathology in Pompe mice. Ampakines stimulate respiratory neuromotor output and ventilation in Pompe mice, and therefore they have potential as an adjunctive therapy in Pompe disease. PMID:25569118

  10. Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplex Association Limits Production of Reactive Oxygen Species from Complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Maranzana, Evelina; Barbero, Giovanna; Falasca, Anna Ida; Lenaz, Giorgio; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The mitochondrial respiratory chain is recognized today to be arranged in supramolecular assemblies (supercomplexes). Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the respiratory chain. In the present study, we have directly addressed this issue by testing the ROS generatio...

  11. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  12. Social position and mortality from respiratory diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N; Vestbo, J;

    2003-01-01

    Although social differences in respiratory diseases are considerable, few studies have focused on this disease entity using mortality as an outcome. Does mortality from respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) differ with social position measured by education...... from respiratory disease and COPD was assessed with an average duration of follow-up of 12 yrs. Education was strongly associated with respiratory mortality in both sexes. The association was stronger in later birth cohorts comparing the highest level of education (>11 yrs) with the lowest (...). Although smoking rates were inversely associated with the level of education, the social gradient was not affected by adjustment for smoking. In males, but not in females, there was an additional effect of other indicators of social position, i.e. employment grade (white collar versus blue collar...

  13. How to adapt the pulmonary rehabilitation programme to patients with chronic respiratory disease other than COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Anne E.; Karin Wadell; Spruit, Martijn A

    2013-01-01

    Dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, peripheral muscle dysfunction and mood disorders are common features of many chronic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation successfully treats these manifestations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emerging evidence suggests that these benefits could be extended to other chronic respiratory conditions, although adaptations to the standard programme format may be required. Whilst the benefits of exercise training are we...

  14. Viral Load Drives Disease in Humans Experimentally Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    DeVincenzo, John P.; Wilkinson, Tom; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Cehelsky, Jeff; Meyers, Rachel; Nochur, Saraswathy; Harrison, Lisa; Meeking, Patricia; Mann, Alex; Moane, Elizabeth; Oxford, John; Pareek, Rajat; Moore, Ryves; Walsh, Ed; Studholme, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood lower respiratory infection, yet viable therapies are lacking. Two major challenges have stalled antiviral development: ethical difficulties in performing pediatric proof-of-concept studies and the prevailing concept that the disease is immune-mediated rather than being driven by viral load.

  15. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunohistochemichal detection in mouse and bovine tissues using a Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus Vírus respiratório sincicial bovino: detecção por imunoistoquímica em tecidos de camundongos e bovinos usando AcM contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoistochemical (IHC test was developed to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in cell cultures and tissues of experimentally infected mice and calves, using a commercial monoclonal antibody (Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, as a less expensive alternative, instead of producing specific monoclonal antibodies to BRSV. Clinical samples from calves suffering respiratory disease were also submitted to this test. IHC detected BRSV antigens in mouse tracheas (3, 5 and 7 days post-infection and lungs (5 and 7 days post-infection, and in one of three lungs from experimentally infected calves. Lungs samples from two naturally infected calves were tested and resulted positive for BRSV by the IHC test. These results suggest that this test may be used in the future for diagnosis as well as a useful tool to assess the distribution of BRSV infections in Brazilian herds.Desenvolveu-se um teste de imunohistoquímica (IHQ para detecção do vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV multiplicado em cultivo celular e em tecidos de camundongos e bezerros infectados experimentalmente, utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal comercial contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV, como uma alternativa para eliminar os custos de produção de anticorpos monoclonais específicos para o BRSV. Amostras clínicas de bezerros com sintomatologia respiratória foram analisadas. A técnica mostrou-se eficiente na detecção de antígenos do BRSV em traquéias (3, 5 e 7 dias pós-infecção e pulmões (5 e 7 dias pós-infecção dos camundongos infectados e em uma das três amostras de pulmões dos bezerros infectados experimentalmente. Amostras de pulmões de dois animais com infecção natural foram positivas para BRSV. Conclui-se que o teste de IHQ pode ser usado no diagnóstico das infecções por BRSV e na avaliação da distribuição dessas infecções nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.

  17. Death from respiratory diseases and temperature in Shiraz, Iran (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Manizhe; Khanjani, Narges; Bahrampour, Abbas; Haghighi, Pegah Shoae

    2016-07-01

    Some studies have suggested that the number of deaths increases as temperatures drops or rises above human thermal comfort zone. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relation between respiratory-related mortality and temperature in Shiraz, Iran. In this ecological study, data about the number of respiratory-related deaths sorted according to age and gender as well as average, minimum, and maximum ambient air temperatures during 2007-2011 were examined. The relationship between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths was calculated by crude and adjusted negative binomial regression analysis. It was adjusted for humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, and air pollutants including CO, NOx, PM10, SO2, O3, and THC. Spearman and Pearson correlations were also calculated between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths. The analysis was done using MINITAB16 and STATA 11. During this period, 2598 respiratory-related deaths occurred in Shiraz. The minimum number of respiratory-related deaths among all subjects happened in an average temperature of 25 °C. There was a significant inverse relationship between average temperature- and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects and women. There was also a significant inverse relationship between average temperature and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects, men and women in the next month. The results suggest that cold temperatures can increase the number of respiratory-related deaths and therefore policies to reduce mortality in cold weather, especially in patients with respiratory diseases should be implemented.

  18. STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN URBAN POPULATION OF BHOPAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPIYA BIGONIYA*, ALOK SHUKLA, HUMA IRAM ,FARAH IRAM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic respiratory disease occurrence in urban population is creating burden on economic growth and challenges to public health management. This descriptive, prevalence study was designed to gather data on risk factor related association of respiratory diseases occurrence with information on sign, symptoms and treatment modalities. Questionnaire based personal interview was conducted on selected patients with well documented respiratory problem on demographic, biosocial, educational, occupational and economic background. Body weight, height, blood pressure, details of treatment modalities, sign and symptoms were recorded from hospital data. The prevalence rates were presented as percentage and 95% confidence interval estimated and analyzed by person’s chi-square test. Age, number of children more than three (p<0.0001, family members more than three (p<0.01, overcrowding (p<0.0001, low socioeconomic class (p<0.0001, unhygienic surrounding (p<0.001, education below secondary level (p<0.01, low to normal BMI (p<0.002 and chronic smoking habit (p<0.001 showed significant risk factor related association with occurrence of respiratory disease. Most frequently found sign and symptom are apnea, tiredness, nausea, coughing and nose tickling. Marital status, source of drinking water, cooking fuel, occupation, employment status, income, respiratory rate, sleep pattern and regular use of other medication does not show any co-relation with respiratory disease occurrence. The significant risk factor for respiratory disease occurrence is aging, unhygienic environment, low level education, overcrowding and smoking.

  19. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm as well as values for the inspiration (Zi and expiration cycles (Ze at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi and expiration (Zbe, respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p90%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2 this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3 the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease (BVD/MD) in Lesser Mousedeer

    OpenAIRE

    Semrau, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Infections of cattle with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from subclinical infections to fatal disease. Infection of susceptible pregnant cattle can result in early embryonic death, abortion, congenital defects or birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf. An initially normal clinical appearance associated with lifelong shedding of large amounts of virus particles is the hallmark of PI animals. When superinfected with a cytopathoge...

  1. Production of new amilorides as potent inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Masatoshi; Habu, Sayako; Murakami, Sonomi; Ito, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Amilorides, well-known inhibitors of Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, have also shown to inhibit bacterial and mitochondrial NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Since the membrane subunits ND2, ND4, and ND5 of bovine mitochondrial complex I are homologous to Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, amilorides have been thought to bind to any or all of the antiporter-like subunits; however, there is no direct experimental evidence in support of this notion. Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique to identify the binding site of amilorides in bovine complex I. Commercially available amilorides such as 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride are not suitable as design templates to synthesize photoreactive amilorides because of their low binding affinities to bovine complex I. Thereby, we attempted to modify the structures of commercially available amilorides in order to obtain more potent derivatives. We successfully produced two photoreactive amilorides (PRA1 and PRA2) with a photolabile azido group at opposite ends of the molecule. PMID:25731956

  2. Absence of Respiratory Burst in X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease Mice Leads to Abnormalities in Both Host Defense and Inflammatory Response to Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, David E.; Gifford, Mary A.C.; Li, Ling Lin; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Dinauer, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Mice with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) generated by targeted disruption of the gp91 phox subunit of the NADPH–oxidase complex (X-CGD mice) were examined for their response to respiratory challenge with Aspergillus fumigatus. This opportunistic fungal pathogen causes infection in CGD patients due to the deficient generation of neutrophil respiratory burst oxidants important for damaging A. fumigatus hyphae. Alveolar macrophages from X-CGD mice were found to kill A. fumigatus co...

  3. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, P; Carrozzi, L; Fagerström, K O; Gratziou, C; Jimenez-Ruiz, C; Nardini, S; Viegi, G; Lazzaro, C; Campell, I A; Dagli, E; West, R

    2007-02-01

    Smoking cessation is the one of the most important ways to improve the prognosis of patients with respiratory disease. The Task Force on guidelines for smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases was convened to provide evidence-based recommendations on smoking cessation interventions in respiratory patients. Based on the currently available evidence and the consensus of an expert panel, the following key recommendations were made. 1) Patients with respiratory disease have a greater and more urgent need to stop smoking than the average smoker, so respiratory physicians must take a proactive and continuing role with all smokers in motivating them to stop and in providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. 2) Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into the management of the patient's respiratory condition. 3) Therapies should include pharmacological treatment (i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline) combined with behavioural support. 4) Respiratory physicians should receive training to ensure that they have the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to deliver these interventions or to refer to an appropriate specialist. 5) Although the cost of implementing these recommendations will partly be offset by a reduction in attendance for exacerbations, etc., a budget should be established to enable implementation. Research is needed to establish optimum treatment strategies specifically for respiratory patients. PMID:17264326

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 in the pro-mature complex form enhances bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Sudiman

    Full Text Available Developmental competence of in vitro matured (IVM oocytes needs to be improved and this can potentially be achieved by adding recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 or growth differentiation factor (GDF9 to IVM. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a purified pro-mature complex form of recombinant human BMP15 versus the commercially available bioactive forms of BMP15 and GDF9 (both isolated mature regions during IVM on bovine embryo development and metabolic activity. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were matured in vitro in control medium or treated with 100 ng/ml pro-mature BMP15, mature BMP15 or mature GDF9 +/- FSH. Metabolic measures of glucose uptake and lactate production from COCs and autofluorescence of NAD(PH, FAD and GSH were measured in oocytes after IVM. Following in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture, day 8 blastocysts were stained for cell numbers. COCs matured in medium +/- FSH containing pro-mature BMP15 displayed significantly improved blastocyst development (57.7±3.9%, 43.5±4.2% compared to controls (43.3±2.4%, 28.9±3.7% and to mature GDF9+FSH (36.1±3.0%. The mature form of BMP15 produced intermediate levels of blastocyst development; not significantly different to control or pro-mature BMP15 levels. Pro-mature BMP15 increased intra-oocyte NAD(PH, and reduced glutathione (GSH levels were increased by both forms of BMP15 in the absence of FSH. Exogenous BMP15 in its pro-mature form during IVM provides a functional source of oocyte-secreted factors to improve bovine blastocyst development. This form of BMP15 may prove useful for improving cattle and human artificial reproductive technologies.

  5. IL-17A in Human Respiratory Diseases: Innate or Adaptive Immunity? Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. A. Bullens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of IL-17 in 1995 as a T-cell cytokine, inducing IL-6 and IL-8 production by fibroblasts, and the report of a separate T-cell lineage producing IL-17(A, called Th17 cells, in 2005, the role of IL-17 has been studied in several inflammatory diseases. By inducing IL-8 production and subsequent neutrophil attraction towards the site of inflammation, IL-17A can link adaptive and innate immune responses. More specifically, its role in respiratory diseases has intensively been investigated. We here review its role in human respiratory diseases and try to unravel the question whether IL-17A only provides a link between the adaptive and innate respiratory immunity or whether this cytokine might also be locally produced by innate immune cells. We furthermore briefly discuss the possibility to reduce local IL-17A production as a treatment option for respiratory diseases.

  6. Stepwise health surveillance for bronchial irritability syndrome in workers at risk of occupational respiratory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.K. Post (Wendel); K.M. Venables (Katherine); D. Ross (David); P. Cullinan (Paul); D. Heederik (Dick); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Questionnaires, lung function tests, and peak flow measurements are widely used in occupational health care to screen for subjects with respiratory disease. However, the diagnostic performance of these tests is often poor. Application of these te

  7. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Barreto Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD, with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respiratory function in order to introduce physical therapy measures relevant to each stage of the disease. The monitoring should include pulmonary function tests and specific techniques of chest physiotherapy, in order to avoid complications such as respiratory failure. Conclusion: The introduction of regular monitoring and preventive physiotherapy measures have helped to increase survival and improve quality of life of patients with neuromuscular diseases.

  8. Bacterial respiratory pathogens in children with inherited immune and airway disorders: nasopharyngeal carriage and disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Luesink, M.; Warris, A.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary immunodeficiencies, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are at risk to develop invasive bacterial infections caused by respiratory tract pathogens, in particular Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. This review article evaluates the ro

  9. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society technical standard: field walking tests in chronic respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Anne E; Spruit, Martijn A; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A; Pepin, Veronique; Saey, Didier; McCormack, Meredith C.; Carlin, Brian W.; Sciurba, Frank C; Pitta, Fabio; Wanger, Jack; MacIntyre, Neil; Kaminsky, David A.; Culver, Bruce H.; Revill, Sue M.

    2014-01-01

    Field walking tests are commonly employed to evaluate exercise capacity, assess prognosis and evaluate treatment response in chronic respiratory diseases. In recent years, there has been a wealth of new literature pertinent to the conduct of the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and a growing evidence base describing the incremental and endurance shuttle walk tests (ISWT and ESWT, respectively). The aim of this document is to describe the standard operating procedures for the 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT, which...

  10. Biological mechanisms in respiratory and limb muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory conditions : influence of disease severity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Vilanova, Ester, 1987-

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction and wasting are major comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer (LC). Despite that the lower limb muscles are usually more severely affected, the respiratory muscles may also experience structural and functional abnormalities in COPD. Muscle dysfunction negatively impacts on the patients’ quality of life by impairing their exercise tolerance even of daily life activities. Several molecular mechanisms are involved in the etiology ...

  11. Identification of Unprecedented Anticancer Properties of High Molecular Weight Biomacromolecular Complex Containing Bovine Lactoferrin (HMW-bLf)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Fawzi; Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rupinder K Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here ...

  12. Mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A

    1981-12-01

    Related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. The interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus spp in pigs; Pasteurella spp in cattle, sheep, pigs; Mycoplasma spp in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry; equine herpesvirus 1 in horses; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle; parainfluenza 3 in cattle and sheep; infectious laryngo-tracheitis and infectious bronchitis in poultry; feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus in cats; Aujeszky's disease virus and swine influenza in pigs; and equine influenza in horses. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the lower respiratory tract include Aspergillus fumigatus in poultry and mammals, respiratory syncytial virus in cattle, distemper virus in dogs and adenovirus in cattle and dogs. A fuller understanding of the interactions between an agent and the host at the point of entry would make it much easier to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents. PMID:16030806

  13. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  14. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Barreto Paula; Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury Lasmar; Maria Teresa Mohallem Fonseca; Marina Belisário Carvalhais; Maria da Glória Rodrigues Machado

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD), with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respirato...

  15. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; YU, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and ...

  16. Measuring Health Literacy Regarding Infectious Respiratory Diseases: A New Skills-Based Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xinying; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yuhui; Zeng, Qingqi; Wei, Nanfang; Xie, Ruiqian; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. Methods This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual’s reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials w...

  17. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva; Alvaro Camilo Dias Faria; Agnaldo José Lopes; Pedro Lopes de Melo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy indi...

  18. Review on prion diseases in animals with emphasis to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender P. Gupta

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE. These are degenerative brain disorders characterized by tiny microscopic holes that give the brain 'spongy' appearance. The causative agent is proteinaceous infective particle called prion. Prion diseases affect a variety of mammals including humans. The disease is transmitted by contaminated food or feed containing prion protein. In animals the diseases caused by prions are Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD, Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE and exotic Engulate Encephalopathy (EUE. Currently the only reliable test is histo-pathological examination of tissues. Control measures are surveillance, culling sick animals and banning specified risk materials. In India no case of BSE has been reported so far but the disease warrants constant monitoring and surveillance if once introduced or imported would be a herculean task to eradicate it. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 443-448

  19. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot and mouth disease-infected cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...

  20. Modern features of infants’ feeding and its impact on respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka K.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of infants’ feeding connected with the incidence of respiratory diseases. Rationality and duration of breast feeding does not cause doubts. But unfortunately today, only 60-80% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Naturally, this causes impact on disease incidence of such children. Formation of bronchopulmonary pathology is of particular interest. The basis of modern research is the concept of programmed impact of nutrition in early childhood on health in lateryears. We have determined the dependence of respiratory diseases incidence in children of early age on duration of exclusively breast feeding. Not only frequent respiratory diseases, but formation of bronchitis, pneumonia or other complications of their course is of importance. The study included questioning of mothers and children under 7 years of age, clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations in the hospital in case of respiratory disease. All studies were conducted in accordance with the characteristics of diet quality of the child in the first year of life with the following biostatistical processing. 601 children aged from 3 months to 7 years were examined. It was found that the duration of breast feeding in the region is 89% only to the age of 6-months, and up to 1 year the percentage of breastfed children reduces to 38%. This affected the resistance of children to respiratory infections, especially in the first year of life. Children exclusively breastfed up to 1 year suffer from respiratory diseases 1-2 times per year. In children over one year of age breast feeding does not affect the frequency of respiratory pathology. Increase of respiratory diseases frequency in children aged 3-5 years is due to attending preschool institutions and increasing contacts between children, which significantly reduces their resistance.

  1. A preliminary neutron crystallography on the trypsin-bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypsin is one of serine proteases. BPTI (Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor) is a protein inhibitor, which binds trypsin tightly and inhibits cleavage of peptide bonds. X-ray structure determination of trypsin-BPTI complex could make clear the overview of the active site. However, information of hydrogen atoms related to catalytic mechanism has not been satisfied. In this study, the trypsin-BPTI complex structure has been determined by neutron diffraction data at 2.0 A resolution. Deuterium atoms of catalytic triad, hydration structures in the binding pocket of trypsin and hydrogen bonds were observed. We would like to discuss details of hydrogen bonds in the interface between trypsin and BPTI and the adjacent water molecules including hydrogen atoms involved in the enzymatic reaction.

  2. A preliminary neutron crystallography on the trypsin-bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K; Yamada, T; Kurihara, K; Tamada, T; Kuroki, R; Tanaka, I; Takahashi, H; Niimura, N, E-mail: niimura@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp

    2010-11-01

    Trypsin is one of serine proteases. BPTI (Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor) is a protein inhibitor, which binds trypsin tightly and inhibits cleavage of peptide bonds. X-ray structure determination of trypsin-BPTI complex could make clear the overview of the active site. However, information of hydrogen atoms related to catalytic mechanism has not been satisfied. In this study, the trypsin-BPTI complex structure has been determined by neutron diffraction data at 2.0 A resolution. Deuterium atoms of catalytic triad, hydration structures in the binding pocket of trypsin and hydrogen bonds were observed. We would like to discuss details of hydrogen bonds in the interface between trypsin and BPTI and the adjacent water molecules including hydrogen atoms involved in the enzymatic reaction.

  3. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gourgoulianis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function.Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group.Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed.Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (pConclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  4. Internal switches modulating electron tunneling currents in respiratory complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    In different X-ray crystal structures of bc1 complex, some of the key residues of electron tunneling pathways are observed in different conformations; here we examine their relative importance in modulating electron transfer and propose their possible gating function in the Q-cycle. The study includes inter-monomeric electron transfer; here we provide atomistic details of the reaction, and discuss the possible roles of inter-monomeric electronic communication in bc1 complex. Binding of natural ligands or inhibitors leads to local conformational changes which propagate through protein and control the conformation of key residues involved in the electron tunneling pathways. Aromatic-aromatic interactions are highly utilized in the communication network since the key residues are aromatic in nature. The calculations show that there is a substantial change of the electron transfer rates between different redox pairs depending on the different conformations acquired by the key residues of the complex. PMID:26874053

  5. Gaining mass: the structure of respiratory complex I-from bacterial towards mitochondrial versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2015-08-01

    The 1MDa, 45-subunit proton-pumping NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The molecular mechanism of complex I is central to the metabolism of cells, but has yet to be fully characterized. The last two years have seen steady progress towards this goal with the first atomic-resolution structure of the entire bacterial complex I, a 5Å cryo-electron microscopy map of bovine mitochondrial complex I and a ∼3.8Å resolution X-ray crystallographic study of mitochondrial complex I from yeast Yarrowia lipotytica. In this review we will discuss what we have learned from these studies and what remains to be elucidated. PMID:26387075

  6. Powerhouse down: Complex II dissociation in the respiratory chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hwang, M.-S.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří; Grimm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, Part A SI (2014), 20-28. ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Mitochondria * Apoptosis * Complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2014

  7. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  8. Two cases of bovine hypertrophic osteopathy (Marie-Bamberger's disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cattle were presented with persistent lameness and Marie-Bamberger's disease was suspected because of the generalised deformity of the distal limbs. The diagnosis was confirmed after further tests (radiography, post-mortem and anatomopathological examinations). The first case was probably caused by a pulmonary infection. The cause of the second case could not be fully determined. The bony lesions characteristic of this condition result from stimulation of the osteogenic layer of the periosteum, and results from neoplasic lesions, pulmonary abscesses, bronchopneumonia, etc

  9. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  10. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Abdul Adjid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial insemination (AI centers as the first priority, then village breeding centers as the second priority, and the last priority is in cattle owned by smallholders. In the breeding and AI centers, eradication of the disease is carried out by surveilance, excluding reactors, and applying biosecurity. In the village breeding centers, the use of semen for AI should come from centers that free from IBR, the use of bull that free from IBR, surveilance and application of biosecurity. At the farmer levels, IBR control is bone by using semen from AI centers free from IBR and routine vaccination. The final step is performed after evaluating the successful rate and economic impact of the disease control.

  11. Activation of respiratory complex II by interferongamma and its inhibition by pyrimidine derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Jansa, Petr; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, Supplement 2 (2014), s. 141-148. ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0172 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : respiratory complex II * WST-1 assay * LDH assay Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 0.799, year: 2014

  12. Grb10 characterization in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes from different follicle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Antunes da Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression and protein localization of Grb10 gene in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs from different follicle sizes. Firstly, it was investigated the mRNA expression to correlate with maturation rates. COCs from follicles at 1-3, 4-6, 6-8 and >8mm were used to evaluate Grb10 gene expression by qRT-PCR assay and nuclear maturation rates. It was observed that more competent oocytes (from follicles at 6-8 and >8mm; P>0.05, had lower Grb10 mRNA expression levels when compared to the oocytes from follicles at 1-3 and 4-6mm (P>0.05. After it was performed an immunofluorescence analysis in COCs from different follicle sizes (1-3, 4-6, 6-8 and >8mm to investigate Grb10 protein localization. Samples were incubated with primary antibody: Polyclonal rabbit anti-Grb10 (1:100. Primary antibody was detected using goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 (1:500. Positive fluorescence signal was detected in all analyzed samples but less evident in COCs from largest follicles. These results characterized Grb10 gene in bovine COC and provide evidences for its involvement during oocyte molecular maturation.

  13. Mitochondrial respiratory supercomplex association limits production of reactive oxygen species from Complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Maranzana, Evelina Susana Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated in the last ten years has demonstrated that a large proportion of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in a variety of organisms is arranged in supramolecular assemblies called supercomplexes or respirasomes. Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) f...

  14. High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  15. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates intestinal mitochondrial injury by increasing antioxidant effects and activity of respiratory complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Ruan, Zheng; Mi, Shumei; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiaolan; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased. The beneficial effects of CGA were accompanied by an increase in antioxidant and respiratory-chain complex I, IV, and V activities. In trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats indicated that CGA supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury. Our results suggest a promising role for CGA as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in combating intestinal oxidative injury. Daily intake of diets containing CGA, such as coffee and honeysuckle, may be useful for prevention of intestinal diseases. PMID:26824685

  16. A molecular link between mitochondrial preprotein transporters and respiratory chain complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Murcha, Monika W.; Wang, Yan; Whelan, James

    2012-01-01

    The TIM17:23 complex on the mitochondrial inner membrane is responsible for import of the majority of mitochondrial proteins in plants. In Arabidopsis, Tim17 and Tim23 belong to a large gene family consisting of 16 members termed the Preprotein and Amino acid transporters (PRAT). Recently, two members of this protein family, Tim23-2 and the Complex I subunit B14.7, have been shown to assemble into both Complex I of the respiratory chain and the TIM17:23 complex (Wang et al., 2012), adding to ...

  17. Respiratory diseases and the impact of cough in Taiwan: Results from the APBORD observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Cahill, Camilla L; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-07-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan.Consecutive participants aged ≥ 18 years presenting to a physician with symptoms meeting the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed surveys detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Costs including direct medical costs and indirect costs associated with lost work productivity were calculated.The study enrolled 1001 patients. AR was the most frequent primary diagnosis (31.2%). A quarter of patients presented with a combination of respiratory diseases, with AR and asthma being the most frequent combination (14.1%). Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit for patients with asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the primary reasons for AR and rhinosinusitis. Specialists were the most frequently used healthcare resource by patients with AR (26.1%), asthma (26.4%), COPD (26.6%), and rhinosinusitis (47.3%). The mean annual cost per patient with a respiratory disease was US$4511 (SD 5395). The cost was almost double for employed patients (US$8047, SD 6175), with the majority attributable to lost productivity.Respiratory diseases have a significant impact on disease burden in Taiwan. Treatment strategies that prevent lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of these diseases. PMID

  18. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    's Longitudinal Normal Limit [LNL], or a limit of 90 milliliters per year [ml/yr]). These risks were estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, height-adjusted baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)/height(2)), and height. RESULTS: For COPD morbidity......BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976...

  19. Experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome in cats immunised with cationised bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Mohammed, N A; Wright, N G

    1990-11-01

    Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). All four cats developed diffuse granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary walls as early as five weeks which persisted until the end of the experiment at 17 weeks. Ultrastructural studies revealed many subepithelial electron dense deposits. Two cats developed severe proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome characterised by hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. An additional four cats received repeated injections of unmodified native BSA (pI 4.5) and remained basically normal. This is the first report of membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome in an experimental animal model which, unlike other animal models, is subject to the spontaneously occurring disease. PMID:2148430

  20. The role of hyaluronan in the pathobiology and treatment of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Brezina, Martin; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Hyaluronan, a ubiquitous naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of the extracellular matrix, where it participates in biological processes that include water homeostasis, cell-matrix signaling, tissue healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and migration. There are emerging data that hyaluronan and its degradation products have an important role in the pathobiology of the respiratory tract. We review the role of hyaluronan in respiratory diseases and present evidence from published literature and from clinical practice supporting hyaluronan as a novel treatment for respiratory diseases. Preliminary data show that aerosolized exogenous hyaluronan has beneficial activity against airway inflammation, protects against bronchial hyperreactivity and remodeling, and disrupts the biofilm associated with chronic infection. This suggests a role in airway diseases with a predominant inflammatory component such as rhinosinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The potential for hyaluronan to complement conventional therapy will become clearer when data are available from controlled trials in larger patient populations. PMID:26747781

  1. Air pollution and daily hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in London, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. Y.; LUGINAAH, I.; GOREY, K. M.; Webster, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiovascular and respiratory disease hospitalization in London, Ontario from 1 November 1995 to 31 December 2000. The number of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions was linked to concentrations of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, coefficient of haze, PM10) and weather variables (maximum and minimum of temperature and humidity). Results showed that current day car...

  2. Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination and Swallowing Safety in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle S Troche; Huebner, Irene; Rosenbek, John C.; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrate abnormal respiratory events when swallowing thin liquids. In addition, this study sought to define associations between respiratory events, swallowing apnea duration, and penetration–aspiration (P–A) scale scores. Thirty-nine individuals with PD were administered ten trials of a 5-ml thin liquid bolus. P–A scale score quantified the presence of penetration and aspiration during the swallowing o...

  3. Association between air pollution and general practitioner visits for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, T W; Tam, W.; Yu, I Tak Sun; Wun, Y T; Wong, A H S; Wong, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the relation between air pollution and general practitioner (GP) consultations in Asia. Clinic attendance data from a network of GPs were studied, and the relationship between daily GP consultations for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and non-URTI respiratory diseases and daily air pollutant concentrations measured in their respective districts was examined. Methods: A time series study was performed in 2000-2002 using data on daily patient cons...

  4. Respiratory Muscle Force and Lung Volume Changes in a Population of Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Bruce A.; Caboot, Jason; Jawad, Abbas; McDonough, Joseph; Jackson, Tannoa; Arens, Raanan; Marcus, Carole L.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Mason, Thornton B. A.; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Allen, Julian L.

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder known to impact the respiratory system. We sought to identify respiratory muscle force and lung volume relationships in a paediatric SCD population. Thirty-four SCD-SS subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. Height, weight, age, and gender-adjusted percent predicted maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) values were compared to spirometry and lung volumes. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson’s corre...

  5. Crowding: risk factor or protective factor for lower respiratory disease in young children?

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, MRA; Cousens, SN; Siqueira, LFD; Alves, FM; D'Angelo, LAV

    2004-01-01

    Background: To study the effects of household crowding upon the respiratory health of young children living in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Case-control study with children aged from 2 to 59 months living within the boundaries of the city of Sao Paulo. Cases were children recruited from 5 public hospitals in central Sao Paulo with an acute episode of lower respiratory disease. Children were classified into the following diagnostic categories: acute bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, ...

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Juan; Gomez Ana M; Khokhar Shama; Bhoj Vijay G; Tagliabue Claudia; Chang Michael L; Kiener Peter A; Revell Paula A; Ramilo Octavio; Mejias Asuncion

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were...

  7. [The curative action of Monticelli Term's water in upper respiratory tract diseases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, R; Jemmi, G; Barani, B

    1976-01-01

    The Authors study the action of the sodio bromide-iodic water of Monticelli Terme in upper respiratory tract disease and particularly assert that is not to neglect the organic ground on which establishes mucosa's disease. Therman treatment gives the best therapeutic results in every patient presenting chronic inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory trach alternating periods of quiescency and of activity, and poor therapeutic action in patients presenting chronic inveterate diseases with great alterations in vascular and glandular components of the mucosa. PMID:1021139

  8. Pulmonary surfactant proteins B and C : molecular organisation and involvement in respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zaltash, Shahparak

    2000-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins with the main function to reduce the surface tension at the alveolar air/liquid interface. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are hydrophobic but unrelated in structure, and probably have unique functional roles in the formation of the surface-active monolayer. SP-B deficiency causes lethal respiratory failure, but SP-C null mice show no respiratory dysfunction. This thesis is focused on the molecular ...

  9. Hyaline membrane disease or respiratory distress syndrome? A new approach for an old disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Grappone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “hyaline membrane disease” refers to the histological aspect of the most frequent pulmonary pathology in preterm newborn patients. The lung of the preterm baby is morphologically and functionally immature. Surfactant deficiency in the immature lungs causes alveolar instability and collapse, capillary edema and the formation of hyaline membrane. Thus, the hyaline membranes are epiphenomena and are not the cause of respiratory failure in infants with immature lungs. This definition is presently used to indicate surfactant deficit alone and should not be used for other causes of respiratory distress. Clinicians prefer to talk of “respiratory distress syndrome” (RDS. Improvement in neonatal treatment has changed the natural course of the illness, its clinical and radiological features and has enabled extremely low birth weight newborns (ELBW to survive. Alveoli paucity and pulmonary interstitial thickness in ELBW impair gas exchange and may necessitate prolonged ventilation treatment, increasing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. RDS, therefore, is a complex illness where pulmonary immaturity and surfactant deficit play a role together with other pathological conditions that determine the course of the illness and both short and long-term results. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  10. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  11. Efficacy of laser therapy in infants with infectious-inflammatory respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    TASHMUKHAMEDOVA BARNO ERKINOVNA; MUKHAMEDOVA HADICHA TULKUNOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The developed schemes and regimes for assigning the low-intensity laser therapy percutaneous approaches to optimize the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract in infants, reduce the incidence of complications and loss of physiological diseases, speed up recovery periods.

  12. Canadian Practice Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Specialist Physician Perception Versus Patient Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory condition and the fourth leading cause of death in Canada. Optimal COPD management requires patients to participate in their care and physician knowledge of patients’ perceptions of their disease.

  13. Clinical study of respiratory function in patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na JIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ(GSDⅡ, Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease exhibiting progressive proximal skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle involvement, caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Most of patients died of respiratory failure.  Methods Eleven patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ underwent respiratory function evaluation, whose diagnosis was confirmed by muscle pathology, GAA activity assay and gene analysis. Respiratory function evaluation included upright and supine position of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and cough peak flow (CPF. All data were compared with predicted value. The decreased value between upright and supine position FVC ( △ FVC were calculated. The correlation between respiratory function and the age of onset, disease course, motor function, GAA activity were analyzed.  Results All of 11 patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ showed declined respiratory function compared with predicted value. The upright FVC, upright FEV1, △ FVC, MIP, MEP and CPF declined in 10, 10, 8, 11, 10, and 10 patients, respectively. All patients had normal FEV1/FVC in both upright and supine position. There was no correlation between upright FVC, △ FVC and the onset age, disease course, motor function, GAA activity statistically.  Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction is common in late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ, with restrictive ventilatory impairment more predominant, which is caused by inspiratory muscle weakness. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.007

  14. Sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiéjan, J M; Cosnes, J; Chollet-Martin, S; Soler, P; Basset, F M; Le Quintrec, Y; Hance, A J

    1986-01-01

    To re-evaluate the relationship between Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, we compared the numbers and types of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from normal volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease, with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, and with sarcoidosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, but not patients with other inflammatory bowel disorders, had an increase in the number of T lymphocytes on the surface of the lower respiratory tract similar to that seen in patients with sarcoidosis. As in sarcoidosis, this lymphocytosis results from an expansion of the T4+ T-lymphocyte subset, is characteristic of patients with active disease only, and is not associated with similar abnormalities in the peripheral blood. Thus, patients with apparently localized Crohn's disease have sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract, a finding that emphasizes the systemic nature of Crohn's disease and the disorder's close relationship to sarcoidosis. PMID:3940500

  15. The effects of viral vaccination of dairy heifer calves on the incidence of respiratory disease, mortality, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2012-11-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1 or 2 doses of a 5-way, modified-live viral vaccine, administered to heifer calves before weaning to aid in the prevention of BRD. The hypotheses were that vaccination would reduce the incidence of BRD and mortality, and that 2 doses would be more effective than 1. A total of 2,874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1 to 7d of age and were followed until 3 mo of age. Calves were randomly assigned to receive a commercial, intramuscular, modified-live vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 15 to 21 d of age (2 wk only), 35 to 42 d (5 wk only), both 2 and 5 wk, or sterile saline at both times (unvaccinated controls). The incidence of failure of passive transfer was 11 or 32%, using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dL, respectively. Overall, 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. The incidence risk of naturally occurring BRD was 7.7% before 2 wk of age, 8.0% between 2 and 5 wk, and 9.5% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age, and was not different between vaccination groups. Overall mortality throughout the 3-mo study period was 3.5%. Mortality was 1.6% before 2 wk of age, 0.5% between 2 and 5 wk, and 1.2% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age. The risk of mortality was not affected by vaccination. Mean average daily gain of 1.07 kg/d from 5 wk to 3 mo of age was not different between vaccine groups. In this population of commercial, home-raised calves, with an overall low incidence of failure of passive transfer, intramuscular vaccination with a multivalent, modified live viral vaccine at 2 or 5 wk of age or both was not associated with a decreased risk of BRD or mortality, or with

  16. Systems pharmacology of complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jens; Zhao, Shan; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology approaches can be used to identify and predict drug-induced adverse events. Disease-centered networks within the human interactome allow us to predict which drugs may produce a similar pathophysiology. Such predictions can be tested in animal models.

  17. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L McGill

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC, a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

  18. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jodi L; Rusk, Rachel A; Guerra-Maupome, Mariana; Briggs, Robert E; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC. PMID:26942409

  19. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jodi L.; Rusk, Rachel A.; Guerra-Maupome, Mariana; Briggs, Robert E.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC. PMID:26942409

  20. Population-wide preventive interventions for reducing the burden of chronic respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, M J; Koplin, J; Hoy, R; Dharmage, S C

    2015-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma impose a substantial burden of disease. This narrative review focuses on potential population-wide interventions that are likely to have an impact on these diseases. The developmental origins of adult disease commence in utero, with maternal nutrition being of particular interest. However, to date, trials of maternal allergen avoidance, dietary supplementation or probiotics have not shown consistent protective effects against asthma. Poor indoor air quality, especially from biomass fuels as well as second-hand tobacco smoke, is a well-recognised risk factor for chronic respiratory diseases. This can be modified by cleaner fuels, cooking stoves or heaters, and improved ventilation. Although allergens are a risk factor for childhood asthma, the results of interventions to reduce exposures have been disappointing. Traffic-related air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of asthma in children. Primary prevention of the adverse effects of air pollution has focused on the development of ambient air quality guidelines, but enforcement remains a challenge in many countries. Occupational asthma may be induced by sensitisers or irritants in the workplace. Prevention involves eliminating the agent or reducing exposure as far as possible, which is more effective than respiratory protective equipment. Smoking cessation remains a key proven preventive strategy for chronic respiratory diseases. There is now an international framework for tobacco control, and recent innovations include plain packaging of tobacco. Chronic respiratory diseases can be substantially prevented by the above population-wide interventions. PMID:26260817

  1. Complexation of bovine serum albumin and sugar beet pectin: stabilising oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyang; Fang, Yapeng; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Phillips, Glyn O; Jiang, Fatang

    2012-12-15

    In a previous study (Langmuir 28 (2012) 10164-10176.), we investigated the complexation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with sugar beet pectin (SBP). A pH-composition phase diagram was established and structural transitions in relation to the phase diagram during complexation were identified. The present study examines the implications of these interactions on the emulsifying performance of BSA/SBP mixtures. Middle-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in water emulsions were prepared using conditions corresponding to different regions of the phase diagram. At high pHs and in the stable region of mixed individual soluble polymers where complexation is absent, there is no improved emulsifying performance, compared with the individual protein and polysaccharide. For these mixtures, the emulsion characteristics are controlled by the major component in the solutions, as determined by the competitive adsorption of the two components at the oil-water interface. At low pHs and low BSA/SBP ratios, and so mainly within the stable region of intramolecular soluble complexes, BSA/SBP mixtures greatly improve the stability of emulsions. Here, stabilisation is controlled by the cooperative adsorption of the two components at the oil-water interface. Through electrostatic complexation BSA promotes the adsorption of SBP on to interfaces to form a thick steric layer around emulsion droplets and thus providing better stability. At low pHs and high BSA/SBP ratios, that is, mainly within the unstable region of intermolecular insoluble complexes, emulsions prepared are extremely unstable due to bridging flocculation between emulsion droplets. PMID:22975397

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and respiratory disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study is: to identify any possible relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and GER, to identify any possible relationship between asthma and GER, to determine the prevalence of GER in children suffering from RLRTI and bronchial asthma, and to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of different GER diagnostic modalities. Thirty children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and bronchial asthma were evaluated for possible presence of the GER. Radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed in all these 30 patients (age range 6 months - 10 years). Patients also underwent ultrasonography and/or barium swallow or fluoroscopy on separate day. Patients were grouped according to presenting coinplaints and investigative modalities. Group A was the patients of RLRTI, which underwent GER scintigraphy, barium studies and ultrasonography. Group B patients were patients with bronchial asthma who underwent all 3 investigations. Group C was patients with RLRTI who under went GER scintigraphy and barium studies only. Patients with bronchial asthma who underwent barium studies and GER scintigraphy were included in group D. Group E and F were patients with RLRTI and bronchial asthma who underwent ultrasonography and GER scintigraphy only respectively. For each group, reflux index was calculated in all positive patients. GER reflux of varying degrees was observed in 20 % patients. The severity of the clinical symptoms was directly proportional to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux index was positively correlating with clinical symptoms as well. When compared with other investigative modalities employed GER scintigraphy was found to be more superior in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Objective assessment of gastroesophageal reflux with the help of GER scintigraphy is feasible and is superior to other modalities and it should be employed much more frequently as an initial investigative procedure

  3. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation in children with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Stensballe, LG; Fisker, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalisation and determinants of the severity of RSV disease in children with heart disease. METHODS: By using a database on RSV tests in Denmark all children with RSV diagnosed with heart disease in Denmark...... hospitalisation predictors of the need for respiratory support (supplemental oxygen, nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation) were young age (relative risk (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.67 per additional year of age) and cardiac decompensation (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.......23). The incidence rate of RSV hospitalisation among children with any heart disease aged 0-23 months was 5.65 per 100 child-years. CONCLUSION: In children with heart disease risk factors for RSV admission are Down syndrome, cardiomyopathy and haemodynamically significant heart disease. Young age and cardiac...

  4. THE CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aghamohammadi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary Humoral Immunodeficiencies (PHID are currently increasingly being recognized. Patients with PHID frequently show respiratory complications.The objectives of the study is to determine the clinical spectrum of respiratory diseases in patients with PHID."We extracted data from the clinical files of patients with PHID, diagnosed according to WHO criteria. We encountered 125 patients (84 males, with the diagnosis of primary antibody deficiency including common-variable immunodeficiency (64 pts, x-linked agammaglobulinemia (29 pts, IgA deficiency (20 pts, IgG-subc!ass deficiency (8 pts, and hyper-IgM syndrome (4 pts. The mean age of the patients at the time of study was 11 years. In the evolution of their disease, 92 cases (73.6% developed upper respiratory tract infections, among which acute otitis media (68 pts, 54.4%, sinusitis (61 pts, 48.8%, and pharyngitis (12 pts, 10.4% were found to be the most frequent. Among the lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia was the most common occurance (91 pts, 72.8%. The other lower respiratory tract complications were: bronchiectasis (22 pts, 17.6%, bronchitis (8 pts, tuberculosis (6 pts, lung abscess (4 pts, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 pts.Respiratory infections constitute the most common presenting symptom of patients with primary humoral immunodeficiency. There may be some differences in the type and frequency of infections in each of these disorders.

  5. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in tonsillar tissues from children with chronic adenotonsillar disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena

    Full Text Available Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05, and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05 in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  6. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    César Betancur Hurtado; Alberto Orrego Uribe; Marco González Tous

    2010-01-01

    The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 b...

  7. The effect of maternal nutrition on the developmental origins of respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental challenges during early life have been shown to result in greater risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and coronary disease in later life. Factors such as unbalanced nutrition before birth result in metabolic and structural adaptations that lead to persistent modifications to offspring phenotype. There is evidence that respiratory disease is influenced by developmental environment. Reduced fetal growth is associated with impaired lung development, increasing risk of develop...

  8. Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in Brittany, France, 1981-1982. II. Laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andral, B; Louzis, C; Edlinger, E; Newman, J A; Toquin, D; Bennejean, G

    1985-01-01

    After discovering that numerous turkey flocks experiencing rhinotracheitis in Brittany, France, had antibodies against chlamydia, laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether chlamydia and/or viruses would explain the respiratory disease observed. Although both lentogenic paramyxoviruses of type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Chlamydia psittaci were isolated, it was concluded, based on epidemiologic and other laboratory findings, that C. psittaci was the primary cause of the disease. PMID:3985882

  9. [Clinico-radiological and functional aspects of respiratory syndromes caused by collagen diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, G; Allegra, L; Bianco, S; Gangarossa, C; Ortolani, C; Rizzi, A M

    1976-11-01

    The clinical and radiological features in 100 patients with collagen diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sclerodermia, dermatomyositis, and panarteritis nodosa) were compared with respiratory performance. 56 patients were drawn from the series of Pende et Al. and 44 from a personal series. The results are set out in tables and graphs. It was found that lung lesions due to collagen disease have no special clinical and radiological features. Respiratory performance is that of a restrictive syndrome that gradually progresses from A.R. to E.S., S. and P.M., accompanied by obstruction of the large airways, as shown by hyperinsufflation in sclerodermia and reduced specific conductance in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:995294

  10. Omalizumab: an anti-immunoglobulin E antibody for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the development of allergic diseases. Cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by the allergen leads to the initiation of the inflammatory cascade. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, forms complexes with free IgE, thereby inhibiting the allergic reaction before its commencement. A survey of the clinical trials performed on omalizumab indicated that this anti-IgE antibody is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of separate and concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In patients with poorly controlled asthma, omalizumab reduced the asthma exacerbation and emergency visit rate, along with improving the quality of life. The improvement in asthma control was associated with a reduction of inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Improved nasal symptom scores and a reduced need for antihistamines were observed in patients with allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab was also proven to be effective as an add-on therapy for concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In conclusion, omalizumab provides an integrated approach for the treatment and management of allergic respiratory diseases.

  11. Lack of Cytochrome c in Mouse Fibroblasts Disrupts Assembly/Stability of Respiratory Complexes I and IV*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Vempati, Uma D.; Han, Xianlin; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a heme-containing protein that participates in electron transport in the respiratory chain and as a signaling molecule in the apoptotic cascade. Here we addressed the effect of removing mammalian cyt c on the integrity of the respiratory complexes in mammalian cells. Mitochondria from cyt c knockout mouse cells lacked fully assembled complexes I and IV and had reduced levels of complex III. A redox-deficient mutant of cyt c was unable to rescue ...

  12. Epigenetic Epidemiology of Complex Diseases Using Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. This paper reviews the new developments in using twins to study disease-related epigenetic alterations, links them to lifetime environmental exposure with a focus on the discordant twin design and proposes novel data-analytical approaches with the aim of promoting...... a more efficient use of twins in epigenetic studies of complex human diseases....

  13. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...

  14. Control of electron transport routes through redox-regulated redistribution of respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Ning; Samantha J Bryan; Huang, Fang; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Rich, Peter R.; Mullineaux, Conrad W.

    2012-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, respiratory electron transport takes place in close proximity to photosynthetic electron transport, because the complexes required for both processes are located within the thylakoid membranes. The balance of electron transport routes is crucial for cell physiology, yet the factors that control the predominance of particular pathways are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of tagging with green fluorescent protein and confocal fluorescence microscopy in live cells o...

  15. Surfactant-anti-surfactant immune complexes in infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T. A.; Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Hallman, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with human surfactant resulted in the formation of detectable circulating immune complexes. Preterm infants with severe RDS were divided into two groups: one group received human surfactant by intratracheal instillation and the other group did not. Both groups received ventilatory management involving intermittent mandatory ventilation. Plasma samples were drawn from these babies prior to treatment and at...

  16. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić Marijana; Hrvačević Rajko; Paunić Zoran; Petrović Stanko

    2005-01-01

    Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent...

  17. Respiratory Diseases in Iron Ore Miners and Millers

    OpenAIRE

    Edstrom, Harry W.

    1989-01-01

    Workers in iron mines are at risk of developing interstitial lung disease if the dust levels are above the threshold limit value. However, they more commonly develop the usual diseases that affect all workers. Some illnesses, such as chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and the collagen vascular diseases that affect the lung, may be more severe because of the inhalation of dust. The most difficult problem is to differentiate asymptomatic sarcoidosis from pneumoconiosis. The family doctor who...

  18. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  19. State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flume Patrick A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF, there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients.

  20. Vaccination of Cattle with the N Terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Results in Type III Immune Complex Disease upon Experimental Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's...

  1. Relationship between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Cui, Meng-Meng; Fan, Da; Zhang, De-Shan; Lian, Hui-Xin; Yin, Zhao-Yin; Li, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon in which dry particulate pollutants obscure the sky. Haze has been associated with chronic diseases, but its relationship with acute diseases is less clear. We aimed to determine the association between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, in order to determine the influence of haze on human health. We compared the number of cases of acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing Emergency Center between 2006 and 2013, with haze data from Beijing Observatory. The relationship between the number of hazy days and the number of cases of the above types of diseases was analyzed using univariate analyses. Both the number of cases and the number of hazy days showed a rising trend. The average number of cases per day for all three diseases was higher on hazy days than on non-hazy days. There was a positive correlation between the number of hazy days and the number of cases, and this correlation showed a hysteretic quality. Haze has an influence on acute cardiovascular (CVDs), cerebrovascular (CBDs), and respiratory system (RSDs) diseases. Haze seems to have an additive effect, since the associations between haze and number of cases were stronger in the following month than in the preceding month. The increasing trend in the number of hazy days might worsen the problem of haze-related diseases. PMID:25292298

  2. Identification of respiratory virus in infants with congenital heart disease by comparison of different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitiko Kanashiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections are the main cause of infant hospitalization and are potentially severe in children with congenital heart disease (CHD. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis is very important to early introduction of antiviral treatment and implementation of precautions to control transmission, reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. In the present study we compare different techniques in the diagnosis of respiratory viruses in CHD infants. Thirty-nine samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were obtained from CHD infants with symptoms of respiratory infection. The Multiplex PCR (Seeplex® RV 12 ACE Detection driven to the detection of 12 respiratory viruses was compared with the direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA and PCR, both targeting seven respiratory viruses. The positivity found by DFA, Multiplex and PCR was 33.3%, 51.3% and 48.7%, respectively. Kappa index comparing DFA and Multiplex, DFA and PCR and PCR and Multiplex PCR was 0.542, 0.483 and 0.539, respectively. The concordance between techniques was considered moderate. Both Multiplex PCR (p = 0.001 and PCR (p = 0.002 detected significantly more respiratory virus than DFA. As the performance of the tests may vary, the combination of two or more techniques may increase diagnostic sensitivity favoring the diagnosis of co-infections, early introduction of antiviral therapy and implementation of appropriate measures.

  3. Dynamic-Bayesian disease management under state uncertainty: learning and bovine tuberculosis control in New Zealand cattle

    OpenAIRE

    MacLachlan, Matthew; Springborn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the context of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in New Zealand cattle, we address the problem of management under uncertain disease prevalence by integrating a model of disease transmission and Bayesian learning from testing. We show the implications of accounting for the full dynamic value of information for setting levels of investment in, and targeting of, disease control measures. In the process, we provide a methodology to addressing problems in which learning occurs regarding an unc...

  4. CURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASE PROBLEM AND THE PROBES IN CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    S.Hasan. K. Ahmad, N. Fawad, B. Siddique and H Rehman

    2002-01-01

    Recently, high mortality was recorded in broiler flocks in various areas of Pakistan. The samples from six broiler flocks were studied. The blood samples collected were analyzed for antibodies to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Salmonella organisms (SPG). It was found that the samples had no antibodies against NDV, AIV, MG, MS and S...

  5. Deciphering the binding patterns and conformation changes upon the bovine serum albumin-rosmarinic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Xiangchao; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an importantly and naturally occurring polyphenol from plants of the mint family with potent biological activities. Here, the in vitro interaction of RA with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated using various biophysical approaches as well as molecular modeling methods, to ascertain its binding mechanism and conformational changes. The fluorescence results demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by RA was mainly the result of the formation of a ground state BSA-RA complex, and BSA had one high affinity RA binding site with a binding constant of 4.18 × 10(4) mol L(-1) at 298 K. Analysis of thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions were the dominant intermolecular force in the complex formation. The primary binding site of RA in BSA (site I) had been identified by site marker competitive experiments. The distance between RA and the tryptophan residue of BSA was evaluated at 3.12 nm based on Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed that the conformation and structure of BSA were altered in the presence of RA. Moreover, the nuclear magnetic spectroscopy showed that the aromatic groups of RA took part in the binding reaction during the BSA-RA complexation. In addition, the molecular picture of the interaction mechanism between BSA and RA at the atomic level was well examined by molecular docking and dynamics studies. In brief, RA can bind to BSA with noncovalent bonds in a relatively stable way, and these findings will be beneficial to the functional food research of RA. PMID:26146359

  6. Impact of lung disease on respiratory impedance in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Gangell, Catherine L; Turkovic, Lidija; Park, Judy; Skoric, Billy; Stick, Stephen M; Sly, Peter D; Hall, Graham L

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to detect underlying lung disease in preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed following newborn screening.184 children (aged 3-6 years) with CF underwent lung function testing on 422 occasions using the FOT to assess respiratory resistance and reactance at the time of their annual bronchoalveolar lavage collection and chest computed tomography scan. We examined associations between FOT outcomes and the presence and progression of respiratory inflammation, infection and structural lung disease.Children with CF who had pronounced respiratory disease, including free neutrophil elastase activity, infection with pro-inflammatory pathogens and structural lung abnormalities had similar FOT outcomes to those children without detectable lung disease. In addition, the progression of lung disease over 1 year was not associated with worsening FOT outcomes.We conclude that the forced oscillation technique is relatively insensitive to detect underlying lung disease in preschool children with CF. However, FOT may still be of value in improving our understanding of the physiological changes associated with early CF lung disease. PMID:26405283

  7. The Environmental Domain of Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The literature lacks reports on the role played by the Environmental domain of quality of life (QoL) in care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information has a high potential for implementation in modern medicine based on a 'tailor-made' holistic healthcare model. The purpose of this study was to determine the components that shape the Environmental domain of QoL in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The study group consisted of 305 adult patients (median age 65 years) with at least one chronic respiratory disease. The greatest contribution to a high value of QoL in the Environmental domain among patients with chronic respiratory diseases was made by the coexistence of high QoL levels in other domains and in satisfaction with QoL. Programs for preventing a decline in QoL in the Environmental domain should include patients with low scores for the above variables as well as those with a low level of education, those who have not shown an improvement in their psychological well-being in the past 12 months, those with a low level of positive mental attitudes or healthy eating habits, a low Camberwell index, and low levels of overall pro-health behavior. PMID:26747065

  8. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein subunit vaccine elicits vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous del...

  9. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register...

  10. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. PMID:27527760

  11. Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Valerie E; Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    The bovine mammary gland is a dynamic and complex organ composed of various cell types that work together for the purpose of milk synthesis and secretion. A layer of endothelial cells establishes the blood-milk barrier, which exists to facilitate the exchange of solutes and macromolecules necessary for optimal milk production. During bacterial challenge, however, endothelial cells divert some of their lactation function to protect the underlying tissue from damage by initiating inflammation. At the onset of inflammation, endothelial cells tightly regulate the movement of plasma components and leukocytes into affected tissue. Unfortunately, endothelial dysfunction as a result of exacerbated or sustained inflammation can negatively affect both barrier integrity and the health of surrounding extravascular tissue. The objective of this review is to highlight the role of endothelial cells in supporting milk production and regulating optimal inflammatory responses. The consequences of endothelial dysfunction and sustained inflammation on milk synthesis and secretion are discussed. Given the important role of endothelial cells in orchestrating the inflammatory response, a better understanding of endothelial function during mastitis may support development of targeted therapies to protect bovine mammary tissue and mammary endothelium. PMID:26303748

  12. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    patient, mind-body interventions such as yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback-assisted relaxation and breathing exercises are beneficial for stress reduction in general and may be helpful in further controlling asthma. Encouraging parents to learn how to massage their asthmatic children may appeal to some parents and provide benefits for parents and children alike. Acupuncture and chiropractic treatment cannot be recommended at this time, although some patients may derive benefit because of the placebo effect. For patients with allergic rhinitis, there are no good clinical research data on the use of quercetin and vitamin C. Similarly, freeze-dried stinging nettle leaves may be tried, but the applicable research evidence also is poor. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of these supplements and herbs. Homeopathic remedies based on extreme dilutions of the allergen may be beneficial in allergic rhinitis but require collaboration with an experienced homeopath. There are no research data on constitutional homeopathic approaches to asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients with COPD are helped by exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, and increased caloric protein and fat intake. Vitamin C and n-3 supplements are safe and reasonable; however, studies are needed to establish their efficacy in COPD. On the other hand, there are convincing data in favor of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation for the patient with COPD at doses ranging between 400 and 1200 mg daily. Red blood cell magnesium levels may guide the use of magnesium replacement. The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study. The addition of essential oils to the dietary regimen of patients with chronic bronchitis is worth exploring. Patients with upper respiratory tract infections can expect a shorter duration of symptoms by taking high doses of vitamin C (2 g) with zinc supplements, preferably the nasal zinc gel, at the onset of their symptoms. Adding an herb such as echinacea or

  13. Characterization and crystallization of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with the bovine β-lactoglobulin allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-resolution mass-spectrometric characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with bovine β-lactoglobulin are reported. A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT–ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 Å. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment–BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody–allergen interactions at the molecular level

  14. Social behavior drives the dynamics of respiratory disease in threatened tortoises

    OpenAIRE

    Wendland, Lori D.; Wooding, John; White, C. LeAnn; Demcovitz, Dina; Littell, Ramon; Diemer Berish, Joan; Ozgul, Arpat; Oli, Madan K.; Klein, Paul A.; Mary C Christman; Brown, Mary B.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, morbidity and mortality in tortoise populations have been associated with a transmissible, mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Although the etiology, transmission, and diagnosis of URTD have been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of disease transmission in free-ranging tortoise populations. To understand the transmission dynamics of Mycoplasma agassizii, the primary etiological agent of URTD in wild tortoise populations, we studied ...

  15. Chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries: the burden and strategies for prevention and management.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, chronic respiratory diseases represent a challenge to public health because of their frequency, severity, projected trends, and economic impact. Health care planners, for example, are faced with a dramatic increase in tobacco use and must establish priorities for the allocation of limited resources. Nevertheless, smoking prevention and standardized management programmes for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be implemented in developing countries ...

  16. First data on Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with respiratory diseases in North Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Khalife, S.; E.M. Aliouat; Aliouat-Denis, C.M.; N. Gantois; DeVos, P.; Mallat, H.; Dei-Cas, E.; Dabboussi, F.; Hamze, M.; Fréalle, E.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis colonization may play a role in transmission and local inflammatory response. It was explored in patients with respiratory diseases in North Lebanon. Overall prevalence reached only 5.2% (95% CI 2.13–10.47) but it was higher (17.3%) in the subpopulation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of colonization. mtLSU genotyping revealed predominance of genotype 2, identified in five patie...

  17. A review of Vitamin D effects on common respiratory diseases: Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hejazi, Mohammad Esmaeil; Modarresi-Ghazani, Faezeh; Entezari-Maleki, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Despite the classic role of Vitamin D in skeletal health, new aspects of Vitamin D have been discovered in tissues and organs other than bones. Epidemiological and observational studies demonstrate a link between Vitamin D deficiency and risk of developing respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tuberculosis (TB). To review the literature, we searched the terms “Vitamin D” (using the set operator) and “asthma,” “COPD” and “TB” in electronic dat...

  18. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  19. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  20. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic respiratory diseases--from goals to outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesut, Dragica; Ciobanu, Laura; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a review of current approaches on pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary rehabilitation is the most accepted method of non-pharmacological treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular degenerative disease and post-tuberculosis lung sequelae. Throughout its components, especially oxygen therapy, it is the most important intervention in chronic respiratory failure in order to improve exercise tolerance, lung function and self-management. Enrolling patients in pulmonary rehabilitation programmes is a consistent help to a better control of their illness and a step forward to the international standards of treating COPD and non-COPD chronic respiratory diseases. It is evidence-based that PR is effective in reducing dyspnoea, improving health-related quality of life, reducing the number of hospital days and the utilisation of costly healthcare resources; there are also psychosocial benefits from comprehensive PR programmes in patients with COPD. PR is currently considered as effective in patients with COPD and in some patients with chronic respiratory diseases other than COPD. PMID:18822868

  2. Co-purification of arrestin like proteins with alpha-enolase from bovine myocardial tissues and the possible role in heart diseases as an autoantigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirshahi, M., E-mail: massoud.mirshahi@inserm.fr; Le Marchand, S.

    2015-05-08

    Aim: Previously, we reported that visual arrestin co-purified with glycolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to analyze the co-purification of arrestin like proteins (ALP) in bovine cardiac tissues with enolases. Methods: The soluble extract of bovine myocardial tissues from different regions such as left and right atriums and ventricles of the bovine heart (n = 3) was analyzed by ACA-34 gel filtration, immuno-affinity column, SDS-PAGE, ELISA, western blot and a sandwich immune assay for quantification of ALP and sequence analysis. Results: We observed that; 1) The cardiac muscle contained a 50 kDa ALP at a concentration of 751 pg/mg of soluble protein extract, 2) ALP purified, by immunoaffinity, contained alpha-enolase of 48 kDa confirmed by protein sequence analysis; 3) Cardiomyocyte cells exposed to anti arrestin and anti enolase monoclonal antibodies showed decreased proliferation in vitro, 4) High level of autoantibodies were detected by ELISA (3.57% for arrestin and 9.12% for α-enolase) in serum of patients with infarcted heart disease. Conclusion: We suggest a possible interaction between ALP and alpha-enolases yielding a complex that may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases. - Highlights: • We examine a possible interaction between arrestin like protein and alpha-enolases in cardiomyocyte. • We demonstrated the effect of antibodies against arrestin and enolase on cardiomyocyte cell proliferation. • We suggest that this proteins complex may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases.

  3. Co-purification of arrestin like proteins with alpha-enolase from bovine myocardial tissues and the possible role in heart diseases as an autoantigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Previously, we reported that visual arrestin co-purified with glycolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to analyze the co-purification of arrestin like proteins (ALP) in bovine cardiac tissues with enolases. Methods: The soluble extract of bovine myocardial tissues from different regions such as left and right atriums and ventricles of the bovine heart (n = 3) was analyzed by ACA-34 gel filtration, immuno-affinity column, SDS-PAGE, ELISA, western blot and a sandwich immune assay for quantification of ALP and sequence analysis. Results: We observed that; 1) The cardiac muscle contained a 50 kDa ALP at a concentration of 751 pg/mg of soluble protein extract, 2) ALP purified, by immunoaffinity, contained alpha-enolase of 48 kDa confirmed by protein sequence analysis; 3) Cardiomyocyte cells exposed to anti arrestin and anti enolase monoclonal antibodies showed decreased proliferation in vitro, 4) High level of autoantibodies were detected by ELISA (3.57% for arrestin and 9.12% for α-enolase) in serum of patients with infarcted heart disease. Conclusion: We suggest a possible interaction between ALP and alpha-enolases yielding a complex that may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases. - Highlights: • We examine a possible interaction between arrestin like protein and alpha-enolases in cardiomyocyte. • We demonstrated the effect of antibodies against arrestin and enolase on cardiomyocyte cell proliferation. • We suggest that this proteins complex may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases

  4. Development of a Barthel Index based on dyspnea for patients with respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitacca M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele Vitacca,1 Mara Paneroni,1 Paola Baiardi,2 Vito De Carolis,3 Elisabetta Zampogna,4 Stefano Belli,5 Mauro Carone,3 Antonio Spanevello,4,6 Bruno Balbi,5 Giorgio Bertolotti7 1Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Lumezzane, Brescia, 2Scientific Direction, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Pavia, Pavia, 3Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Cassano delle Murge, Bari, 4Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Tradate, Varese, 5Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Veruno, Novara, 6Respiratory Diseases Unit, University of Insubria, Varese, 7Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Tradate, Varese, Italy Background: As Barthel Index (BI quantifies motor impairment but not breathlessness, the use of only this index could underestimate disability in chronic respiratory disease (CRD. To our knowledge, no study evaluates both motor and respiratory disability in CRD during activities of daily living (ADLs simultaneously and with a unique tool. The objective of this study was to propose for patients with CRD an additional tool for dyspnea assessment during ADLs based on BI items named Barthel Index dyspnea.Methods: Comprehensibility, reliability, internal consistency, validity, responsiveness, and ability to differentiate between disease groups were assessed on 219 subjects through an observational study performed in an in-hospital rehabilitation setting.Results: Good comprehensibility, high reliability (interrater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 [95% confidence interval 0.892–0.964] and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.99 [95% confidence interval 0.983–0.994], good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.89, strong concurrent validity with 6 minute walking distance (Pearson r=–0.538, P<0.001 and Medical Research Council

  5. Study To Build Method For Analyzing Some Component Of Airborne Which Cause Respiratory Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol sampler is located at the top of the three floors building of INST. The amount of PM particle and components such as black carbon; chemical elements; violated organic compounds and microorganisms are analyzed by appropriate methods. Using the method of regression and analysis of variance ANOVA to find out correlation between there pollution components and patients treated at the Department of Respiratory in Hanoi E-Hospital. It shown that microorganisms, benzene, toluene, element sulfur and element silica have effects on monthly number of patients treated respiratory diseases at the E-Hospital. (author)

  6. Crowding: risk factor or protective factor for lower respiratory disease in young children?

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Maria; Cousens Simon; de Góes Siqueira Luiz; Alves Fátima; D'Angelo Luiz

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background To study the effects of household crowding upon the respiratory health of young children living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Case-control study with children aged from 2 to 59 months living within the boundaries of the city of São Paulo. Cases were children recruited from 5 public hospitals in central São Paulo with an acute episode of lower respiratory disease. Children were classified into the following diagnostic categories: acute bronchitis, acute bronchio...

  7. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiulin Xiong; Wenji Zhao; Zhaoning Gong; Wenhui Zhao; Tao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spat...

  8. Assessment of L-lactatemia as a predictor of respiratory disease recognition and severity in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Rademacher, R D; Tripp, H M; Edmonds, M; Johnson, E G; Dufour, S

    2015-03-01

    The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) is a major health issue in feedlot cattle and one of the primary reasons for antimicrobial use in the North American feedlot industry. The purpose of the present study was to assess blood L-lactate levels of feedlot steers at high risk of developing BRD during the early feeding period. Blood samples were obtained at initial processing and again after BRD confirmation (using bronchial lavage or thoracic ultrasound exam). The study involved 232 recently weaned steers received at a single research feedlot that were processed without metaphylactic antimicrobial treatment. Blood samples were obtained for determination of L-lactatemia and temperament scores (very quiet or stoic [score 1], average [score 2] and very excited [score 3]) were systematically assigned at initial processing. A subsample of calves that were later confirmed as cases of BRD were sampled at first pull (day 0), and at subsequent observation points on days 3, 6, 9 and 15 following initial BRD diagnosis for blood lactate determination as a potential indicator of subsequent death. The clinical BRD cumulative incidence in the cohort was 38% (87/232). Temperament was associated with the probability of becoming a BRD case during the early feeding period. Stoic or very excited calves showed 2.2 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.3, 3.8) of becoming BRD cases compared to calves with average temperament. The impact of L-lactatemia differed by temperament strata. In calves with a temperament score of 2 (average temperament) every 1-log unit increase of lactatemia at processing resulted in 1.9 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1) of becoming a BRD case; this relationship was not significant in calves with a score of either 1 or 3. Twenty-nine confirmed BRD cases were studied for the dynamic lactate assessment analysis. L-lactate at first pull was not significantly different between survivors (median 3.3mmol/L; range 0.8-7.8mmol/L) and non-survivors (median 2.7mmol/L; range

  9. Microbial Communities in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HeeKuk; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Wonyong

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory infections are well-known triggers of chronic respiratory diseases. Recently, culture-independent tools have indicated that lower airway microbiota may contribute to pathophysiologic processes associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between upper airway microbiota and chronic respiratory diseases remains unclear. This study was undertaken to define differences of microbiota in the oropharynx of asthma and COPD patients relative to those in healthy individuals. To account for the qualitative and quantitative diversity of the 16S rRNA gene in the oropharynx, the microbiomes of 18 asthma patients, 17 COPD patients, and 12 normal individuals were assessed using a high-throughput next-generation sequencing analysis. In the 259,572 total sequence reads, α and β diversity measurements and a generalized linear model revealed that the oropharynx microbiota are diverse, but no significant differences were observed between asthma and COPD patients. Pseudomonas spp. of Proteobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. of Firmicutes were highly abundant in asthma and COPD. By contrast, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, and Neisseria of Bacteroidetes dominated in the healthy oropharynx. These findings are consistent with previous studies conducted in the lower airways and suggest that oropharyngeal airway microbiota are important for understanding the relationships between the various parts of the respiratory tract with regard to bacterial colonization and comprehensive assessment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25329665

  10. Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility, reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates. Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000 so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly, among the under five deaths it was found that the risk for pneumonia is 3 times greater for children who died presenting wheezing diseases than it is for children with any other sort of diagnosis. In conclusion, the programme is deemed to be efficient and effective but its efficacy is marred by administrative flaws. The successful control of respiratory problems in childhood is related to a proper appreciation of the importance of wheezing diseases.

  11. A ROLE FOR TH17 IN RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, P.

    2014-01-01

    T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are a new CD4+ helper subset mainly characterized by interleukin 17 (IL- 17A) production. The functions of Th17 cells in several infectious and autoimmune diseases have recently started to be clarified. Th17 immune response is important for the defense against many microorganisms but they can also contribute to immunopathology. This review presents the new advances in the field.

  12. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Juthamas InchaiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain.Purpose: To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population.Materials and methods: The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity.Results: Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8-3.9], P<0.001. COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4-11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-18.1], P=0.038, respectively but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.0, P=0.105] than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.9], P=0.043, respectively. There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD.Conclusion: Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill

  13. Managing the Morbidity Associated with Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Geskey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are at risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of anatomical cardiac lesions than can worsen an already compromised respiratory status. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remains an important pathogen in contributing toward the morbidity in this population. Although the acute treatment of RSV largely remains supportive, the development of monoclonal antibodies, such as palivuzumab, has reduced the RSV-related hospitalization rate in children with CHD. This review highlights the specific cardiac complications of RSV infection, the acute treatment of bronchiolitis in patients with CHD, and the search for new therapies against RSV, including an effective vaccine, because of the high cost associated with immunoprophylaxis and its lack of reducing RSV-related mortality.

  14. Viral respiratory diseases in children: classification, etiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, V G

    1994-05-01

    The epidemiology, molecular structure, cell tropism, and pathophysiology of many human disease-causing viruses have been painstakingly and elegantly characterized during the past 50 years. Vaccines and antiviral drugs of varying efficacy were developed and tested. Despite the relegation of smallpox to a freezer chest and the progress in the control of measles and hepatitis B, the viruses that cause respiratory tract infections remain significant causes of illness and death in pediatric populations worldwide. This discussion surveys the virus groups that contain nearly 200 distinct viruses that cause sporadic and epidemic respiratory infections in children. The epidemiology of infection with the influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses and adenoviruses and their impact on infants and children and the groups at highest risk for morbid outcomes are discussed. PMID:8169752

  15. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials. PMID:26192479

  16. [Relevance of Outpatient, Equipment-based Exercise Training in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckl, R; Göhl, O; Spielmanns, M; Taube, K; Bock, R; Schultz, K; Worth, H

    2016-07-01

    Exercise training is one of the most important components in disease management for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The clinically relevant benefits of endurance and strength training on dyspnea, exercise capacity and quality of life have been evaluated very well. However, there are some legal limitations by the German Working Group for Rehabilitation (BAR) concerning outpatient exercise training programs (beyond pulmonary rehabilitation): only group-based callisthenic training programs receive funding from health care insurances while professional equipment-based training programs are excluded despite their outstanding effectiveness.This review provides an overview on the methodology and the benefits of outpatient exercise training programs for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, and it critically discusses the organizational structures of these programs in Germany. PMID:27218214

  17. First data on Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with respiratory diseases in North Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khalife

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis colonization may play a role in transmission and local inflammatory response. It was explored in patients with respiratory diseases in North Lebanon. Overall prevalence reached only 5.2% (95% CI 2.13–10.47 but it was higher (17.3% in the subpopulation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of colonization. mtLSU genotyping revealed predominance of genotype 2, identified in five patients (71.4%, including one patient who had co-infection with genotype 3. These first data in North Lebanon confirm Pneumocystis circulation among patients with respiratory diseases and the potential for transmission to immunocompromised patients.

  18. Evolution, atmospheric oxygen, and complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L

    2007-08-20

    If evolution is an accurate statement of our biology, then disease must be tightly associated with its patterns. We considered selection for more optimal capacity for energy transfer as the most general pattern of evolution. From this, we propose that the etiology of complex disease is linked tightly to the evolutionary transition to cellular complexity that was afforded by the steep thermodynamic gradient of an oxygen atmosphere. In accord with this thesis, clinical studies reveal a strong statistical link between low aerobic capacity and all-cause mortality. In addition, large-scale unbiased network analyses demonstrate the pivotal role of oxygen metabolism in cellular function. The demonstration that multiple disease risks segregated during two-way artificial selection for low and high aerobic capacity in rats provides a remote test of these possible connections between evolution, oxygen metabolism, and complex disease. Even more broadly, an atmosphere with oxygen may be uniquely essential for development of complex life anywhere because oxygen is stable as a diatomic gas, is easily transported, and has a high electronegativity for participation in energy transfer via redox reactions. PMID:17473218

  19. HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht, Ehsan; Cohen, Scott D; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Kimmel, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    The introduction in the late 20(th) century of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to treat patients infected with HIV has changed the natural history of the disease from an acute illness that rapidly culminates in death, to a chronic condition that can be managed with medications. Over the past decade the epidemiology of kidney disease in US patients infected with HIV has changed, perhaps because of the increased availability and use of cART. Patients with HIV infection exhibit unique immunologic characteristics, including immunodeficiency and dysregulation of immunoglobulin synthetic responses and T-cell function, which can result in glomerular immune complex deposition and subsequent kidney injury. This Review examines the differential diagnoses of HIV-associated immune complex kidney diseases (HIVICD), and discusses the clinical manifestations and mechanisms underlying their development. We address the issues associated with treatment, clinical outcomes, and research needs to enhance our ability to diagnose and optimally treat patients with HIVICD. PMID:26782145

  20. A proteomics-based identification of putative biomarkers for disease in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Altena, S E C; de Klerk, B; Hettinga, K A; van Neerven, R J J; Boeren, S; Savelkoul, H F J; Tijhaar, E J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential biomarkers for disease resistance in bovine milk that can be used to indicate dairy cows at risk to develop future health problems. We selected high- and low-resistant cows i.e. cows that were less or more prone to develop diseases according to farmers' experience and notifications in the disease registration data. The protein composition of milk serum samples of these high- and low-resistant cows were compared using NanoLC-MS/MS. In total 78 proteins were identified and quantified of which 13 were significantly more abundant in low-resistant cows than high-resistant cows. Quantification of one of these proteins, lactoferrin (LF), by ELISA in a new and much larger set of full fat milk samples confirmed higher LF levels in low- versus high-resistant cows. These high- and low-resistant cows were selected based on comprehensive disease registration and milk recording data, and absence of disease for at least 4 weeks. Relating the experienced diseases to LF levels in milk showed that lameness was associated with higher LF levels in milk. Analysis of the prognostic value of LF showed that low-resistant cows with higher LF levels in milk had a higher risk of being culled within one year after testing than high-resistant cows. In conclusion, LF in milk are higher in low-resistant cows, are associated with lameness and may be a prognostic marker for risk of premature culling. PMID:27185258

  1. Structure of subcomplex Iβ of mammalian respiratory complex I leads to new supernumerary subunit assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiapeng; King, Martin S; Yu, Minmin; Klipcan, Liron; Leslie, Andrew G W; Hirst, Judy

    2015-09-29

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential respiratory enzyme. Mammalian complex I contains 45 subunits: 14 conserved "core" subunits and 31 "supernumerary" subunits. The structure of Bos taurus complex I, determined to 5-Å resolution by electron cryomicroscopy, described the structure of the mammalian core enzyme and allowed the assignment of 14 supernumerary subunits. Here, we describe the 6.8-Å resolution X-ray crystallography structure of subcomplex Iβ, a large portion of the membrane domain of B. taurus complex I that contains two core subunits and a cohort of supernumerary subunits. By comparing the structures and composition of subcomplex Iβ and complex I, supported by comparisons with Yarrowia lipolytica complex I, we propose assignments for eight further supernumerary subunits in the structure. Our new assignments include two CHCH-domain containing subunits that contain disulfide bridges between CX9C motifs; they are processed by the Mia40 oxidative-folding pathway in the intermembrane space and probably stabilize the membrane domain. We also assign subunit B22, an LYR protein, to the matrix face of the membrane domain. We reveal that subunit B22 anchors an acyl carrier protein (ACP) to the complex, replicating the LYR protein-ACP structural module that was identified previously in the hydrophilic domain. Thus, we significantly extend knowledge of how the mammalian supernumerary subunits are arranged around the core enzyme, and provide insights into their roles in biogenesis and regulation. PMID:26371297

  2. Bovine Endotoxicosis – Some Aspects of Relevance to Production Diseases. A Review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Pia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes some circumstances where endotoxins of Gram negative bacteria may be related to the pathogenesis of some common production diseases. Decisive evidence for the pathogentical role of endotoxins remains scarce, and therefore an interdisciplinary background covering epidemiological, biological, biochemical, clinical and experimental aspects is given. Several authors have suggested that endotoxins play a significant role for the development of diseases such as laminitis, abomasal displacement, sudden death syndrome of feed-lot steers ect. While the biological, biochemical and clinical pictures of bovine endotoxicosis is quite well known, and certainly may resemble the clinical and biochemical pictures seen in some of the before mentioned diseases, it is however still not clear how or when endotoxins would gain parenteral access. This review describes excerpts of the biology of endotoxins, key clinical signs and the biochemistry associated to these. It is described how ruminal acidosis may facilitate the translocation of endotoxin from the intestinal/ruminal contents to the portal and eventually the systemic bloodstream. The function of the liver hence becomes central, and the role of hepatic fatty infiltration around parturition is discussed. The review finally suggest that acute ruminal acidosis may be viewed as an analogue to the human syndrome Gut-Derived Infectious Toxic Shock (GITS, where shock is propagated primarily by the translocation of bacterial endotoxin from the gut.

  3. Presentation and clinical investigation of mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. A study of 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Schaefer, J A; Johnson, M A; Morris, A A; Turnbull, D M; Bindoff, L A

    1995-04-01

    Defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are associated with a great variety of clinical disorders. Whilst recognition of these conditions is increasing, the need for sophisticated biochemical and molecular studies has tended to limit both their investigation and diagnosis to a few specialist centres. Using a group of 51 patients with histochemically, biochemically and/or genetically defined respiratory chain defects, we have examined both the clinical heterogeneity of these disorders and how they may be investigated most effectively in non-specialist centres. We evaluated the use of the following routinely available clinical investigations--fasting intermediary metabolites (lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, etc.) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, serum creatine kinase estimation, EMG, EEG, CT, MRI and histological/histochemical muscle biopsy analysis. Our studies show that, in addition to well-recognized syndromes (e.g. chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes, and myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red-fibres, a significant number of patients present with non-specific encephalopathic disorders. Furthermore, even within those categories of respiratory chain disease which have been genetically defined, a wide variation of presenting symptoms and signs were found. Where there was initial doubt concerning the diagnosis, the following clinical features were helpful in suggesting respiratory chain disease: ophthalmoplegia; a maternal pattern of inheritance; the presence of myopathy or deafness in association with encephalopathy. Of the clinical investigations we assessed, elevated lactate in blood or cerebrospinal fluid and low density lesions in the basal ganglia were helpful in identifying patients with respiratory chain dysfunction. Histochemical analysis of muscle was, however, the single most useful investigation being diagnostic in patients with chronic progressive external

  4. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  5. Good practice in occupational health services: Prophylactic care and occupational activation of people with disabilities due to respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Wiszniewska; Diana Tymoszuk; Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska; Ewa Wągrowska-Koski; Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a cause of long-term sickness absence, and even of partial or complete inability to work. This paper presents the first in Poland description of principles of good practice in occupational health service provided for people with respiratory diseases. The issues concerning the certification of the ability to work in this group of patients are discussed. The key-principles of preventive care of workers with obstructive and interstitial lung diseases with particular atte...

  6. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  7. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  8. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Neil D; Davidson, Warren J

    2011-07-01

    The 2 most common respiratory diseases are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Growing evidence supports the benefits of exercise for all patients with these diseases. Due to the etiology of COPD and the pathophysiology of asthma, there may be some additional risks of exercise for these patients, and hence accurate risk assessment and clearance is needed before patients start exercising. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature regarding the risks of exercise for patients with respiratory disease and provide evidence-based recommendations to guide the screening process. A systematic review of 4 databases was performed. The literature was searched to identify adverse events specific to exercise. For COPD, 102 randomized controlled trials that involved an exercise intervention were included (n = 6938). No study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and only 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. For asthma, 30 studies of mixed methodologies were included (n = 1278). One study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. No exercise-related fatalities were reported. The majority of adverse events in COPD patients were musculoskeletal or cardiovascular in nature. In asthma patients, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and (or) asthma symptoms were the primary adverse events. There is no direct evidence regarding the risk of exercise for patients with COPD or asthma. However, based on the available literature, it would appear that with adequate screening and optimal medical therapy, the risk of exercise for these respiratory patients is low. PMID:21800949

  9. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance. PMID:26467890

  10. Age-related Changes in Respiratory Function and Daily Living. A Tentative Model Including Psychosocial Variables, Respiratory Diseases and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Changes in respiratory function are common in older populations and affect quality of life, social relationships, cognitive function and functional capacity. This paper reviews evidence reported in medical and psychological journals between 2000 and 2014 concerning the impact of changes in respiratory function on daily living in older adults. A tentative model establishes relationships involving respiratory function, cognitive function and functional capacities. The conclusion stresses the need for both longitudinal studies, to establish causal pathways between respiratory function and psychosocial aspects in aging, and intervention studies. PMID:26593253

  11. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE – Infectious, Contagious, Zoonotic or Production Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherr Marcus G

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, a new progressive neurological condition similar to scrapie of sheep and goats was recognised in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK, and was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. There is an ongoing discussion whether BSE should be classified as infectious, contagious, or zoonotic, and if it fits the definition of a production disease. The objective of this work is to briefly describe the main characteristics of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, to review the epidemiology of BSE, and to address the question of how to classify BSE. TSEs are characterised as chronic wasting diseases with spongiform vacuolation and the accumulation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. TSE infectivity is very difficult to inactivate. Cattle BSE most likely originated from sheep scrapie, although this will remain to be an issue for debate. The disease can be transmitted from cattle to a range of species, and has resulted in smaller TSE epidemics in domestic cats, zoo cats and zoo ruminants, and in humans. Transmission in the field occurred through feed containing ruminant-derived protein, and measures to prevent the recycling of infectivity have proven effective to reduce the number of new infections. Mandatory reporting of clinical suspects combined with targeted screening of risk populations is needed to assess the BSE status of a country. Infection studies and the transmissibility to other species classify BSE as infectious and zoonotic. Absence of excretion of the agent, and therefor of horizontal transmission, categorise BSE as non-contagious. However, BSE is a multifactorial infectious disease that is dependent on management factors (mainly feeding, and therefore fits into the broader definition of production diseases.

  13. Radiation exposure and the risk of mortality from noncancer respiratory diseases in the life span study, 1950-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Shimizu, Yukiko; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Ikuno; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Soda, Midori; Suyama, Akihiko; Shore, Roy E; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2013-11-01

    An apparent association between radiation exposure and noncancer respiratory diseases (NCRD) in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors has been reported, but the biological validity of that observation is uncertain. This study investigated the possibility of radiation causation of noncancer respiratory diseases in detail by examining subtypes of noncancer respiratory diseases, temporal associations, and the potential for misdiagnosis and other confounding factors. A total of 5,515 NCRD diagnoses listed as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate were observed among the 86,611 LSS subjects with estimated weighted absorbed lung doses. Radiation dose-response analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard regression for pneumonia/influenza, other acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The linear excess relative risks (ERR) per gray (Gy) were 0.17 (95% CI 0.08, 0.27) for all NCRD and 0.20 (CI 0.09, 0.34) for pneumonia/influenza, which accounted for 63% of noncancer respiratory disease deaths. Adjustments for lifestyle and sociodemographic variations had almost no impact on the risk estimates. However, adjustments for indications of cancer and/or cardiovascular disease decreased the risk estimates, with ERR for total noncancer respiratory diseases declined by 35% from 0.17 to 0.11. Although it was impossible to fully adjust for the misdiagnosis of other diseases as noncancer respiratory diseases deaths in this study because of limitations of available data, nevertheless, the associations were reduced or eliminated by the adjustment that could be made. This helps demonstrates that the association between noncancer respiratory diseases and radiation exposure in previous reports could be in part be attributed to coincident cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24148011

  14. Sugammadex use in difficult intubation due to ankylosing spondylitis and severe restrictive respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Tomak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe anesthesia management of a 50-year-old man scheduled for thoracic spinal reconstruction, presenting with severe restrictive respiratory disease and difficult airway due to ankylosing spondilitis. The patient was unable to extend his head, had difficulty in breathing and sleeping in supine position due to thoracal deformities. The patient was intubated using intubating laryngeal mask airway to overcome the difficulties of limited mouth opening and head extension. He was extubated following administration of sugammadex to obtain optimal conditions in terms of respiratory muscle function and to prevent hypersecretion and bronchospasm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 398-400Key words: Restrictive lung disease, airway management, laryngeal masks, sugammadex, ankylosing spondylitis

  15. Epidemiology of allergic diseases of the respiratory passages in the Kazakh SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkevich, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over a period of 20 years, the authors have been studying the distribution, aetiology and causes of increasing incidence of allergic respiratory diseases in various climatogeographic zones of the Kazakh SSR. Large groups of people living in towns and in the country were examined by various methods. The number of patients seeking advice in health service establishments because of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma was found to increase every year. A number of factors influencing the incidence of disease were pointed out, such as the character of diet, duration of the person's stay, vaccination against brucellosis, pollution of the atmosphere, local flora, climate, and other factors. Morbidity also depended on the methods of studying the epidemiology of respiratory allergoses. The obtained results will help health service authorities in taking specific measures to reduce morbidity from the mentioned pathological condition.

  16. Mechanisms of improvement of respiratory failure in patients with restrictive thoracic disease treated with non-invasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Nickol, A; Hart, N.; Hopkinson, N; Moxham, J.; Simonds, A; Polkey, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective treatment for hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with restrictive thoracic disease. We hypothesised that NIV may reverse respiratory failure by increasing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide, reducing inspiratory muscle fatigue, or enhancing pulmonary mechanics.

  17. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  18. Update on Recent Advances in the Management of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Palikhe, Nami Shrestha; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Aspirin intolerant asthma (AIA) is frequently characterized as an aspirin (ASA)-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). It is a clinical syndrome associated with chronic severe inflammation in the upper and lower airways resulting in chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, recurrent polyposis, and asthma. AERD generally develops secondary to abnormalities in inflammatory mediators and arachidonic acid biosynthesis expression. Upper and lower airway eosinophil infiltration is a key feature of AERD; howev...

  19. Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise Is Caused by Mycoplasma agassizii†

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M B; McLaughlin, G. S.; Klein, P A; Crenshaw, B. C.; Schumacher, I M; Brown, D R; Jacobson, E R

    1999-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) has been observed in a number of tortoise species, including the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Clinical signs of URTD in gopher tortoises are similar to those in desert tortoises and include serous, mucoid, or purulent discharge from the nares, excessive tearing to purulent ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and edema of the eyelids and ocular glands. The objectives of the present study were to determi...

  20. Increased Respiratory Disease Mortality at a Microwave Popcorn Production Facility with Worker Risk of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    OpenAIRE

    Halldin, Cara N; Eva Suarthana; Kathleen B Fedan; Yi-Chun Lo; George Turabelidze; Kathleen Kreiss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this...

  1. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; John R. Cohn; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Exam...

  2. A Giant Intrathoracic Malignant Schwannoma Causing Respiratory Failure in a Patient without von Recklinghausen's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Epameinondas; Eleftheriou, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios; Athanassiadi, Kalliopi; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Routsi, Christina

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a thoracic opacity due to a huge mediastinal malignant schwannoma which compressed the whole left lung and the mediastinum causing respiratory failure in a 73-year-old woman without von Recklinghausen's disease. Although the tumor was resected, the patient failed to wean from mechanical ventilation and died one month later because of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. PMID:27118974

  3. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, T. W.; Lau, T. S.; Yu, T. S.; Neller, A.; Wong, S L; Tam, W; Pang, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short term effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Hong Kong. METHODS: Retrospective ecological study. A Poisson regression was performed of concentrations of daily air pollutant on daily counts of emergency hospital admissions in 12 major hospitals. The effects of time trend, season, and other cyclical factors, temperature, and humidity were accounted for. Autocorrelation and ...

  4. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Mendeluk, Gabriela Ruth; Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and br...

  5. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzhou is among the most seriously air-polluted cities in China as a whole, due to its unique topography, climate, industrial structure and so on. We studied the relationship between different air pollution and respiratory hospitalizations from 2001 to 2005, the total of respiratory hospital admissions were 28,057. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression models after controlling for the long time trend for air pollutants, the “day of week” effect and confounding meteorological factors. Three air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) had a lag effect, the lag was 3–5 days for PM10, 1–3 days for SO2 and 1–4 days for NO2. The relative risks were calculated for increases in the inter-quartile range of the pollutants (139 μg/m3 in PM10, 61 μg/m3 in SO2 and 31 μg/m3 in NO2). Results showed that there were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory hospital admissions, and stronger effects were observed for females and aged ≥65 yrs in Lanzhou. -- There were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory diseases with lag effect, and the aged and female people are more vulnerable to air pollutants. -- Highlights: • We assess the association between different air pollutants and respiratory diseases in 2001–2005. • The associations are significant and show a lag effect. • The lag was 3–5 days for PM10, 1–3 days for SO2 and 1–4 days for NO2

  6. The Role of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase in Apoptosis Induction in Response to Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III

    OpenAIRE

    Khutornenko, A.; Dalina, A.; Chernyak, B.; Chumakov, P; Evstafieva, A.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanism for the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) upon dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has been studied. Previously, we had found that inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, a component of the electron transport chain complex III, leads to activation of tumor suppressor p53, followed by apoptosis induction. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is coupled to the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway via the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydroge...

  7. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  8. Erythema Multiforme Associated with Respiratory Disease in a Commercial Breeding Pig Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Psalla, Dimitra; Petridou, Evanthia; Maragkakis, Giorgos G; Papatsas, Ioannis; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Maes, Dominiek

    2015-10-01

    This study describes an erythema multiforme (EM) in breeding sows, after their mixing in the group housing system. Sows at 30-35 days of gestation showed red and raised skin areas, depression, anorexia, fever, respiratory problems, and increased return to estrus. Blood and nasal samples from diseased sows were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for respiratory pathogens. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed on the blood samples. From diseased sows, vaginal swabs for microbiological examinations and samples at slaughterhouse for gross and microscopic examinations were collected. Samples from the complete gestation and lactation feed were examined for mycotoxins. All sampled sows were seropositive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). No viremia for PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 were detected. All nasal samples were positive for Streptococcus suis, one for Swine Influenza Virus and one for App, Hemophilus parasuis, and S. suis. In all vaginal swabs, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp. were detected. Diseased sows had moderate leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. No mycotoxins were detected in feed. Histopathological examination revealed increased vascularization of the superficial and middle dermis. EM was likely due to illness caused by viral and bacterial infections. This study suggests that stress caused by the sows' mixing might have triggered the problem. PMID:26266696

  9. The role of geochemistry and energetics in the evolution of modern respiratory complexes from a proton-reducing ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg; Wu, Chang-Hao; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I or NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NUO) is an integral component of modern day respiratory chains and has a close evolutionary relationship with energy-conserving [NiFe]-hydrogenases of anaerobic microorganisms. Specifically, in all of biology, the quinone-binding subunit of Complex I, NuoD, is most closely related to the proton-reducing, H2-evolving [NiFe]-containing catalytic subunit, MbhL, of membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), to the methanophenzine-reducing subunit of a methanogenic respiratory complex (FPO) and to the catalytic subunit of an archaeal respiratory complex (MBX) involved in reducing elemental sulfur (S°). These complexes also pump ions and have at least 10 homologous subunits in common. As electron donors, MBH and MBX use ferredoxin (Fd), FPO uses either Fd or cofactor F420, and NUO uses either Fd or NADH. In this review, we examine the evolutionary trajectory of these oxidoreductases from a proton-reducing ancestral respiratory complex (ARC). We hypothesize that the diversification of ARC to MBH, MBX, FPO and eventually NUO was driven by the larger energy yields associated with coupling Fd oxidation to the reduction of oxidants with increasing electrochemical potential, including protons, S° and membrane soluble organic compounds such as phenazines and quinone derivatives. Importantly, throughout Earth's history, the availability of these oxidants increased as the redox state of the atmosphere and oceans became progressively more oxidized as a result of the origin and ecological expansion of oxygenic photosynthesis. ARC-derived complexes are therefore remarkably stable respiratory systems with little diversity in core structure but whose general function appears to have co-evolved with the redox state of the biosphere. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26808919

  10. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  11. Energy conversion, redox catalysis and generation of reactive oxygen species by respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is critical for respiration in mammalian mitochondria. It oxidizes NADH produced by the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids, reduces ubiquinone, and transports protons to contribute to the proton-motive force across the inner membrane. Complex I is also a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. In complex I, NADH oxidation by a flavin mononucleotide, followed by intramolecular electron transfer along a chain of iron-sulfur clusters, delivers electrons and energy to bound ubiquinone. Either at cluster N2 (the terminal cluster in the chain) or upon the binding/reduction/dissociation of ubiquinone/ubiquinol, energy from the redox process is captured to initiate long-range energy transfer through the complex and drive proton translocation. This review focuses on current knowledge of how the redox reaction and proton transfer are coupled, with particular emphasis on the formation and role of semiquinone intermediates in both energy transduction and reactive oxygen species production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26721206

  12. Components of Diesel Exhaust Particles Diversely Enhance a Variety of Respiratory Diseases Related to Infection or Allergy: Extracted Organic Chemicals and the Residual Particles after Extraction Differently Affect Respiratory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies have reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can aggravate a variety of respiratory diseases including infection or allergy. However, the responsible components in DEP for the enhancement have not been identified. The present review demonstrates the different effects of the components of DEP on the respiratory diseases related to infection or allergy. We exposed mice to the organic chemicals (DEP-OC) and the residual carbonaceous nuclei (washed DE...

  13. Vaccination of cattle with the N terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides results in type III immune complex disease upon experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-05-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's adjuvant and challenged them with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Vaccinated animals showed a strong seroconversion to LppQ, but they exhibited significantly enhanced postchallenge glomerulonephritis compared to the placebo group (P = 0.021). Glomerulonephritis was characterized by features that suggested the development of antigen-antibody immune complexes. Clinical signs and gross pathological scores did not significantly differ between vaccinated and placebo groups. These findings reveal for the first time the pathogenesis of enhanced disease as a result of antibodies against LppQ during challenge and also argue against inclusion of LppQ-N' in a future subunit vaccine for CBPP. PMID:25733516

  14. Vaccine safety and efficacy evaluation of a recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV with deletion of the SH gene and subunit vaccines based on recombinant human RSV proteins: N-nanorings, P and M2-1, in calves with maternal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krister Blodörn

    Full Text Available The development of safe and effective vaccines against both bovine and human respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV, HRSV to be used in the presence of RSV-specific maternally-derived antibodies (MDA remains a high priority in human and veterinary medicine. Herein, we present safety and efficacy results from a virulent BRSV challenge of calves with MDA, which were immunized with one of three vaccine candidates that allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA: an SH gene-deleted recombinant BRSV (ΔSHrBRSV, and two subunit (SU formulations based on HRSV-P, -M2-1, and -N recombinant proteins displaying BRSV-F and -G epitopes, adjuvanted by either oil emulsion (Montanide ISA71VG, SUMont or immunostimulating complex matrices (AbISCO-300, SUAbis. Whereas all control animals developed severe respiratory disease and shed high levels of virus following BRSV challenge, ΔSHrBRSV-immunized calves demonstrated almost complete clinical and virological protection five weeks after a single intranasal vaccination. Although mucosal vaccination with ΔSHrBRSV failed to induce a detectable immunological response, there was a rapid and strong anamnestic mucosal BRSV-specific IgA, virus neutralizing antibody and local T cell response following challenge with virulent BRSV. Calves immunized twice intramuscularly, three weeks apart with SUMont were also well protected two weeks after boost. The protection was not as pronounced as that in ΔSHrBRSV-immunized animals, but superior to those immunized twice subcutaneously three weeks apart with SUAbis. Antibody responses induced by the subunit vaccines were non-neutralizing and not directed against BRSV F or G proteins. When formulated as SUMont but not as SUAbis, the HRSV N, P and M2-1 proteins induced strong systemic cross-protective cell-mediated immune responses detectable already after priming. ΔSHrBRSV and SUMont are two promising DIVA-compatible vaccines, apparently inducing

  15. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin. PMID:10101948

  16. The Exocyst Complex in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Deeks, Michael J.; Horton, Connor G.; Dawe, Helen R.; Jourdain, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Exocytosis involves the fusion of intracellular secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, thereby delivering integral membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. Importantly, exocytosis also provides a source of lipid moieties for membrane extension. The tethering of the secretory vesicle before docking and fusion with the plasma membrane is mediated by the exocyst complex, an evolutionary conserved octameric complex of proteins. Recent findings indicate that the exocyst complex also takes part in other intra-cellular processes besides secretion. These various functions seem to converge toward defining a direction of membrane growth in a range of systems from fungi to plants and from neurons to cilia. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of exocyst function in cell polarity, signaling and cell-cell communication and discuss implications for plant and animal health and disease.

  17. Management of Complex Perineal Fistula Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Ricardo Tadayoshi; Rodrigues, Fabio Gontijo; da Silva, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    Management of complex perineal fistulas such as high perianal, rectovaginal, pouch-vaginal, rectourethral, or pouch-urethral fistulas requires a systematic approach. The first step is to control any sepsis with drainage of abscess and/or seton placement. Patients with large, recurrent, irradiated fistulas benefit from stoma diversion. In patients with Crohn's disease, it is essential to induce remission prior to any repair. There are different approaches to repair complex fistulas, from local repairs to transperineal and transabdominal approaches. Simpler fistulas are amenable to local repair. More complex fistulas, such as those secondary to irradiation, require interposition of healthy, well-vascularized tissue. The most common flap used for this treatment is the gracilis muscle with good outcomes reported. Once healing is confirmed by imaging and endoscopy, the stoma is reversed. PMID:27247533

  18. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Pasteurella testudinis associated with respiratory disease and septicaemia in leopard (Geochelone pardalis and other tortoises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded isolates of Pasteurella testudinis from South African tortoises kept in captivity is presented. P. testudinis was found in association with respiratory disease in affected animals.

  20. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  1. Two state model for a constant disease hazard in paratuberculosis (and other bovine diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzoun, Yoram; Mitchell, Rebecca; Behar, Hilla; Schukken, Ynte

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases are characterized by a long and varying sub-clinical period. Two main mechanisms can explain such periods: a slow progress toward disease or a sudden transition from a healthy state to a disease state induced by internal or external events. We here survey epidemiological features of the amount of bacteria shed during Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis (MAP) infection to test which of these two models, slow progression or sudden transition (or a combination of the two), better explains the transition from intermittent and low shedding to high shedding. Often, but not always, high shedding is associated with the occurrence of clinical signs. In the case of MAP, the clinical signs include diarrhea, low milk production, poor fertility and eventually emaciation and death. We propose a generic model containing bacterial growth, immune control and fluctuations. This proposed generic model can represent the two hypothesized types of transitions in different parameter regimes. The results show that the sudden transition model provides a simpler explanation of the data, but also suffers from some limitations. We discuss the different immunological mechanism that can explain and support the sudden transition model and the interpretation of each term in the studied model. These conclusions are applicable to a wide variety of diseases, and MAP serves as a good test case based on the large scale measurements of single cow longitudinal profiles in this disease. PMID:26092587

  2. HERMES European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine: criteria validation and revision

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Sutter; Daiana Stolz; Ortrud Karg; Sharon Mitchell; Alexandra Niculescu; Julie-Lyn Noël; Pippa Powell; Szymon Skoczyński; Johan Verbraecken; Gernot Rohde

    2016-01-01

    Four respiratory medicine disease categories appear in the global top 10 causes of mortality [1], resulting in 600 000 people dying from respiratory disease in Europe each year. The economic burden of respiratory diseases in Europe exceeds 380 billion euros. In a fast-developing environment, new clinical challenges have arisen for pulmonary specialists; techniques and procedures have evolved and become more complex.

  3. Differential effects of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein on bovine neutrophil respiratory burst activity and IL-8 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    During bacterial-mediated diseases of dairy cows, such as mastitis, neutrophils (PMN’s) play a critical role in defending the host against invading pathogens. To carry out this role, PMN’s travel from the blood to the mammary gland in response to a variety of inflammatory mediators, including cytok...

  4. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Donno, Mario Del; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3rd ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2nd if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increas...

  5. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    International audience Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3 rd ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2 nd if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend ...

  6. Upper respiratory tract diseases in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus): prevalence in 20 European zoos and possible predisposing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic upper respiratory tract diseases are severe problems in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, P. pygmaeus), but the etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This study recorded the prevalence of such diseases in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and investigated possible predisposing factors. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs (13.8% of all animals) significantly more often than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and male animals more often (15.8%) t...

  7. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Njiro; C.M. Nkosi

    2009-01-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) proce...

  8. Enabling systems-level analyses of the host response to infectious diseases in bovine and other mammalian species

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravizadeh Foroushani, Amir Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune response is a critical branch of immunity, providing a first line of defense against pathogens and shaping subsequent adaptive immune responses. The complexity of this system necessitates the application of systems-level approaches. InnateDB is an integrated web-accessible database and systems biology platform being developed to facilitate the systems level analysis of innate immunity pathways and networks. One of the aims of this thesis was to enhance InnateDB with bovine ...

  9. How to adapt the pulmonary rehabilitation programme to patients with chronic respiratory disease other than COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Holland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, peripheral muscle dysfunction and mood disorders are common features of many chronic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation successfully treats these manifestations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and emerging evidence suggests that these benefits could be extended to other chronic respiratory conditions, although adaptations to the standard programme format may be required. Whilst the benefits of exercise training are well established in asthma, pulmonary rehabilitation can also provide evidence-based interventions including breathing techniques and self-management training. In interstitial lung disease, a small number of trials show improved exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life following pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a positive development for patients who may have few treatment options. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, exercise training is safe and effective if patients are stable on medical therapy and close supervision is provided. Pulmonary rehabilitation for bronchiectasis, including exercise training and airway clearance techniques, improves exercise capacity and quality of life. In nonsmall cell lung cancer, a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure the success of pulmonary rehabilitation following surgery. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes provide important and underutilised opportunities to improve the integrated care of people with chronic respiratory disorders other than COPD.

  10. How to adapt the pulmonary rehabilitation programme to patients with chronic respiratory disease other than COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anne E; Wadell, Karin; Spruit, Martijn A

    2013-12-01

    Dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, peripheral muscle dysfunction and mood disorders are common features of many chronic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation successfully treats these manifestations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emerging evidence suggests that these benefits could be extended to other chronic respiratory conditions, although adaptations to the standard programme format may be required. Whilst the benefits of exercise training are well established in asthma, pulmonary rehabilitation can also provide evidence-based interventions including breathing techniques and self-management training. In interstitial lung disease, a small number of trials show improved exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life following pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a positive development for patients who may have few treatment options. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, exercise training is safe and effective if patients are stable on medical therapy and close supervision is provided. Pulmonary rehabilitation for bronchiectasis, including exercise training and airway clearance techniques, improves exercise capacity and quality of life. In nonsmall cell lung cancer, a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure the success of pulmonary rehabilitation following surgery. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes provide important and underutilised opportunities to improve the integrated care of people with chronic respiratory disorders other than COPD. PMID:24293474

  11. Exercise training modalities and strategies to improve exercise performance in patients with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P; Rodrigues, F

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and whose daily living activities are often restricted. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote long-term adherence to health-enhancing behavior. Exercise training is at the core of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. The benefits of exercise training include decreased dyspnea, improved health-related quality of life, fewer days of hospitalization, and decreased health-care utilization. To gain PR benefits, patients should be able to complete an exercise training program, preferably with high intensity exercise, and it is likely that these benefits will translate into a change from a pattern of a sedentary lifestyle to a physically active lifestyle. Chronic respiratory patients, namely COPD patients, have a low exercise tolerance due to multiple factors, such as dynamic hyperinflation and peripheral muscle dysfunction. In this article, the authors describe a variety of modalities and strategies to overcome exercise limitations and improve the effects of exercise training. PMID:24290562

  12. Chronic respiratory diseases and quality of life in elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro-Martins, Pedro; Gomes-Belo, Joana; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Caires, Iolanda; Palmeiro, Teresa; Gaspar-Marques, João; Leiria-Pinto, Paula; Mendes, Ana Sofia; Paulo-Teixeira, João; Botelho, Maria Amália; Neuparth, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have assessed the quality of life (QOL) related to chronic respiratory diseases in the elderly. In the framework of the geriatric study on the health effects of air quality in elderly care centers (GERIA) study, a questionnaire was completed by elderly subjects from 53 selected nursing homes. It included various sections in order to assess respiratory complaints, QOL (World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL)-BREF), and the cognitive and depression status. The outcome variables were the presence of a score lower than 50 (current wheezing, asthma, and allergic rhinitis were considered as potential risk factors. The surveyed sample was (n = 887) 79% female, with a mean age of 84 years (SD: 7 years). In the multivariable analysis, a score of <50 in the physical domain was associated with wheezing in the previous 12 months (odds ratio (OR): 2.03, confidence interval (CI): 1.25-3.31) and asthma (OR: 1.95, CI: 1.12-3.38). The psychological domain was related with a frequent cough (OR: 1.43, CI: 0.95-2.91). A score of <50 in the environmental domain was associated with chronic bronchitis (OR: 2.89, CI: 1.34-6.23) and emphysema (OR: 3.89, CI: 1.27-11.88). In view of these findings, the presence of respiratory diseases seems to be an important risk factor for a low QOL among elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26965222

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus prevention in children with congenital heart disease: who and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyun Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of respiratory infection in children. Most of the pediatric population have RSV infection before the age of 2, and recurrent infections are common even within one season. Chronic lung disease, prematurity, along with congenital heart disease (CHD are major risk factors in severe lower respiratory infection. In hemo-dynamically significant CHD patients with RSV infection, hospitalization is usually needed and the possibility of treatment in intensive care unit and the use of mechanical ventilator support are known to increase. Therefore the prevention of RSV infection in CHD patients is mandatory. The current standard for RSV prevention is immunoprophylaxis by palivizumab. Immunoprophylaxis is recommended monthly in hemodynamically significant CHD patients, up to 5 months. Motabizumab, a second generation drug and newly developing RSV vaccines are also expected to play a key role in RSV prevention in the future. The prophylaxis of RSV infection in CHD patients is cost-effective in both the medical aspect of the patients as well as the socio-economic aspect. Therefore an effort to promote prevention should be made by not only the family of the patients but also by the government.

  14. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Reed F. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A. [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E. [Office of the Scientific Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{sub 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.

  15. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log10 PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease

  16. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Li, Xia; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei(Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, Bonn, D-53115, Germany); Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, ...

  17. How do patients die in a rehabilitative unit dedicated to advanced respiratory diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitacca Michele

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidences on how in-hospital COPD patients are cared in a Rehabilitative Respiratory Unit during the last time before death are lacking. This observational study was aimed at 1. analyzing the characteristics of respiratory patients who die in a Rehabilitative Unit dedicated to advanced care; 2. studying the available organizational support related to the dying process and quality of care in the last week of life. Methods Medical records (MR of patients suffering from respiratory disease admitted to a Rehabilitative Respiratory Unit during the last seven years (2005–2011 were collected retrospectively. Only MR of patients who died of respiratory complications were considered. This study describes clinical and demographic variables or information about drugs, procedures, health and unprofessional teams, intervention and interaction, habits and wishes in the last week of life. Results 110 patients out of 2,615 subjects (4.2% died during the period of observation. 87 out of 110 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were aged, males, retired, severely compromised, with previous stays in an acute hospital and with a long stay in our unit. Most of them were married, lived in a small village and were cared at home by a caregiver. One third of patients came from Intensive Care Units. During the last week of life, hours spent under mechanical ventilation were extremely high both for patients under invasive (22.3 ± 3.1 hours and non invasive ventilation (NIV (17.5 ± 3.4 hours. The number of patients who maintained NIV was twice that of the intubated ones. Breathlessness and secretion encumbrance were the main symptoms. Secretion management was necessary in more than 50% of the cases. Communication between patient and doctor was good in the majority (67% of the cases. Patient’s and family wishes, aimed at improving their relationships, were obtained in a high percentage (63% of the cases. Doctors prescribed

  18. Perceived Risk of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease and Immunoprophylaxis Use Among US Pediatric Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah M; Domachowske, Joseph B; Wong, Pierre C; Parimi, Prabhu S; Garcia, Daniel F; Marcus, Michael G; La Via, William V; Syed, Iqra A; Szabo, Shelagh M; McLaurin, Kimmie K; Kumar, Veena R

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the perception of US pediatric specialists of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease risk and determine their clinical practices regarding immunoprophylaxis for high-risk children. Separate surveys were sent to neonatologists, pediatricians, pediatric pulmonologists, and pediatric cardiologists. Data were collected using structured questions requiring quantitative responses. Most neonatologists and pediatricians (>82.7%) reported a high clinical need for RSV immunoprophylaxis in preterm infants Pediatric pulmonologists and pediatric cardiologists suggested that health conditions indicative of chronic lung disease of prematurity and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease, respectively, confer eligibility for RSV immunoprophylaxis. Agreement with the changes in the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics guidance for RSV immunoprophylaxis was mixed among respondents from the 4 specialties. Survey findings may provide a basis to improve education about risk for severe RSV disease and evaluate changes in physician use of RSV immunoprophylaxis based on the 2014 guidance. PMID:26400767

  19. Electrical coupling and excitatory synaptic transmission between rhythmogenic respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Shao, X M; Feldman, J L

    2000-01-01

    Breathing pattern is postulated to be generated by brainstem neurons. However, determination of the underlying cellular mechanisms, and in particular the synaptic interactions between respiratory neurons, has been difficult. Here we used dual recordings from two distinct populations of brainstem...... respiratory neurons, hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons, and rhythmogenic (type-1) neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythm generation, to determine whether electrical and chemical transmission is present. Using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation from newborn...... recordings also demonstrated unidirectional excitatory chemical transmission (EPSPs of approximately 3 mV) between type-1 neurons. These data indicate that respiratory motor output from the brainstem involves gap junction-mediated current transfer between motoneurons. Furthermore, bidirectional electrical...

  20. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M;

    1999-01-01

    . The distribution of NK1R+ neurons anatomically defined the preBötC. Type 1 neurons in the preBötC, which have rhythmogenic properties, expressed both NK1Rs and muORs, whereas type 2 neurons expressed only NK1Rs. These findings suggest that the preBötC is a definable anatomic structure with unique......Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons...... physiological function and that a subpopulation of neurons expressing both NK1Rs and muORs generate respiratory rhythm and modulate respiratory frequency....

  1. The role and importance of club cells (Clara cells) in the pathogenesis of some respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Wojciech; Rokicki, Marek; Wojtacha, Jacek; Dżeljijli, Agata

    2016-03-01

    The report presents the cellular structure of the respiratory system as well as the history of club cells (Clara cells), their ultrastructure, and location in the airways and human organs. The authors discuss the biochemical structure of proteins secreted by these cells and their importance for the integrity and regeneration of the airway epithelium. Their role as progenitor cells for the airway epithelium and their involvement in the biotransformation of toxic xenobiotics introduced into the lungs during breathing is emphasized. This is followed by a discussion of the clinical aspects associated with club cells, demonstrating that tracking the serum concentration of club cell-secreted proteins is helpful in the diagnosis of a number of lung tissue diseases. Finally, suggestions are provided regarding the possible use of proteins secreted by club cells in the treatment of serious respiratory conditions. PMID:27212975

  2. Role of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in the diagnosis of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vooren, P.H.; Kramps, J.A.; Franken, C.; Dijkman, J.H.; Velde, E.A. van der

    1984-04-07

    The predictive value of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was investigated in 472 patients with diseases of the lower respiratory system suspected of an allergic origin. These patients were subjected to inhalation provocation tests with grass pollen, house-dust mites and cat and dog dander. Whereas the history frequently yielded false-positive and false-negative information, both the skin test and the RAST allowed far more reliable prediction, especially in pollen allergy. Negative results of skin test or RAST rendered a specific airway allergy highly improbable. However, in case of anamnestic suspicion corroborated by the skin test and (or) RAST, inhalation tests were still indispensable for the demonstration of respiratory system allergy. (Auth.). 6 refs.

  3. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  4. Species of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory specimens from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive report into the local pattern of mycobacterial isolation. We used the GenoType MTBC and CM/AS assays (Hain Lifescience to perform speciation of 1 096 mycobacterial cultures isolated from respiratory specimens, one culture per patient, in Serbia over a 12-month period. The only species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC identified in our study was M. tuberculosis, with an isolation rate of 88.8%. Ten different species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM were recognized, and the five most frequently isolated species were, in descending order, M. xenopi, M. peregrinum, M. gordonae, M. avium and M. chelonae. In total, NTM isolates accounted for 11.2% of all isolates of mycobacteria identified in pulmonary specimens. Our results suggest that routine differentiation among members of the MTBC is not necessary, while routine speciation of NTM is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175039

  5. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  6. Comparison of chest radiography and static respiratory compliance in the assessment of the severity of pulmonary diseases in newborns with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 55 newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) we compared chest radiographs and static respiratory compliance to see which of the two methods would best characterize the severity of pulmonary disease. There was a significant correlation between radiological score and compliance (rsub(s)=-0.5776, n=55, p=0.001). Healthy newborns, newborns with RDS who did not need artificial ventilation and those newborns who needed respirator treatment had significantly different values of radiological score and compliance. RDS may be differentiated into groups of diagnoses. New-borns with HMD could be separated from those with wet lung syndrome or aspiration pneumonia by analyzing the radiogram or measuring the compliance. When survivors are compared with those newborns who died, the static respiratory compliance alone could predict the final outcome. (orig.)

  7. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania. PMID:25851929

  8. Olfactomedin 4 Serves as a Marker for Disease Severity in Pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H K Brand

    Full Text Available Respiratory viral infections follow an unpredictable clinical course in young children ranging from a common cold to respiratory failure. The transition from mild to severe disease occurs rapidly and is difficult to predict. The pathophysiology underlying disease severity has remained elusive. There is an urgent need to better understand the immune response in this disease to come up with biomarkers that may aid clinical decision making.In a prospective study, flow cytometric and genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed on blood samples of 26 children with a diagnosis of severe, moderate or mild Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection. Differentially expressed genes were validated using Q-PCR in a second cohort of 80 children during three consecutive winter seasons. FACS analyses were also performed in the second cohort and on recovery samples of severe cases in the first cohort.Severe RSV infection was associated with a transient but marked decrease in CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells in peripheral blood. Gene expression analyses in both cohorts identified Olfactomedin4 (OLFM4 as a fully discriminative marker between children with mild and severe RSV infection, giving a PAM cross-validation error of 0%. Patients with an OLFM4 gene expression level above -7.5 were 6 times more likely to develop severe disease, after correction for age at hospitalization and gestational age.By combining genome-wide expression profiling of blood cell subsets with clinically well-annotated samples, OLFM4 was identified as a biomarker for severity of pediatric RSV infection.

  9. Measuring health literacy regarding infectious respiratory diseases: a new skills-based instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS: This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual's reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials were selected to enable measurement of the skills, which were sourced from the WHO, China CDC, and Chinese Center of Health Education. The information involved the distribution of epidemics, immunization programs, early symptoms, means of disease prevention, individual's preventative behavior, use of medications and thermometers, treatment plans and the location of hospitals. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect participants. Psychometric properties were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. RESULTS: The overall degree of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument were 0.693 and 0.482 respectively. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.864. As for validity, six factors were extracted from 30 items, which together explained 47.3% of the instrument's variance. And based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral and internet based information seeking skills (χ(2 = 9.200, P>0.05, GFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.988, AGFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028. CONCLUSION: The new instrument has good reliability and validity, and it could be used to assess the health literacy regarding respiratory infectious disease status of different groups.

  10. A Holistic Approach to Climate and Health Research: Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.

  11. Update on Comparative Studies for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon Gamma (IFN-gamma) Assay with Tuberculins or Alternative Antigens for Whole Blood Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Tuberculosis is a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). It is a major infectious disease found worldwide in domestic animals, particularly cattle, as well as in certain wildlife populations. Although the disease has been effectively eliminated in many countries and reg...

  12. Cysteine scanning reveals minor local rearrangements of the horizontal helix of respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Stefan; Schnick, Christian; Burger, Eva-Maria; Nuber, Franziska; Krämer, Dorothée; Dawitz, Hannah; Brander, Sofia; Matlosz, Bartlomiej; Schäfer, Jacob; Maurer, Katharina; Glessner, Udo; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. The complex consists of a peripheral arm catalyzing the redox reaction and a membrane arm catalyzing proton translocation. The membrane arm is almost completely aligned by a 110 Å unique horizontal helix that is discussed to transmit conformational changes induced by the redox reaction in a piston-like movement to the membrane arm driving proton translocation. Here, we analyzed such a proposed movement by cysteine-scanning of the helix of the Escherichia coli complex I. The accessibility of engineered cysteine residues and the flexibility of individual positions were determined by labeling the preparations with a fluorescent marker and a spin-probe, respectively, in the oxidized and reduced states. The differences in fluorescence labeling and the rotational flexibility of the spin probe between both redox states indicate only slight conformational changes at distinct positions of the helix but not a large movement. PMID:26115017

  13. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Desensitization Process in the Bovine Rhodopsin-Arrestin Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Y.; Ascano, M.; Robinson, P.; Gregurick, S. K.

    2004-01-01

    The deactivation of the bovine G-protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin, is a two-step process consisting of the phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of rhodopsin by rhodopsin kinase. Subsequent binding of the regulatory protein arrestin follows this phosphorylation. Previous results find that at least three phosphorylatable sites on the rhodopsin tail (T340) and at least two of the S338, S334, or S343 sites are needed for complete arrestin-mediated d...

  14. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor-trypsin complex as a detection system for recombinant proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Borjigin, J; Nathans, J

    1993-01-01

    Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) binds to trypsin and anhydrotrypsin (an enzymatically inactive derivative of trypsin) with affinities of 6 x 10(-14) and 1.1 x 10(-13) M, respectively. We have taken advantage of the high affinity and specificity of this binding reaction to develop a protein tagging system in which biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin is used as the reagent to detect recombinant fusion proteins into which BPTI has been inserted. Two proteins, opsin and...

  15. Mobile Genetic Elements Provide Evidence for a Bovine Origin of Clonal Complex 17 of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bruant, Guillaume; Lanotte, Philippe; Brun, Stella; Picard, Bertrand; Rosenau, Agnès; Van Ver Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Rainard, Pascal; Quentin, Roland; Mereghetti, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience We sought an explanation for epidemiological changes in Streptococcus agalactiae infections by investigating the link between ecological niches of the bacterium by determining the prevalence of 11 mobile genetic elements. The prevalence of nine of these elements differed significantly according to the human or bovine origin of the isolate. Correlating this distribution with the phylogeny obtained by multilocus sequence analysis, we observed that human isolates harbor...

  16. Hyaline membrane disease or respiratory distress syndrome? A new approach for an old disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Grappone; Francesco Messina

    2014-01-01

    The term “hyaline membrane disease” refers to the histological aspect of the most frequent pulmonary pathology in preterm newborn patients. The lung of the preterm baby is morphologically and functionally immature. Surfactant deficiency in the immature lungs causes alveolar instability and collapse, capillary edema and the formation of hyaline membrane. Thus, the hyaline membranes are epiphenomena and are not the cause of respiratory failure in infants with immature lungs. This definition is ...

  17. Visualizing the indefinable: three-dimensional complexity of 'infectious diseases'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Leitner

    Full Text Available The words 'infection' and 'inflammation' lack specific definitions. Here, such words are not defined. Instead, the ability to visualize host-microbial interactions was explored.Leukocyte differential counts and four bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Escherichia coli were determined or isolated in a cross-sectional and randomized study conducted with 611 bovine milk samples. Two paradigms were evaluated: (i the classic one, which measures non-structured (count or percent data; and (ii a method that, using complex data structures, detects and differentiates three-dimensional (3D interactions among lymphocytes (L, macrophages (M, and neutrophils (N.Classic analyses failed to differentiate bacterial-positive (B+ from -negative (B- observations: B- and B+ data overlapped, even when statistical significance was achieved. In contrast, the alternative approach showed distinct patterns, such as perpendicular data inflections, which discriminated microbial-negative/mononuclear cell-predominating (MCP from microbial-positive/phagocyte-predominating (PP subsets. Two PP subcategories were distinguished, as well as PP/culture-negative (false-negative and MCP/culture-positive (false-positive observations. In 3D space, MCP and PP subsets were perpendicular to one another, displaying ≥ 91% specificity or sensitivity. Findings supported five inferences: (i disease is not always ruled out by negative bacterial tests; (ii low total cell counts can coexist with high phagocyte percents; (iii neither positive bacterial isolation nor high cell counts always coincide with PP profiles; (iv statistical significance is not synonymous with discrimination; and (v hidden relationships cannot be detected when simple (non-structured data formats are used and statistical analyses are performed before data subsets are identified, but can be uncovered when complexity is investigated.Pattern recognition

  18. 99Tcm-Technegas and krypton-81 m ventilation scintigraphy: a comparison in known respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new radiopharmaceutical 99Tcm-Technegas, a suspension of ultrafine technetium-99m labelled carbon particles, produces high-quality images of ventilation and has the advantage of continuous availability. Technegas was compared with krypton-81m gas in 40 patients with a variety of established respiratory diseases. Disparities were seen in five patients in five diagnostic groups and may be a consequence of differing physical properties of the two agents and the different inhalation techniques used. In addition, on the Technegas images, (1) Hot spots were seen in 50% of patients, particularly in those with a degree of airways obstruction; (2) preferential basal deposition of activity was seen in 30%, particularly in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Both features were significantly associated with parameters of pulmonary function indicating obstructive lung disease in the former case and restrictive lung disease in the latter. (author)

  19. An outbreak in 1965 of severe respiratory illness caused by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S B; Bennett, J V; Tsai, T F; Fraser, D W; McDade, J E; Shepard, C C; Williams, K H; Stuart, W H; Dull, H B; Eickhoff, T C

    1978-10-01

    In January 1977 an unsolved outbreak of infection at St. Elizabeth's Hospital (Washington, D.C.) that occurred in 1965 was linked with Legionnaires' disease. The link was made by fluorescent antibody testing with the bacterium isolated from tissues of persons with Legionnaires' disease in the 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia. In July and August 1965, an epidemic of severe respiratory disease characterized by abrupt onset of high fever, weakness, malaise, and nonproductive cough, frequently accompanied by radiographic evidence of pneumonia, affected at least 81 patients at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a general psychiatric hospital. Fourteen (17%) of the affected patients died. Intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in 1965 did not determine the etiology. The etiologic organism may have become airborne from sites of soil excavation. PMID:361897

  20. Generation of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 Is Not Essential for Virus Replication in Tissue Culture, and the Human RSV Leader Region Acts as a Functional BRSV Genome Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Ursula J.; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In order to generate recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), the genome of BRSV strain A51908, variant ATue51908, was cloned as cDNA. We provide here the sequence of the BRSV genome ends and of the entire L gene. This completes the sequence of the BRSV genome, which comprises a total of 15,140 nucleotides. To establish a vaccinia virus-free recovery system, a BHK-derived cell line stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase was generated (BSR T7/5). Recombinant BRSV was reproducibly re...