Jimenez Lopez, J.
In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths
Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.
Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal
Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies. Mouse and macaque models have begun to unravel the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection in the male reproductive tract, with the testes and prostate gland implicated as potential reservoirs for persistent ZIKV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the male reproductive tract, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection at this site, and prospects for vaccines and therapeutics against persistent ZIKV infection.
Sheldon, I Martin; Wathes, D Claire; Dobson, Hilary
The management of bovine reproduction is the cornerstone of health provision in elite herds. Aims and objectives for reproductive performance should be herd specific and data to monitor progress should not only be frequently collected, but also analysed and reported. Strategic monitoring of animals should include a vaginal examination for evidence of uterine disease, as well as transrectal ultrasonography of the genital tract. There has been considerable advancement in our ability to intervene in the reproduction of cattle during the last 50 years. However, it is salutary to note that during this time fertility has consistently declined, despite increasing veterinary intervention. Most elite herds use artificial insemination and success depends on accurate detection of oestrus expression, but this appears to be less overt than 25 years ago. In addition, half the cattle have abnormal oestrous cycles after parturition and conception rates are decreasing by 1% per year. Risk factors for abnormal oestrous cycles include puerperal problems, negative energy balance, which can be evaluated by body condition scoring, and uterine disease. Bacterial contamination of the uterus is ubiquitous after parturition in cattle and disease disrupts ovarian follicle growth and function. Reproduction is also disrupted by stress associated with clinical disease, pain or a sub-optimal environment. The challenge for veterinarians providing reproduction control programmes to elite herds is to transfer our knowledge of the problems underlying subfertility to the farm, in order to provide effective solutions.
Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.
The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features [Leung et al., accepted manuscript]. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis, both under control of androgen signaling [Leung et al., manuscript in preparation]. A systemic parameter sweep w
Dohle, G R; van Roijen, J H; Pierik, F H; Vreeburg, J T M; Weber, R F A
Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dysfunction may cause severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal spermatogenesis. However, information on spermatogenesis in oligozoospermic men is lacking, since testicular biopsy is not routinely performed. Men with a sperm concentration of scoring method. A testicular biopsy was performed in 78 men with severe oligozoospermia. The medical history showed male accessory gland infection in 12.8%, previous hernia repair in 14.1% and a history of cryptorchidism in 12.8%. A normal or slightly disturbed spermatogenesis (Johnsen score >8) was present in 39/78 (50%) of the men. Hernia repair occurred more often in men with normal spermatogenesis. A varicocele was predominantly seen in men with a disturbed spermatogenesis. FSH was significantly lower ( Preproductive tract is a frequent cause of severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular volume and a normal FSH. In other cases, an epididymal dysfunction might explain the oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular biopsy score.
Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh
Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive...... tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab......-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...
Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study and characterize the lesions in the reproductive tract of Nellore heifers naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum and presenting granular vulvovaginitis syndrome (GVS, fragments of uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva of 20 animals were evaluated. The macroscopic lesions of the vulvovaginal mucosa were classified in scores of “1” mild, until “4”, severe inflammation and pustular or necrotic lesions. The histopathological evaluation was performed using scores of “1” to “4”, according to the inflammatory alterations. The fragments with severe microscopic lesions (3 and 4 were from the uterine tubes and uterus, which showed leukocytes infiltration and destruction and/or necrosis of epithelium. Alterations in the lower reproductive tract fragments were mild, but characteristics of acute inflammatory processes. The histopathological findings of the reproductive tract of females naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum are consistent with injuries that compromise the environment from the local where spermatozoa acquires ability to fertilize an oocyte until those where the oocyte is fertilized. Therefore, animals with GVS should be identified early in the herd, because, besides the reduction in the fertility rates caused by tissue damages, they can contribute to disseminate the microorganism. Key words: bovine, tissue evaluation, reproduction, Ureaplasma diversum.
Gary F Clark
Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.
Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of RTIs and ...
Gonado somatic index was not significantly affected by the three feed used in this study, while those snail fed concentrate alone laid higher number of eggs compared to other feed. It was concluded from this study that concentrates support egg number, organ weight, reproductive tract development and shell increase in size ...
Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.
Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Fraser, Stuart T; Stack, Colin; Šlapeta, Jan
The ability for protozoan parasites to tolerate pH fluctuations within their niche is critical for the establishment of infection and require the parasite to be capable of adapting to a distinct pH range. We used two host adapted Tritrichomonas foetus isolates, capable of infecting either the digestive tract (pH 5.3-6.6) of feline hosts or the reproductive tract (pH 7.4-7.8) of bovine hosts to address their adaptability to changing pH. Using flow cytometry, we investigated the pH tolerance of the bovine and feline T. foetus isolates over a range of physiologically relevant pH in vitro. Following exposure to mild acid stress (pH 6), the bovine T. foetus isolates showed a significant decrease in cell viability and increased cytoplasmic granularity (p-value 0.7). In contrast, the feline genotype displayed an enhanced capacity to maintain cell morphology and viability (p-value > 0.05). Microscopic assessment revealed that following exposure to a weak acidic stress (pH 6), the bovine T. foetus transformed into rounded parasites with extended cell volumes and displays a decrease in viability. The higher tolerance for acidic extracellular environment of the feline isolate compared to the bovine isolate suggests that pH could be a critical factor in regulating T. foetus infections and host-specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive tract in reptiles is used for gender determination, evaluation of breeding status, detection of pathologic changes, and supervising treatment. Whole-body radiographs provide an overview and support detection of mineralized egg shells. Sonography is used to evaluate follicles, nonmineralized eggs, and the salpinx in all reptiles. Computed tomography is able to overcome imaging limitations in chelonian species. This article provides detailed information about the performance of different imaging techniques. Multiple images demonstrate the physiologic appearance of the male and female reproductive tract in various reptile species and pathologic changes. Advantages and disadvantages of radiography, sonography, and computed tomography are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grigsby, Perry W.; Russell, Anthony; Bruner, Deborah; Eifel, Patricia; Koh, Wui-Jin; Spanos, William; Stetz, Joann; Stitt, Judith Anne; Sullivan, Jessie
The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptoms, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed
Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla
Roč. 338, č. 2 (2009), s. 303-311 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk 1M06011; GA ČR GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Reproductive tract * Spermatozoa * Boar Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2009
Larkin, Rebecca; Palmieri, Chiara; Oishi, Motoharu; Hulse, Lyndal; Johnston, Stephen D
Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea. The cauda epididymis was characterised by hypo- and hyper-echoic regions and was most effectively imaged in sagittal section. The koala prostate was assessed using a micro-curved transducer positioned midline, caudal to the bladder. On transverse section, it showed distinct margins and a well-defined internal structure, although the prostatic urethra was not apparent on most scans. To image the bulbourethral glands (BGs), the hockey stick transducer was placed lateral to the cloaca. BGIII was located just below the skin, while BGII was located deeper than BGIII. BGI was too small and not sufficiently echogenic to be detected. The ultrasonographic appearance of the BGs was similar to that of the testes but with more obvious hypo-echoic stippling. This comprehensive review of the ultrasonographic appearance of normal male koala reproductive tract can be used by veterinarians and others, in zoos or those working with wild koalas, during assessment of the reproductive tract of male koalas in relation to seasonal changes in accessory gland function or for the pathological investigation of reproductive lesions and infertility problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reed, Robert B; Cope, Lee A; Blackford, James T
Three reproductively quiescent female emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were embalmed with 10% formalin solution. The reproductive tract was dissected and described. The reproductive tract consists of an ovary and oviduct situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The left ovary is dark brown to black in colour with follicles covering the ventral surface. The ovary is located medial to the spleen and closely associated with the ventral surface of the cranial and middle lobes of the left kidney. The oviduct is a relatively straight tube that extends from the level of the cranial extent of the left ilium to the caudal border of the left pubic bone. The oviduct is grossly divided into the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina using variations in the mucosal fold pattern. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Arturo Duica A.
Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.
Kamińska, D; Gajecka, M
An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species. These molecular studies have contributed new insights regarding the role of bacterial community composition. In this study, we discuss recent findings regarding the reproductive tract microbiome. Not only bacteria but also viruses and fungi constitute important components of the reproductive tract microbiome. We focus on aspects related to the impact of the maternal microbiome on foetal development, as well as the establishment of the neonatal microbiomes, including the placenta microbiome, and the haematogenous source of intrauterine infection. We also discuss whether the role of the vaginal microbiome is currently understood and appreciated.
The Post-Natal Development of the Reproductive Tract of the Springbok Ram Lamb Antidorcas Marsupialis Marsupialis Zimmermann. JD Skinner, J. H. M. Van Zyl. Abstract. A search of the literature has not revealed any reference to the development of the reproductive tract of the male springbok or any quantitative studies ...
French, Hilari M; Dascanio, John J; Gilbert, Gregory E; Robinson, James Q
Gaining experience and dexterity for trans-rectal cattle palpation requires substantial training. Simulation allows students to perform palpation without risks and to obtain feedback, but many believe live cattle palpation is essential. Limited research exists on the proper training method for live animal trans-rectal palpation. This study compared student improvement in laboratory palpation skills when assigned to the same cows versus choosing a cow at random. The hypothesis for the study was that students assigned the same cow, as compared to students choosing a cow at random, would be more accurate at palpation, would learn what structures are present on the ovaries and what size the reproductive tract measures, and would be able to follow the cyclicity of the cow. Cervical diameter, uterine tone, diameter of left and right uterine horns, and ovarian structures were recorded over time. Responses were compared to laboratory instructors' responses and Z-tests for proportions were used to test the differences in percentage correct at each time point for each palpation exercise. Overall the experiment showed that assigning students to certain cows will not improve their trans-rectal palpation training. However, asking students to identify specific landmarks with quantitative measurements did allow for more productive laboratory time and engaged students. The results of the present study also suggest that if there is limited time available for palpation instruction, choosing cows with behavior allowing easy handling is important to the educational process.
Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.
Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K
The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.
Laronda, Monica M; Burdette, Joanna E; Kim, J Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K
The female reproductive tract produces hormones for reproductive function and cardiovascular, bone and sexual health; the tract supplies a finite number of gametes, and it supports fetal development. Diseases that affect each of the female reproductive tract organs, along with treatments that have direct, deleterious effects on the reproductive tract (for example, chemotherapeutics), are understudied due to the lack of model systems that phenocopy in vivo function. This review describes a pat...
Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.
Erin S Kelleher
Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.
Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N
Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in
Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia; Zhong, Huanzi; Dai, Juanjuan; Lan, Zhou; Li, Fei; Yu, Xinlei; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Zirong; Xie, Hailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Zeng, Chunwei; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Liping; Du, Hui; Tang, Huiru; Xu, Changlu; Xia, Yan; Xia, Huihua; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten; Xu, Xun; Li, Junhua; Wu, Ruifang; Jia, Huijue
Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results reflect a microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment. We also identify microbial taxa and potential functions that correlate with the menstrual cycle or are over-represented in subjects with adenomyosis or infertility due to endometriosis. The study provides insight into the nature of the vagino-uterine microbiome, and suggests that surveying the vaginal or cervical microbiota might be useful for detection of common diseases in the upper reproductive tract.Whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbiomes beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here, the authors show a subject-specific continuity in microbial communities at six sites along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment.
Futterer, J.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Spermon, J.R.
The male reproductive system encompasses several organs: the testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. The function of this system is to accomplish reproduction. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), are
Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia
Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...... the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results...
Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N
In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to
César Betancur Hurtado
Full Text Available The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 bulls from the same farms. The serological test used was the ELISA test. A descriptive analysis was carried out, recording data from positives and from negatives sera. A Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables: sex, age, reproductive condition and type of production system, with serological reactivity to the PI-3virus. Concerning the results of the study, the point prevalence for the PI-3 virus found was 13, 5%, and under statistical bases, statistical significance was found between age groups and association was not found for the others variables taken in account for the study. According to the results, it was concluded that the PI-3 virus is present in bovines of Monteria, and that a part of the reproductive failure in females of the region, mostly the return to estrus and abortions, is due to the effect of that pathological entity. Finally, the authors recommend more extensive studies on PI-3 Infection, at the different cattle raising areas of Colombia, a country of 24 million heads.
Rojas, María Del C; Fort, Marcelo; Bettermann, Simone; Entrocassi, Carolina; Costamagna, Sixto R; Sachse, Konrad; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo
Reproductive losses linked to an infectious etiology in bovine cattle are a major economic concern worldwide. In Argentina, more than 50% of abortion cases have unknown causes. Species belonging to Chlamydiaceae family are frequent etiologic agents of abortion around the world; however, there is yet no information on their prevalence in Argentina. The objective of this work was to identify Chlamydia spp., and particularly C. abortus in reproductive losses from bovine cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Real time PCR targeting Chlamydiaceae-specific DNA fragments was performed on 251 samples obtained from bovine abortions and stillborns, and ArrayTube was used for species identification on positive samples. Chlamydiaceae DNA was detected in 12 samples of aborted fetuses (4.78%), 83.33% (10/12) accounting for abortions and 16.66% (2/12) for stillborns. C. abortus was detected by ArrayTube in 5 cases (1.99% of all samples, and 41.67% of Chlamydiaceae positive samples). This study shows the first detection of Chlamydiaceae and C. abortus DNA on reproductive losses of bovine cattle in Argentina, and the described prevalence value (4.78%) should be taken as baseline value due to the type of samples analyzed. Detection of genetic material from Chlamydiaceae not matching any of the studied species could be due to intraspecies variants or local species not yet described. Further research on Chlamydia infections in bovine cattle in Argentina is imperative to describe their range, to analyze their economic and zoonotic implications and to make recommendations about prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Whittier, William D; Hall, John B; Kastelic, John P
Three experiments comparing four estrous synchronization protocols were conducted to determine estrous expression rate and artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) in heifers with a range (1-5) of reproductive tract scores (RTSs). At enrollment (Day 0), 1783 Angus cross beef heifers from six locations were given body condition score and RTS. The four protocols were: (1) HRTS-DPGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received prostaglandin F2α (PGF; Dinoprost 25 mg; im) on Days 0 and 14; (2) HRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received a CIDR (1.3-g progesterone) insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; (3) LRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 4 or less received a CIDR insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; and (4) HRTS-Select-Synch group-heifers with RTS 5 received 100 μg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (gonadotropin releasing homone; im) on Day 7 and PGF on Day 14. In all groups, heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated (within 120 hours after PGF) using the AM-PM rule. In Experiment 1, estrus expression rates were 82.2% (282/343) and 88.5% (184/208) for HRTS-DPGF and LRTS-CIDR-PGF, respectively (P 0.1) and AI-PR were 52.1 (110/211), 60.3 (129/214), and 58.4% (122/209; P > 0.05). In Experiment 3, estrus expression rates were 77.5 (131/169), 85.5 (142/166), and 83.3% (219/263) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch and LRTS-CIDR-PGF (P > 0.05) and AI-PR were 53.3 (90/169), 60.2 (100/166), and 58.6% (154/263; P > 0.1). Overall, estrus expression rates for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch, LRTS-CIDR-PGF, and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups were 80.4 (581/723), 85.5 (142/166), 85.1 (579/680), and 86.9% (186/214), respectively; higher for heifers in LRTS-CIDR-PGF and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups compared to heifers in HRTS-DPGF group (P reproductive performance was reduced compared with other protocols used in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agt-en-ve€nig 2l/2-jarr-oud Merino tamme is ur'n slesiaal geihsuleede en g9ventileercle skuur aangehou op konstante littaamsgewig teen'n kon8tante voedintspeil. Vier is elke maand geslag en velalderinge in ... troversy over the role of nutrition in reproduction but it seems likely that it governs general body condition rather.
JosÃ© Luis Espinoza Villavicencio
Full Text Available Reproduction is the basis of bovine meat and milk production: As a direct result of reproduction, the cycles of calf and milk production are renewed. However, there are many limiting steps in this process as: low pregnancy rates and long open days that result in increasing parturition intervals. Reproductive efficiency in dairy and beef cattle is multifactorial. Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting this efficiency, and some results have shown that feeding diverse sources of lipids and specifically, fatty acids (FA can result in a better reproductive efficiency. As a nutrition strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, FA of the omega 3 (n-3 and omega 6 (n-6 families have been studied, and it has been shown that these FA can control follicular development, production of progesterone in the corpus luteum, and secretion of PGF2Î± from the endometrium, increasing embryonic survival and pregnancy rates. The purpose of this revision is to analyze the possible mechanisms by which FA in the diet improve reproductive efficiency of cows, with especial emphasis on FA n-3 and n-6.
Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia
Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...
A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of the eland bull Taurotragus oryx. J.D. Skinner, J.A.H. Heerden, J.H.M. van Zyl. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB...
Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke
This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent and ...
van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Morrison, Charles S.; Brown, Joelle; Kwok, Cynthia; van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Byamugisha, Josaphat K.; Padian, Nancy; Salata, Robert A.
Objective: To estimate the effects of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on HIV acquisition among Zimbabwean and Ugandan women. Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study enrolled 4439 HIV-uninfected women aged 18 to 35 attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda.
The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. Beef heifers and cows (n=122), seronegative and virus negative for BVDV, were randomly ...
Young, C D; Schrick, F N; Pohler, K G; Saxton, A M; Di Croce, F A; Roper, D A; Wilkerson, J B; Edwards, J L
We developed a reproductive tract size and position score (SPS) system as a reproductive management tool to identify lactating dairy cows with decreased fertility. This system, relying solely on transrectal palpation, considers the size (cervical and uterine) and position of the reproductive tract relative to the pelvis. Cows undergoing pre-breeding exams were identified as having reproductive tracts that were small (SPS1), medium (SPS2), or large (SPS3). Cows designated SPS1 had small and compact uterine horns that rested within the pelvic cavity; SPS2 cows had reproductive tracts that were intermediate in cervical and uterine horn diameter, with longer uterine horns resting partially outside the pelvic cavity; and SPS3 cows had reproductive tracts that were larger and rested mostly outside the pelvic cavity. Cows that were SPS1 had a higher rate of pregnancy per artificial insemination (43.3 ± 3.7%) than cows that were SPS2 (36.9 ± 3.6%) or SPS3 (27.7 ± 4.3%). The percentage of cows with an SPS2 score differed in pregnancies per artificial insemination compared with SPS3 cows. The average days in milk was similar for SPS1, SPS2, and SPS3 cows (104.3 ± 3.5, 98.4 ± 3.4, and 94.7 ± 7.7, respectively). Ultrasound measurements of the uterine horn and cervical diameter, and length measurements of the uterine horns, cervix, and vagina confirmed differences among the SPS groups derived by transrectal palpation. The ease with which transrectal palpation can be used to determine the size and position of the reproductive tract attests to the relevance and usefulness of this scoring system to identify less fertile lactating dairy cows. The ability to do so with ease provides an opportunity to make economically relevant management decisions and maximize reproductive efficiency in a given herd. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
García-Martínez, S; Sánchez-Hurtado, M A; Gutiérrez, H; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Romar, R; Latorre, R; Coy, P; López-Albors, O
Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions. Despite advances in surgical procedures and sensitive probes that allow accurate assessment of in vivo O2 tension, few such studies have been conducted recently in mammals. In addition, no reference values of physiological O2 tension in the reproductive tract exist for large animal models such as pig, and the effect of O2 tension on ART outcomes is unknown. This study was conducted in pigs. We measured oviductal and uterine O2 tension (n = 29 and 13 respectively) and then examined how the use of the physiological values in pig IVF and EC affected pig ART output (n = 1447 oocytes). The oviductal and uterine O2 tension at the different stages of the estrous cycle was monitored using a laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) assisted approach along with a flexible and thin miniaturized luminescent probe. Two groups of pigs, Large-white x Landrace breed, were used: for the first group, 16 pre-pubertal gilts (5 months old and 95 kg) were induced to ovulate with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); in the second group 13 mature sows (24-48 months and 185 kg) were used. IVF and EC were performed at two different O2 tensions: Atmospheric O2 (20%) and the mean in vivo value measured (7%). At 18-20 hours post-insemination (hpi), a small sample of presumptive zygotes were fixed, stained, and examined under epifluorescence microscopy to assess the fertilization rates. At
Girling, Jane E; Hedger, Mark P
Interactions between the immune system and reproductive system have important consequences for fertility and reproductive health in general. There is increasing evidence that many of the interactions between the immune and reproductive systems involve the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While there is no doubt that TLRs are important in providing protection against infection in the reproductive tract, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of TLRs in more basic pathology and physiology of reproduction. In the female, TLRs have been implicated in critical aspects of ovarian, endometrial and placental function, as well as in ovarian cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth. In the male, TLRs appear to play a role in the control of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in disease and, potentially, during normal function, as well. Recent studies also have begun to highlight the role of various TLRs in the aetiology of prostatitis and prostatic cancer. Given the nascent state of knowledge concerning this important area, it is clear that more studies are needed, which should provide valuable new insights into the biology of the TLRs and reproductive function in general.
The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows
Full Text Available Several reports suggest the participation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in progesterone signaling in the reproductive system. This study aimed at investigating the presence and localization of PGRMC1 in bovine ovary, oviduct and uterus, during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. In the ovary, PGRMC1 has been detected in surface germinal epithelium, granulosa cells, theca cells and in the germinal vesicle of the oocytesat all stages of folliculogenesis. In the corpus luteum the expression of PGRMC1 was influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. In the oviducts and in the uterus horns, PGRMC1 was immunolocalized in the luminal epithelium, in the muscle layer cells and in the endothelial cells. In the uterus, PGRMC1 was intensely localized also in the glandular endometrium. However, in the oviducts and in the uterus horns, the localization of PGRMC1 was independent on the stage of the estrous cycle and on whether evaluating the ipsilateral or the contralateral organ. In conclusion, the present immunohistochemical study showed that PGRMC1 is located in various compartments of the bovine female reproductive organs. With the exception of the corpora lutea, PGRMC1 localization showed similar pattern during different stage of the estrous cycle.
Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy
BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated d......BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well......-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI....... METHOD: The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea...
Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra
Roč. 78, č. 1 (2008), s. 40-48 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : porcine seminal plasma proteins * boar reproductive tract * spermatozoa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2008
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC, bacterial vaginosis (BV and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH. Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12% followed by chlamydia (1.3% and trichomoniasis (0.7%. The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance
W. P Lemos
Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.
Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S
The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows.
Full Text Available The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels.
Lemos,Walkymário de Paulo; Ramalho,Francisco de Souza; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola
The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner) larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of mero...
Rahwa A. Osman
Full Text Available Bovine natural killer (NK cells were originally defined by the NK activation receptor CD335 [natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46], but following the discovery of NKp46 expression on human T-cells, the definition of conventional bovine NK cells was modified to CD335+CD3− cells. Recently, a bovine T-cell population co-expressing CD335 was identified and these non-conventional T-cells were shown to produce interferon (IFN-γ and share functional properties with both conventional NK cells and T-cells. It is not known, however, if CD335+ bovine T-cells are recruited to mucosal surfaces and what chemokines play a role in recruiting this unique T-cell subpopulation. In this study, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1, which is closely related to herpes simplex virus-1, was used to investigate bovine lymphocyte cell populations recruited to the upper respiratory tract following a primary respiratory infection. Immunohistochemical staining with individual monoclonal antibodies revealed significant (P < 0.05 recruitment of CD335+, CD3+, and CD8+ lymphocyte populations to the nasal turbinates on day 5 following primary BHV-1 infection. Dual-color immunofluorescence revealed that cells recruited to nasal turbinates were primarily T-cells that co-expressed both CD335 and CD8. This non-conventional T-cell population represented 77.5% of CD355+ cells and 89.5% of CD8+ cells recruited to nasal turbinates on day 5 post-BHV-1 infection. However, due to diffuse IFN-γ staining of nasal turbinate tissue, it was not possible to directly link increased IFN-γ production following BHV-1 infection with the recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. Transcriptional analysis revealed CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL9 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05 upregulated in nasal turbinate tissue following BHV-1 infection. Therefore, no single chemokine was associated with recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. In conclusion, the specific recruitment of CD335+ and CD8
Fabio Morato Monteiro
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.
Rezeberga, Dace; Lazdane, Gunta; Kroica, Juta; Sokolova, Ludmila; Donders, Gilbert G G
To investigate the correlation of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and endogenous vaginal flora at first antenatal consultation with placental histological inflammation. In a follow-up study, 154 low risk women with no miscarriage risk factors were examined for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (GDS) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). At delivery, outcome data were collected and the histology of the placenta was studied. Some 85 (56.3%) of all pregnant women had RTI or endogenous vaginal flora. Placental histological inflammation correlated with genital tract colonisation with G. vaginalis (p =0.013), BV (p =0.031), S. aureus (p =0.04) and aerobic vaginitis (p =0.017). BV and BV-related G. vaginalis correlated with the presence of parietal and placental chorioamnionitis in 53.8 and 43.5% of cases. Genital tract colonisation with GDS and other aerobic flora in combination with inflammatory vaginitis correlated with the presence of funisitis in 33.3 and 40.0% of cases. Mycoplasmas increased the risk for intrauterine infection only when present in combination with other RTIs (p =0.023). Histological placental inflammation is associated with both BV and genital tract colonisation with aerobic bacteria, while funisitis is associated with colonisation of aerobic bacteria at first prenatal visit before the 17th gestational week.
Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N
In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system
Azarvandi, A; Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Gharahgouzlou, F; Vahedi, G; Sharifzadeh, A
Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, and on the skin and other mucosa in mammals. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify yeast flora in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. Longitudinal study. A total of 453 samples were collected using double-guarded swabs from the vestibule, clitoral fossa and vagina in 151 horses. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar and incubated at 35°C for 7-10 days. Isolates were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profiles. Yeast colonies were isolated from 60 (39.7%) of the 151 horses. The isolated yeasts belonged to nine genera, and included Candida spp. (53.2%), Cryptococcus spp. (12.2%), Saccharomyces spp. (10.5%), Geotrichum spp. (8.0%), Rhodotorula spp. (7.1%), Malassezia spp. (3.7%), Trichosporon spp. (2.6%), Kluyveromyces spp. (2.6%) and Sporothrix spp. (0.2%). Candida krusei (43.1%) was the most frequent Candida species isolated. There was a significant difference in prevalence between C. krusei and other Candida species (Pyeast isolates (48.0%) than the vagina (18.3%). The isolation of yeast colonies from multiparous females (76.8%) was significantly higher than from maiden mares (P<0.05). The study was limited by the difficulty of distinguishing between normal flora and potential pathogens. Candida spp., in particular C. krusei, represent important flora resident in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. This is particularly important in contexts that require the initiation of empirical treatment prior to the completion of culture results. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.
Stevenson, J L; Rodrigues, J A; Braga, F A; Bitente, S; Dalton, J C; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reproductive protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcomes of breeding programs. Holstein heifers (n = 534), 13 +/- 1 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 reproductive protocols. On the day of enrollment (d 0), heifers were palpated per rectum and received a score according to the maturity of their reproductive tract (1 = prepubertal; 2 = peripubertal; and 3 = puber-tal). Estrous detection-control heifers (CON, n = 146) received no treatment and were inseminated on detection of estrus for 28 d. Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-treated heifers (PGED, n = 137) received 1 injection of PGF(2alpha) on d 0 and were inseminated on detection of estrus; heifers not in-seminated by d 14 received a second injection of PGF(2alpha) and were observed for estrus and artificial insemination (AI) for an additional 14 d. Heifers enrolled in the estrous detection-timed AI (EDTAI, n = 140) treatment received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert on d 0, and 7 d later, the CIDR was removed and all heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), heifers received AI on detection of estrus, and those not inseminated by 72 h after PGF(2alpha) received an injection of GnRH concurrent with AI. Heifers in the GnRH-timed AI (GTAI, n = 111) treatment received 1 injection of GnRH on d 0, on d 6 heifers received a CIDR insert and injections of GnRH and PGF(2alpha), on d 13 the CIDR was removed and heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), and 48 h later all heifers received an injection of GnRH and AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 +/- 3 and 62 +/- 3 d after AI. Cost of reproductive protocols and their economic outcomes were calculated for a 28 d period beginning at enrollment. Heifers in the PGED treatment were inseminated at a faster rate than CON heifers. A smaller proportion of prepubertal and peripubertal heifers were inseminated within 14 d of enrollment
Thomas, Manoj A; Narayan, Poornima
Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are the cause of severe gynecological and maternal morbidity in India. In marginalized communities, women persevere quietly when faced with a culturally sensitive health issue such as an RTI. To hypothesize on the differential health behavior and low levels of reported incidents among women living in marginalized communities, we undertake an exploratory study in a coastal fishermen community in South India. We identify barriers influencing decisions to seek curative and preventive medical care. Public health practitioners and social workers may find our recommendations relevant for addressing health issues in marginalized communities.
Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne
, since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed......The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex...
Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Kerr, Peter
The antibody response in serum and the reproductive tract of female rabbits to a model antigen, influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA), encoded by a recombinant myxoma virus was investigated. Strong and lasting IgG antibody responses to HA were induced in serum following intradermal, intranasal, and intravaginal immunisations. HA IgG was also detected in reproductive tract fluids but was only about 1% the titer of that in serum. HA IgA was not detected in serum of any infected groups and was occasionally detected in reproductive tract fluids at a low titer only after infections through mucosal sites. HA IgM was also detected only in some of the reproductive tract fluids at very low levels. Induction of ovulation did not change these patterns and B cell homing to the reproductive tract was not profound. In contrast, HA IgG and IgM titers in ovarian follicular fluids were comparable to that in serum. These data suggest that if this virus is used to deliver an immunocontraceptive vaccine that requires a high-level antibody response, the target antigen needs to be accessible to serum antibody or in the ovary
de Boer, Melvin; Buddle, Bryce M; Heuer, Cord; Hussein, Hassan; Zheng, Tao; LeBlanc, Stephen J; McDougall, Scott
Reproductive tract bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, can have a negative impact on reproductive performance. It has been hypothesized that the presence of E coli early postpartum may increase the risk of isolation of T pyogenes later postpartum. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between intrauterine bacterial infections with E coli and T pyogenes and any bacterial growth (irrespective of bacterial species), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), cytologic evidence of endometritis (an increased proportion of polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]), and reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 272) from six herds were examined at Days 0 (median, 2 days in milk), 21 and 42 postpartum. From each cow two intrauterine samples were collected via triple-guarded cytobrush at Days 0 and 21. The first cytobrush was used for bacteriologic culture. Escherichia coli and T pyogenes were isolated by culture, and E coli isolates were assigned to one of four phylogenetic groups using a two-step triplex polymerase chain reaction. In addition, T pyogenes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The second cytobrush was used to prepare a cytology slide. Nucleated cells (n = 200) were categorized as epithelial cells, PMNs, or macrophages. Cows were also assessed for body condition score, PVD score, the presence of a CL, and pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariable models. There was no association between the presence of E coli at Day 0 and probability of isolation of T pyogenes 3 weeks later; however, E coli positive cows at Day 0 were more likely to be diagnosed with E coli at Day 21 (relative risk [RR] = 2.0, P bacterial growth at Day 21, irrespective of species, were less likely to conceive within 3 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding program (RR = 0.8; P = 0.05). Interestingly, cows with 25% PMNs or greater at Day 0 had shorter time to pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.32; P
Rosângela C. Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Ovine/caprine ureaplasmas have not yet been assigned a species designation, but they have been classified into nine serotypes. Herein ureaplasmas were searched for in 120 samples of vulvo vaginal mucous from sheep and 98 samples from goats at 17 farms. In addition, semen samples were collected from 11 sheep and 23 goats. The recovered ureaplasma were from sheep and goats from animals without any reproductive disorder symptoms, but not all animals presented positive cultures. In sheep, 17 (68% cultures of vulvovaginal mucous were positive for ureaplasma and 11 (27% samples of semen presented positive cultures in animals with clinical signs of orchitis, balanoposthitis or low sperm motility. In goats four ureaplasma isolates were obtained from vulvovaginal mucus, but the semen samples were all negative. The isolates were submitted to Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis methodology and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Fifty percent of ureaplasma recovered from sheep allowed for PFGE typing. Eleven isolates showed eight profiles genetically close to the bovine ureaplasmas. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed differences or similarities of isolates from sheep and goats, and the reference strains of bovine and human ureaplasma. Four clinical isolates from sheep were grouped separately. The studied ureaplasma isolates showed to be a diverse group of mollicutes.
Ziehmer, B; Ogle, S; Signorella, A; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A
The anatomy and histology of the female reproductive tract of the Indonesian wild pig Babyrousa celebensis was studied by means of reproductive tracts obtained from seven animals aged between two and 22 years of age. The ovary appeared to have the ability to ovulate up to four ova at one time. However, the combined ovarian output seemed to average 1.86 ova. Ovulation can take place at any time from puberty to old age (22 years). The opening to the uterine tube was indicated by a 'flower-like' array of tall, broad epithelial 'petals' arising from the luminal surface of the funnel. The mucosal surfaces of these structures were covered in a mixture of prominent ciliated cells and bulbous secretory cells. The uterine tube followed a tightly convoluted path to the tip of the uterine horn. The uterus was proportionately short. The anatomical construction of the uterus was similar to those of other suids in that the columnar endometrium was heavily folded, there was a rich supply of uterine glands in the lamina propria, and the uterus was provided with a good blood supply. The cervix was thick walled and had a spiral lumen. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.
Sushama A. Khopkar
Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.
Erickson, B.H.; Reynolds, R.A.
To determine the radioresponse of the various developmental stages of the prenatal bovine germ cell, cows bearing foetuses varying in age from 40+-5 (point of gonadal sex differentiation) to 270+-10 (approximately 13 days before parturition) days of gestation were irradiated with 300 R of 60 Co gamma radiation at 25-50 R/min, a level just below that likely to cause maternal deaths and gross foetal abnormalities at some developmental stages. Dose to the foetal gonad was approximately 100 rad. When the prenatally irradiated heifers were approximately 10 months old their ovaries were recovered at slaughter, serially sectioned, and prepared for microscopic analysis. A complete quantitative analysis of oocytes in primordial, growing and vesicular follicles was effected. Follicular development (reflected by counts of growing and vesicular follicles) was apparently unaffected at all ages tested (P>0.25), whereas oogenesis (reflected by counts of oocytes in primordial follicles) was significantly impeded (64% of control) only between 70 and 90 days of gestation (P<0.05). The germ-cell population at this period differs from later developmental stages principally by the presence of a high proportion of mitotically active oogonia, hence it appears that the oogonium is the most vulnerable cell type. Neither the viability nor reproductive performance of 60 cows that were prenatally irradiated (100 rad) at either 80+-10 or 130+-20 days of gestation was affected through a minimum of 5 years of postnatal life and three pregnancies. (author)
Chipepa, J.A.S.; Brown, H.; Holmes, P.
A study was conducted to establish whether Trypanosoma brucei migrated preferentially to the reproductive tracts of female BKA mice, or Hooded Lister rats and lodged there as the site of choice compared to other organs. Blood flow to the reproductive tracts, the liver and spleen was measured using red blood cells labelled with chromium- 51. The distribution of trypanosomes labelled with 75 Se-methionine. The average percentage of the blood flow to the reproductive tract was 0.21Plus or minus0.08 in mice, while the mean concentration of trypanosomes there was 0.30% in both mice and rats. Blood flow to the liver was lower than the percentage distribution of Se-labelled T.Brucei(5.17Plus or minus1.34 versus 8.1Plus or Minus1.2). There were, on the contrary, less labelled trypanosomes as compared to the mean blood flow to the spleen (0.54% plus or minus0.18 versus 2.10%pPlus or minus0.88). After 24 hours there were adequate numbers of T. brucei in the reproductive tract to cause parasitaemia in recipient mice. From these preliminary data it was concluded that T. brucei did not lodge in the reproductive organ system a site of choice. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs
Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R.; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui
Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. While their choosiness towards egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females’ search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here we show that distention/contraction of females’ internal reproductive tract triggered by egg-delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers acetic acid attraction in non-egg-laying females whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model to dissect the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. PMID:25373900
Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed
Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were us...
Suarez David L
Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.
Styková, E; Nemcová, R; Valocký, I; Novotný, F; Guba, P
In the present study, we examined the adherence of indigenous vaginal bacteria, probiotic strains, and metritis pathogens to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tracts of heifers and cows and compared their adherence with the bacterial adherence to mucus collected from the stomach and large intestine of pigs. Most of the vaginal strains adhered to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract and strongly adhered to gastric mucus, with the exception of Lactobacillus buchneri 24S8. Only Lactobacillus mucosae 29S8, Enterococcus faecium E21, and E. faecium EAC adhered to colonic mucus. Probiotic strains adhered strongly to mucus collected from the reproductive tract and gastric mucus but did not adhere to colonic mucus. Pathogenic strains were adherent to vaginal, uterine horn, and gastric mucus, except Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 (65), Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which adhered to uterine cervix mucus. Only Kocuria kristinae and G. vaginalis adhered to uterine body mucus; E. coli O149:K88ac (EC) adhered to colonic mucus. The strains did not exhibit host specificity but rather strain specificity. The ability to adhere to mucus was a characteristic unique to each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro adherence of GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) lactobacilli isolated from different sources to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract.
van de Wijgert, Janneke; Altini, Lydia; Jones, Heidi; de Kock, Alana; Young, Taryn; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hoosen, Anwar; Coetzee, Nicol
To assess the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of 2 methods of self-sampling compared to clinician sampling during a speculum examination. To improve screening for reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in resource-poor settings. In a public clinic in Cape Town, 450 women underwent a speculum
Müştak, Hamit Kaan; Günaydin, Elçin; Kaya, İnci Başak; Salar, Merve Özdal; Babacan, Orkun; Önat, Kaan; Ata, Zafer; Diker, Kadir Serdar
Escherichia coli is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis worldwide, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. Besides this, E. coli strains which belong to the extra-intestinal pathogenic group are also the major cause of urinary tract infections and pyometra in dogs. In this study, it was aimed to investigate phylo-groups/subgroups in 155 E. coli isolates obtained from acute bovine mastitis, 43 from urinary tract infections of dogs and 20 from canine pyometra by a formerly described triplex PCR and recently described new quadruplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Group A1 (n = 118; 76%) and B1 (n = 71; 46%) were found to be the most prevalent groups by triplex and quadruplex PCR assays in mastitis isolates, respectively. Phylo-typing of 43 urinary tract isolates also revealed that most of the isolates belonged to A1 (n = 23; 54%) by triplex and B2 (n = 36; 84%) by quadruplex PCR assays. The isolates assigned as group A1 (n = 17; 85%) by triplex PCR could not be classified by quadruplex PCR in pyometra isolates. The results support the hypothesis that E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases are environmental. Also, groups C, E and F were identified as new phylo-groups for the first time in acute bovine mastitis cases. The comparison of triplex PCR with quadruplex PCR results revealed that most of the groups assigned in triplex PCR were altered by quadruplex PCR assay.
Anthonio O. Adefuye
Full Text Available Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT, inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of reproductive tract infection (RTI and its associated factors among married women of reproductive age group (15–49 yrs. Method. A cross sectional approach was employed. The study collected data of symptoms suggestive of RTI experienced in the previous six months according to World Health Organization (WHO syndromic approach guideline. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data and data were entered into EPI data and transferred into SPSS (16 version for further analysis. Chi square was used for statistical analysis. Result. Among 258 married women the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of RTI was found to be 39.9%. Low back pain, vaginal discharge, and low abdominal pains were common symptoms reported in study. Irregular menstrual cycle, sexual contact during menstruation, marriage below 19 yrs, pregnancy below 20 yrs, high parity, delivery at home, and use of temporary family planning device were significant risk factors for prevalence of RTI symptoms. Conclusion. RTI still remains neglected by married women. Training and education session needs to be carried out to identify the early symptoms of RTI. Awareness about marriage and pregnancy after 19 yrs of age, sex education, delivery at health institution by health personnel, menstrual and personnel hygiene, and use of the condom are needed for prevention of RTI.
María Y. Makuch
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.
Sandra B. Santos
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.
Amaral, Wellington Z; Lubach, Gabriele R; Kapoor, Amita; Proctor, Alexandra; Phillips, Gregory J; Lyte, Mark; Coe, Christopher L
The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in their cervicovaginal fluid (CVF); (iii) examine the composition and structure of their mucosal microbiota with culture-independent sequencing methods; and (iv) evaluate the potential influence on reproductive success. CVF specimens were obtained from 27 female rhesus monkeys for Gram's staining, and to determine acidity (pH), and quantify proinflammatory cytokines. Based on Nugent's classification, 40% had a score of 7 or higher, which would be indicative of BV in women. Nugent scores were significantly correlated with the pH of the CVF. Interleukin-1ß was present at high concentrations, but not further elevated by high Nugent scores. Vaginal swabs were obtained from eight additional females to determine microbial diversity by rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At the phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was low. The relative abundance of Lactobacilli was also low (between 3% and 17%), and 11 other genera were present at >1%. However, neither the microbial diversity in the community structure, nor high Nugent scores, was associated with reduced fecundity. Female monkeys provide an opportunity to understand how reproductive success can be sustained in the presence of a diverse polymicrobial community in the reproductive tract. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great
Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J
The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A
Rosenkrans, Kelly S; Hardin, David K
The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability and accuracy of palpation per rectum to transrectal ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations for determining pubertal status in beef heifers. One hundred and seventy-four rectal examinations were performed on 29 predominantly Angus heifers by two veterinarians (A and B) and assigned individual reproductive tract scores (RTS) during monthly examinations over a 3-month period. Heifers were examined in the morning by both veterinarians, randomized, and re-examined in the afternoon. The size and location of ovarian structures of each heifer were determined by ultrasonography. Heifers with follicles >10mm in diameter or corpora lutea were classified as pubertal. Serum progesterone concentrations at the time of the examination and 10 days later were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to classify heifers as prepubertal (or=1 ng/ml). Kappa, which describes degree of agreement beyond chance, was used to determine repeatability of the RTS system. Multicategory Kappa for agreement was 0.64 within veterinarian, 0.46 between veterinarian, and 0.35 between palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography. Sensitivity and specificity of palpation per rectum for diagnosis of pubertal status compared to serum progesterone levels were higher (82 and 69%, respectively) than sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (79 and 59%, respectively). This study validates the RTS system as a repeatable and accurate screening test to evaluate pubertal status in groups of heifers prior to the onset of the breeding season.
da Silva, Lucia Regina Cangussu
Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive. There is also the possibility, as has been demonstrated in mouse models, that the vaginal deposition of ZIKV particles present in semen could lead to congenital syndrome. In this paper, we review the current literature to understand ZIKV trafficking from the bloodstream to the human male reproductive tract and viral interactions with host cells in interstitial spaces, tubule walls, annexed glands and semen. We hope to highlight gaps to be filled by future research and potential routes for vaccine and antiviral development.
Roan, Nadia R; Jakobsen, Martin R
The female reproductive tract (FRT) is a major site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There currently exists a poor understanding of how the innate immune system is activated upon HIV transmission and how this activation may affect systemic spread of HIV from the FRT. However, multiple mechanisms for how HIV is sensed have been deciphered using model systems with cell lines and peripheral blood-derived cells. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the field of HIV innate immune sensing and place this in the context of the FRT. Because HIV is somewhat unique as an STD that thrives under inflammatory conditions, the response of cells upon sensing HIV gene products can either promote or limit HIV infection depending on the context. Future studies should include investigations into how FRT-derived primary cells sense and respond to HIV to confirm conclusions drawn from non-mucosal cells. Understanding how cells of the FRT participate in and effect innate immune sensing of HIV will provide a clearer picture of what parameters during the early stages of HIV exposure determine transmission success. Such knowledge could pave the way for novel approaches for preventing HIV acquisition in women.
Carias, Ann M.; McCoombe, Scott; McRaven, Michael; Anderson, Meegan; Galloway, Nicole; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fought, Angela J.; Lurain, John; Duplantis, Maurice; Veazey, Ronald S.
Worldwide, HIV-1 infects millions of people annually, the majority of whom are women. To establish infection in the female reproductive tract (FRT), HIV-1 in male ejaculate must overcome numerous innate and adaptive immune factors, traverse the genital epithelium, and establish infection in underlying CD4+ target cells. How the virus achieves this remains poorly defined. By utilizing a new technique, we define how HIV-1 interacts with different tissues of the FRT using human cervical explants and in vivo exposure in the rhesus macaque vaginal transmission model. Despite previous claims of the squamous epithelium being an efficient barrier to virus entry, we reveal that HIV-1 can penetrate both intact columnar and squamous epithelial barriers to depths where the virus can encounter potential target cells. In the squamous epithelium, we identify virus entry occurring through diffusive percolation, penetrating areas where cell junctions are absent. In the columnar epithelium, we illustrate that virus does not transverse barriers as well as previously thought due to mucus impediment. We also show a statistically significant correlation between the viral load of inocula and the ability of HIV-1 to pervade the squamous barrier. Overall, our results suggest a diffusive percolation mechanism for the initial events of HIV-1 entry. With these data, we also mathematically extrapolate the number of HIV-1 particles that penetrate the mucosa per coital act, providing a biological description of the mechanism for HIV-1 transmission during the acute and chronic stages of infection. PMID:23966398
Al-Saaidi, Jabbar Abbas Ahmed; Khudair, Khalisa Khadim; Al-Kafaji, Sura Safe Aubaes
The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal MPA sponge (60 mg for 12 days). Ewes were treated at 0, 28, and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28, and 50 days (AI group). After mating with Awassi rams, pregnancy and embryo number were diagnosed using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of pregnancy, for assessment of estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels. After parturition, numbers of delivered lambs were recorded. The results revealed significant increase of P4 and significant decrease of E2 levels in SI and AI pregnant ewes than controls at 30, 60 and 90 day. Newborn number increased significantly in SI and AI treated than control ewes. Active or passive immunization against endogenous inhibin could augment reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.
Elzeinova, Fatima; Novakova, Vendula; Buckiova, Daniela; Kubatova, Alena; Peknicova, Jana
The effect of a low dose of vinclozolin within the development of the reproductive tract during gestation (VIN-GD 15-22) and puberty (VIN-PND 23-44) in CD1 mice was tested. We found a decrease in the anogenital distance, prostate weight and pathology of testes in both experimental groups. Sperm counts decreased to 46% (VIN-GD) and to 81% (VIN-PND), and also the acrosomal state (evaluated by antiacrosomal antibody) decreased in both groups to 89% in comparison to the control group (100%). Sperm head abnormalities increased by approximately 18% and 13%, respectively. In this connection, the expression of some genes was changed (arosome-related gene (Acr), apoptosis related genes (p53, p21)). In conclusion, a low dose of vinclozolin affected the reproductive tract, sperm parameters and expression of selected genes in both experimental groups.
Walz, Paul H; Riddell, Kay P; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Neill, John D; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Cortese, Victor S; Scruggs, Daniel W; Short, Thomas H
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral cause of reproductive disease, immune suppression and clinical disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. BVDV negative beef heifers and cows (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Groups A-C (n = 34/group) received two pre-breeding doses of one of three commercially available multivalent vaccines containing inactivated fractions of BVDV 1 and BVDV 2, and Group D (n = 20) served as negative control and received two doses of saline prior to breeding. Animals were bred, and following pregnancy diagnosis, 110 cattle [Group A (n = 31); Group B (n = 32); Group C (n = 31); Group D (n = 16)] were subjected to a 28-day exposure to cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV (1a, 1b and 2a). Of the 110 pregnancies, 6 pregnancies resulted in fetal resorption with no material for testing. From the resultant 104 pregnancies, BVDV transplacental infections were demonstrated in 73 pregnancies. The BVDV fetal infection rate (FI) was calculated at 13/30 (43%) for Group A cows, 27/29 (93%) for Group B cows, 18/30 (60%) for Group C cows, and 15/15 (100%) for Group D cows. Statistical differences were observed between groups with respect to post-vaccination antibody titers, presence and duration of viremia in pregnant cattle, and fetal infection rates in offspring from BVDV-exposed cows. Group A vaccination resulted in significant protection against BVDV infection as compared to all other groups based upon outcome measurements, while Group B vaccination did not differ in protection against BVDV infection from control Group D. Ability of inactivated BVDV vaccines to provide protection against BVDV fetal infection varies significantly among commercially available products; however, in this challenge
Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU. However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and
García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K
To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.
Carroll, Timothy; Lo, Ming; Lanteri, Marion; Dutra, Joseph; Zarbock, Katie; Silveira, Paola; Rourke, Tracy; Ma, Zhong-Min; Fritts, Linda; O'Connor, Shelby; Busch, Michael; Miller, Christopher J
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology
Tetyana V. Sklyar
Full Text Available Disorders of the microbiome of the reproductive tract of women is quite common and can have significant consequences for the woman and for her sexual partners or to the fetus during pregnancy. The study of vaginal microbiome and biological properties of same microorganisms is a necessary step for choice the treatment strategy. The aim of research was to analyze qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiome of the vagina of women using the test-system Femoflor-16 and to study the ability of staphylococci strains to biofilm-formation. Using molecular genetic methods for detecting of microorganisms disorders of vaginal microbiome was confirmed in 92.7% of the surveyed women. It our study, 21 (41.2% cases of dysbiosis were found to accompany infectious diseases. Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma (urealyticum + parvum showed overwhelming. Most of the pathogens detected were a monoinfection (71%, with two-agent associations accounting for only 29% of the cases. The predominant associations of opportunistic bacteria, detected during disorders of vaginal microbiome, were Gardnerella vaginalis + Prevotella bivia + Porphyromonas spp. that found in 50.9% of patients and Megasphaera spp. + Veillonella spp. + Dialister spp. – found in 34.5% of patients. Among cases of monoinfection the most often found opportunistic pathogens were Eubacterium spp. – 50.9% of cases and Staphylococcus spp. – 49.1% of cases: 92.6% of these were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and 7.4% – as Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 44% of S. epidermidis strains were able to form biofilm. None of S. saprophyticus strains was film-forming.
Lawrence C. Smith
Full Text Available Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel’s laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and foetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.
Amira M. Elhassan
Reults: The meta-analysis of the data indicated high seroprevalence of coinfections with various combinations of these agents; only few animals were singly infected. An infection with BHV-1 was observed to be higher than the prevalence of associations between BHV-1 and the other three viral agents. Prevalence of seropositivities to coinfection with BHV-1/BTV; BHV-1/BVD; BHV-1/BTV/BVD were the highest while seropositivities prevalences that involved BHV-4 were much lower. The highest abortion rates were encountered in coinfections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (31% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (30% while most infertility cases were noticed in coinfection with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (44% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (21%, and coinfections with the four viruses were encountered in most of the death after birth cases (25%. Overall mixed infections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (34% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (22.5% were involved in the majority of reproductive problems studied. Conclusion: Mixed infections constitutes the vast majority of cases and are involved in the majority of reproductive disorders investigated. The high prevalence of seropositivity to all of the four viruses should call for an intervention strategy to reduce the impact of these viruses. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 332-337
Sangeetha S Balamurugan
Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.
Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N
Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P score, uterus horn diameter, absence of a CL, largest follicle of less than 13 mm, and pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in
Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D
Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.
Gutierrez-Reinoso MA; Uquillas-Patiño JB; Garcia-Herreros M
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of postpartum intrauterine administration of flavonoids in order to hasten reproductive tract involution and to shorten the parturition-to-conception interval in dairy cows. A total of 40 Holstein cows (2nd-3rd lactation; BC: 3-3.5) were divided randomly into 4 groups [1 control group (T1) and 3 treatment groups (T2, T3 and T4)]. Treatments consisted of one single intrauterine administration on day 10 postpartum of 90 mg (T2)...
Juan José Romero
Full Text Available An analytical longitudinal study was conducted to determine the cumulative incidence, and the relationship of the serostatus towards enzootic bovine leukosis virus (EBLV and reproductive parameters, in 26 dairy farms in Costa Rica using the VAMPP Bovine information system. A first sampling was carried out in 2006- 2007 in animals older than 6 months old; then, in 2009, a second sampling was performed in all cows seronegative in 2006-2007. The overall and farm- specific cumulative incidence were calculated; then, comparisons of these were performed by race and parity number, using the Chi-square test. The relationship of EBLV status with the calving interval (CI, services per conception (SPC and days open (DO by parity number and race groups, was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The overall incidence was 21.8% (173/794, with 38.5% of farms with incidences higher to 40%. The seroconversion rate in cows with 1-2 parities (23.5% was different than those with 6 or more parities (p=0.03. Holstein x Jersey cows had the highest incidence (33.3%, followed by Holstein (27.1%. According to the farmers, in the 26 farms (100% they used an individual needle and a single rectal palpation glove per animal; however, 53.8% of farms showed incidences above 15%. In general, there was a tendency to lower CI in seronegative cows with regard to seropositives and seroconverters, especially in seropoisitives of 1-2 lactations (p=0.017 and 3-5 lactations (p=0.038. Regardless parity number or race, the seropositives and seroconverters required more SPC (p=0.031; this same tendency (not significant was observed in DO. Thus, it was found some relation of the status about EBLV with CI and SPC, but not with DO, although there was no statistical significance in some of the differences found, with better parameters in seronegative cows.
Holm, D E; Thompson, P N; Irons, P C
In this study, 272 beef heifers were studied from just before their first breeding season (October 15, 2003), through their second breeding season, and until just after they had weaned their first calves in March, 2005. This study was performed concurrently with another study testing the economic effects of an estrous synchronization protocol using PG. Reproductive tract scoring (RTS) by rectal palpation was performed on the group of heifers 1 d before the onset of their first breeding season. The effect of RTS on several fertility and production outcomes was tested, and the association of RTS with the outcomes was compared with that of other input variables such as BW, age, BCS, and Kleiber ratio using multiple or univariable linear, logistic, or Cox regression. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the ability of different input variables to predict pregnancy outcome. After adjustment for BW and age, RTS was positively associated with pregnancy rate to the 50-d AI season (P Reproductive tract scoring was a better predictor of fertility than was Kleiber ratio and similar in its prediction of calf weaning weight. It was concluded from this study that RTS is a predictor of heifer fertility, compares well with other traits used as a predictor of production outcomes, and is likely to be a good predictor of lifetime production of the cow.
Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus
Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana; Děd, Lukáš; Dorosh, Andriy; Kubátová, Alena; Margaryan, Hasmik; Makovický, P.; Rajmon, R.
Roč. 67, Issue Supplement s1 (2012), s. 47-48 ISSN 1046-7408. [13th International Symposium for Immunology of reproduction "From the roots to the tops of Reproductive Immunology". 22.06.2012-24.06.2012, Varna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : tetracycline * doxycycline * CD1 mice * reproduction Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality
D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M
The local tolerance of the antiretroviral spermicide, WHI-07 (5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate)-loaded gel-microemulsion was evaluated in a physiologically relevant and sensitive porcine model. Gilts (Duroc) in nonestrus stages of the reproductive cycle received either a single or a daily intravaginal application of 2.0% WHI-07 via a gel-microemulsion for 6 days. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid was obtained for up to 72 h after a single exposure and the cellular profile and levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) were quantitated by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence-based multiplex immunoassay, respectively. The reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, uteri and Fallopian tubes) harvested on day 7 was scored histologically for evidence of mucosal irritation using a new scoring criterion for ten histological endpoints that reflect pathological changes in the epithelial/ subepithelial and vascular/perivascular compartments. When compared with irritant reactions caused by the detergent-type spermicide, benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the scatter profile of CVL immune cells and basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in CVL fluid were unaffected by intravaginal exposure to 2% WHI-07. Unlike BZK, endpoint histology of the proximal and distal regions of the reproductive tract from gilts treated with 2.0% WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion for 6 days did not result in mucosal irritation or alteration in the epithelium, subepithelium/lamina propria, vessels/perivascular tissues and underlying/surrounding muscles. Based on surrogate markers for inflammation, leukocyte profile and histologic data for local tolerance, repeated intravaginal administration of WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion as a prophylactic contraceptive is unlikely to cause vaginal irritation.
Full Text Available Sperm have but one purpose, to fertilize an egg. In various species including Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage is a necessary step in the reproductive process. Amo is a homolog of the human transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 (also known as PKD2, which is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In flies Amo is required for sperm storage. Drosophila males with Amo mutations produce motile sperm that are transferred to the uterus but they do not reach the female storage organs. Therefore Amo appears to be a mediator of directed sperm motility in the female reproductive tract but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Amo exhibits a unique expression pattern during spermatogenesis. In spermatocytes, Amo is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER whereas in mature sperm, Amo clusters at the distal tip of the sperm tail. Here we show that flagellar localization of Amo is required for sperm storage. This raised the question of how Amo at the rear end of sperm regulates forward movement into the storage organs. In order to address this question, we used in vivo imaging of dual labelled sperm to demonstrate that Drosophila sperm navigate backwards in the female reproductive tract. In addition, we show that sperm exhibit hyperactivation upon transfer to the uterus. Amo mutant sperm remain capable of reverse motility but fail to display hyperactivation and directed movement, suggesting that these functions are required for sperm storage in flies.Amo is part of a signalling complex at the leading edge of the sperm tail that modulates flagellar beating and that guides a backwards path into the storage organs. Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia.
Yarbrough, Victoria L; Winkle, Sean; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M
At the interface of the external environment and the mucosal surface of the female reproductive tract (FRT) lies a first-line defense against pathogen invasion that includes antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Comprised of a unique class of multifunctional, amphipathic molecules, AMP employ a wide range of functions to limit microbial invasion and replication within host cells as well as independently modulate the immune system, dampen inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. The role of AMP in barrier defense at the level of the skin and gut has received much attention as of late. Given the far reaching implications for women's health, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and sexually transmissible and polymicrobial diseases, we herein review the distribution and function of key AMP throughout the female reproductive mucosa and assess their role as an essential immunological barrier to microbial invasion throughout the reproductive cycle of a woman's lifetime. A comprehensive search in PubMed/Medline was conducted related to AMP general structure, function, signaling, expression, distribution and barrier function of AMP in the FRT, hormone regulation of AMP, the microbiome of the FRT, and AMP in relation to implantation, pregnancy, fertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, complications of pregnancy and assisted reproductive technology. AMP are amphipathic peptides that target microbes for destruction and have been conserved throughout all living organisms. In the FRT, several major classes of AMP are expressed constitutively and others are inducible at the mucosal epithelium and by immune cells. AMP expression is also under the influence of sex hormones, varying throughout the menstrual cycle, and dependent on the vaginal microbiome. AMP can prevent infection with sexually transmissible and opportunistic pathogens of the female reproductive tissues, although emerging understanding of vaginal dysbiosis suggests induction of a unique AMP profile with increased
Ranjan Kumar Prusty, MPS
Full Text Available Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08 of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters – infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusion and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.
Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed
India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters - infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.
Andreotti, G; Hou, L; Gao, Y-T; Brinton, L A; Rashid, A; Chen, J; Shen, M-C; Wang, B-S; Han, T-Q; Zhang, B-H; Sakoda, L C; Fraumeni, J F; Hsing, A W
Background: Parity has been linked to gallbladder cancer and gallstones, but the effects of other reproductive factors are less clear. Methods: We examined 361 incident biliary tract cancer cases, 647 biliary stone cases, and 586 healthy women in a population-based study in Shanghai. Results: The effects of parity (odds ratios, OR⩾3 vs 1 child=2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–5.1), younger age at first birth (ORper 1-year decrease=1.2, 95% CI 0.99–1.6), and older age at menarche (ORper 1-year increase=1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8) on gallbladder cancer risk were more pronounced among women with stones, but the interactions were not significant. Conclusion: Our results provide support for high parity, younger age at first birth, and late age at menarche in the development of gallbladder cancer, particularly among women with biliary stones. PMID:20216539
Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...
Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of postpartum intrauterine administration of flavonoids in order to hasten reproductive tract involution and to shorten the parturition-to-conception interval in dairy cows. A total of 40 Holstein cows (2nd-3rd lactation; BC: 3-3.5 were divided randomly into 4 groups [1 control group (T1 and 3 treatment groups (T2, T3 and T4]. Treatments consisted of one single intrauterine administration on day 10 postpartum of 90 mg (T2, 180 mg (T3 and 360 mg (T4 of ultrapure flavonoids (20 ml. Ultrasonographic measurements of different reproductive tract anatomical structures were scored from cervix (length, width and thickness, uterus (diameter and thickness and ovaries (length and width during the postpartum period (day 10, 15 and 21 postpartum. As fertility parameters rate of return to estrus, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval were scored as well. Pregnancy status was performed using ultrasonography (day 35 post-insemination. There were multiple differences (p 0.05 in ovarian dimensions from T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups during the postpartum period after ultrasonographic analysis at day 10, 15 and 21. Return to estrus index, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval differed between T1 and T2-T3-T4 groups (p 0.05. In conclusion, intrauterine application of flavonoids enhanced the cervical and uterine involution. Finally, although no significant differences among treatments, theintrauterine application of flavonoids improved the return to estrus index, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval compared with non-treated dairy cows.
Couse, John F.; Korach, Kenneth S.
It is generally believed that estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in mediating the developmental effects of the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES). However, the precise role and extent to which each pathway contributes to the resulting pathologies remains unknown. We have employed the estrogen receptor knockout (ERKO) mice, which lack either estrogen receptor-α (αERKO or estrogen receptor-β (βERKO), to gain insight into the contribution of each ER-dependent pathway in mediating the effects of neonatal DES exposure in the female and male reproductive tract tissues of the mouse. Estrogen receptor-α female mice exhibited complete resistance to the chronic effects of neonatal DES exposure that were obvious in exposed wild-type animals, including atrophy and epithelial squamous metaplasia in the uterus; proliferative lesions of the oviduct; and persistent cornification of the vaginal epithelium. DES-mediated reduction in uterine Hoxa10, Hoxa11 and Wnt7a expression that occurs wild-type females during the time of exposure was also absent in αERKO females. In the male, αERKO mice exhibited complete resistance to the chronic effects of neonatal DES exposure on the prostate, including decreased androgen receptor levels, epithelial hyperplasia, and increased basal cell proliferation. Although ERβ is highly expressed in the prostate epithelium, DES-exposed βERKO males exhibited all of the effects of neonatal DES exposure that were observed in similarly exposed wild-type males. Therefore, the lack of DES-effects on gene expression and tissue differentiation in the αERKO uterus and prostate provides unequivocal evidence of an obligatory role for ERα in mediating the detrimental actions of neonatal DES exposure in the murine reproductive tract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...
Maserejian, Nancy N; Curto, Teresa; Hall, Susan A; Wittert, Gary; McKinlay, John B
To examine whether reproductive history and related conditions are associated with the development and persistence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) other than urinary incontinence in a racially and/or ethnically diverse population-based sample of women. The Boston Area Community Health Survey enrolled 3201 women aged 30-79 years of black, Hispanic, or white race and/or ethnicity. Baseline and 5-year follow-up interviews were completed by 2534 women (conditional response rate, 83.4%). The association between reproductive history factors and population-weighted estimates of LUTS progression and persistence was tested using multivariable logistic regression models. Between baseline and 5-year follow-up, 23.9% women had LUTS progression. In age-adjusted models, women who had delivered ≥2 childbirths had higher odds of LUTS progression, but the association was completely accounted for by vaginal child delivery (eg, 2 vaginal childbirths vs none, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.46-3.35; P urinary frequency, urgency, and voiding symptoms among women who have had multiple vaginal childbirths or gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STIs are problems of public health priority compromising the reproductive health of women especially in developing countries. The problem is compounded by the poor health care seeking behaviour among women due to lack of awareness and sociocultural factors. Objectives: This study is an attempt to assess the health care seeking behaviour of women reporting RTI symptoms in a rural area of Tamil Nadu state of India and to examine the association of background sociodemographic characteristics with Health care seeking behaviour. Methodology: This was a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted between March to November 2011, among married women aged 18-45 years in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu in India. The required sample size was chosen by simple random sampling. The participants were administered a standardized, semi-structured schedule. Results: 520 women participated in the study. 173 women (33.3% of women reported experiencing symptoms of RTI/STI in the past 12 months. Only 51.45% of those who had RTI/STI symptoms sought health care. Private health care facility was preferred by nearly two-thirds. The health care seeking behaviour showed significant association with age group of women, religion, occupational status, type of family and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: There is a need for increasing awareness among women regarding RTI/STIs and their sequelae. Targeted health education programmes should be necessary to improve health care seeking among women.
Patrão, Marilia T C C; Silva, Erick J R; Avellar, Maria Christina W
Androgens are steroid hormones that play key roles in the development and maintenance of male phenotype and reproductive function. These hormones also affect the function of several non-reproductive organs, such as bone and skeletal muscle. Endogenous androgens exert most of their effects by genomic mechanisms, which involve hormone binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, resulting in the modulation of gene expression. AR-induced non-genomic mechanisms have also been reported. A large number of steroidal and non-steroidal AR-ligands have been developed for therapeutic use, including the treatment of male hypogonadism (AR agonists) and prostate diseases (AR antagonists), among other pathological conditions. Here, the AR gene and protein structure, mechanism of action and AR gene homologous regulation were reviewed. The AR expression pattern, its in vivo regulation and physiological relevance in the developing and adult testis and epididymis, which are sites of sperm production and maturation, respectively, were also presented.
Casarin, Julia B.S.; Martini, Ana P.; Trentin, Janislene M.; Fiorenza, Mariani F.; Pessoa, Gilson A.; Barros, Severo S.; Rubin, Mara I.B.
ABSTRACT: Reproductive diseases, mainly endometritis, are important hurdles in cattle raising, In the current study we evaluated gross, bacteriological, cytological, and histological findings from selected sites of the genital from 23 slaughtered cows and tested whether there is an association between these findings and the probability of reaching a reliable diagnosis. The results from the examinations of macroscopic aspects of uterine secretions, the cytological, bacteriological, and histopa...
Various serotonin (5HT) receptor subtypes have been located in the gastrointestinal tract and some are associated with gut motility. Cattle exposed to ergot alkaloids through consumption of contaminated feedstuffs have demonstrated signs (e.g. - increased rumen DM content and total content) that sug...
Kirberger, Robert M; Schulman, Martin L; Hartman, Marthinus J
The use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahmoud, I Y; Paulson, J R; Dudley, M; Patzlaff, J S; Al-Kindi, A Y A
SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate the secretory proteins produced by the epithelial and endometrial glands of the uterine tube and uterus in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina. The proteins were analyzed throughout the phases of the reproductive cycle from May to August, including preovulatory, ovulatory, postovulatory or luteal, and vitellogenic phases. The pattern of secretory proteins is quite uniform along the length of the uterine tube, and the same is true of the uterus, but the patterns for uterine tube and uterus are clearly different. We identify 13 major proteins in C. serpentina egg albumen. Bands co-migrating with 11 of these are found in the uterine tube, but at most 4 are found in the uterus, suggesting that the majority of the albumen proteins are most likely secreted in the uterine tube, not in the uterus. Although some of the egg albumen proteins are present in the uterine tube only at the time of ovulation, most of the bands corresponding to albumen proteins are present throughout the breeding season even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species. These results suggest that the glandular secretory phase in the uterine tube is active and quite homogeneous in function regardless of location or phase of the reproductive cycle.
Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Elias, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Mączyńska, Beata; Sobieszczańska, Beata Magdalena
Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women. We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas' pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection. In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum. The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Gutierrez, K; Kasimanickam, R; Tibary, A; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D
The objective was to determine the effects of reproductive tract score (RTS) on reproductive performance in beef heifers bred by timed artificial insemination followed by natural service (AI-NS) or by natural service only (NSO). Angus cross beef heifers (n = 2660) in the AI-NS group were artificially inseminated at a fixed time (5- or 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release protocol) once, then exposed to bulls 2 weeks later (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:40-1:50) for the reminder of the 85-day breeding season. Angus cross beef heifers (n = 1381) in NSO group were submitted to bulls (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:20-1:25) for the entire 85-day breeding season. Heifers were reproductive tract scored from 1 (prepubertal) to 5 (cyclic) 4 weeks before, and were body condition scored (BCS) from 1 (emaciated) to 9 (obese) at the beginning of breeding season. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 70 days after AI for AI-NS group and 2 months after the end of breeding season for both groups. Heifers in both groups were well managed and of similar age (14.9 ± 0.4 [AI-NS] and 14.7 ± 0.8 [NSO] months). Pregnancy rates (PRs) and number of days to become pregnant were calculated using PROC GLIMMIX and PROC LIFETEST procedures of SAS. Adjusting for BCS (P = 0.07), expressed estrus (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05), and BCS by year interaction (P < 0.05), the AI-PR was greater for heifers in AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.0001; 40.7%, 48.3%, 57.6%, and 64.6% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Controlling for BCS (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05) and the breeding season pregnancy rates (BS-PRs) were greater for heifers in the AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 81.2%, 86.5%, 90.4%, and 95.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Similarly, adjusting for BCS, year (P < 0.05), the BS-PR was greater for heifers in NSO group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 79.7%, 84.3%, 88.4%, and 90.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Heifers with higher RTS
Juliana Marques Bicalho
Full Text Available Reproductive performance of dairy cows has a direct impact on herd productivity. Infectious agents, such as Bluetongue Virus (BTV and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, are associated with reproductive failure. However, it remains unknown if these viruses are present in the uterus and cause gestational loss. This study used molecular methods to assess if BTV and BLV can be detected in the uterus of serologically positive dairy cows with a record of abortions, stillbirths and repeat breeding (n=23 and without a record of reproductive problems (n =23. The cows came from three dairy herds of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BTV was not detected in any of the uterine biopsies. Proviral DNA of BLV was detected in 54.5 % of the seropositive cows, but positivity for BLV in the uterus was not associated with the existence of reproductive problems. In conclusion, this study shows that BLV, but not BTV, is present in the uterus of seropositive cows, regardless of reproductive performance.
Galoppo, Germán H; Canesini, Guillermina; Tavalieri, Yamil E; Stoker, Cora; Kass, Laura; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica
Recently, we have described the ontogeny of histofunctional differentiation changes in the oviduct of Caiman latirostris. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor shows that the caiman oviduct could be a target of the action of xenoestrogens such as the widely environmentally present Bisphenol A (BPA), early in life. The aims of this study were: to complement oviduct characterization by establishing the ontogenetic changes in androgen receptor (AR) expression and assessing the effects of early postnatal exposure to 17-β-estradiol (E2) or BPA on the histofunctional features of the oviduct. AR was expressed in all the stages studied. The spatial pattern of AR immunostaining changed from neonatal to juvenile caimans. In the luminal epithelium, changes were at the subcellular level, from cytoplasmic to nuclear. In the subepithelium, although both cytoplasmic and nuclear AR expression was observed, changes were mainly at tissue level, from the subepithelial compartment to the outer muscular layer. The oviduct was highly sensitive to E2 and BPA at the early postnatal developmental stage. E2- and BPA-exposed caimans showed increased luminal epithelial height and higher proliferative activity. Changes in histomorphological features (measured by a scoring system), steroid hormone receptors, collagen remodeling and muscle-associated proteins suggest a precocious oviduct histofunctional differentiation in E2- and BPA-exposed caimans. The modification of the temporal pattern of oviductal biomarkers suggests that organizational changes could impair C. latirostris reproductive health later in life. The alterations in the caiman female reproductive tract exposed to BPA highlight the importance of preserving aquatic environments from plastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khawaja, Marwan; Kaddour, Afamia; Zurayk, Huda; Choueiry, Nathalie; El-Kak, Faysal
The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and mental distress among women residing in three low-income urban neighborhoods in Greater Beirut. A cross-sectional survey of currently married women aged 15-49 years (n = 1506) from the 2003 Urban Health Study was undertaken. The dependent variables were complaining of vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and pain during intercourse. The main independent variable was mental distress, measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Other variables included decision-making power, "comfort" with husband, age, education, income, household wealth, employment, community of residence, displacement by war, presence of chronic disease, reported reproductive health problem, membership in any group, receipt of favor last month, and smoking. Analysis was conducted using logistic regression models on the complaint of any symptom of RTIs and on individual complaints. Forty-two percent of the interviewed women reported at least one symptom of RTIs. Vaginal discharge was the most commonly reported symptom, with 33% of currently married women complaining from it. Mental distress was significantly associated with any reported RTI symptom (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.83), pelvic pain (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.71-3.30), vaginal discharge (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.03-1.77), and pain during intercourse (OR = 2.37; CI = 1.66-3.40) after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors. A significant association between mental distress and reported RTI symptoms was established by this study. A new approach to gynecological morbidity is needed, one that integrates biomedical and psychosocial factors into a unified framework.
Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Mingels, Roel; Morgan, Hywel; Macklon, Nick; Cheong, Ying
Despite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract. To undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity. A comprehensive literature search was performed using electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Pubmed to identify original and review articles addressing the biophysical parameters (pO2, pH and temperature) in the female reproductive tract of any species. The search included all studies published between 1946 and November 2015. Search terms included 'oxygen', 'pH', 'hydrogen ion concentration', 'acid base' and others terms. We also used special features and truncations to identify synonyms and broaden the search. Studies were excluded if they only assessed embryo culture conditions, fetal acid-base status, oxidative stress, outcomes of pregnancy and measurements of these parameters in non-reproductive organs. Our search generated 18 685 records and 60 articles were included. pO2 within the female reproductive tract shows cyclical variation and minute-to-minute oscillations, which may be influenced by uterine contractility, hormones, the autonomic system, cardiac pulsatility, and myometrial and smooth muscle integrity. Fine balanced control of pO2 and avoidance of overwhelming oxidative stress is crucial for embryogenesis and implantation. The pH in the female reproductive tract is graduated, with lowest p
Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Balogh, Andrea; Karpati, Eva; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Hahn, Sinuhe; Erez, Offer; Papp, Zoltan; Kim, Chong Jai
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient and widely expressed family of lectins that have unique glycan-binding characteristics. They are pleiotropic regulators of key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and pre-mRNA splicing, as well as homo- and heterotypic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Galectins are also pivotal in immune responses since they regulate host-pathogen interactions, innate and adaptive immune responses, acute and chronic inflammation, and immune tolerance. Some galectins are also central to the regulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion. Expression and functional data provide convincing evidence that, due to these functions, galectins play key roles in shared and unique pathways of normal embryonic and placental development as well as oncodevelopmental processes in tumorigenesis. Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism. Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.
Brown, Hannah M; Green, Ella S; Tan, Tiffany C Y; Gonzalez, Macarena B; Rumbold, Alice R; Hull, M Louise; Norman, Robert J; Packer, Nicolle H; Robertson, Sarah A; Thompson, Jeremy G
Diabetes has been linked with impaired fertility but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Here we use a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model to investigate the cellular and biochemical changes in conceptus and maternal tissues that accompany hyperglycaemia. We report that streptozotocin treatment before conception induces profound intra-cellular protein β-O-glycosylation (O-GlcNAc) in the oviduct and uterine epithelium, prominent in early pregnancy. Diabetic mice have impaired blastocyst development and reduced embryo implantation rates, and delayed mid-gestation growth and development. Peri-conception changes are accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine Trail, and a trend towards increased Il1a, Tnf and Ifng in the uterus, and changes in local T-cell dynamics that skew the adaptive immune response to pregnancy, resulting in 60% fewer anti-inflammatory regulatory T-cells within the uterus-draining lymph nodes. Activation of the heat shock chaperones, a mechanism for stress deflection, was evident in the reproductive tract. Additionally, we show that the embryo exhibits elevated hyper-O-GlcNAcylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, associated with activation of DNA damage (ɣH2AX) pathways. These results advance understanding of the impact of peri-conception diabetes, and provide a foundation for designing interventions to support healthy conception without propagation of disease legacy to offspring.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a natural physiological process linked with several misconceptions and practices having crucial role for health and dignity of girls and women. Hygiene-related practices increases vulnerability to reproductive tract infections. Adolescent girls dwelling in slums are vulnerable to poor reproductive health due to lack of awareness about reproductive health. Keeping in view the above, study has been undertaken with the following aim and objective. The aim of the study is to assess the menstrual hygiene practices and reproductive tract infection among slum dwelling adolescent girls aged 15-19 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted for 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 covering 210 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years living in the slums of Dibrugarh Town, Assam. An interview using a predesigned and pretested format conducted by house to house survey. For analysis, mean, standard deviation and proportions were calculated, Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test was done to see the association. RESULTS Mean age of girls was (16.57 ± 1.48 years and mean age of menarche was (12.73 ± 1.44 years. Awareness about menstruation was 27.1% prior to attainment of menarche. Rate of sanitary napkins use was 68.6% and 53.2% girls cleaned external genitalia >2 times per day. Regarding cultural practices of restriction, 100% girls did not attend any religious occasions during menstruation. Prevalence of reproductive tract infection was 43.3%, which was significantly more among girls using homemade reusable pad and washing external genitalia ≤2 times per day during menstruation. CONCLUSION There is a need to improve menstrual hygiene practices amongst adolescent girls. Awareness building on menstrual hygiene and other factors like traditional beliefs and practices needs to be addressed.
Ziehmer, B; Signorella, A; Kneepkens, A F L M; Hunt, C; Ogle, S; Agungpriyono, S; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A
The anatomy and histology of the reproduction organs of the male Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) were studied in 21 specimens collected between birth and approximately 17 years of age. In adult animals the testes were located in a subanal position against the caudal surface of the thigh musculature. Average adult testis length was 68.9 ± 5.1 mm, width was 40.3 ± 5.7 mm, and depth was 47.9 ± 7.0 mm (N = 11). The average combined adult testicular weight was estimated to be 82.7 ± 23.2 g (N = 11). The testes of newborn Babyrousa had descended through the inguinal canal into the scrotum before birth. Adult seminiferous tubules had an average diameter of 199 ± 33.6 μm (N = 9) and were randomly distributed among a smaller volume of Leydig cells. Connective tissue was sparse. In one 13-month-old prepubertal animal the diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 85.3 ± 16.1 μm (N = 7). The spermatozoa was 42.2 ± 4.9 μm (N = 19) long and had a flat, paddle shaped head, 6.3 ± 0.6 μm (N = 50) long, 3.9 ± 0.5 μm (N = 47) wide, and a thickness of approximately 0.5 μm. An apical ridge along its front represented the acrosome. The two adult vesicular glands each had an irregular shape and were approximately 48.7 ± 7.4 mm long, 25.6 ± 4.3 mm wide, and 20.6 ± 8.7 mm deep (N = 6). The prostate, comprising a corpus and disseminate parts, lay ventral to the vesicular glands partly embedded in the dorsal wall of the urethra. The paired adult bulbourethral glands were approximately shaped like prolate (elongated) spheroids and had a length of 51.2 ± 14.2 mm, a width of 22.6 ± 4.5 mm, and a depth of 14.4 ± 4.5 mm (N = 7). The secretions from the bulbourethral glands drained into the urethral recess, which in adults measured approximately 10 to 14 mm in length and was located caudodorsal to a narrowing of the pelvic urethra. The penis was 330 ± 16 mm long and 8.2 ± 0.6 mm in diameter, and rotated approximately two and a half turns counterclockwise along its
Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder
The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (Praw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
López-Helguera, I; López-Gatius, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I
The aim of the present study was to characterize the early postpartum period in clinically healthy dairy cows by ultrasonography (US), endometrial cytology (EC), and white blood cell counts, and determine possible relationships between postpartum findings and subsequent reproductive performance. Fifty-three dairy cows were examined on Days 15 to 21 (Visit 1), 22 to 28 (Visit 2), and 29 to 35 (Visit 3) postpartum. The clinical examination included: examination of vaginal fluid, EC, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography of the genital tract (cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, presence of a corpus luteum [CL] or intrauterine fluid [IUF] and its echogenicity). Luteal activity (presence of a CL in a single visit), return to cyclicity (presence of a CL in 2 consecutive visits), and conception rate at 70 and 120 days postpartum were considered as the dependent variables in four consecutive binary logistic regression analyses. Factors affecting leukocyte counts were established by general linear model (GLM) repeated measures analysis of variance. Based on the odds ratio (OR), the likelihood of luteal activity was higher in multiparous than primiparous cows (OR = 3.75) and tended to diminish in cows showing increased endometrial thickness in Visit 1 (V1) (OR = 0.06). The likelihood of returning to cyclicity decreased for each centimeter increase in cervical diameter in V1 (OR = 0.14) and that of conception on Day 70 was lower in cows showing the presence of echogenic or anechogenic IUF in V1 (OR = 0.09 or OR = 0.13, respectively) compared with cows lacking IUF. Effects of parity and IUF were observed on neutrophil counts. Positive EC results were unrelated to the cumulative conception rate at 70 and 120 days in milk, whereas cows returning a positive EC result in V1 showed a greater likelihood of increased endometrial thickness. In conclusion, measuring cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, and detecting the echogenicity of IUF by ultrasonography from Days 15
Walkymário de Paulo Lemos
Full Text Available The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of meroistic telotrophic type, with each individual ovariole divided in a terminal filament, a tropharium (trophic chamber, a vitellarium, and a pedicel. The prey type affected the development and morphometry of these structures. Females of P. nigrispinus fed with 3rd or 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (A. argillacea presented developed ovaries with ovarioles showing a great number of oocytes in advanced stages of development. Females fed with artificial diet presented atrophic ovaries and ovarioles practically without oocytes. Females fed with T. molitor or M. domestica showed ovaries in intermediary stage of development. The central ovariole was longer in females fed with 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm and shorter in those fed with artificial diet. Most developed oocytes were observed in ovaries of females fed with 5th or 3rd instar larvae of cotton leafworm, and the majority of atrophic oocytes were found in females fed with artificial diet.Este estudo apresenta a morfologia do sistema reprodutor feminino de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas alimentado com larvas de Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Musca domestica L. e de Tenebrio molitor L. ou dieta artificial. As gônadas internas desse predador apresentaram coloração amarelada e, independente da dieta, cada ovário apresentou sete ovaríolos unidos pelos filamentos terminais em uma estrutura em forma de cacho. A análise histológica revelou que o ovário de P. nigrispinus é do tipo meroístico telotr
Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host
Ramia, Sami; Kobeissi, Loulou; El Kak, Faysal; Shamra, Sarah; Kreidieh, Khalil; Zurayk, Huda
This study aimed to identify reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in married, non-pregnant women, aged 18 to 49 years, living in a low-income suburb of Beirut, and to investigate the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and these infections. Among 1,015 women recruited for the study, 502 were found eligible and 441 were medically examined. Appropriate specimens were collected for Nisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (28.2%). The prevalence rates of different agents were as follows: 22.9% of the women were positive for T. vaginalis, 8.8% for candidiasis, 4.5% for bacterial vaginosis, and 1% for N. gonorrhea; none of the women were positive for C. trachomatis. Regression analysis showed that women between the ages of 30 and 39 were twice more likely to have T. vaginalis as compared to younger women. Furthermore, women whose husbands were taxi drivers were at higher risk of acquiring T. vaginalis (OR = 2.2) as compared with women whose husbands occupation was listed as skilled/unskilled. This conclusion can be drawn for the odds of developing any RTI (OR = 2.15). Moreover, those participants with the lowest income were twice as likely to have any RTI compared to those with higher incomes. This study shows a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (T. vaginalis mainly). It urges further in-depth research on cultural practices and economic factors to understand the pattern of sexual behavior in this community.
Munjoma Marshal W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%, HIV (25.6% syphilis (1.2%, Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%, bacterial vaginosis (32.6% and Candidiasis (39.9%. Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI 2.61(1.49-4.59, 2.16(1.06-4.39, 3.89(1.27-11.98 respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI 1.60(1.06-2.42. More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability.
Devi, Ksh Mamta; Devi, Kh Sulochana; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, N Nabakishore; Singh, I Dorendra
In India, HSV seroprevalence and its coinfection with HIV among female patients with reproductive tract infections (RTI) are sparse. We aim to ascertain the seroprevalence of HSV and its coinfection with HIV and common sexually transmitted infections attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology outpatient department, RIMS. The study included 92 female patients with RTI. Diagnostic serology was done for HSV-1 and HSV-2 using group specific IgM indirect immunoassay using ELISA, HIV by 3 ELISA/Rapid/Simple (E/R/S) test of different biological antigen. Diagnosis of RTI was made on clinical grounds with appropriate laboratory investigations--microscopy, Gram stain smear etc. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using Nugent's criteria, Syphilis by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and Chlamydia trachomatis by IgG ELISA. Out of 92 sera tested for HSV, 18 (19.6%) were IgM HSV positive and 9 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Co-infection rate of HSV in HIV positive was 16.7%. None of the patients had clinical herpes genitalis, all were subclinical cases. 55.5% of HSV positives belongs to age group 21 to 30 years. Of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM positives 3 (15%) had HIV, 4 (22.2%) bacterial vaginosis, 2 (11.1%) were RPR positive, 4 (22.2%) Chlamydia trachomatis, 3 (15%) were pregnant. 16 (88.8%) were unemployed, 14 (77.7%) had education level below 10 standard. Our study suggest that every case of RTI, be it an ulcerative or nonulcerative must be thoroughly evaluated by laboratory testing for primary subclinical genital HSV coinfection as this has profound implications on their judicious management and aversion of complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of HSV infection together with prophylaxis for recurrent HSV disease will prevent progression and spread of HIV disease.
Erickson, B.H.; Reynolds, R.A.; Murphree, R.L.
Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the oocyte of a long-lived mammal have not been determined. Therefore, 280 15- to 18-month-old grade Herefords were partitioned among five groups and irradiated with either 0, 200, 300, 400, or 300 + 300 (55 days between fractions) R of 60 Co γ radiation at exposure rates of 0.69 or 0.78 R/min. Dose to the ovaries was 37 +- 3 percent of the dose measured in air. Germ cell effects were assessed in the survivors through (1) counts of germ cells and follicles in serially sectioned ovaries, (2) incidence of ovarian abnormalities, and (3) reproductive performance. Neither germ cell nor follicular counts were significantly affected by irradiation (P greater than 0.05). Incidence of ovarian abnormalities was not altered nor was reproductive performance or quality of offspring. It was concluded, therefore, that a near lethal postpuberally applied dose of γ radiation would not affect the reproductive capacity of the bovine female
Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean; Fleming, Diana; Fitch, Paul; Kelly, Rodney; Entrican, Gary
C. trachomatis and C. abortus are related Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause reproductive failure due to infertility (C. trachomatis) or abortion (C. abortus). These organisms target epithelial cells in the reproductive tract and/or placenta, but the innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection or pathology and disease are poorly understood. SLPI is an innate immune molecule which protects mucosal surfaces from infection and injury. C. trachomatis and C. abortus were found to induce SLPI mRNA and peptide expression in HeLa (cervical epithelium) and JEG-3 cells (trophoblast) respectively. Both cell lines constitutively expressed SLPI and, although infection enhanced this expression, killed organisms did not. These data demonstrate that Chlamydia/Chlamydophila grow in cells that express SLPI, suggesting that SLPI does not exert antimicrobial effects against these organisms. However, SLPI has multiple functions, and we speculate that it may play a role in controlling tissue inflammation and pathology.
Souza, D.K. de; Salles, L.P.; Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.
Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract
Souza, D.K. de [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade da Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Rosa e Silva, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)
Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.
D.K. de Souza
Full Text Available Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.
Full Text Available The α-(1,2 fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2 and α-(1,3 fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9 are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX and Lewis Y (LeY conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently expressed and regulated by androgen, although they catalyze the same α-(1,3 fucose linkage. Our study showed that androgen could differentially regulate the expression of these fucosyltransferases and provided an insight into the characteristic distribution of each fucosyltransferase responsible for LeX/LeY biosynthesis in the male reproductive tract.
Marlin, Romain; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Parenti, Matteo; Hocini, Hakim; Benjelloun, Fahd; Cannou, Claude; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Levy, Yves; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Le Grand, Roger; Menu, Elisabeth
The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas APCs and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes). This compartmentalization of immune cells in the FRT was supported by transcriptomic analyses and a correlation network. Polyfunctional MVA-specific CD8 + T cells were detected in the blood, lymph nodes, vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Anti-MVA IgG and IgA were detected in cervicovaginal fluid after a second vaccine dose. Thus, systemic vaccination with an MVA vector elicits cellular and Ab responses in the FRT. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Susan K. Eszterhas
Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1 binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could protect mucosal tissue explants from HIV- 1 infection. Explants prepared from the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of hysterectomy tissues from HIV-1 sero-negative women were exposed to nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA sequences. Explants were then exposed two days later to HIV-1, and HIV-1 reverse transcripts were measured five days post-infection. Explants treated with nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific siRNA showed reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts, and significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcripts compared to those treated with an irrelevant siRNA. In female reproductive tract explants and in peripheral blood cell cultures, siRNA transfection induced the secretion of IFN-alpha (IFN-α, a potent antiviral cytokine. In female mice, murine-specific Cd4-siRNA nanoparticles instilled within the uterus significantly reduced murine Cd4 transcripts by day 3. Our findings demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles reduce expression of HIV-1 infectivity receptors in human female reproductive tract tissues and also inhibit HIV-1 infection. Murine studies demonstrate that nanoparticles can penetrate the reproductive tract tissues in vivo and silence gene expression. The induction of IFN-α after siRNA transfection can potentially contribute to the antiviral effect. These findings support the therapeutic development of nanoparticles to deliver siRNA molecules to silence host cell receptors in the female reproductive tract as a novel microbicide to inhibit mucosal HIV-1 transmission.
Ann M Carias
Full Text Available Currently, there are mounting data suggesting that HIV-1 acquisition in women can be affected by the use of certain hormonal contraceptives. However, in non-human primate models, endogenous or exogenous progestin-dominant states are shown to increase acquisition. To gain mechanistic insights into this increased acquisition, we studied how mucosal barrier function and CD4+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage density and localization changed in the presence of natural progestins or after injection with high-dose DMPA. The presence of natural or injected progestins increased virus penetration of the columnar epithelium and the infiltration of susceptible cells into a thinned squamous epithelium of the vaginal vault, increasing the likelihood of potential virus interactions with target cells. These data suggest that increasing either endogenous or exogenous progestin can alter female reproductive tract barrier properties and provide plausible mechanisms for increased HIV-1 acquisition risk in the presence of increased progestin levels.
Carias, Ann M; Allen, Shannon A; Fought, Angela J; Kotnik Halavaty, Katarina; Anderson, Meegan R; Jimenez, Maria L; McRaven, Michael D; Gioia, Casey J; Henning, Tara R; Kersh, Ellen N; Smith, James M; Pereira, Lara E; Butler, Katherine; McNicholl, S Janet M; Hendry, R Michael; Kiser, Patrick F; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J
Currently, there are mounting data suggesting that HIV-1 acquisition in women can be affected by the use of certain hormonal contraceptives. However, in non-human primate models, endogenous or exogenous progestin-dominant states are shown to increase acquisition. To gain mechanistic insights into this increased acquisition, we studied how mucosal barrier function and CD4+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage density and localization changed in the presence of natural progestins or after injection with high-dose DMPA. The presence of natural or injected progestins increased virus penetration of the columnar epithelium and the infiltration of susceptible cells into a thinned squamous epithelium of the vaginal vault, increasing the likelihood of potential virus interactions with target cells. These data suggest that increasing either endogenous or exogenous progestin can alter female reproductive tract barrier properties and provide plausible mechanisms for increased HIV-1 acquisition risk in the presence of increased progestin levels.
Full Text Available Intravaginal anti-HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. Our objective was to study the effects of intravaginal gels on the immune microenvironment of the cervix and uterus. In this randomized crossover study, 27 healthy female volunteers used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 (N9 gel as a "failed" microbicide or the universal placebo gel (UPG as a "safe" gel (intervention cycles, or nothing (control cycle from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase. At a specific time-point following ovulation, all participants underwent sample collection for measurements of T-cell phenotypes, gene expression, and cytokine/chemokine protein concentrations from 3 anatomic sites above the vagina: the cervical transformation zone, the endocervix and the endometrium. We used hierarchical statistical models to estimate mean (95% CI intervention effects, for N9 and UPG relative to control. Exposure to N9 gel and UPG generated a common "harm signal" that included transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory genes chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20 (macrophage inflammatory factor-3alpha and interleukin 8 in the cervix, decreased protein concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators glycodelin-A and osteopontin in the endometrium. These results need to be replicated with a larger sample, but underscore the need to consider the effects of microbicide agents and gel excipients on the upper female reproductive tract in studies of vaginal microbicides.
Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T
Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p reproductive performance of dairy cattle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Elzeinová, Fatima; Nováková, Vendula; Buckiová, Daniela; Kubátová, Alena; Pěknicová, Jana
Roč. 26, 3-4 (2008), s. 231-238 ISSN 0890-6238 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Vinclozolin * Intra-acrosomal proteins * Reproductive organs Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2008
Full Text Available Type-I interferons (IFNs form a large family of cytokines that primarily act to control the early development of viral infections. Typical type-I IFN genes, such as those encoding IFN-α or IFN-β are upregulated by viral infection in many cell types. In contrast, the gene encoding IFN-ε was reported to be constitutively expressed by cells of the female reproductive tract and to contribute to the protection against vaginal infections with herpes simplex virus 2 and Chlamydia muridarum. Our data confirm the lack of induction of IFN-ε expression after viral infection and the constitutive expression of IFN-ε by cells of the female but also of the male reproductive organs. Interestingly, when expressed from transfected expression plasmids in 293T, HeLa or Neuro2A cells, the mouse and human IFN-ε precursors were inefficiently processed and secretion of IFN-ε was minimal. Analysis of chimeric constructs produced between IFN-ε and limitin (IFN-ζ showed that both the signal peptide and the mature moiety of IFN-ε contribute to poor processing of the precursor. Immunofluorescent detection of FLAG-tagged IFN-ε in transfected cells suggested that IFN-ε and chimeric proteins were defective for progression through the secretory pathway. IFN-ε did not, however, act intracellularly and impart an antiviral state to producing cells. Given the constitutive expression of IFN-ε in specialized cells and the poor processing of IFN-ε precursor in fibroblasts and cell lines, we hypothesize that IFN-ε secretion may require a co-factor specifically expressed in cells of the reproductive organs, that might secure the system against aberrant release of this IFN.
Anatomy and histology of the male reproductive tract and spermatogenesis fine structure in the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra): morphological evidences of reproductive functions.
Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Aldana Marcos, H J; Cetica, P D; Perez Jimeno, G; Merani, M S
The anatomy and histology of the male genital tract of the lesser anteater were studied. Fine details of spermatozoa regarding their genesis and morphology were also studied in six adult specimens. The testes lie in the pelvic cavity. The deferent duct emerges from the epididymis and opens into the ejaculatory duct, which drains into the membranous urethra. Accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicle and bulbourethral gland) are histologically similar to those described in other mammals. The short penis presents an urethral orifice, while the corpus spongiosum becomes thinner at the end indicating the absence of a histologically defined glans. The seminiferous epithelium shows: (1) Sertoli cells with deep nuclear indentations, (2) spermatogonia with crusty-like chromatin, (3) spermatocytes at different stages of maturation and (4) three morphologically distinct stages of spermatid differentiation according to nuclear shape, acrosome development and chromatin condensation. Sperm heads appear oval. The length of the spermatozoa averages 67.33 ± 1.60 μm. Two specimens with inactive spermatogenesis were azoospermic. Their testes and epididymis presented sizes smaller than those with active spermatogenesis. These studies together with others in anteaters may contribute to successful breeding in conservation programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Influence of body condition and bovine somatotropin on estrous behavior, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum somatotropin and plasma fatty acids in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.
Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Lamb, M A; Reiter, S T; Hallford, D M; Kreider, D L; Rosenkrans, C F
Ninety-nine multiparous Brahman-influenced (1/4 to 3/8 Brahman) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine somatotropin (bST) on estrous characteristics, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum GH and plasma NEFA. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg s.c.) on d -35, -21, and -7 before initiation of the breeding season. On d -7, all cows received an intravaginal, controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device. On d 0 (initiation of the 70-d breeding season), the CIDR were removed and cows received prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Blood samples were collected from the median caudal vein of the cows at each bST treatment and at d -28 and 0. Estrous behavior was monitored by radiotelemetry during the first 30 d of the breeding season. Growth hormone was increased (P conception rate tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for bST-low BC cows than non-bST-treated cows in low or moderate BC. On d 0, NEFA were greater (P conception rate during the first 30 d of breeding and pregnancy rates during the first 3 d of breeding in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.
Silva, P R B; Soares, H F; Braz, W D; Bombardelli, G D; Clapper, J A; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C
The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of treating periparturient dairy cows with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on incidence of postpartum diseases and performance. Holstein (HO) and Jersey (JS) cows from 2 herds were enrolled in the experiment at 253 ± 3 d of gestation and assigned to the control (n = 432) and rbST125 (n = 437) treatments. Cows in the rbST125 treatment received 125 mg of rbST, weekly, from -21 to 21 d relative to calving. Blood sampled weekly, from -21 to 21 d relative to calving, from a subsample of cows was used to determine the concentrations of growth hormone (GH, HO = 106) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, HO = 147 and JS = 49). Cows were scored for body condition (BCS) at enrollment and at 1 ± 3, 30 ± 3, and 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM). Cows were milked thrice daily and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was recorded for the first 30 DIM. Treatment of cows with rbST resulted in greater concentrations of GH during the prepartum (log 10 back-transformed concentrations of GH: HO-control = 7.83 and HO-rbST125 = 10.36 ng/mL) and postpartum (log 10 back-transformed concentrations of GH: HO-control = 10.45 and HO-rbST125 = 18.47 ng/mL) periods. Similarly, IGF-1 concentrations were higher during the prepartum (HO-control = 115.1 ± 4.9, HO-rbST125 = 137.7 ± 4.7, JS-control = 120.2 ± 8.3, JS-rbST125 = 167.1 ± 8.1 ng/mL) and postpartum (HO-control = 61.3 ± 4.0, HO-rbST125 = 75.2 ± 3.8, JS-control = 35.5 ± 6.9, JS-rbST125 = 54.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL) periods for rbST-treated cows. During the prepartum period, BCS was not affected by treatment, but during the postpartum period, BCS was reduced for rbST-treated cows (HO-control = 3.00 ± 0.03, HO-rbST125 = 2.90 ± 0.03, JS-control = 2.64 ± 0.02, JS-rbST125 = 2.61 ± 0.02). Cows from the rbST125 treatment tended to have lower incidence of retained fetal membranes (HO-control = 14.3, HO-rbST125 = 6.1, JS-control = 1.5, JS-rbST125 = 1.2%) and had reduced incidence
Sims, Lee B; Frieboes, Hermann B; Steinbach-Rankins, Jill M
A variety of drug-delivery platforms have been employed to deliver therapeutic agents across cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and the vaginal mucosa, offering the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract (FRT). Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular, polymeric NPs represent a promising option that has shown improved distribution through the CVM. These NPs are typically fabricated from nontoxic, non-inflammatory, US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers that improve biocompatibility. This review summarizes recent experimental studies that have evaluated NP transport in the FRT, and highlights research areas that more thoroughly and efficiently inform polymeric NP design, including mathematical modeling. An overview of the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo NP studies conducted to date - whereby transport parameters are determined, extrapolated, and validated - is presented first. The impact of different NP design features on transport through the FRT is summarized, and gaps that exist due to the limitations of iterative experimentation alone are identified. The potential of mathematical modeling to complement the characterization and evaluation of diffusion and transport of delivery vehicles and active agents through the CVM and mucosa is discussed. Lastly, potential advancements combining experimental and mathematical knowledge are suggested to inform next-generation NP designs, such that infections in the FRT may be more effectively treated.
Stieh, Daniel J; Maric, Danijela; Kelley, Z L; Anderson, Meegan R; Hattaway, Holly Z; Beilfuss, Beth A; Rothwangl, Katharina B; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J
The majority of new HIV infections occur in women as a result of heterosexual intercourse, overcoming multiple innate barriers to infection within the mucosa. However, the avenues through which infection is established, and the nature of bottlenecks to transmission, have been the source of considerable investigation and contention. Using a high dose of a single round non-replicating SIV-based vector containing a novel dual reporter system, we determined the sites of infection by the inoculum using the rhesus macaque vaginal transmission model. Here we show that the entire female reproductive tract (FRT), including the vagina, ecto- and endocervix, along with ovaries and local draining lymph nodes can contain transduced cells only 48 hours after inoculation. The distribution of infection shows that virions quickly disseminate after exposure and can access target cells throughout the FRT, with an apparent preference for infection in squamous vaginal and ectocervical mucosa. JRFL enveloped virions infect diverse CD4 expressing cell types, with T cells resident throughout the FRT representing the primary target. These findings establish a new perspective that the entire FRT is susceptible and virus can reach as far as the ovary and local draining lymph nodes. Based on these findings, it is essential that protective mechanisms for prevention of HIV acquisition must be present at protective levels throughout the entire FRT to provide complete protection.
Dey, Subhojit; Pahwa, Parika; Mishra, Arti; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K
Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi. Data were accessed from MS access database and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS 16.0. Multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). This study used data from 11,427 women over a period of 2000-2012. Women with RTIs had Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or coccoid infections with all having similar prevalence (~4-5 %). 9.4 % of women had premalignant lesions of cervix; ASCUS was most common (7.9 %) followed by LSIL (1.3 %). TV was significantly associated with ASCUS, LSIL and all premalignant lesions of cervix (P Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs.
Nagarkar, Aarti; Mhaskar, Pallavi
Several studies have reported prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) but very few studies have described health seeking behavior of patients. This paper critically looks at and summarizes the available evidence, systematically. A structured search strategy was used to identify relevant articles, published during years 2000-2012. Forty-one full-text papers discussing prevalence and treatment utilization pattern were included as per PRISMA guidelines. Papers examining prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases used biochemical methods and standard protocol for diagnosis while studies on RTIs used different methods for diagnosis. The prevalence of RTIs has not changed much over the years and found to vary from 11% to 72% in the community-based studies. Stigma, embarrassment, illiteracy, lack of privacy, cost of care found to limit the use of services, but discussion on pathways of nonutilization remains unclear. Lack of methodological rigor, statistical power, specificity in case definitions as well as too little discussion on the limitation of selected method of diagnosis and reliance on observational evidence hampered the quality of studies on RTIs. Raising awareness among women regarding symptoms of RTIs and sexually transmitted infections and also about appropriate treatment has remained largely a neglected area and, therefore, we observed absence of health system studies in this area.
Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.
Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time
Elena Irene Cuartas
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired
Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok
Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (≥25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings
Savannah E Howe
Full Text Available The female reproductive tract (FRT includes the oviducts (fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina. A layer of columnar epithelium separates the endocervix and uterus from the outside environment, while the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The mucosa of the FRT is exposed to antigens originating from microflora, and occasionally from infectious microorganisms. Whether epithelial cells (ECs of the FRT take up (sample the lumen antigens is not known. To address this question, we examined the uptake of 20-40 nm nanoparticles (NPs applied vaginally to mice which were not treated with hormones, epithelial disruptors, or adjuvants. We found that 20 and 40 nm NPs are quickly internalized by ECs of the upper FRT and within one hour could be observed in the lymphatic ducts that drain the FRT, as well as in the ileac lymph nodes (ILNs and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs. Chicken ovalbumin (Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova when administered vaginally reaches the internal milieu in an immunologically relevant form; thus vaginal immunization of mice with NP-Ova induces systemic IgG to Ova antigen. Most importantly, vaginal immunization primes the intestinal mucosa for secretion of sIgA. Sub-cutaneous (s.c boosting immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA further elevates the systemic (IgG1 and IgG2c as well as mucosal (IgG1 and sIgA antibody titers. These findings suggest that the modes of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces and pathways of antigen transport are more complex than previously appreciated.
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been recognised as an important pathogen in calf pneumonia for 30 years, but surprisingly few effective infection models for studies of the immune response and the pathogenesis in the natural host have been established. We present a reproducible...... disease. This model is a valuable tool for the study of the pathogenesis of BRSV and for vaccine efficacy studies....
Schwermer, H.; Brülisauer, F.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Heim, D.
The effectiveness of two measures against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), the compulsory processing of animal by products to meat and bone mea (MBM) at 133 °C under 3 bars of pressure for 20 minutes in February 1993 and the exclusion offallen stock, heads with eyes and spinal cord of cattle
Immunohistochemical study on the ontogenetic development of the regional distribution of peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide 1 endocrine cells in bovine gastrointestinal tract.
Pyarokhil, Asadullah Hamid; Ishihara, Miyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Kitamura, Nobuo
The regional distribution and relative frequency of peptide YY (PYY)-, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were determined immunohistochemically in the gastrointestinal tract at seven ontogenetic stages in pre- and postnatal cattle. Different frequencies of PYY-, PP-, and GLP-1-IR cells were found in the intestines at all stages; they were not found in the esophagus and stomach. The frequencies varied depending on the intestinal segment and the developmental stage. The frequencies of PYY- and PP-IR cells were lower in the small intestine and increased from ileum to rectum, whereas GLP-1-IR cells were more numerous in duodenum and jejunum, decreased in ileum and cecum, and increased again in colon and rectum. The frequencies also varied according to pre- and postnatal stages. All three cell types were most numerous in fetus, and decreased in calf and adult groups, indicating that the frequencies of these three types of endocrine cells decrease with postnatal development. The results suggest that these changes vary depending on feeding habits and adaptation of growth, secretion, and motility of intestine at different ontogenetic stages of cattle. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F
Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower
Erika González Altamiranda
Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as "starting material" for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these
Ata, Baris; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Seyhan, Ayse; Buckett, William
The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles. We searched the following databases from inception to October 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials, including International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Other sources searched were; Web of Knowledge, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among women undergoing ART, comparing any procedure that would expose the female genital tract to seminal plasma during the period starting five days before embryo transfer and ending two days after it versus no seminal plasma application. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled data to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using GRADE methods. Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Secondary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the incidence of other adverse events. We included 11 RCTs (3215 women). The quality of the evidence ranged
Lyons, J. M.; Morre, S. A.; Land, J. A.
Critical to evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine candidates is the availability of appropriate animal models. At a minimum, models must mimic the essential features of transmission and disease progression that contribute to the severe outcomes associated with upper genital tract infection.
Baker, Kelly K; Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Das, Bhabani; Dreibelbis, Robert; Caruso, Bethany; Freeman, Matthew C; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki
Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot
Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Freeman, Matthew C.; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki
Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that male as well as female reproductive function has been declining in human and wildlife populations over the last 40 years. Several factors such as lifestyle or environmental xenobiotics other than genetic factors may play a role in determining adverse effects on reproductive health. Among the environmental xenobiotics phthalates, a family of man-made pollutants are suspected to interfere with the function of the endocrine system and therefore to be endocrine disruptors. The definition of endocrine disruption is today extended to broader endocrine regulations, and includes activation of metabolic sensors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. Toxicological studies have shown that phthalates can activate a subset of PPARs. Here, we analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking phthalate exposure to both PPAR activation and adverse effects on male and female reproductive health.
Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M.; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F.
Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary
Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U
OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.
Phillips-Howard, Penelope; Nyothach, Elizabeth; terKuile, Feiko; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; vanEijk, Anna; Tudor Edwards, Rhiannon; Vulule, John
Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14?16?years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly s...
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...
Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Brown, Megan R; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Roach, Margaret; Fichorova, Raina N; Jones, Deborah L; Pahwa, Savita; Fischl, Margaret A
High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the United States, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV + and 27 high-risk HIV - ) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs). BV was assessed using the Nugent score. Inflammatory cytokines in the CVLs (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], interferon [IFN]α2, chemokine C ligand 5 (CCL5), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor [SLPI]) were measured. Fourteen (19%) women reported intravaginal douching; 24 (33%) had BV. BV, intravaginal douching, and HIV were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines. After controlling for demographic and risk factors and HIV status, women who had BV and douched had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than those without BV and who did not douche, or who only had BV or only douched. These findings suggest that BV and douching are associated with greater mucosal inflammation and may facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Although longitudinal studies are needed to determine temporal associations and causality, interventions to decrease rates of intravaginal douching and BV could significantly decrease women's risks of acquiring STIs and HIV and limit the spread of HIV.
Nkhoma, Minyanga; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Dewey, Kathryn G; Gondwe, Austrida; Mbotwa, John; Rogerson, Stephen; Taylor, Steve M; Maleta, Kenneth
Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from UTI using urine dipstick analysis. The prevalence of each infection by intervention group was estimated at the prescribed time points and the global null hypothesis was tested using logistic regression. Adjusted analyses were performed using preselected covariates. The prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia was 10.7% at 32 gw, 9% at 36 gw, and 8.3% by RDT and 20.2% by PCR at delivery. After delivery the prevalence of trichomoniasis was 10.5%, vaginal candidiasis was 0.5%, and UTI was 3.1%. There were no differences between intervention groups in the prevalence of any of the infections. In this population, SQ-LNS did not influence the occurrence of maternal P. falciparum parasitaemia, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis or UTI. Identifier: NCT01239693 (10 November 2010).
Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that causes reproductive losses in cattle and zoonotic infections in people. An eradication program based on serologic detection and vaccination has been in place for decades in the United States. Brucella use multiple molecular mechanisms to modify th...
Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in the female reproductive tract are associated with altered expression of proteases, mucosal barrier proteins, and an influx of HIV-susceptible target cells.
Arnold, Kelly B; Burgener, Adam; Birse, Kenzie; Romas, Laura; Dunphy, Laura J; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Abou, Max; Westmacott, Garrett R; McCorrister, Stuart; Kwatampora, Jessie; Nyanga, Billy; Kimani, Joshua; Masson, Lindi; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Kaul, Rupert; McKinnon, Lyle R
Elevated inflammatory cytokines (EMCs) at mucosal surfaces have been associated with HIV susceptibility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We characterized the soluble mucosal proteome associated with elevated cytokine expression in the female reproductive tract. A scoring system was devised based on the elevation (upper quartile) of at least three of seven inflammatory cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage. Using this score, HIV-uninfected Kenyan women were classified as either having EMC (n=28) or not (n=68). Of 455 proteins quantified in proteomic analyses, 53 were associated with EMC (5% false discovery rate threshold). EMCs were associated with proteases, cell motility, and actin cytoskeletal pathways, whereas protease inhibitor, epidermal cell differentiation, and cornified envelope pathways were decreased. Multivariate analysis identified an optimal signature of 16 proteins that distinguished the EMC group with 88% accuracy. Three proteins in this signature were neutrophil-associated proteases that correlated with many cytokines, especially GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), IL-1β (interleukin-1β), MIP-3α (macrophage inflammatory protein-3α), IL-17, and IL-8. Gene set enrichment analyses implicated activated immune cells; we verified experimentally that EMC women had an increased frequency of endocervical CD4(+) T cells. These data reveal strong linkages between mucosal cytokines, barrier function, proteases, and immune cell movement, and propose these as potential mechanisms that increase risk of HIV acquisition.
Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he
Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.
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Reproductive herd health programs of the 1960s and 1970s focused primarily on the control of infectious and noninfectious diseases of the reproductive tract, estrus detection, breeding technique, semen quality and handling, and endocrine imbalances. Despite veterinary intervention, conception rates dropped from 55% before this period to 45% after this period, but milk production increased greatly. Because studies have shown that the additional nutritional needs for high producing cows may be a factor limiting reproduction, bovine practitioners have become more involved with dairy nutrition. New emphasis has been placed on the concept of total production medicine with the anticipation that improved nutrition would improve reproduction. Because of a better understanding of the dynamics of energy in the dairy cow and its effect on reproduction, fertility examinations now include nutrition monitoring and body condition scoring. Several relationships between nutrition and fertility have been identified: high producing thin cows that drop 0.75 to 1.0 in body condition score resulting in anestrus; fat dry cows that develop fatty livers and associated postpartum disease; heifers that have good milk production but prolonged anestrus; dry cows with ration imbalances during the transition period that develop milk fever, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, metritis, or endometritis; lactating cows with disease in midlactation, especially feet and leg problems, resulting in lowered fertility; and healthy, lactating cows with poor conception that have high concentrations of urea N in blood or milk.
Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.
Rocha, A.F.G. da
Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt
Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E
Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.
Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...
Rini I Damayanti
Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.
... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...
Gonzalez Moreno, C; Fontana, C; Cocconcelli, P S; Callegari, M L; Otero, M C
To evaluate changes in the resident microbial population in the cranial vaginal mucosa induced by a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) compared to the vaginal microbiota of cows with reproductive disorders. Vaginal discharge was evaluated by clinical examination and a Vaginitis Diagnosis Score was performed by exfoliative cytology. All samples classified as positive and some classified as negative by clinical evaluation were later diagnosed as positive for vaginitis by cytological analysis. Bacterial diversity profiles were performed by PCR-DGGE and clustered according to the reproductive health status of the specimens, revealing a correspondence between the structures of the communities in the vagina and the clinical profile. Representative bands from each group were sequenced and identified as Ruminococcus sp., Dialister sp., Escherichia sp./Shigella sp., Virgibacillus sp., Campylobacter sp., Helcoccoccus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Actinopolymorpha sp., Exiguobacterium sp., Haemophilus sp./Histophilus sp., Aeribacillus sp., Porphyromonas sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Clostridium sp. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the vaginal microbiome in synchronized heifers showing positive or negative clinical vaginitis. This study contributes to the understanding of a dynamic vaginal colonization by bacterial consortiums during the synchronization with a widely used PRID protocol. Also, the results reveal the presence of well-known metritis-related pathogens as well as emerging uterine opportunistic pathogens. The provided information will allow to carry out further studies to elucidate functional roles of these native micro-organisms in the bovine reproductive tract. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus
Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown
James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.
At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer
408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.
Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich
to enhance fitness in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we put the definition of the MPEC pathotype into question and suggest to designate corresponding isolates as MAEC.
Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID
Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing
Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...
Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N
In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...
... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...
Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G
... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...
Wang, Jikun; Xiang, Hai; Liu, Langqing; Kong, Minghua; Yin, Tao; Zhao, Xingbo
In bovine species, mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and their correlation to productive or reproductive performances have been widely reported across breeds and individuals. However, experimental evidence of this correlation has never been provided. In order to identify differences among bovine mtDNA haplotypes, transmitochondrial cybrids were generated, with the nucleus from MAC-T cell line, derived from a Holstein dairy cow (Bos taurus) and mitochondria from either primary cell line derived ...
Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation
Laerte Dagher Cassoli
Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.
Giraldo Giraldo, John Jairo
We aim to analyze the influence that this biotechnology has had from its introduction into our country, Colombia, in fundamental aspects for the bovine exploitation as the reproductive efficiency, the genetic improvement, the technology transfer to the country and the training of the producer, everything finally reflected in the productivity and the profitability of the cattle exploitations. Se pretende analizar la influencia que esta biotecnología ha tenido desde su i...
Machaty, Z; Peippo, J; Peter, A
There are numerous publications regarding bovine embryos, ranging from descriptions of their appearance and development to emerging techniques in the field of assisted reproductive technology. Concurrently, several specialized terms have been developed to describe the bovine embryo. The purpose of the current review is two-fold; it is primarily to describe techniques involved in the in vivo and in vitro production of bovine embryos and their manipulation, and secondarily to summarize specialized terms used in these processes. The intention is not to review these techniques in detail, but instead to provide salient points and current knowledge regarding these techniques, with a focus on terminology. The first review dealt with classical and contemporary terminology used to describe morphologic aspects of ovarian dynamics in cattle. Subsequently, the terms and current understanding of processes involved in preattachment bovine embryos were described in the second review. As the third article in a series, this mini-review is focused on defining the production, manipulation, and transfer of bovine preattachment embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro
chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....
Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291
Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function
SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke
Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...
Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Edwards J Lannett
Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p
Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard
Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...
Hoar, Bruce R.
Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...
Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo
Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.
Estádios de desenvolvimento dos órgãos reprodutivos dos machos de Panulirus echinatus Smith (Decapoda: Palinuridae Development stages of the reproductive tract of male of Panulirus echinatus Smith (Decapoda: Palinuridae
Aline do V. Barreto
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa caracteriza os estádios de desenvolvimento dos testículos e canais deferentes da lagosta Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 a partir da relação entre seus aspectos macroscópicos, microscópicos e a relação gonadossomática (RGS. Através de amostragem mensal (novembro de 1999 a outubro de 2000 foram capturados 1716 machos, empregando-se redes de espera de fundo. Retirou-se a região dorsal da carapaça para avaliação dos órgãos reprodutivos. Os testículos e canais deferentes foram dissecados, pesados, fixados em solução de Bouin e submetidos aos procedimentos histológicos. A análise microscópica dos órgãos reprodutivos foi avaliada pela presença ou ausência de espermatozóides nos testículos e canais deferentes. Esta, quando associada a macroscopia (mudança de cor, tamanho, diâmetro e desenvolvimento de espermatóforo e a relação gonadossomática (RGS, possibilitou a caracterização de três estádios de desenvolvimento: imaturo, intermediário e maturo. Ficou evidenciada que a maturidade dos testículos precedeu a maturidade dos canais deferentes. Para avaliar se a RGS é um bom indicador quantitativo dos estádios de maturidade, um teste t (alfa = 0,05 foi usado e constatou diferença significativa nas médias da RGS. A RGS pode ser utilizada como indicadora dos estádios de maturidade para P. echinatus.This paper characterizes the developmental stages of the testes and vasa deferentia of the Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 through comparisons between microscopic findings, macroscopic aspects, and gonadosomatic index (GSR. The lobsters were sampled monthly (November 1999 to October 2000 using seine nets and a total of 1716 males were obtained at Tamandaré Bay. Each carapace was cut to allow evaluation of the reproductive organs; the testes and vasa deferentia were dissected, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution up to 12 hours and submitted for histological analysis to determine the presence and/or absence
Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping
effects on the BL (p = 0.0047) and CD (p = 0.0454. Regarding association analysis of combination of the two SNPs, there are significant effects on the BL (p = 0.0215), CD (p = 0.0282) and PBW (p = 0.0329) in the total population. The results suggest that the UQCC gene is a candidate gene of body...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....... models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...
Rocha, Cláudia E; Mol, Juliana P S; Garcia, Luize N N; Costa, Luciana F; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular and invasive bacterium that has tropism to the placenta, and causes fetal morbidity and mortality in several mammalian species. While infection with L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are known as important causes of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle, the pathogenesis of maternal-fetal listeriosis in this species is poorly known. This study used the bovine chorioallantoic membrane explant model to investigate the kinetics of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. innocua infections in bovine trophoblastic cells for up to 8 h post infection. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were able to invade and multiply in trophoblastic cells without causing cell death or inducing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Although L. innocua was unable to multiply in bovine trophoblastic cells, it induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediator CXCL6. This study demonstrated for the first time the susceptibility of bovine trophoblastic cells to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii infection.
Ricardo Chaves Vilela
Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...
The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...
Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.
This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or
Sreenivasan, Chithra; Thomas, Milton; Sheng, Zizhang; Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Knudsen, David E B; Pillatzki, Angela; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Li, Feng
Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel influenza virus that infects cattle and swine. The goal of this study was to investigate the replication and transmission of bovine FLUDV in guinea pigs. Following direct intranasal inoculation of animals, the virus was detected in nasal washes of infected animals during the first 7 days postinfection. High viral titers were obtained from nasal turbinates and lung tissues of directly inoculated animals. Further, bovine FLUDV was able to transmit from the infected guinea pigs to sentinel animals by means of contact and not by aerosol dissemination under the experimental conditions tested in this study. Despite exhibiting no clinical signs, infected guinea pigs developed seroconversion and the viral antigen was detected in lungs of animals by immunohistochemistry. The observation that bovine FLUDV replicated in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs was similar to observations described previously in studies of gnotobiotic calves and pigs experimentally infected with bovine FLUDV but different from those described previously in experimental infections in ferrets and swine with a swine FLUDV, which supported virus replication only in the upper respiratory tract and not in the lower respiratory tract, including lung. Our study established that guinea pigs could be used as an animal model for studying this newly emerging influenza virus. Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel emerging pathogen with bovine as its primary host. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus are not yet known. FLUDV also spreads to swine, and the presence of FLUDV-specific antibodies in humans could indicate that there is a potential for zoonosis. Our results showed that bovine FLUDV replicated in the nasal turbinate and lungs of guinea pigs at high titers and was also able to transmit from an infected animal to sentinel animals by contact. The fact that bovine FLUDV replicated productively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of guinea pigs
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale
Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.
Alonso, Carlos Agustín I; Osycka-Salut, Claudia E; Castellano, Luciana; Cesari, Andreína; Di Siervi, Nicolás; Mutto, Adrián; Johannisson, Anders; Morrell, Jane M; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina
Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? Extracellular cAMP induces sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. This correlates with a number of membrane and metabolic modifications that include an increased influx of bicarbonate and Ca2+, activation of a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to produce cAMP, PKA activation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the development of hyperactivated motility. We previously reported that cAMP efflux by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) occurs during sperm capacitation and the pharmacological blockade of this inhibits the process. Moreover, the supplementation of incubation media with cAMP abolishes the inhibition and leads to sperm capacitation, suggesting that extracellular cAMP regulates crucial signalling cascades involved in this process. Bovine sperm were selected by the wool glass column method, and washed by centrifugation in BSA-Free Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (sp-TALP). Pellets were resuspended then diluted for each treatment. For in vitro capacitation, 10 to 15 × 106 SPZ/ml were incubated in 0.3% BSA sp-TALP at 38.5°C for 45 min under different experimental conditions. To evaluate the role of extracellular cAMP on different events associated with sperm capacitation, 10 nM cAMP was added to the incubation medium as well as different inhibitors of enzymes associated with signalling transduction pathways: U73122 (PLC inhibitor, 10 μM), Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor, 10 μM), PD98059 (ERK-1/2 inhibitor, 30 μM), H89 and KT (PKA inhibitors, 50 μM and 100 nM, respectively), KH7 (sAC inhibitor, 10 μM), BAPTA
Julian Ruiz-Saenz; Jairo Jaime; Gloria Ramirez; Victor Vera
Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is distributed worldwide and is a major pathogen in cattle,being the causal agent of a variety of clinical syndromes.The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize (molecular and biological characterization) BoHV- 1 from 29 immunosuppressed animals.It was possible to obtain 18 isolates,each from a different animal,such as from the respiratory and reproductive tracts.In some cases the cytopathic effect was visible 12 hours post-inoculation,and became characteristic after 36-48 hours.Biological characteristics were evaluated and compared with Iowa and Colorado-1 reference strains,and differences were found in plaque size,virus titer measured by TCID50 and PFU/mL,and one step virus curves.These results showed that some isolates had a highly virulent-like behavior in vitro,compared to the reference strains,with shorter eclipse periods,faster release of virus into the supematants,and higher burst size and viral titer.There were no differences in glycoprotein expression of BoHV-1 isolates,measured by Western blot on monolayers.Moreover,using restriction endonucleases analysis,most of the viruses were confirmed as BoHV-1.1 and just one of them was confirmed as BoHV-1.2a subtype.These findings suggest that some wild-type BoHV-1 isolates could be useful as seeds to develop new monovalent vaccines.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress
Full Text Available Global consumption of phytoestrogens and their effects have increased both in animals and humans due to the augmented use of legumes in animal diets as well as the increase in vegetarian diets in some human populations. Even though the general opinion and that of clinicians toward phytoestrogens is generally positive, many phytoestrogens are now recognized as endocrine disruptor compounds, capable of interfering with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action or elimination of natural hormones in the body that are responsible for reproduction. The effects of phytoestrogens mainly depend on the type, amount and plant species ingested. These compounds are found widely in a variety of plants and fodder, and can have adverse effects mainly on the reproductive tract in most animal species. Many phytoestrogens can act as estrogenic agonists or antagonists, and their effects can vary from infertility to an estrogenic over-response, thus increasing secretions in the reproductive tract and disrupting animal behavior. Presently, there is still a lack of knowledge on this subject, and the effects on reproductive parameters of estrogenic forage in animal production systems are unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to continue research in order to elucidate the effects of phytoestrogens, the doses at which effects are seen, the species, the disruptive or beneficial effects, as well as the mechanisms of action involved. This review focuses on the effects of phytoestrogens in the reproductive physiology of livestock and human, as well as the knowledge obtained from research in animal models.
Svendsen, Mette N.
This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs
Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...
Vale, William G.
The genetic improvement through artificial insemination in buffaloes is presented. The semen cryopreservation method is used; is a technique for freezing the semen for the use of spermatozoa of buffalo in assisted reproduction. Knowledge of the physiology of the male genital tract is shown, the different chemical compounds that can serve as substrates. Also, cryoprotectants of antimicrobial agents are focused, nutrition and protection to spermatozoa during different stages of the process, in order to obtain viable cells in post-freezing [es
Cibulková, Eva; Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.
Roč. 68, č. 7 (2007), s. 1047-1054 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : hyaluronidase * boar sperm * seminal plasma * epididymis * seminal vesicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007
... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...
This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...
Ort?z-Estrada, Guillermo; Calder?n-Salinas, V?ctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Le?n-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya
Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth ...
Nie, Xuguang; Arend, Lois J
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases, caused by mutations in PKD1 and/ or PKD2. Infertility and reproductive tract abnormalities in male ADPKD patients are very common and have higher incidence than in the general population. In this work, we reveal novel roles of Pkd2 for male reproductive system development. Disruption of Pkd2 caused dilation of mesonephric tubules/efferent ducts, failure of epididymal coiling, and defecti...
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…
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Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This census tract shapefile for the 500 Cities project was extracted from the Census 2010 Tiger/Line database and modified to remove portions of census tracts that...
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...
van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G
The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.
Physician-patient communication in the prevention of female reproductive tract infections: some limitations Comunicação entre médicos e mulheres na prevenção das infecções do trato reprodutivo: algumas limitações
María Y. Makuch
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a informação que mulheres com esterilidade tubária lembravam haver recebido dos médicos quando elas compareceram à consulta em virtude de infeções do trato reprodutivo (ITR, assim como a informação que os médicos referiram dar-lhes no momento da consulta. Foram entrevistadas 16 mulheres com esterilidade primária de causa tubária, selecionadas seguindo o critério de amostra proposital. Foram selecionados ao acaso e entrevistados 15 médicos da rede pública de Campinas, SP, Brasil. A análise das respostas das mulheres mostrou que elas não lembravam de ter recebido informação a respeito de meios de prevenção ou sobre o impacto das ITRs em seu futuro
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...
Sangeetha Ananda Baskaran; Kumar Venkitanarayanan
This study investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (SIC) of five plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely, trans cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and β-resorcylic acid, on E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) attachment and invasion of cultured bovine colonic (CO) and rectoanal junction (RAJ) epithelial cells. In addition, PDAs' effect on EHEC genes critical for colonization of cattle gastrointestinal tract (CGIT) was determined in bovine rumen fluid (RF) and intestinal conten...
... VUR) The Urinary Tract & How It Works The Urinary Tract & How It Works On this page: What is ... a person produces? Clinical Trials What is the urinary tract and how does it work? The urinary tract ...
Considerable progress has been made in the field of pediatric uroradiology, as in most other aspects of radiology, since the last edition of this text was published in 1978. To a large extent, this progress was due to the remarkable advances in, and an increased application of, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear imaging. In this section, an attempt has been made to incorporate and illustrate some of the applications of these diagnostic modalities to pediatric urology. The subjects discussed in this section include a brief account of the major radiologic procedures used in pediatric urology, followed by a review of the most common congenital and acquired diseases of the urinary tract and of the male and female genital tract, precocious puberty and intersex conditions, and disorders of the adrenal glands and related structures
Choi, Byung Ihn
Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology
Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
Ultrasonography is a powerful technology that can be used to improve reproductive management in heifers. By counting the number of antral follicles observed on an ultrasound screen the practitioner can gather additional information when reproductive tract scoring, because the number of antral folli...
Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith
Incorrect developmental programming of the female reproductive tract can lead to compromised reproductive fitness later in life. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in utero can disrupt ovarian programming in humans, which is supported by several animal st...
Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...
Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.
This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role
Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine
The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.
The application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been shown to induce changes in the methylation of the embryonic genome, leading to aberrant gene expression, including that of imprinted genes. Aberrant methylation and gene expression has been linked to the large offspring syndrome...... (LOS) in bovine embryos resulting in increased embryonic morbidity and mortality. In the bovine, limited numbers of imprinted genes have been studied and studies have primarily been restricted to pre-implantation stages. This study reports original data on the expression pattern of 8 putatively...... imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos...
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Aug 24, 2014 ... The estimated calving percentage of beef cattle is 62% in the commercial sector of South ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next ..... reproductive tract scoring in beef heifers in South Africa.
Primers sequence used were the forward and reverse β oestrogen primer which was designed to detect the expression of the gene encoding oestrogen receptor in the reproductive tract of the giant African Land Snail (Archachatina marginata) were: Forward: 5'-GCT TCG AGC TCA GCC TG-3' Reverse: 5'-AGG ATC ATG ...
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo
Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
León M., Eric; Sato S., Alberto; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Cisneros S., Jannet
The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...
Jericho, K W; Carter, G R
Pathological changes in respiratory tracts were studied in 30 calves following exposure to aerosols of Pasteurella multocida or to bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. multocida. Two groups of five calves were exposed to aerosols of one of two types of P. multocida only, which produced lobar pneumonia in one calf of each group. Another five groups of four calves were exposed to aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and four to seven days later to one of the two types or one sub-type of P. multocida. Extens...
Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.
I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta
This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.
Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J
The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... was observed. The findings suggest a smooth muscle regulatory role of PACAP in the human female reproductive tract....... tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...
Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.
Variação nas medidas corporais e desenvolvimento do trato reprodutivo de novilhas de corte recriadas para o acasalamento aos 18 meses de idade Body measurements variations and development of the reproductive tract of beef heifers reared for breeding at 18 months of age
Yuri Regis Montanholi
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do ganho de peso no período de recria, dos 13 aos 19 meses de idade, em algumas medidas de desenvolvimento corporal de novilhas de corte de reposição, da raça Hereford, mantidas em pastagem nativa. O período experimental foi compreendido entre 15/11/2002 e 23/04/2003. Os tratamentos foram três taxas de ganho de peso, em animais de 13 a 14 meses de idade, sendo: G600 - 20 novilhas (208+1,8kg submetidas a um ganho diário médio (GDM de 0,595kg dia-1; G700 - 23 novilhas (197+1,7kg submetidas a um GDM de 0,637kg dia-1 e G800 - 24 novilhas (181+1,2kg submetidas a um GDM de 0,723kg dia-1. Os GDM foram estabelecidos para que todos os animais atingissem 300kg (ou 65% do peso adulto ao início da estação de monta. Foram avaliados os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre o peso, a altura da garupa (AG, o perímetro torácico (PT, a relação peso:altura (PA e sobre o escore de trato reprodutivo (ETR. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 no incremento da AG e do PT e na PA entre os grupos experimentais. O peso vivo foi altamente correlacionado (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the effects of growth rate during the rearing phase of 13 to 19 months old replacement beef heifers Hereford on body development reared on native pasture. The experiment was conducted from 11/15/2002 to 04/23/2003. The treatments were the three weight gain rates: G600 - 20 heifers (208+1.8kg submitted to an average growth rate (AGR of 0.595kg day-1; G700 - 23 heifers (197+1.7kg with an AGR of 0.637kg day-1 and G800 - 24 heifers (181+1.2kg with an AGR of 0.723kg day-1. The three AGR aimed for a body weight of 300kg (or 65% of the expected adult weight at the end of the rearing phase. Treatment effects were determined on body weight, hip height (HH, heart girth (HG, weight:height ratio (WH and reproductive tract score (RTS. No differences (P>0.05 among treatments were observed on the increment of HH, HG and WH at the end of the
Muflihanah, Hanah; Hatta, Mochammad; Rood, Ente; Scheelbeek, Pauline; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.
Brucellosis is a major cause of infertility and reproductive failure in livestock. While cattle in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago suffers from reproductive problems information on bovine brucellosis in the region is fragmentary. The control of brucellosis requires a major and prolonged effort
Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.
Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))
From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.
Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne
Bovine milk is an agricultural product of tremendous value worldwide. It contains proteins, fat, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. It provides nutrition and immunological protection (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract) to the newborn and young calf. It also forms an important part of human...... of low abundant proteins. Further, the general health and udder health of the dairy cows delivering the milk may influence the composition of the milk proteome. To gain a more exhaustive and true picture of the milk proteome, we performed an extensive preanalysis fractionation of raw composite milk...... nutrition. The repertoire of proteins in milk (i.e., its proteome) is vast and complex. The milk proteome can be described in detail by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the high concentration of dominating proteins in milk reduces mass spectrometry detection sensitivity and limits detection...
Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.
Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...
Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi
Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.
PRESENTED AT THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING ON 2/11/06: DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS
Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...
Ashok K. Balhara
Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.
Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...
... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described
Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT......-related GIT damage and dysfunction. New and novel aspects of drug delivery and drug-dietary supplement interactions are discusses and much needed areas of focus in terms of drug GIT testing are identified....... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...
Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.
Introduction of new methods and enhancement of traditional radiologic methods have greatly influenced the use of imaging to diagnose and treat patients who have urinary tract disease. In the past, plain films of the abdomen and excretory urography were the starting point in the diagnostic imaging process. Today, either computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography may be requested initially. Choosing the appropriate method has become more complex because of the variety that confronts the physician. If physicians think critically about the selection of patients before requesting an imaging examination, they can improve their use of such examinations. First, the physician must hypothesize a differential diagnosis. Particularly important is the action of linking the use of the diagnostic test to the choice of treatment. The following paragraphs present the most frequently used (or most useful) examinations for the specific diagnostic problem situations that are discussed subsequently
Jennifer H Wilson-Welder
Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of
Wendt, K; Stellmacher, H
The results of gynecological investigations in 142 bitches were evaluated and the complexity of infectious affections is discussed. High proportions of infectious cases were found in cases of limitation of fertility (67.5%), in vaginal discharge in the estrus (60.8%), in cases of mastitis/pseudopregnancy (61.5%) and in mortality of newborn puppies. St. aureus and E. coli were often isolated. There is a high etiological correlation in epidemiology of diseases of the reproductive tract in the single bitch and especially in kennel bitches.
Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a crucial role in reproduction at every level in the organism. In the brain, it activates the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH. The axons of the LHRH neurons project to the mating centers in the brain stem and by afferent pathways evoke the lordosis reflex in female rats. In males, there is activation of NOergic terminals that release NO in the corpora cavernosa penis to induce erection by generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. NO also activates the release of LHRH which reaches the pituitary and activates the release of gonadotropins by activating neural NO synthase (nNOS in the pituitary gland. In the gonad, NO plays an important role in inducing ovulation and in causing luteolysis, whereas in the reproductive tract, it relaxes uterine muscle via cGMP and constricts it via prostaglandins (PG.
Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use,
Nepomuceno, Erivelton G.; Barbosa, Alípio M.; Silva, Marcos X.; Perc, Matjaž
We present a theoretical approach to control bovine brucellosis. We have used individual-based modelling, which is a network-type alternative to compartmental models. Our model thus considers heterogeneous populations, and spatial aspects such as migration among herds and control actions described as pulse interventions are also easily implemented. We show that individual-based modelling reproduces the mean field behaviour of an equivalent compartmental model. Details of this process, as well as flowcharts, are provided to facilitate the reproduction of the presented results. We further investigate three numerical examples using real parameters of herds in the São Paulo state of Brazil, in scenarios which explore eradication, continuous and pulsed vaccination and meta-population effects. The obtained results are in good agreement with the expected behaviour of this disease, which ultimately showcases the effectiveness of our theory.
Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)
Mansilla, Florencia C; Capozzo, Alejandra V
Neospora caninum, an intracellular protozoan parasite from the phylum Apicomplexa, is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a disease considered as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Bovine neosporosis has a great economic impact in both meat and dairy industries, related to abortion, premature culling and reduced milk yields. Although many efforts have been made to restrain bovine neosporosis, there are still no efficacious control methods. Many vaccine-development studies focused in the apicomplexan proteins involved in the adhesion and invasion of the host cell. Among these proteins, profilins have recently emerged as potential vaccine antigens or even adjuvant candidates for several diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites. Profilins bind Toll-like receptors 11 and 12 initiating MyD88 signaling, that triggers IL-12 and IFN-γ production, which may promote protection against infection. Here we summarized the state-of-the-art of novel vaccine development based on apicomplexan profilins applied as antigens or adjuvants, and delved into recent advances on N. caninum vaccines using profilin in the mouse model and in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.
Rametse, Cosnet L; Olivier, Abraham J; Masson, Lindi; Barnabas, Shaun; McKinnon, Lyle R; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Gray, Clive M; Jaspan, Heather B; Passmore, Jo-Ann S
While the main reproduction aim of semen is the transport of spermatozoa to the female genital tract, seminal plasma is a complex fluid that also carries a broad array of immunologically active molecules. Seminal plasma has been shown to contain a diverse array of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory soluble mediators that regulate immune responses within the female reproductive tract than can facilitate fertilization. Since the natural inflammatory response to semen deposition in the female genital tract may result in recruitment of activated HIV target cells into the female genital mucosa, we discuss the constituents of semen that may increase the risk for HIV infection in women.
Pollock, Christal G; Orosz, Susan E
Although many environmental cues influence reproductive activity, the seasonal breeder responds most strongly to long day length. THE MALE BIRD: Testicular interstitial cells secrete testosterone, which influences reproductive behavior such as territorial aggression and song. Other changes observed in seasonal breeders include testicular hypertrophy and enlargement of the ductus deferens and seminal glomus. THE FEMALE BIRD: Early changes associated with rising estrogen levels in the hen include osteomyelosclerosis and hypercalcemia. Ovulation is then induced by LH, which is followed by eggshell calcification, which is under the control of progesterone. Sources of calcium for shell production include intestinal absorption from the diet, renal control of calcium levels, and mobilization of bone calcium stores. During oviposition, PGF2 alpha and vasotocin stimulate powerful uterine contractions  in the presence of calcium. Incubation is associated with falling LH levels and rising prolactin levels. If the hen actually enters reproductive quiescence at this time, then molt will follow. Molt is associated with the total regression of the reproductive tract.
Lucílio Antônio Ribeiro
Full Text Available Considering the implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT in 2001, and the need to determine the epidemiological status of animal tuberculosis for future evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures laid down, the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in the Federal District (DF of Brazil, as well as to provide an input for the strategic management of PNCEBT. Field testing and data collection was carried out from February to December 2003. The DF was considered a single epidemiological region owing to the small number of existing farms, and the absence of significant differences between the region’s farming enterprises, which would justify the stratification of the regional sample. A total of 278 farms were randomly sampled from the local registry database of bovine farms with reproductive activity, in which 2,019 adult cows were tuberculin tested. Only one sampled animal had a positive result, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test, resulting in a bovine tuberculosis prevalence of 0.05% [95% CI: 0.0-0.4%]. The herd-level prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the DF was estimated as 0.36% [95% CI: 0-2.0%]. The analysis of risk factors was impaired by the results obtained, as the number of cases did not allow for this kind of analysis. Cattle farming in the DF is predominantly aimed at dairy production; however, it is characterized by the presence of small low milk yield herds, which may not favor the introduction and persistency of infection of Mycobacterium bovis. Health authorities from the DF perform surveillance for bovine tuberculosis and maintain the need for tests for the movement of bovines for breeding and those animals destined for any form of animal gathering, especially auctions. Therefore, it is likely that the DF has good conditions for successfully implementing the PNCEBT.
Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena
-only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....
Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael
An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis. PMID:15109423
Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp
Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...
Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...
Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.
Full Text Available ... Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...
Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...
Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: YUR- ...
Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...
Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...
Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69
Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.
Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G
Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.
Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...
Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni
Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.
Horcajo, P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Aguado-Martínez, A; Hemphill, A; Ortega-Mora, L M
Bovine neosporosis is a worldwide concern due to its global distribution and great economic impact. Reproductive failure in cattle due to abortion leads to major economic losses associated with the disease. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available against abortion or transmission caused by Neospora caninum infection in cattle. However, vaccination is considered the best measure of control against bovine neosporosis. Several host and parasite factors can influence the dynamics of the infection in bovines. Moreover, the availability of well-defined infection models is a key factor for the evaluation of vaccine candidates. However, working with cattle is not easy due to difficult handling, facilities and costs, and therefore, 'more affordable' models could be used for screening of promising vaccines to establish proof of concept. So far, live-attenuated vaccines have shown good efficacy against exogenous transplacental transmission; however, they have relevant disadvantages and associated risks, which render inactivated or subunit vaccines the best way forward. The identification of novel potential targets and vaccines, and the application of innovative vaccine technologies in harmonized experimental animal models, will accelerate the development of an effective vaccine against bovine neosporosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8 M-induced GC proliferation (P Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.
Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.
Gupta, Ramesh C
.... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...
...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...
Orgal, Shlomo; Zeron, Yoel; Elior, Nili; Biran, David; Friedman, Eran; Druker, Shaked; Roth, Zvi
Decreased conception rate of dairy cows in the summer is mainly associated with the deleterious effects of environmental thermal stress on the female reproductive tract. Here, we suggest that decreased reproductive performance might be partially due to inferior-quality semen. Semen from five representative bulls was collected in summer (August to September) and winter (December to January) and evaluated with a computerized sperm-quality analyzer for bulls (SQA-Vb). No seasonal effect was found in fresh ejaculate, but sperm examined post-thawing showed lower velocity, motility and progressive motility (Pconception rate of dairy cows in summer.
A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh
Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...
Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2 epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2 and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo.
Amat, S; Subramanian, S; Timsit, E; Alexander, T W
This study evaluated the potential of probiotic bacteria to inhibit growth and cell adhesion of the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemoltyica serotype 1. The inhibitory effects of nine probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains) against M. haemolytica were evaluated using a spot-on-lawn method. Probiotic strains were then tested for their adherence to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells and the ability to displace and compete against M. haemolytica on BBE. Except for S. thermophilus, all probiotic strains inhibited the growth of M. haemolytica, with zones of inhibition ranging between 12 and 19 mm. Lactobacillus strains and Lactococcus lactis displayed greater (P probiotics (probiotics. The results of this study suggest that probiotics may have the potential to colonize the bovine respiratory tract, and exert antagonistic effects against M. haemolytica serotype 1. A common method to control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlots is through mass medication with antibiotics upon cattle entry (i.e. metaphylaxis). Increasingly, antimicrobial resistance in BRD bacterial pathogens has been observed in feedlots, which may have important implications for cattle health. In this study, probiotic strains were shown to adhere to bovine respiratory cells and inhibit the BRD pathogen M. haemolytica serotype 1 through competition and displacement. Probiotics may therefore offer a mitigation strategy to reduce BRD bacterial pathogens, in place of metaphylactic antimicrobials. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...
Morán, Pedro E; Pérez, Sandra E; Odeón, Anselmo C; Verna, Andrea E
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle with respiratory infections, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, abortions, endometritis and from apparently healthy animals throughout the world. Although it has not yet been established as causal agent of a specific disease entity, it is primarily associated with reproductive disorders of cattle. This virus can infect a wide range of species, either in vivo or in vitro. Two groups of prototype strains were originated from the first isolates: the DN599-type strains (American group) and the Movar-type strains (European group). In Argentina, BoHV-4 was isolated and characterized in 2007 from vaginal discharge samples taken from cows that had aborted. So far, more than 40 isolates, mainly associated with aborting bovine females have been registered in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Alzahraa M. Abdelatty
Full Text Available The global population is expected to increase from 7.6 to 9.6 billion people from 2017 to 2050. Increased demand for livestock production and rising global temperatures have made heat stress (HS a major challenge for the dairy industry. HS been shown to have negative effects on production parameters such as dry matter intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency. In addition to affecting production parameters, HS has also been shown to have negative effects on the reproductive functions of dairy cows. Mitigation of HS effects on dairy cow productivity and fertility necessitate the strategic planning of nutrition, and environmental conditions. The current review will discuss the potential nutriepigenomic strategies to mitigate the effect of HS on bovine embryo. Keywords: Bovine embryo, Dairy cow, Fertility, Heat stress, Maternal nutrition, Oocyst
Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue
The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in tr...
Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…
The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and
Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.
The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR
Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati
Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%),...
Wy Ching Ng
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab'2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab'2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab'2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.
Jami, Elie; Israel, Adi; Kotser, Assaf; Mizrahi, Itzhak
The mammalian gut microbiota is essential in shaping many of its host's functional attributes. One such microbiota resides in the bovine digestive tract in a compartment termed as the rumen. The rumen microbiota is necessary for the proper physiological development of the rumen and for the animal's ability to digest and convert plant mass into food products, making it highly significant to humans. The establishment of this microbial population and the changes occurring with the host's age are important for understanding this key microbial community. Despite its importance, little information about colonization of the microbial populations in newborn animals, and the gradual changes occurring thereafter, exists. Here, we characterized the overall bovine ruminal bacterial populations of five age groups, from 1-day-old calves to 2-year-old cows. We describe the changes occurring in the rumen ecosystem after birth, reflected by a decline in aerobic and facultative anaerobic taxa and an increase in anaerobic ones. Some rumen bacteria that are essential for mature rumen function could be detected as early as 1 day after birth, long before the rumen is active or even before ingestion of plant material occurs. The diversity and within-group similarity increased with age, suggesting a more diverse but homogeneous and specific mature community, compared with the more heterogeneous and less diverse primary community. In addition, a convergence toward a mature bacterial arrangement with age was observed. These findings have also been reported for human gut microbiota, suggesting that similar forces drive the establishment of gut microbiotas in these two distinct mammalian digestive systems.
... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...
... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...
Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar
In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation
Bovine fasciolosis is a parasitic disease of cattle caused by trematodes usually. Fasciola gigantic ... and impaired fertility [6,7]. The value of the .... especially males with good body condition, are transported to these cities with higher population ...
Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.
Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.
Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A
Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen
Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo
From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...
Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.
A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30...... from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4...
Seidel, George E
Principles for selecting future research projects include interests of investigators, fundability, potential applications, ethical considerations, being able to formulate testable hypotheses and choosing the best models, including selection of the most appropriate species. The following 10 areas of assisted reproduction seem especially appropriate for further research: efficacious capacitation of bovine spermatozoa in vitro; improved in vitro bovine oocyte maturation; decreasing variability and increasing efficacy of bovine superovulation; improved fertility of sexed semen; improving equine IVF; improving cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa; understanding differences between males in success of sperm cryopreservation and reasons for success in competitive fertilisation; mechanisms of reprogramming somatic cell nuclei after nuclear transfer; regulation of differentiation of ovarian primordial follicles; and means by which spermatozoa maintain fertility during storage in the epididymis. Issues are species specific for several of these topics, in most cases because the biology is species specific.
Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.
Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya
Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar K d . However, averages of 9.45 × 10(5) and 6.65 × 10(6) binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.
Mariana H. Remião
Full Text Available Reproductive medicine is a field of science which searches for new alternatives not only to help couples achieve pregnancy and preserve fertility, but also to diagnose and treat diseases which can impair the normal operation of the reproductive tract. Assisted reproductive technology (ART is a set of methodologies applied to cases related to infertility. Despite being highly practiced worldwide, ART presents some challenges, which still require special attention. Nanotechnology, as a tool for reproductive medicine, has been considered to help overcome some of those impairments. Over recent years, nanotechnology approaches applied to reproductive medicine have provided strategies to improve diagnosis and increase specificity and sensitivity. For in vitro embryo production, studies in non-human models have been used to deliver molecules to gametes and embryos. The exploration of nanotechnology for ART would bring great advances. In this way, experiments in non-human models to test the development and safety of new protocols using nanomaterials are very important for informing potential future employment in humans. This paper presents recent developments in nanotechnology regarding impairments still faced by ART: ovary stimulation, multiple pregnancy, and genetic disorders. New perspectives for further use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine studies are also discussed.
Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.
Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is
Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.
one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... Body cavity of fish were dissected using a pair of scissors and different portion of the gut (Oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum) were isolated and kept in .... Arme, C. and Wakey, M. (1970): The physiology of fishes.
Ovalle, A; Levancini, M
Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...
... day urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination urinary incontinence—the accidental loss of urine blockage of urine ... can use several different imaging techniques depending on factors such as the ... urinary tract symptoms. Conventional Radiology X-ray machines have ...
Trueba, F.J.; Peka, J. de la; Perez, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sahagun, E.
The causes of gas in the urinary tract and the radiologic procedures employed to detect it are reviewed. The value of each in determining the diagnosis and extension of the pathological process is discussed. The characteristic images of this disorder as represented by the different techniques, are presented. (Author) 18 refs,
... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...
Skinner, Michael K
A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.
Gupta, Ramesh C
.... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...
... to the surrogate and to the male partner. Surrogacy can be used when the female of the ... party reproduction (sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy): A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...
Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Yange; Luo, Yuru; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Yingli; Zhang, Yong; Qing, Suzhu
Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed with diets containing transgenic milk or conventional milk, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet for 90 days, and non-milk diet was selected as the negative group. The reproductive system was given special attention including reproductive organ/body ratios, necropsy and histopathology, serum sex hormone, sperm parameters, estrus cycle and the expression level of some specific genes which could indicate the development and function of reproductive system. No diet-related significant differences were observed among three groups in this 90-day feeding study. The results indicated that hBD3 milk does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in C57BL/6J rats compared with conventional milk or the control diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative
Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...
Carol A. Kates
Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...
Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.
Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack
Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos
Pillai, Vijayan Kumara; Gupta, Rashmi
Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...
A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)
Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani
Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bovine petechial fever is a Rickettsial disease of cattle, which has been diagnosed, only in Kenya, East Africa. Other countries in the region share some of the biotopes in which the disease occurs, and may well have the infection. The disease is characterised by widespread petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the mucosal surfaces, and throughout the serosal and subserosal surfaces of the body organs and cavities. It may be fatal in up to 50% of untreated cases. The causal organism may be demonstrated most readily in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear granulocytes of the peripheral blood, as well as other leucocytes, and has been classified as Cytoecetes ondirii, a member of the tribe Ehrlichiae. Circumstantial and other evidence suggests that the disease is transmitted by an arthropod vector, which has yet to be identified. The blood of a naturally infected wild ruminant, the bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus has been shown to remain infective for at least 2 years, and other species such as the African buffalo, Syncercus caffer for at least 5 weeks. These and possibly other species, may serve as the amplifying and reservoir hosts.
Full Text Available The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first from nutritional deficiency studies in rat embryos, and later from genetic studies in mice. It is now generally believed that all-trans retinoic acid (RA is the form of vitamin A that supports both male and female reproduction as well as embryonic development. This conclusion is based on the ability to reverse most reproductive and developmental blocks found in vitamin A deficiency induced either by nutritional or genetic means with RA, and the ability to recapitulate the majority of embryonic defects in retinoic acid receptor compound null mutants. The activity of the catabolic CYP26 enzymes in determining what tissues have access to RA has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism, and helps to explain why exogenous RA can rescue many vitamin A deficiency defects. In severely vitamin A-deficient (VAD female rats, reproduction fails prior to implantation, whereas in VAD pregnant rats given small amounts of carotene or supported on limiting quantities of RA early in organogenesis, embryos form but show a collection of defects called the vitamin A deficiency syndrome or late vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is also essential for the maintenance of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis. Recent studies show that vitamin A participates in a signaling mechanism to initiate meiosis in the female gonad during embryogenesis, and in the male gonad postnatally. Both nutritional and genetic approaches are being used to elucidate the vitamin A-dependent pathways upon which these processes depend.
Encalada, Edmundo; Engracia, Ruth; Calle, Carlos; Rivera, Tania; Marengo, Carlos
A seven years old patient, with a biliary tract tumoration, diagnosed by computerized tomography and eco, which had practice an exploratory laparotomy, finding an intrahepatic tumor at the left hepatic tract level, with a pathological diagnosis of papillary adenocarcinoma moderately differentiated the biliary tract. The surgery is the main treatment, auxiliary treatments with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (The author)
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... Los riñones y las vías urinarias Kidneys and Urinary Tract Basics Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, ...
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S
the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which...
The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB...
Forster Robert J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.
Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.
Fleischer, N.; Rosen, O.M.; Reichlin, M.
Immunization of guinea pigs with bovine cardiac cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP : protein phosphotransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) resulted in the development of precipitating antibodies to the cAMP-binding subunit of the enzyme. Both the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated cAMP-binding protein of the protein kinase reacted with the antiserum. A radioimmunoassay was developed that detects 10 ng of holoenzyme and permits measurement of enzyme concentrations in bovine cardiac muscle. Bovine liver, kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle contain protein kinases which are immunologically identical to those found in bovine cardiac muscle. However, the proportion of immunoreactive enzyme activity differed for each tissue. All of the immunologically nonreactive enzyme in skeletal muscle and heart was separable from immunoreactive enzyme by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Rat tissues and pig heart contained protein kinase activity that cross reacted immunologically in a nonparallel fashion with bovine cardiac enzyme. These results indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinases within and between species are immunologically heterogeneous
Jun 14, 2010 ... Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) belongs to the genus of ... through vaccination with recombinant vaccines of thymidine kinase, manufacturing and applying ..... Resistance to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) induced in.
Thackare, Hemlata; Nicholson, Helen D; Whittington, Kate
Oxytocin (OT) is traditionally thought of as a "female" neurohypophysis hormone due to its role in parturition and milk ejection. However, OT is recognized as having endocrine and paracrine roles in male reproduction. At ejaculation, a burst of OT is released from the neurohypophysis into the systemic circulation and stimulates contractions of the reproductive tract aiding sperm release. There is conclusive evidence that OT is synthesized within the mammalian testis, epididymis and prostate and the presence of OT receptors (OTRs) through the reproductive tract supports a local action for this peptide. OT has a paracrine role in stimulating contractility of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the prostate gland. Interestingly, OT has also been shown to modulate androgen levels in these tissues via stimulation of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestostone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase. The elucidation of OT's role in male reproduction has suggested a number of potential therapeutic uses for this hormone. Exogenous administration of OT has, in some cases, been shown to increase the numbers of ejaculated sperm, possibly by stimulating contractions of the reproductive tract and thus aiding sperm passage. Within the prostate, OT has been shown to affect gland growth both directly and via its interaction with androgen metabolism. Prostate pathologies due to unregulated cell proliferation/growth, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer, are unfortunately very common and few effective treatments are available. Greater understanding of paracrine growth mediators, such as OT, is likely to provide new mechanisms for treating such pathologies.
Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio
Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.
Full Text Available Introduction: Superovulation produces complications in some patients, so invitro maturation of oocytes is used to decrease or eliminate these complications and improve IVF. Moreover, IVM is used for different aspects of reproductive researches. Slaughterhouse ovaries are the main source of oocytes for IVM and IVF studies. Different media has been introduced and experimented for in vitro maturation of oocytes. Animal's serum at estrus stage contains different hormones and proteins which are essential for oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to compare three culture media for in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine oocytes; 1(controlTCM-199, 2HCG and follicular fluid (FF and 3 antibiotic. Methods: Rat estrus serum (RSS or fetal bovine serum (FBS was added to control medium. Total of 1789 compact cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered animals. Oocytes were randomly cultured in mentioned media and incubated in 38.5◦c, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was judged according to cumulus cell expansion or randomly orcein stained oocytes and observation of polar bodies. Results: The results showed that maturation rate was significantly higher in second and third group (90.2%, 78.7% as compared to the control group (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between second and third groups (90.2 % vs. 86.6%. Conclusion: RSS is as effective as FBS for IVM of bovine oocytes and can be used as an alternative.
Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Nakamura, Yuuki; Hayama, Kou; Shirasawa, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae
Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP-embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming.
Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M
Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Carey J. Fitzgerald
Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644
Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J
There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.
Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe
Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537
Laskar, Ananya Ray
With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care.
Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter
BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...
Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo
To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.
T. V. Margieva
Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection.
Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.
Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.
Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M
To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.
Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim
Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.
Horner, John R.
Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.
Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...
Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M
• Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.
Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen
In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...
... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.
The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...
... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...
Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.
HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...
Ananda Baskaran, Sangeetha; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar
This study investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (SIC) of five plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely, trans cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and β-resorcylic acid, on E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) attachment and invasion of cultured bovine colonic (CO) and rectoanal junction (RAJ) epithelial cells. In addition, PDAs' effect on EHEC genes critical for colonization of cattle gastrointestinal tract (CGIT) was determined in bovine rumen fluid (RF) and intestinal contents (BICs). Primary bovine CO and RAJ epithelial cells were established and were separately inoculated with three EHEC strains with or without (control) SIC of each PDA. Following incubation, EHEC that attached and invaded the cells were determined. Furthermore, the expression of EHEC genes critical for colonization in cattle was investigated using real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction in RF and BICs. All the PDAs decreased EHEC invasion of CO and RAJ epithelial cells (P cattle; however follow-up in vivo studies in cattle are warranted.
Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between
Partington, B.P.; Biller, D.S.
This study consists of a review of 115 consecutively accrued bovine cranial abdomial radiographs. The sensitivity and specificity of radiography in detecting traumatic reticuloperitonitis or pericarditis was 83% and 90%, respectively. Increased reticular size was associated with vagal indigestion. Increased reticulo-diaphragmatic separation did not correlate with a specific disease process, 25/35 (71%) cattle presented for radiographic examination with a 1 cm or longer metallic reticular foreign body unattached to a magnet had traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Standing lateral abdominal radiographs were determined to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of cranial abdominal disorders in the bovine
Colinet, Frédéric; Eggen, André; Halleux, Caroline; Arnould, Valérie; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert
Bovine ghrelin, a 27-amino-acid peptide has been identified in bovine oxyntic glands of the abomasum. It is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue. Total mRNA was extracted from abomasum and complete ghrelin mRNA was sequenced by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene contains five exons and four introns with a short noncoding first exon of 17 bp similar to mouse and human ghrelin gene. Using a radiation hybrid panel, the gene was mapped to chromosome 22 near microsat...
Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M
A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör
During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...
Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A
Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.
Donato, Jose; Frazão, Renata
Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin. Pathological hyperprolactinemia is mainly due to the presence of a prolactinoma or pharmacological effects induced by drugs that interact with the dopamine system. Notably, hyperprolactinemia is a frequent cause of reproductive dysfunction and may lead to infertility in males and females. Recently, several studies have indicated that prolactin may modulate the reproductive axis by acting on specific populations of hypothalamic neurons that express the Kiss1 gene. The Kiss1 gene encodes neuropeptides known as kisspeptins, which are powerful activators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. In the present review, we will summarize the current knowledge about prolactin's actions on reproduction. Among other aspects, we will discuss whether the interaction between prolactin and the Kiss1-expressing neurons can affect reproduction and how kisspeptins may become a novel therapeutic approach to treat prolactin-induced infertility.
Sharma Rakesh K
Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal
Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...
Asher, G W
The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buuck, R. John
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…
Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
van Schaik, A.B.T.M.
In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of
Turkington, B. A.
This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…
Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.
What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived
African Journal of Reproductive Health (AJRH) is published by the Women's Health and ... review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. ... Social norms and adolescents' sexual health: an introduction for ...
Sirini, Matias A; Anchordoquy, Juan Mateo; Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio; Pascua, Ana M; Nikoloff, Noelia; Carranza, Ana; Relling, Alejandro E; Furnus, Cecilia C
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that acylated ghrelin did not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion area. However, it induced cumulus cell (CC) death, apoptosis and DNA damage. The damage increased as a function of the concentration employed. Additionally, the percentages of blastocyst yield, hatching and embryo quality decreased with all acylated ghrelin concentrations tested. Our study highlights the importance of acylated ghrelin in bovine reproduction, suggesting that this metabolic hormone could function as a signal that prevents the progress to reproductive processes.
Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.
Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine
Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.
This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few
Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.
The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was
This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...
A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n =30) and naturally ... sensitive than meat inspection in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, detecting .... The second group of 15 calves was ... ined for the presence of C. bovis. .... variable and pour ' ..... appropriate intermediate host is dependent on:- the state.
Silveira Lindemberg Mota
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.
Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV
The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...
Snodgrass, D R
A dithiosemicarbazone was compared with two tetracycline formulations in the treatment of bovine petechial fever (BPF) in experimentally infected sheep, and was then used to treat the disease in experimental cattle. The dithiosemicarbazone was found to be more efficacious than either of the other two drugs in treating ovine BPF, and also to be effective against BPF in cattle.
Maia S. Marin
Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.
Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.
Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik
and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...... and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral replication......Human respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of severe respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and in immunocompromised adults. Similarly, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is causing severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in calves. Both viruses are pneumovirus...
... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.
Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst.
Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.
Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst. (orig.)
Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...
Mrkun J.; Kosec M.; Zrimšek Petra
Cows in negative energy balance exhibit reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals that influence the reproductive system. Measurement of IGF-1 contributes to the diagnosis of negative energy balance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible variations in IGF-1 levels in samples taken at different times of the day. Equine IGF-1 ELISA was used for measuring IGF-1 in bovine samples. Statistical analysis was applied to the results. Using scatter diagrams fitted with Deming regress...
Vijayan K. Pillai
Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.
Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi
Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.
Aragaw, Kassaye; Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein; Gebremedhin, Endrias Z; Asmare, Kassahun
This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the risk of BVDV seroprevalence, and BVDV serostatus and reproductive disorders. Seroreaction to BVDV antigens was detected in 32.6% of the 1379 cattle and 69.8% of the 149 herds sampled. Factors associated with BVDV seroplevalence were age, breed, and herd size (P 0.05). Risk of reproductive disorders was not affected by BVDV serostatus, except for repeat breeding (P > 0.05). The present study demonstrated that BVDV has wide distribution in the country being detected in all the 15 conurbations and 69.8% of herds involved in the study.
Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo
Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.
Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G
To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.
Mental health and mental disorders can have a close connection to reproduction, especially for women but also for men. The most frequent disorders or problems are described, i.e., mental problems during pregnancy and after delivery, during the menstrual cycle and around menopause. Possible consequences of miscarriage, stillbirth and induced abortion are presented as well as the special problem of a wish for a child in mentally ill women and their treatment during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.
Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances
The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.
Klima, Cassidy L; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A
Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the
Cassidy L Klima
Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design
Full Text Available The effects of uterine undernutrition during the embryonic and fetal development has been of concern in human medicine due to the consequences on the health and welfare of the people it causes. However, in animal production it is in just the past two decades that the issue has gained interest from researchers. Animal production based on native pasture grazing systems often presets periods of under nutrition during gestation, so the topic is of particular interest to our region. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of nutrition, with special emphasis on undernutrition of the pregnant ewe on the intrauterine development of the reproductive tract of both male and female offspring, and the reproductive performance of the adult ewe and ram.
Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei
The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components
de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Klijn, Aart J.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.
Up to 10% of school-age children suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or urinary incontinence. Lower urinary tract problems are, together with asthma, the most important chronic disease of the pediatric age group. Diagnosis must discriminate among those children with functional
Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana
To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination
Rehfeld, Jens F.
Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...
Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan
Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high
Frier, M. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom); Perkins, A.C. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom)
A review is presented of the design of radiolabelled test meals for the evaluation of gastrointestinal function, including oesophageal transit, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, enterogastric reflux and transit through the whole bowel. Descriptions of different systems are presented, together with validations of the procedures used. Published methods for assessment of oesophageal transit show a marked degree of consistency, whereas gastric emptying studies employ a wide range of both liquid and solid test meals. Recommendations are made concerning the optimal system for investigation of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, but whichever system is adopted, it is important to employ some validation procedures, and to establish normal ranges in the population under study. (orig.)
International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented
Kovacs, L.; Janko, V.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children which can be a source of significant morbidity. For as yet unknown reasons a minority of UTIs in children progress to renal scarring, hypertension and renal insufficiency. Clinical presentation of UTI in children may be nonspecific, and the appropriateness of certain diagnostic tests remains controversial. The diagnostic work-up should be tailored to uncover functional and structural abnormalities such as dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy. A more aggressive work-up is recommended for patients at greater risk for pyelonephritis and renal scarring, including infants less than one year of age. Early sequential (intravenous treatment followed by oral antibiotics) antibacterial therapy is recommended to prevent renal scarring. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended, it may be used in patients with higher grade reflux, obstructive uropathy or recurring UTI who are at greater risk for subsequent infections and complications. (author)
According to a Department of Health (DOH) official speaking at the recent Reproductive Health Advocacy Forum in Zamboanga City, the concept of reproductive health (RH) is now on the way to being fully integrated into the Philippines' primary health care system. The DOH is also developing integrated information, education, and communication material for an intensified advocacy campaign on RH among target groups in communities. The forum was held to enhance the knowledge and practice of RH among health, population and development program managers, field workers, and local government units. In this new RH framework, family planning becomes just one of many concerns of the RH package of services which includes maternal and child health, sexuality education, the prevention and treatment of abortion complications, prevention of violence against women, and the treatment of reproductive tract infections. Of concern, however, the Asian economic crisis has led the Philippine government to reduce funding, jeopardizing the public sector delivery of basic services, including reproductive health care. The crisis has also forced other governments in the region to reassess their priorities and redirect their available resources into projects which are practical and sustainable.
Caramella, E.; Bruneton, J.N.; Roux, P.; Aubanel, D.; Lecomte, P.
In addition to personal observations of 77 patients with one or more metastatic sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the authors reviewed over 1000 similar cases in the literature. The general radiologic aspects of each location (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, colon/rectum) are discussed. The pathophysiology of this type of metastasis explains the radiologic images obtained during barium transit examinations. The lymphatic type of spread observed in the oesophageal region in connection with carcinoma of the breast is the origin of stenosis of the middle third. The haematogenous type of diffusion encountered during melanomas creates intramural or intraluminal radiologic images. Two means of spread can be observed in the stomach. Haematogenous spread can result in frequently multiple and ulcerated nodular submucosal lesions from melanomas and bronchogenic carcinomas; it can also cause a more or less stenotic invasive image, especially in connection with carcinoma of the breast. Dissemination by means of the mesenteric reflections, and in particular around the gastrocolic ligament, explains the spread of a carcinoma of the transverse colon towards the stomach. The most frequent secondary sites in the gastrointestinal tract occur in the small intestine, the majority of these metastases being caused by pelvic tumours. Whether occurring in the small intestine or the colon, the patophysiology is similar: direct invasion by a non-contiguous primary carcinoma along the fascias and mesenteric attachments (more rarely by lymphatic permeation), dissemination by the peritoneal fluid or haematogenuous spread. In the first two types of dissemination cited, the image encountered is often hard to differentiate from radiation-induced lesions. (orig.)
Xavier Suresh R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.
Full Text Available Bryon W Petschow, Bruce Burnett, Audrey L Shaw, Eric M Weaver, Gerald L Klein Entera Health, Inc., Cary, NC, USA Abstract: The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. Keywords: bovine immunoglobulins, nutrient, gut barrier, microbiota
Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T
Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N
Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.
Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Cerniglia, Carl E; Erickson, Bruce D
The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.
Wagner, R. Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Erickson, Bruce D.
The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle. PMID:21876048
Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.
Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and
Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.
Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.
Franz, J.; Hampl, J.; Svoboda, I.; Granatova, M.; Hofirek, B.; Skrobak, F.
A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)
Franz, J; Hampl, J; Svoboda, I; Granatova, M; Hofirek, B; Skrobak, F
A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test.
... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...
Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk
by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...
Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.
Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine
Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.
Damien S Bouchard
Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.
Knotek, Zdenek; Cermakova, Eva; Oliveri, Matteo
Common reproductive problems in captive male lizards are hemipenile plugs in hemipenial sac, unilateral prolapse of hemipenis, or bilateral prolapse of hemipene. Although the orchiectomy is performed as a treatment for testicular disease, the effectiveness in reducing aggressive behavior is unclear. Female captive lizards suffer from cloacal prolapse, preovulatory follicular stasis, or dystocia. The veterinarian must differentiate between the disorders because the treatment differs. Mating, physical, or visual contact with the male stimulates ovulation and prevents preovulatory follicular stasis. Surgical intervention is usually required for dystocia. This article discusses selected procedures and use of ultrasonography and diagnostic endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Filkins, K; Kerr, M J
The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.