Sample records for bovine plasma thrombin-activatable

  1. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

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    Kristensen Torsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  2. Fibrinolytic efficacy of Amediplase, Tenecteplase and scu-PA in different external plasma clot lysis models: sensitivity to the inhibitory action of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). (United States)

    Guimarães, Ana H C; Barrett-Bergshoeff, Marrie M; Criscuoli, Marco; Evangelista, Stefano; Rijken, Dingeman C


    In this study, the in-vitro fibrinolytic efficacy of Tenecteplase, Amediplase and scu-PA was investigated in different external lysis models by measuring the lysis of human plasma clots after the addition of the plasminogen activators (PAs) to the surrounding plasma. The effect of TAFI was examined for each PA by neutralising TAFIa with potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI). The lytic efficacy of Amediplase was lower than that of Tenecteplase at low PA concentrations but slightly higher at therapeutic concentrations. The activity of scu-PA was clearly lower than that of either Tenecteplase or Amediplase. The TAFI system inhibited external clot lysis mediated by all the PAs when thrombomodulin was present in the model. In the therapeutic range (5-10 mug/ml) however, the TAFIa effect was negligible for both Amediplase and Tenecteplase. At lower PA concentrations the effect of TAFI on Amediplase was slightly stronger than that on Tenecteplase. Under static conditions the lysis rates were lower than with stirring. The role of TAFI was similar under both conditions. In conclusion, at therapeutic concentrations Amediplase was slightly more active than Tenecteplase and scu-PA under all conditions used. Therefore, Amediplase might possibly be a more potent thrombolytic agent at these concentrations and increase the efficacy of thrombolysis. The potential of TAFI for inhibiting thrombolytic therapy is probably low. However in conditions where the local PA concentrations are sub-optimal TAFI might affect the lysis rate.

  3. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor as a bleeding predictor in liver transplantation: a pilot observational study (United States)

    Nedel, Wagner Luis; Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú


    Objective To correlate the levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the immediate postoperative period and at 24 hours postoperatively with the volume of intraoperative bleeding. Methods Twenty-one patients allocated immediately before (elective or emergency) liver transplantation were analyzed. Blood samples were collected for thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor analysis at three different time points: immediately before liver transplantation (preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor), immediately after the surgical procedure (immediate postoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor), and 24 hours after surgery (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor 24 hours after surgery). The primary outcome of the study was to correlate the preoperative and immediate postoperative levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor with intraoperative blood loss. Results There was a correlation between the preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels and bleeding volume (ρ = -0.469; p = 0.05) but no correlation between the immediate postoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and bleeding volume (ρ = -0.062; p = 0.79). No variable included in the linear regression analysis (prehemoglobin, prefibrinogen and preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) was a bleeding predictor. There was a similar trend in the variation between the levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor at the three different time points and fibrinogen levels. Patients who died within 6 months (14.3%) showed decreased preoperative and immediate postoperative levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis compared with survivors (preoperative: 1.3 ± 0.15 versus 2.55 ± 0.53, p = 0.06; immediate postoperative: 1.2 ± 0.15 versus 2.5 ± 0.42, p = 0.007). Conclusion There was a moderate correlation between preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and intraoperative bleeding in liver

  4. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads


    Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs...... with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay...... that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual...

  5. The role of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in diabetic wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.N. Verkleij; J.J.T.H. Roelofs; S.R. Havik; J.C.M. Meijers; P.F. Marx


    Introduction: One of the major complications in patients with diabetes mellitus is impaired wound healing. The fibrinolytic system is involved in parts of the wound healing process and deficiency of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) results in delayed wound closure. Moreover, levels

  6. Binding characteristics of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor to streptococcal surface collagen-like proteins A and B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seron, Mercedes Valls; Plug, Tom; Marquart, J. Arnoud; Marx, Pauline F.; Herwald, Heiko; de Groot, Philip G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.


    Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent in a wide range of diseases in humans. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) binds to collagen-like proteins ScIA and ScIB at the surface of S. pyogenes. Activation of TAFI at this surface redirects inflammation from a transient to chronic s

  7. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

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    Park Sung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  8. Association between the Thr325Ile polymorphism of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and stroke in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. (United States)

    Kozian, Detlef H; Lorenz, Martin; März, Winfried; Cousin, Emmanuelle; Mace, Sandrine; Deleuze, Jean-Francois


    The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a key mediator in the regulation of endogenous fibrinolysis, down-regulating clot lysis by degrading the C-terminal lysine residues from fibrin, which are important for binding and activating plasminogen. Elevated TAFI antigen levels have been suggested to be associated with promoter variants and the Ala147Thr polymorphism; increased TAFI stability and antifibrinolytic potential instead have been associated with the Thr325Ile polymorphism. We investigated the influence of these two polymorphisms on cardiovascular and thrombotic events in patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. The LURIC study is a prospective cohort study comprising more than 3,300 patients aimed at identifying biochemical and genetic markers for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We demonstrate that the Ile/Ile genotype at position 325 of TAFI associates with the incidence of stroke and the age at onset of first stroke in patients of the LURIC cohort. Both the incidence of stroke and the risk of a premature event are higher in TAFI Ile325Ile patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombotic events such as diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction or hypertension, alone or in combination. In contrast, no significant association was identified for the TAFI Ala147Thr polymorphism. The robust association of the TAFI Thr325Ile polymorphism with the incidence and the age at onset of first stroke strongly suggests a key role for TAFI in the pathogenetic mechanism of stroke.

  9. Discovery of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertina, R.M.; Tilburg, N.H. van; Haverkate, F.; Bouma, B.N.; Borne, P.A.K. von dem; Meijers, J.C.M.; Campbell, W.; Eaton, D.; Hendriks, D.F.; Willemse, J.L.


    CAS: blood clotting factor 11, 9013-55-2; thrombin, 9002-04-4; tissue plasminogen activator, 105913-11-9; protein C, 60202-16-6; Carboxypeptidase U,; Protein C; Tissue Plasminogen Activator,

  10. Purification and Characterization of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter; Valnickova, Zuzana;


    is not known but could be caused by differences in thermodynamic stability. Disulfides are a major contributor to the structural integrity of proteins and disulfide permutations could explain the difference in enzymatic stability. To test this hypothesis we have identified the disulfide pattern of the eight...

  11. Purification and Characterization of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter; Valnickova, Zuzana;

    is not known but could be caused by differences in thermodynamic stability. Disulfides are a major contributor to the structural integrity of proteins and disulfide permutations could explain the difference in enzymatic stability. To test this hypothesis we have identified the disulfide pattern of the eight...

  12. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and bacterial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valls Serón, M.


    Mercedes Valls Serón onderzocht een onderdeel van het fibrinolytische systeem dat verantwoordelijk is voor het oplossen van bloedstolsels. Ze keek naar de wisselwerking tussen de zogenaamde trombine-activeerbare fibrinolyse inhibitors - of TAFI - en bacteriën. De binding van TAFI aan een specifieke

  13. Isolation and characterization of bovine plasma prekallikrein (Fletcher factor). (United States)

    Heimark, R L; Davie, E W


    Prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) has been purified from bovine plasma approximately 25 000-fold with an overall yield of 14%. Purification steps included ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatography on heparin-agarose, DEAE-Sephadex, CM-Sephadex, benzamidine-agarose, and arginine methyl ester-agarose. The purified protein was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino-terminal sequence analysis. Bovine plasma prekallikrein is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 82 000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. It contains 12.9% carbohydrate, including 6.2% hexose, 4.5% N-acetylglucosamine, and 2.2% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Prekallikrein is a single polypeptide chain with an amino-terminal sequence of Gly-Cys-Leu-Thr-Gln-Leu-Tyr-His-Asn-Ile-Phe-Phe-Arg-Gly-Gly. This sequence is homologous to the amino-terminal sequence of human factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent). Both prekallikrein and kallikrein require kaolin to correct Fletcher factor deficient plasma. Kallikrein, however, has a specific activity 3.5 times greater than prekallikrein. Prekallikrein does not correct plasma deficient in factor XII (Hageman factor), factor XI, or high molecular weight kininogen (Fitzgerald factor).

  14. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.


    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  15. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P


    The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti-bovine con...

  16. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H


    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu...

  17. Study of TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of bovine plasma. (United States)

    Claxton, J; Black, W D; Gentry, P A


    The TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of mature and immature bovine plasma was studied and compared with the activity of this enzyme in human plasma. Kaolin activation of 2 minutes was required to produce maximal activation in cattle, as compared with 1 minute activation in man. The kaolin-activated TAMe esterase values in bovine plasma were approximately one-half the values found in human plasma. The activity of this enzyme was statistically greater in immature than in mature cattle (P less than 0.05) at kaolin activation times of 1, 2, 15, and 20 minutes.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.


    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three h

  19. Identification of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors in bovine plasma as fatty acids and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, D M; Yanuck, M D; Van Hall, Gerrit


    A preparative purification of endogenous inhibitors of the Na+/K+-ATPase has been carried out from bovine blood. Dried plasma was deproteinized, hexane-extracted and desalted, followed by further purification through a series of reverse-phase HPLC fractionations. Fractions active in inhibiting Na......% of the total) and three saturated hydrocarbons. The assignment of structures was corroborated by comparison with authentic samples....

  20. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa


    Eva Tvrdá; Norbert Lukáč; Monika Schneidgenová; Jana Lukáčová; Csaba Szabó; Zofia Goc; Agnieszka Greń; Peter Massányi


    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectro...

  1. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor. (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T


    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC] and ficin [EC]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC]. Urokinase [EC], Reptilase, collagenase [EC], elastase [EC], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC], Nagarse [EC], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  2. Isolation of bovine plasma albumin by liquid chromatography and its polymerization for use in immunohematology

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    K. Tanaka


    Full Text Available The aim of the method described here is to remove hemoglobin, the major contaminant in the bovine plasma obtained from slaughterhouses, by adding a mixture of 19% cold ethanol and 0.6% chloroform, followed by fibrinogen and globulin precipitation by the Cohn method and nonspecific hemagglutinin by thermocoagulation. The experimental volume of bovine plasma was 2,000 ml per batch. Final purification was performed by liquid chromatography using the ion-exchange gel DEAE-Sepharose FF. The bovine albumin thus obtained presented > or = 99% purity, a yield of 25.0 ± 1.2 g/l plasma and >71.5% recovery. N-acetyl-DL-tryptophan (0.04 mmol/g protein and sodium caprylate (0.04 mmol/g protein were used as stabilizers and the final concentration of albumin was adjusted to 22.0% (w/v, pH 7.2 to 7.3. Viral inactivation was performed by pasteurization for 10 h at 60°C. The bovine albumin for the hemagglutination tests used in immunohematology was submitted to chemical treatment with 0.06% (w/v glutaraldehyde and 0.1% (w/v formaldehyde at 37°C for 12 h to obtain polymerization. A change in molecular distribution was observed after this treatment, with average contents of 56.0% monomers, 23.6% dimers, 12.2% trimers and 8.2% polymers. The tests performed demonstrated that this polymerized albumin enhances the agglutination of Rho(D-positive red cells by anti-Rho(D serum, permitting and improving visualization of the results.

  3. Fluorescence Enhancement of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Labeled Protein A Caused by Affinity Binding with Immunoglobulin G in Bovine Plasma

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    Kiyotaka Sakai


    Full Text Available Fluorescence enhancement of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled protein A (FITC-protein A caused by the binding with immunoglobulin G (IgG in bovine plasma was studied. FITC-protein A was immobilized onto a glass surface by covalent bonds. An increase in fluorescence intensity was dependent on IgG concentration ranging from 20 to 78 μg/mL in both phosphate buffer saline and bovine plasma. This method requires no separation procedure, and the reaction time is less than 15 min. A fluorescence enhancement assay by the affinity binding of fluorescence-labeled reagent is thus available for the rapid determination of biomolecules in plasma.

  4. Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in Preeclmapsia and Gestational Hypertension throughout the Gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghong ZHANG; Yu HU; Tao GUO; Wenning WEI; Xiaoping ZHANG


    To clarify the role of TAFI in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, 22 subjects, including 10 with pre-eclampsia (PE) and 12 with gestational hypertension were examined for the levels of TAFI and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex. Thirty normal pregnant women served as controls. ELISA was employed for the detection. The results showed that the TAFI antigen levels in normal pregnancy group, gestational hypertension group and PE group were (85.35±24.69)%, (99.65±18.27)%, (110.12±23.36)%; (97.06±21.40)%, (114.08±27.76)%, (125.49±24.70)%; (106.6±19.21)%, (129.2±25.07)%, (139.1±30.12)%, in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester respectively. No significant differences were found between the normal pregnancy group and gestational hypertension group but significant difference existed between normal pregnancy group and PE group in each tri- mester (P<0.05). TAT complexes were significantly higher in patients with PE than that in controls (P<0.05), but no correlation was found between TAT and TAFI. It is concluded that TAFI may con- tributed to the impairment of fibrinolysis in the patients with PE and may serves as a sensitive indi- cator for PE, but it may not help in the diagnosis of the gestational hypertension.


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    Zuzana Kňažická


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between copper (Cu concentration of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa motility. Semen samples were collected from 13 breeding bulls. The motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA system. The mean value for the percentage of motile spermatozoa (MOT was 92.46±3.99% and the progressive motility of the spermatozoa (PROG as 90.23±4.02%. The seminal plasma Cu concentrations were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The total Cu concentration of the seminal plasma was 4.28±1.47 μM/L. The correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between MOT and seminal plasma Cu concentration (rp=-0.781; P<0.01 as well as between PROG and Cu content in the seminal plasma (rp=-0.726; P<0.01. The data obtained from this study clearly indicated that concentration of copper in seminal plasma negatively affects the spermatozoa motility parameters and subsequently might cause reproductive alteration in male sexual functions.

  6. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion. (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R


    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  7. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa. (United States)

    Tvrdá, Eva; Lukáč, Norbert; Schneidgenová, Monika; Lukáčová, Jana; Szabó, Csaba; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Massányi, Peter


    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development.

  8. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa

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    Eva Tvrdá


    Full Text Available Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn, basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility, and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P<0.01; P<0.001, while higher MDA concentration and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded in the cell lysates (P<0.01; P<0.001. Na, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P<0.05; P<0.01; P<0.001. Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P<0.05. This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development.

  9. Plasma bovino desidratado na dieta de leitões desmamados Dried bovine plasma in diets for weaned piglets

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    Francisco Stefano Wechsler


    Full Text Available Realizaram-se dois experimentos (E para avaliar consumo diário de ração (CDR, ganho diário de peso (GDP e consumo diário de ração ajustado para o ganho de peso (CDRA, em um total de 144 leitões Large White, desmamados, com idade média de 25 dias (E1 e 20 dias (E2. Usou-se um arranjo fatorial dos tratamentos em blocos casualizados. Os fatores foram duas rações (com ou sem plasma bovino desidratado e duas classes de peso (leve e pesado. Não se observou efeito do tipo de ração para nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas. Verificou-se, no E1, maior (P Two experiments were undertaken to determine daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG and daily intake adjusted for weight gain (ADI in 144 Large White piglets weaned at an average age of 25 (E1 or 20 (E2 days. A factorial arrangement in randomized blocks was used. Factors consisted of two rations (with or without dried bovine plasma and two weight classes (light or heavy. No ration effect (p > 0.05 was reported for any of the variables measured. Higher (p < 0.05 DFI and DWG were observed in E1 from 0 to 35 days during post-weaning in heavy piglets. The heavy piglets in E2 showed higher (p < 0.05 DFI, DWG and ADI from 0 to 7, 0 to 14 and 0 to 36 days in the post-weaning period. It may be concluded that dried bovine plasma can totally replace dried skim milk advantageously with an economy in rations for early weaned piglets, provided the aminoacid balance and lactose level are taken into account.

  10. Technical note: Comparison of radial immunodiffusion and ELISA for quantification of bovine immunoglobulin G in colostrum and plasma. (United States)

    Gelsinger, S L; Smith, A M; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J


    Historically, radial immunodiffusion (RID) has been the only method that directly measures IgG; however, recent studies have reported IgG concentrations in colostrum, milk, and plasma as measured using an ELISA. To our knowledge no comparison between RID and ELISA methods has been made for bovine colostrum or plasma. The objective of this study was to compare IgG concentrations measured by both methods in samples of bovine colostrum before and after heat treatment and bovine plasma. Concentration of IgG was quantified using a commercially available RID kit and a modified ELISA. Samples of bovine colostrum and plasma were collected from individual animals and colostrum was tested before and after heat treatment at 60°C for 30 min. All samples were tested using both methods. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for RID and ELISA values from unheated colostrum, heat-treated colostrum, and plasma samples. Mixed models were used to determine the effect of assay on IgG measurement in colostrum and plasma and effect of heat treatment on IgG concentration in colostrum. A weak correlation was found between ELISA and RID results in plasma and unheated colostrum. Concentration of IgG was significantly lower in all sample types when measured by ELISA compared to RID. Thus, direct comparison of ELISA and RID results is not recommended. Colostrum IgG concentration significantly decreased after heat treatment as measured by ELISA, but means were not different when measured by RID. Correlation plots between colostrum values measured before and after heat treatment indicated changes in the colostrum protein matrix due to heat affected RID and ELISA assays differently. This investigation compared RID and ELISA results, but no conclusions could be drawn as to the accuracy of either assay.

  11. Dose-dependent response of plasma ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations to bovine ghrelin in Holstein heifers. (United States)

    ThidarMyint, Hnin; Yoshida, Hiroko; Ito, Tetsuya; Kuwayama, Hideto


    The stimulatory effect of the novel gastric-derived hormone, ghrelin, on growth hormone (GH) secretion has been reported in domestic animals as well as in humans and rats. The octanoyl modification on the Ser3 residue of ghrelin appears to be essential for its endocrine activity. A major portion of circulatory ghrelin lacks acylation but possesses some biological activities other than GH stimulation; therefore, both types of acylated and des-acyl ghrelin are supposed to be important for energy homeostasis. The effects of pharmacological doses of rat and/or human ghrelin on GH secretion have been reported recently in ruminants; however, the physiological effect of exogenous bovine ghrelin on its own plasma level and on GH secretion is still unknown. Moreover, the RIA systems for the measurement of bovine active ghrelin and for bovine total ghrelin including acylated ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and all ghrelin peptides with an intact bovine C-terminal have not yet been validated. In this study, we established the RIA system for bovine ghrelin, and the dose-dependent effects of synthesized acylated bovine ghrelin(1-27) on plasma active and total ghrelin, GH, insulin and metabolites were measured in Holstein heifers. Six animals were intravenously injected with synthesized acylated bovine ghrelin (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 microg/kg body weight (BW)) and plasma hormone concentrations were measured from serially collected samples. Bovine ghrelin RIA showed that the basal level of total ghrelin is approximately 16 times higher than that of active ghrelin in bovine plasma. Both forms of ghrelin were increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to bovine ghrelin injections, peak values were reached at 5 min after administration and returned to pre-injected values within 15 min. Plasma GH was responsive to all doses of bovine ghrelin in a dose-dependent manner, peaked as early as at 5-10 min after injection and returned to the basal value within 60 min. The GH area

  12. Bovine Leukemia ProVirus: Evidence of Presence of Part of Gag Gene in Seminal Plasma of Naturally Infected Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Jafari


    Full Text Available It is of critical importance to understand the modalities of BLV presence in semen, especially with regard to artificial insemination (AI. Presence of bovine leukemia provirus was demonstrated in fresh and frozen semen samples by researchers. In this study paired blood and semen samples from 45 bulls were assessed for the presence of part of gag gene and antibodies to BLV in blood, semen and cell-free fraction of the semen (seminal plasma. Proviral DNA was detected in 5 out of 45 seminal plasma samples. PCR products were sequenced and submitted to gene bank. This data strongly suggested that seminal plasma of seropositive bulls can be positive in PCR.

  13. A comparison of the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum and animal plasma on growth and intestinal histology in weaner pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, M.R.; Morel, P.C.H.; Pluske, J.R.; Hendriks, W.H.


    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine and porcine plasma and spray-dried bovine colostrum on growth performance and intestinal histology in weaner pigs. Thirty-two 21-day-old piglets (6.65 ± 0.14 kg) were allocated to receive one of four dietary treatments

  14. Development of reduced fat minced meats using inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers. (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Padilla, Antonio Pérez; Campderrós, Mercedes E


    This work deals with the effect of the addition of inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers, on the quality of minced meat. The proteins are obtained by ultrafiltration and freeze-drying. The following determinations were carried out: chemical composition, sensorial analysis (color, flavor, taste and consistency), emulsion stability and instrumental texture analysis of samples. The resulting formulations were compared with full-fat minced meat, as control. The results showed an increase of protein contents after fat replacement, while a fat reduction of 20-35% produced light products enriched with proteins and inulin as the functional ingredient. No change was observed in color, flavor, or taste among the samples. However, the sensory analysis showed that the combination of plasma protein (2.5%w/w) and inulin (2%w/w) had the best acceptability with respect to consistency, and had a lower fat drain from the emulsion. Texture profile analysis revealed that this formulation assimilated the control texture properties, being that this result is required for adequate consumer acceptance.

  15. FCCP depolarizes plasma membrane potential by activating proton and Na+ currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells. (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Sang; Jo, Inho; Pak, Kim; Bae, Sung-Won; Rhim, Hyewhon; Suh, Suk-Hyo; Park, Jin; Zhu, Hong; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan


    We investigated the effects of carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), a protonophore and uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, on plasma membrane potential and ionic currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). The membrane potential and ionic currents of BAECs were recorded using the patch-clamp technique in current-clamp and voltage-clamp modes, respectively. FCCP activated ionic currents and depolarized the plasma membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Neither the removal of extracellular Ca2+ nor pretreatment with BAPTA/AM affected the FCCP-induced currents, implying that the currents are not associated with the FCCP-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i increase. FCCP-induced currents were significantly influenced by the changes in extracellular or intracellular pH; the increased proton gradient produced by lowering the extracellular pH or intracellular alkalinization augmented the changes in membrane potential and ionic currents caused by FCCP. FCCP-induced currents were significantly reduced under extracellular Na+-free conditions. The reversal potentials of FCCP-induced currents under Na+-free conditions were well fitted to the calculated equilibrium potential for protons. Interestingly, FCCP-induced Na+ transport (subtracted currents, I(control)- I(Na+-free) was closely dependent on extracellular pH, whereas FCCP-induced H+transport was not significantly affected by the absence of Na+. These results suggest that the FCCP-induced ionic currents and depolarization, which are strongly dependent on the plasmalemmal proton gradient, are likely to be mediated by both H+ and Na+ currents across the plasma membrane. The relationship between H+ and Na+ transport still needs to be determined.

  16. Concentrations of haptoglobin in bovine plasma determined by ELISA or a colorimetric method based on peroxidase activity. (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D


    The objective was to compare different procedures for determination of haptoglobin in bovine plasma. Nine Angus steers were vaccinated against Mannheimia haemolytica to stimulate an acute-phase response. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to vaccination (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10. Plasma samples were frozen in duplicates at -80 °C. One set of the duplicates was analysed for haptoglobin concentrations using a commercial ELISA kit. A day effect was detected (p peroxidase activity (CPPA) with results expressed as optical density. Further, based on the ELISA results, the plasma sample with the greatest haptoglobin concentration was also serially diluted into a plasma sample with negligible haptoglobin concentration from the same steer (1:1 through 1:1024 dilution). These dilutions were used within the CPPA method to generate a standard curve and estimate plasma haptoglobin concentrations (CPPA + STD). A linear standard curve was generated (r(2)  = 0.99). A day effect similar to the ELISA method was detected for the CPPA and CPPA + STD methods (p ELISA methods were positively correlated (r = 0.97; p ELISA method. In conclusion, assessing concentrations of haptoglobin in bovine plasma using the CPPA and CPPA + STD methods generate highly correlated or similar results, respectively, compared to ELISA. Therefore, the CPPA + STD and CPPA methods can be used as a less expensive alternative to ELISA to determine concentrations or monitor changes in plasma haptoglobin in bovine samples.

  17. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hodačová, Petra; Kučková, Stěpánka; Svorčík, Václav


    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in bovine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid (from live, nonanesthetized cattle). (United States)

    Menge, M; Rose, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M


    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 180 mg/mL solution for injection for cattle), a novel 16-membered macrolide for treatment, control, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease, were investigated in studies collecting blood plasma, lung tissue, and in vivo samples of bronchial fluid (BF) from cattle. After single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 0.7 μg/mL. T(max) was 23 min. Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRT(last)) and terminal half-life (T(1/2) ) was 6 and 9 days, respectively. A strong dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect was shown for both C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUC(last) ) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 78.9%. The volume of distribution based on the terminal phase (V(z)) was 49.4 L/kg, and the plasma clearance was 144 mL/h/kg. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded those in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 9.2 μg/g at 4 h, peaked at 14.8 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 2.0 μg/g at day 28. In BF, the concentration of tildipirosin reached 1.5 and 3.0 μg/g at 4 and 10 h, maintained a plateau of about 3.5 μg/g between day 1 and 3, and slowly declined to 1.0 at day 21. T(1/2) in lung and BF was approximately 10 and 11 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination.

  19. The role of bovine high-molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen in contact-mediated activation of bovine factor XII: interaction of HMW kininogen with kaolin and plasma prekallikrein. (United States)

    Ikari, N; Sugo, T; Fujii, S; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S


    Previous studies from our laboratories (Sugo et al. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 3215-3220) have shown that bovine high-molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen remarkably accelerates the kaolin-mediated activation of Factor XII in the presence of prekallikrein, and that both fragment 1.2 and the light chain regions located in the COOH terminal half of the kininogen molecule are essential for the activation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the accelerating effect of HMW kininogen is mediated through its adsorption on the kaolin surface through the fragment 1.2 region and its complex formation with prekallikrein through the light chain region. The evidence is as follows: 1. HMW kininogen radio-labeled with 125I was adsorbed on kaolin and the adsorption was inhibited by the prior treatment of kaolin with fragment 1.2, fragment 1.2-light chain, kinin-free protein or HMW kininogen, but not with kinin- and fragment 1.2-free protein, light chain or low molecular-weight (LMW) kininogen. 2. The complex formation of HMW kininogen with prekallikrein in bovine plasma or in the purified system was examined by gel-filtration on a column of Sephacryl S-200 In bovine plasma, prekallikrein was eluted in the same fraction as HMW kininogen, showing an apparent molecular weight of 250,000, whereas purified prekallikrein was eluted in the fraction corresponding to an apparent molecular weight of 100,000. When purified prekallikrein was mixed with purified HMW kininogen in a mol ratio of 1 to 2, all prekallikrein was found to be associated with HMW kininogen. Furthermore, purified prekallikrein mixed with kininogen derivatives, such as kinin- and fragment 1.2-free protein, fragment 1.2-light chain or light chain, was eluted in the higher molecular weight fraction. HMW kininogen did not form a complex with prekallikrein. Using the same technique, it was shown that kinin- and fragment 1.2-free protein forms a complex not only with prekallikrein but also with kallikrein.

  20. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle. (United States)

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P


    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P pLH. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be higher in heifers given bovine seminal plasma within 4 hours after ovulation, suggesting that bovine ovulation-inducing factor is luteotrophic.

  1. In-situ monitoring of etching of bovine serum albumin using low-temperature atmospheric plasma jet (United States)

    Kousal, J.; Shelemin, A.; Kylián, O.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.


    Bio-decontamination of surfaces by means of atmospheric pressure plasma is nowadays extensively studied as it represents promising alternative to commonly used sterilization/decontamination techniques. The non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas were already reported to be highly effective in removal of a wide range of biological residual from surfaces. Nevertheless the kinetics of removal of biological contamination from surfaces is still not well understood as the majority of performed studies were based on ex-situ evaluation of etching rates, which did not allow investigating details of plasma action on biomolecules. This study therefore presents a real-time, in-situ ellipsometric characterization of removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from surfaces by low-temperature atmospheric plasma jet operated in argon. Non-linear and at shorter distances between treated samples and nozzle of the plasma jet also non-monotonic dependence of the removal rate on the treatment duration was observed. According to additional measurements focused on the determination of chemical changes of treated BSA as well as temperature measurements, the observed behavior is most likely connected with two opposing effects: the formation of a thin layer on the top of BSA deposit enriched in inorganic compounds, whose presence causes a gradual decrease of removal efficiency, and slight heating of BSA that facilitates its degradation and volatilization induced by chemically active radicals produced by the plasma.

  2. A simple, rapid and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramps, J.A.; Maanen, van C.; Wetering, van de G.; Stienstra, G.; Quak, S.; Brinkhof, J.; Ronsholt, L.; Nylin, B.


    To detect Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk, a simple, reliable and rapid blocking ELISA ("Ceditest") has been developed using two monoclonal antibodies ("WB112" and "WB103") directed to different highly conserved epitopes on the non-struct

  3. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces : influence of PEO chain length, grafting density and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, W.; Gage, R.A.


    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective whe

  4. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of intrabony defects treated with an anorganic bovine bone mineral and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dori, F.; Huszar, T.; Nikolidakis, D.; Arweiler, N.B.; Gera, I.; Sculean, A.


    BACKGROUND: Regenerative periodontal therapy with a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) + an anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to result in significantly higher probing depth reductions and clinical attachment level gains compared to treatme

  5. 牛精清蛋白及其作用%Bovine Seminal Plasma Proteins and Its Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志杰; 李青旺; 赵红卫; 孙秀柱; 罗桂芬


    牛精清(bovine seminal plasma BSP)蛋白家族共有四种蛋白质,分别为BSP-A1、BSP-A2、BSP-A3、和BSP-30-KDa.BSP结构上由a 和b 两个功能区组成.a区是肝素结合位点,b区与磷脂胆碱结合.BSP主要由精囊腺和输精管的壶腹部分泌.在雄性生殖道内BSP保证精子的稳定,在雌性生殖道内BSP协同高密度磷脂蛋白、肝素诱导精子获能.

  6. Effect of Bovine Plasma Protein on Autolysis and Gelation of Protein Extracted from Giant Squid (Dosidicus gigas Mantle

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    Laura Raquel Marquez-Alvarez


    Full Text Available The effect of bovine plasma protein (BPP on the inhibition of autolytic activity and its effect on the gelling properties of a protein concentrate (PC obtained from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas mantle were investigated. Sols and gels were prepared from the PC by adding different amounts of BPP (0, 1, and 2%. Dynamic oscillatory measurements indicated that systems with 1% BPP had a higher elastic modulus (G′, in which hydrophobic interactions were favored. Concerning the technological and textural quality of the gels, BPP caused a greater water holding capacity (WHC, force, cohesiveness, and elasticity, probably due to improvement of the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions during gel formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed visualization of the formation of more rigid and ordered gels with less porosity when BPP was added. Therefore, the addition of BPP improved the gelling capacity of proteins extracted from giant squid.

  7. Improvement of gluten-free bread properties by the incorporation of bovine plasma proteins and different saccharides into the matrix. (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Pérez Padilla, Antonio; Campderrós, Mercedes E


    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, incorporating plasma bovine proteins concentrated by ultrafiltration and freeze-dried with saccharides (inulin and sucrose). The influence of these compounds on textural properties and final bread quality was assessed. The textural studies revealed that with the addition of proteins and inulin, homogeneous and smaller air cells were achieved improving the textural properties while the bread hardness was comparable with breads with gluten. The volume of gluten-free breads increased with increasing proteins and inulin concentrations, reaching a maximum at a protein concentration of 3.5% (w/w). The addition of the enhancers improved moisture retention of the loaves after cooking and an increase of lightness of crumb with respect to the control was observed. The sensory analysis found no statistically significant difference in sensory attributes evaluated with respect to the control, so these ingredients do not negatively affect the organoleptic properties of bread.

  8. A Low-Cost Efficient Multiplex P CR for Prenatal Sex Determination in Bovine Fetus U sing Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Davoudi


    Full Text Available Background: In order to establish a reliable non-invasive method for sex determinationin a bovine fetus in a routine setting, the possibility of identifying specific sequence in thefetal X and Y-chromosomes has been evaluated in maternal plasma using conventionalmultiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. The aim of this study was to providea rapid and reliable method for sexing bovine fetuses.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, peripheral blood samples were takenfrom 38 pregnant heifers with 8 to 38 weeks of gestation. DNA template was extractedby phenol-chloroform method from 350 μl maternal plasma. Two primer pairs for bovineamelogenin gene (bAML and BC1.2 were used to amplify fragments from X and Ychromosomes. A multiplex PCR reaction has been optimized for amplification of 467bp and 341 bp fragments from X and Y bAML gene and a 190 bp fragment from BC1.2related to Y chromosome.Results: The 467 bp fragment was observed in all 38 samples. Both 341 and 190 bp fragmentswere detected only in 24 plasma samples from male calves. The sensitivity andspecificity of test were 100% with no false negative or false positive results.Conclusion: The results showed that phenol-chloroform method is a simple and suitablemethod for isolation of fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The multiplex PCR method is anavailable non-invasive approach which is cost efficient and reliable for sexing bovine fetuses.

  9. The effects of exposure to warm environments on bovine plasma lipid composition. (United States)

    Noble, R C; Mabon, R M; Jenkinson, D M


    The concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol in the plasma of Ayrshire calves decreased following, but not during, short-term exposure to heat. Lower concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol were maintained on prolonged heat exposure. Blood and plasma volumes were little affected by either short-term or prolonged heat exposure. Haematocrit rose during short-term heat stress and on prolonged heat exposure there was a decrease in erythrocyte fragility.

  10. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnerud Ulrika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect. Method Nine healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of human milk, bovine milk, reconstituted bovine whey- or casein protein in random order. All test meals contributed with 25g intrinsic or added lactose, and a white wheat bread (WWB meal was used as reference, providing 25g starch. Post-prandial levels in plasma of glucose, insulin, incretins and amino acids were investigated at time intervals for up to 2 h. Results All test meals elicited lower postprandial blood glucose responses, expressed as iAUC 0–120 min compared with the WWB (P  Conclusion This study shows that the glycemic response was significantly lower following all milk/milk protein based test meals, in comparison with WWB. The effect appears to originate from the protein fraction and early phase plasma amino acids and incretins were involved in the insulin secretion. Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk.

  11. Babesia bovis: expression of adhesion molecules in bovine umbilical endothelial cells stimulated with plasma from infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene I. Vargas


    Full Text Available Ten male, 12-month-old Jersey with intact spleens, serologically and parasitologically free from Babesia were housed individually in an arthropod-free isolation system from birth and throughout entire experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. Five animals (group A were intravenously inoculated with 6.6 X10(7 red blood cells parasitized with pathogenic sample of Babesia bovis (passage 7 BboUFV-1, for the subsequent "ex vivo" determination of the expression of adhesion molecules. Five non-inoculated animals (group B were used as the negative control. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and thrombospondin (TSP was measured in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs. The endothelial cells stimulated with a pool of plasma from animals infected with the BboUFV-1 7th passage sample had a much more intense immunostaining of ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and TSP, compared to the cells which did not received the stimulus. The results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines released in the acute phase of babesiosis may be involved in the expression of adhesion molecules thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of babesiosis caused by B. bovis.

  12. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition. (United States)

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E


    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  13. Different affinity states of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors defined by agonists and antagonists in bovine aorta plasma membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesh, G.; Deth, R.C.


    Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between alpha-1 adrenergic receptor occupancy and tissue responses, together with the finding of different affinity states for agonist binding, has raised the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We have conducted studies to examine: 1) binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, 2) competition of antagonists at these sites and 3) different affinity states of the receptor for agonists and modulation of these states by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). A plasma membrane-enriched vesicular fraction (F2; 15%/33% sucrose interphase) was prepared from the muscular medial layer of bovine thoracic aorta. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding was characterized by a monophasic saturation isotherm (KD = 0.116 nM, Bmax = 112 fmol/mg of protein). Antagonist displacement studies yielded a relative potency order of prazosin greater than or equal to WB4104 much greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than or equal to idazoxan greater than rauwolscine. Competition curves for unlabeled prazosin, WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4 benzodioxane) and phentolamine were shallow and were best modeled to two binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar KD values. Gpp(NH)p was without effect on antagonist affinity. Agonist (epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine) competition with (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding was biphasic with pseudo-Hill slopes less than 1.0. Binding was best described by a two-site model in which the average contribution of high affinity sites was 23% of total binding. KD values for the high affinity site ranged from 2.9 to 18 nM, and 3.9 to 5.0 microM for the low affinity site.

  14. Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Combination with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral in the Rabbit Cranium; A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Shafiee Ardestani


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials (e.g. Xenografts inoral and maxillofacial bone and implant reconstructive surgery.Purpose: An animal study was carried out to investigate the influence of PRP on the regeneration of non-critical sized bony defects, treated with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral (DBBM.Materials and Methods: Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized, pilot study. Three equal cranial bone defects (3×6 mm were created and immediately grafted with DBBM and PRP+DBBM; one of them was left unfilled to serve as a control. The defects were evaluated using histologic and histomorphometricanalysis at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.Results: The histomorphometric findings showed a significant increase in bone area and trabecular maturity in experimental defects as compared to the control at 4, 8 and 12 week intervals. A significant increase in bone formation was seen with the additionof PRP to DBBM at 2, 4 and 8 week intervals. At 12 weeks, the level of bone formation was similar between the two groups. There was also a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of the DBBM particles with the addition of PRP at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.No foreign body reaction and severe inflammation was seen in any of specimens.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this pilot study, it was concluded that the addition of PRP to Xenogenic bone substitute material in non-critical-sized defects of the rabbit cranium showed a histomorphometric increase in bone formation (until the 8th week ofhealing and a greater amount of biomaterial degradation throughout the study period.

  15. Functional and Physical Properties of Bovine Plasma Proteins as a Function of Processing and pH, Application in a Food Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Campderros


    Full Text Available The combined effects of ultrafiltration and freeze drying stages, and the incorporation of a stabilizing agent on selected functional and physical properties of bovine plasma proteins, were evaluated in the pH range of 3.0-9.0. The raw material was also characterized and was compared with the processed one. The results show that the process had a positive effect on solubility, emulsion capacity and emulsion stability in all the pH range, while the foaming capacity was similar to the raw material, having a better foam stability. The content of salts and denatured proteins was reduced in the processed plasma. This product was used in the formulation of a minced meat, which had a high stability and adequate moisture, improving the consistence according to the sensorial analysis. Therefore, the use of processed proteins in formulation of food products may be enhanced, and a higher added-value protein can be obtained.

  16. Survivability of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in bovine plasma submitted to spray drying processing and held at different time by temperature storage conditions. (United States)

    Pujols, Joan; Segalés, Joaquim


    Bovine plasma was inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at an average final titer of 4.2 log10 TCID50/mL to determine the effect of spray drying on viral inactivation. Using a laboratory scale drier, inoculated plasma was spray dried at 200 °C inlet temperature and either 70 or 80 °C throughout substance. Both liquid and dried samples were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. Results indicated liquid samples contained infective virus, but none of the spray dried samples were infectious. Also, survivability of PEDV inoculated on spray dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and stored at 4, 12 or 22 °C was determined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Commercial SDBP powder was inoculated with PEDV to an average final titer of 2.8 log10 TCID50/g. Five samples per time and temperature conditions were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. The virus was non-infectious for all samples stored at 22 °C at 7, 14 and 21 days. PEDV was infective in 1 out of 5 samples stored at 12 °C at 7 days, but none of the samples stored for 14 and 21 days were infectious in cell culture. For samples stored at 4 °C, 4 out of 5 samples were infectious at 7 days, 1 out of 5 samples were infectious at 14 days, but none were infectious at 21 days. In summary, PEDV was not infectious on cell culture within 7 days when stored at room temperature and within 21 days when stored at refrigerated temperature.

  17. On the activation of bovine plasma factor XIII. Amino acid sequence of the peptide released by thrombin and the terminal residues of the subunit polypeptides. (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Iwanaga, S; Suzuki, T


    A blood coagulation factor, Factor XIII, was highly purified from bovine fresh plasma by a method similar to those used for human plasma Factor XIII. The isolated Factor XIII consisted of two subunit polypeptides, a and b chains, with molecular weights of 79,000 +/- 2,000 and 75,000 +/- 2,000, respectively. In the conversion of Factor XIII to the active enzyme, Factor XIIIa, by bovine thrombin [EC], a peptide was liberated. This peptide, designated tentatively as "activation peptide," was isolated by gel-filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column. It contained a total of 37 amino acid residues with a masked N-terminal residue and C-terminal arginine. The whole amino acid sequence of "Activation peptide" was established by the dansyl-Edman method and standard enzymatic techniques, and the masked N-terminal residue was identified as N-acetylserine by using a rat liver acylamino acid-releasing enzyme. This enzyme specifically cleaved the N-acetylserylglutamyl peptide bond serine and the remaining peptide, which was now reactive to 1-dimethylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride. A comparison of the sequences of human and bovine "Activation peptide" revealed five amino acids replacements, Ser-3 to Thr; Gly-5 to Arg; Ile-14 to Val; Thr-18 to Asn, and Pro-26 to Leu. Another difference was the deletion of Leu-34 in the human peptide. Adsorption chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column in the presence of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate was developed as a preparative procedure for the resolution of the two subunit polypeptides, a or a' chain and b chain, constituting the protein molecule of Factor XIII or Factor XIIIa. End group analyses on the isolated pure chains revealed that the structural change of Factor XIII during activation with thrombin occurs only in the N-terminal portion of the a chain, not in the N-terminal end of the b chain or in the C-terminal ends of the a and b chains. From these results, it was concluded that the activation of bovine plasma Factor XIII

  18. Posttranslational Modifications of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI): Evidence for a large shift in isoelectric point and reduced solubility upon activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter Durand;


    cysteine residues, of which two, Cys69 and Cys383, are not involved in disulfides and contain free sulfhydryl groups. The remaining six cystines form disulfides, including Cys156-Cys169, Cys228-Cys252, and Cys243-Cys257. This pattern is homologous to pancreatic procarboxypeptidase B, and it is therefore...

  19. Posttranslational Modifications of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI): Evidence for a large shift in isoelectric point and reduced solubility upon activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter;


    dramatically from pH 5 toward pH 8 upon activation and (ii) TAFIa is significantly less soluble than TAFI. The structural bases for these observations were investigated by characterizing all post-translational modifications, including attached glycans and disulfide connectivity. The analyses revealed that all...... is not caused by post-translational modifications. However, after activation, TAFIa loses 80% of the attached glycans, generating a large shift in pI and a propensity to precipitate. These changes are likely to significantly affect the properties of TAFIa as compared to TAFI....... unlikely that permutations in the cysteine connectivity are responsible for the enzymatic instability. LC-MS/MS analyses covering more than 90% of the TAFI amino acid sequence revealed no additional modifications. When these results are taken together, they suggest that the inherent instability of TAFIa...

  20. Protein Quality of Rice Drinks Fortified with Bovine and Porcine Blood Plasma / Calidad Proteica de Bebidas de Arroz Fortificadas con Plasma Sanguíneo de Bovino y Porcino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Margarita Montero Castillo


    Full Text Available Abstract. The future of nutrition in Colombia, and perhaps inother developing countries, will depend in large part on the abilityof food technology to take full advantage of the food sourcesavailable in the country and to adapt and develop new productsthat will vary and complement the diets of the majority of thepopulation at a low cost. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe protein quality of rice-based drinks fortified with bovine andporcine blood plasma. Six treatments were prepared with differentlevels of fortification (14.5%, 18.5% and 29%. The effects of theplasma type and the addition levels on the protein content, theamino acid profile, and the in vitro digestibility of the drinks wereobserved. The AOAC method was employed for the determinationof the protein content; the amino acid profile was created usingHPLC. The protein digestibility was determined by subjecting adispersion of the drink to the action of a multi-enzymatic solution.The protein content increased with the level of fortification. Thedrinks fortified with bovine plasma (104% and porcine plasma(89% presented a better protein quality index than the unfortifieddrink. The digestibility of the fortified drinks did not demonstratesignificant improvements in comparison with the unfortified drink.The chemical score of the drinks fortified with porcine plasma(71.6 and bovine plasma (78.5 showed that the latter had thebest nutritional quality. / Resumen. El futuro de la alimentación en Colombia y quizás deotros países en desarrollo va a depender en gran parte de quela tecnología de alimentos sea capaz de aprovechar las fuentesdisponibles de alimentos en el país y de adaptar y desarrollarnuevos productos que permitan variar y complementar la dietade la mayoría de la población a bajo costo. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue evaluar la calidad proteica de bebidas a base dearroz fortificadas con plasma sanguíneo de bovino y porcino. Seprepararon seis tratamientos con

  1. Effect of Air Plasma Processing on the Adsorption Behaviour of Bovine Serum Albumin on Spin-Coated PMMA Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozong Liu; Brian J.Meenan


    This paper reports the adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) onto Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) processed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique. The purpose is to study the influence of DBD processing on the nature and scale of BSA adsorption on PMMA surface in vitro. It was observed that DBD processing improves the surface wettability of PMMA film, a fact attributable to the changes in surface chemistry and topography. Exposure of the PMMA to Phosphate Buffed Saline (PBS) solution in the QCM-D system resulted in surface adsorption which reaches an equilibrium after about 30 minutes for pristine PMMA, and 90 minutes for processed PMMA surface. Subsequent injection of BSA in PBS indicated that the protein is immediately adsorbed onto the PMMA surface. It was revealed that adsorption behaviour of BSA on pristine PMMA differs from that on processed PMMA surface. A slower adsorption kinetics was observed for pristine PMMA surface, whilst a quick adsorption kinetics for processed PMMA. Moreover, the dissipation shift of protein adsorption suggested that BSA forms a more rigid structure on pristine PMMA surface that on processed surface. These data suggest that changes in wettability and attendant chemical properties and surface texture of the PMMA surface may play a significant role in BSA adsorption process.

  2. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  3. Espectrofotometria de proteínas totais em plasma de sangue bovino por análise em fluxo Spectrophotometry of total protein in bovine blood plasma by flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Caseri de Luca


    handling during operation. In this work an automated flow procedure for total protein determination in bovine serum samples, employing the Biuret method, was developed. The system, including an automatic injector commutator and a three way solenoid valve computer controlled, was designed in order to permit on line sample dilution. Since protein standard solutions were introduced with and without dilution. A dilution factor was estimated and used to calculate protein concentration obtained after on-line dilution of the samples. Solutions samples were inserted through a three way solenoid valve that allows precise dilution minimizing hand operations. The analytical range for total protein determination was 2.5 to 20.0 g L-1, and considering the dilution employed, bovine plasma samples with 12.5 to 100.0 g L-1 of total protein were analysed. The procedure presented a 2.8% rsd and analytical frequency of 76 determinations per hour. Results were in good agreement with the traditional method (Biuret and no significant difference was verified at 95%.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in forage, bovine plasma, and milk: validation of a novel UPLC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau-Duriot, B.; Doreau, M.; Noziere, P.; Graulet, B. [UR1213 Research Unit on Herbivores, INRA, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)


    Simultaneous quantification of various liposoluble micronutrients is not a new area of interest since these compounds participate in the nutritional quality of feeds that is largely explored in human, and also in animal diet. However, the development of related methods is still under concern, especially when the carotenoid composition is complex such as in forage given to ruminants or in lipid-rich matrices like milk. In this paper, an original method for simultaneous extraction and quantification of all carotenoids, vitamins E, and A in milk was proposed. Moreover, a new UPLC method allowing simultaneous determination of carotenoids and vitamins A and E in forage, plasma and milk, and separation of 23 peaks of carotenoids in forage was described. This UPLC method using a HSS T3 column and a gradient solvent system was compared to a previously published reverse-phase HPLC using two C18 columns in series and an isocratic solvent system. The UPLC method gave similar concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A and E than the HPLC method. Moreover, UPLC allowed a better resolution for xanthophylls, especially lutein and zeaxanthin, for the three isomers of {beta}-carotene (all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z-) and for vitamins A, an equal or better sensitivity according to gradient, and a better reproducibility of peak areas and retention times, but did not reduce the time required for analysis. (orig.)

  5. Effect of fish oil on lateral mobility of prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptors and spatial distribution of lipid microdomains in bovine luteal cell plasma membrane in vitro. (United States)

    Plewes, M R; Burns, P D; Graham, P E; Hyslop, R M; Barisas, B G


    Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of fish oil on (1) the spatial distribution of lipid microdomains, (2) lateral mobility of FP receptors, and (3) lateral mobility of FP receptors in the presence of PGF2α on the plasma membrane of bovine luteal cells in vitro. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and corpora lutea were digested using collagenase. In experiment 1, lipid microdomains were labeled using cholera toxin subunit B Alexa Fluor 555. Domains were detected as distinct patches on the plasma membrane of mixed luteal cells. Fish oil treatment decreased fluorescent intensity in a dose-dependent manner (P oil treatment on lateral mobility of FP receptors. Fish oil treatment increased microdiffusion and macrodiffusion coefficients of FP receptors as compared to control cells (P oil-treated cells (P oil treatment. Lateral mobility of receptors was decreased within 5 min following the addition of ligand for control cells (P oil-treated cells (P > 0.10). The data presented provide strong evidence that fish oil causes a disruption in lipid microdomains and affects lateral mobility of FP receptors in the absence and presence of PGF2α.

  6. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice. (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N


    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  7. The effect of low-level laser irradiation on sperm motility, and integrity of the plasma membrane and acrosome in cryopreserved bovine sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Henrique C Fernandes

    Full Text Available Freezing changes sperm integrity remarkably. Cryopreservation involves cooling, freezing, and thawing and all these contribute to structural damage in sperm, resulting in reduced fertility potential. Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI could increase energy supply to the cell and cause reactive oxygen species reduction (ROS, contributing to the restoration of oxygen consumption and adenosine triphosphate synthesis (ATP in the mitochondria. Our goal was to analyze the effects of low-level laser irradiation on sperm motility and integrity of the plasma membrane and acrosome in cryopreserved bovine sperm.We analyzed 09 samples of bull semen (Bos taurus indicus, divided into three groups: a control group without laser irradiation, a 4J group subjected to a laser irradiation dose of 4 joules, and a 6J group subjected to dose of 6 joules. Samples were divided for the analysis of cell viability and acrosomal membrane integrity using flow cytometry; another portion was used for motion analysis. Irradiation was performed in petri dishes of 30 mm containing 3 ml of semen by an aluminum gallium indium phosphide laser diode with a wavelength of 660 nm, 30 mW power, and energy of 4 and 6 joules for 80 and 120 seconds respectively. Subsequently, the irradiated and control semen samples were subjected to cryopreservation and analyzed by flow cytometry (7AAD and FITC-PSA using the ISAS--Integrated Semen Analysis System.Flow cytometry showed an increase in the percentage of live sperm cells and acrosome integrity in relation to control cells when subjected to irradiation of low-power laser in two different doses of 4 and 6 joules (p < 0.05. In the analysis of straightness, percentage of cell movement, and motility, a dose of 4 joules was more effective (p < 0.05.We conclude that LLLI may exert beneficial effects in the preservation of live sperm. A dose of 4 joules prior to cryopreservation was more effective than a dose of 6 joules in preserving sperm motility.

  8. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice. (United States)

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z


    It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs.

  9. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  10. Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma. (United States)

    Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe


    In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers.

  11. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnerud, Ulrika; Holst, Jens Juul; Östman, Elin


    Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect....

  12. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  13. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  14. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C


    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  15. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of bovine serum albumin powder


    Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Haet-Nim; Sung, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Hae-Sim


    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is present in bovine plasma, is one of the major allergens affecting patients with food allergies induced by milk and meat. It is also commonly used in research laboratories. Although some reports have documented food allergies associated with BSA, BSA-induced occupational asthma has not been reported. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis in a laboratory worker caused by the inhalation of BSA powder, in which an IgE-mediated response was sugge...

  16. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;


    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  17. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli.

  18. AIDS-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast Brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Brantley


    Full Text Available Advanced HIV infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. Resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. We determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medication by their physicians in an urban infectious diseases hospital in northeast Brazil. We also obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized for diarrhea or AIDS-associated wasting, and we found reduced stavudine and didanosine levels in comparison with outpatients without diarrhea or wasting who had been treated at the same hospital clinic. There was a predominance of the protozoal pathogens Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli, typical opportunistic pathogens of AIDS-infected humans, in the stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea. We conclude that severe diarrhea and wasting in this population is associated with both protozoal pathogens and subtherapeutic levels of antiretroviral medications.

  19. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  20. Real-time RT-PCR quantification of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A mRNA abundance in bovine granulosa and theca cells: effects of hormones in vitro. (United States)

    Aad, Pauline Y; Voge, Justin L; Santiago, Consuelo A; Malayer, Jerry R; Spicer, Leon J


    Ovarian follicular growth and dominance are controlled by a series of hormonal and intraovarian events including a decrease in intrafollicular IGF-binding proteins -2, -4 and -5 levels. Proteolytic enzymes such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) degrade IGFBPs and increase bioavailability of IGF-I and -II during follicular development. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin (INS), LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), leptin or cortisol on ovarian PAPP-A mRNA levels. Granulosa (GC) from small (SM) (1-5 mm) and large (LG) (8-22 mm) follicles as well as theca cells (TC) from LG follicles were collected from bovine ovaries and cultured for 48 h in medium containing 10% FCS and then treated with various hormones in serum-free medium for an additional 24 h. Cells were treated with various concentrations (3-500 ng/ml) and combinations of IGF-I, IGF-II, FSH, LH, E2, INS, leptin and (or) cortisol for 24 h (Experiments 1-10). PAPP-A mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In SM-GC and LG-GC, none of the treatments significantly affected (P>0.10) PAPP-A mRNA abundance. In LG-TC, IGF-I, LH or cortisol did not affect (P>0.10) PAPP-A mRNA levels, whereas INS with or without LH decreased (P<0.05) PAPP-A mRNA. E2 alone decreased PAPP-A mRNA levels in LG-TC, and E2 amplified the insulin-induced inhibition of PAPP-A mRNA abundance in LG-TC. We conclude that control of PAPP-A mRNA abundance in granulosa and theca cells differs, and that E2 may be part of an intraovarian negative feedback system which may reduce the bioavailable IGFs in the theca layer during growth and selection of follicles.

  1. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如


    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  2. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus


    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior


    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  3. Bovine milk glycome. (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B


    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.


    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  7. Data supporting the structural and functional characterization of Thrombin‐Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in breast cancer (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal S.; Toraih, Eman A.


    The data in this paper is related to the research article entitled “Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Thr325Ile polymorphism and plasma level in breast cancer: A pilot study” (Fawzy et al., 2015) [1]. Many emerging studies have begun to unravel the pathophysiologic role of the fibrinolytic system in breast cancer (BC) progression (Zorio et al., 2008) [2]. Activation of the fibrinolytic plasminogen/plasmin system results in degradation of protein barriers, thereby mediating cell migration essential for tumor growth, angiogenesis, and dissemination (Castellino and Ploplis, 2005) [3]. In the current study, in silico data analysis of Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) gene and protein has been done. Data have been retrieved from several databases mentioned in details in the text. Determination and analysis of the structural and functional impact of TAFI and its expression could help elucidate the contribution of the TAFI pathway to acquired hemostatic dysfunction and will form the basis of potential therapeutic strategies to manipulate this pathway. An inhibition of TAFI (e.g. by FXI inhibitors) will offer the therapeutic possibilities to improve the decreased fibrinolysis and increase the efficiency of fibrinolytic therapy in thrombotic disorders including cancer. PMID:26740968

  8. Data supporting the structural and functional characterization of Thrombin‐Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Fawzy


    Full Text Available The data in this paper is related to the research article entitled “Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Thr325Ile polymorphism and plasma level in breast cancer: A pilot study” (Fawzy et al., 2015 [1]. Many emerging studies have begun to unravel the pathophysiologic role of the fibrinolytic system in breast cancer (BC progression (Zorio et al., 2008 [2]. Activation of the fibrinolytic plasminogen/plasmin system results in degradation of protein barriers, thereby mediating cell migration essential for tumor growth, angiogenesis, and dissemination (Castellino and Ploplis, 2005 [3]. In the current study, in silico data analysis of Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI gene and protein has been done. Data have been retrieved from several databases mentioned in details in the text. Determination and analysis of the structural and functional impact of TAFI and its expression could help elucidate the contribution of the TAFI pathway to acquired hemostatic dysfunction and will form the basis of potential therapeutic strategies to manipulate this pathway. An inhibition of TAFI (e.g. by FXI inhibitors will offer the therapeutic possibilities to improve the decreased fibrinolysis and increase the efficiency of fibrinolytic therapy in thrombotic disorders including cancer.

  9. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma. (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo


    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  10. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa. (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L


    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  11. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)


    Angelos, JA


    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  12. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics. (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian


    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  13. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein. (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A


    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  14. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye). (United States)

    Angelos, John A


    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo


    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  17. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis



    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  18. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis. (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J


    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  19. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins measured using anti-bovine PAG-2 antibodies on day 120 of gestation predict abortion in dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum. (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; Almería, S; Serrano, B; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F


    The present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of Neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (PAG-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma PAG-2 concentrations could predict abortion in N. caninum-infected cows. The study was performed on a commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herd in northeastern Spain and the final data included those recorded in 53 non-aborting and 19 aborting animals. Blood samples were collected immediately before pregnancy diagnosis (on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 post-insemination) in non-aborting cows or until the time of abortion detection in aborting cows. General lineal models (GLM) repeated measures anova revealed the different behaviour of PAG-1 and PAG-2, and significant effects of Neospora seropositivity, cool season and twin pregnancy on plasma PAG-2 concentrations throughout gestation (between-subject effects). In addition, based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of abortion increased in Neospora-seropositive cows (by a factor of 7.0) compared to seronegative animals and decreased in cows with a high plasma PAG-2 concentration (>4.5 ng/ml) on Day 120 of pregnancy (by a factor of 0.24), compared to the remaining cows. In conclusion, there is a relationship between plasma PAG-2 concentrations and the risk of abortion in Neospora-infected dairy cows. Thus, plasma PAG concentrations measured using anti-boPAG-2 antiserum on Day 120 of gestation could serve as an indicator of the abortion risk in N. caninum infected animals; values <4.5 ng/ml indicating a high risk of abortion in chronically infected animals.

  20. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.


    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  1. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  2. Bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin 2 derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7: resistance to proteases and effects in beagle dogs. (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Mariko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Tagata, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Shizuo


    A bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin (VT) 2 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was administered orally to beagle dogs. The antibody remained in the dogs' small intestine for at least 2 h, whereas little serum antibody remained 1.5 h after administration. Furthermore, the antibody activity of secretory IgA did not change until 2 h after administration; however, the activity of IgG and IgM antibodies decreased by approximately 60% and 40% at 2 h after administration, respectively. Seven beagle dogs inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 producing VT2 were administered bovine colostral antibody or bovine colostral whey without antibody. With administration of bovine colostral whey without antibody, the amount of VT2 in feces decreased gradually after administration and increased again at 5 d after inoculation, whereas bovine colostral antibody significantly reduced the amount of VT2 in feces on the day after administration. In addition, 9 beagle dogs were given bovine colostral antibody, bovine plasma antibody, or saline. The amount of VT2 in feces again decreased significantly more rapidly after administration of bovine colostral antibody than after administration of bovine plasma antibody or saline.

  3. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia


    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  4. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  5. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  6. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.; Schmalz, P.E.; Szurszewski, J.; Miller, L.J. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))


    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in a concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.

  7. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi


    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  8. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review. (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A


    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  9. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper


    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  10. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  11. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood. (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A


    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  12. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;


    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  13. Bovine milk antibodies for health. (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S


    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  14. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome]. (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G


    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  15. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  17. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp


    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  18. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan


    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  19. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi


    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  20. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)


    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  1. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana


    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  2. Short communication: urea transporter protein UT-B in the bovine parotid gland. (United States)

    Dix, L; Ward, D T; Stewart, G S


    Ruminant nutrition relies upon the symbiotic relationship that exists with microbial populations in the rumen. Urea transported across the ruminal epithelia and secreted by the salivary glands is a key source of nitrogen for microbial growth in the rumen. As ruminal urea transport can be mediated by specific UT-B urea transporters, this study investigated whether UT-B urea transporters were also present in the bovine salivary gland. Western blotting experiments detected only small amounts of UT-B protein in whole-cell lysate from the bovine parotid gland. In contrast, strong 32 to 34 and 40 kDa UT-B proteins were detected in parotid plasma membrane-enriched protein, showing the importance of using enriched samples. These signals were also detected in rumen and correspond to bovine UT-B1 and UT-B2 urea transporters, respectively. Further immunolocalization studies identified that these proteins were located in the ductal system of the parotid gland. This study, therefore, confirmed the presence of UT-B urea transporter protein in the bovine parotid salivary gland.

  3. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  4. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical. (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S


    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  5. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez A.


    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  6. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)


    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang


    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  8. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets. (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T


    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  9. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review


    Goens, Denise


    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  10. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4



    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  11. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.


    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  12. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage]. (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D


    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  13. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  14. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  15. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  16. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  17. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  18. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  19. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen


    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  1. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges


    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D


    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG


    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies


    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  5. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts. (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan


    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  6. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows. (United States)

    Gaard, Greta


    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  7. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome. (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.


    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  9. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene. (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  10. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.


    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  11. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.


    Sparling, A M


    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.


    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  13. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever. (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal


    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk


    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  15. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.


    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  16. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  17. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  18. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  19. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease. (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W


    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  20. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.


    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  1. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;


    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  3. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin


    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  4. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Lykke, Mikkel; Chatterton, D E W


    height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar...... effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk...

  5. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) in Denmark during a 10-year eradication period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Stadejek, T.; Nylin, B.


    A 243 base-pair fragment of the 5'- untranslated region (5'-UTR) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was RT-PCR amplified from tissue samples (after one passage) or from plasma collected from Danish cattle in 1962 (1), 1993 (7), or in 2002-03 (28) when BVD was almost extinct as a result of a 6...... subtype, the samples collected in 2002-2003 belonged to Id (22 samples), 1b (5 samples) and le (I sample) subtypes. In five herds, materials from two animals were obtained for PCR analysis. In four of five herds the sequences of the two viruses were identical, but in one herd the obtained sequences...

  6. Effect of the daily consumption of ostrich and bovine meat on the lipid metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Vasconcelos de Carvalho-Filho


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat (lliofemuralis internus and bovine meat (Psoas major on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. The analyses of the centesimal composition of the meats and preparation of the diets were accomplished following the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-AIN-93. Three groups of 150 day-old animals: group I (diet I, with casein, group II (diet II, with ostrich meat, and group III (diet III with bovine meat were fed for 13 weeks with the respective diets and weight gain, food efficiency coefficient, total cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions, hepatic, transaminases and body fat percentage and hepatic fat content were evaluated. No difference (p < 0.05 it was found for weight gain and coefficients for feed efficiency among the groups. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, relationship of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, VLDL, triglycerides and hepatic transaminases were also not different among the groups (p < 0.05. This research suggests that the consumption of ostrich meat or thin bovine meat on a daily basis does not raise concerns about weight gain, and an increase in the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein and levels of hepatic transaminase.

  7. Effects of Diets Rich in Flavonoids on the Quality of Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Cruz Carrillo


    Full Text Available Bovine milk is one of the main foods for mammals and, specifically, for humans; therefore, its quality should be optimal and should comply with all safety and nutritional aspects. The objective of this review was to collect updated scientific information on the importance of the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk, regarding their nutritional value and the benefits of these metabolites for the milk and its consumers. Milk decomposition is due to the effect of light, temperature and time on the fat and protein present in it, as well as to lactic fermentation by bacteria. Thus, the control of these three factors or one of them contributes to extend the useful life of milk and other dairy products. Thus, by seeking to delay the rancidification of milk and its by-products, it has been proposed that forage containing antioxidants such as flavonoids should be included in the diet of female cattle, as these, being bioavailable in cattle, also actively appear in the milk in concentrations equivalent to plasma. Additionally, the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk can provide a source of natural antioxidants for the consumer, which is beneficial for the prevention of some pathological processes mediated by free radicals.

  8. The effects of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flunixin and phenylbutazone on bovine natural-killer-cell cytotoxicity. (United States)

    O'Brien, M A; Duffus, W P


    A series of in-vitro experiments was performed utilizing the ability of bovine peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to induce lysis of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), in an antibody-independent natural-killer(NK)-cell cytotoxic assay. The effects of dexamethasone (dexamethasone sodium phosphate), betamethasone (betamethasone sodium phosphate), flunixin (flunixin meglumine) and phenylbutazone on this NK cytolysis were studied using concentrations of the drugs ranging from well below to well above those normally attained in plasma at recommended therapeutic doses. All four drugs inhibited NK activity. For each agent a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) required to inhibit NK activity by approximately 50% was calculated. For dexamethasone, betamethasone and flunixin the MIC50 was lower after a 24-h pre-incubation of PBMC with each drug, although a marked inhibition was seen when the drug was only present during the 5-h NK assay itself. In contrast the MIC50 for phenylbutazone rose after a 24-h pre-incubation with PBMC.

  9. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease. (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary


    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  10. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  11. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.


    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  12. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Naglić, T; Sanković, F; Madić, J; Hajsig, D; Seol, B; Busch, K


    In two separate herds of fattening calves a sudden-onset outbreak of ocular disease with profuse lacrimation occurred. The disease resembled the early stage of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis but after a few days the clinical signs of bronchopneumonia appeared. From conjunctival swabs Mycoplasma (M.) bovigenitalium, M. bovirhinis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were isolated. Moraxella bovis infection was not established. In one of the herds M. bovigenitalium was also found in the pneumonic lungs of dead calves. In one herd M. bovoculi was isolated from a cow with chronic keratoconjunctivitis, housed together with affected calves. Mycoplasmas were not isolated from ocular swabs of six bulls originating from a Reproductive Centre with temporary occurrence of unilateral serous conjunctivitis resistant to antibiotic therapy.

  13. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortions


    Ruhl, S; Casson, N.; Kaiser, C.; Thoma, R; Pospischil, A.; Greub, G; Borel, N.


    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on new possible abortigenic agents such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. Retrospective samples (n = 235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae, rachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were furth...

  14. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A


    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  15. Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Aikman, J G; Allan, E M; Selman, I E


    The left eyes of 10 conventional dairy cross calves were inoculated with a pathogenic strain of Moraxella bovis and lesions of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis developed in nine of these eyes. M bovis was isolated from all inoculated eyes and lesions developed in five out of 10 eyes which had become naturally infected. The clinical and microbiological findings were similar to those described in field cases.

  16. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E


    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  18. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion. (United States)

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole


    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  19. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe


    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  20. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.


    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  1. Immobilization and characterization of bovine liver catalase on eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bovine liver catalase immobilized on eggshell particles was characterized and the reusability of the immobilized catalase was investigated in a batch type reactor. For immobilized catalase onto ground eggshell (ICATG, the optimum initial amount of catalase was 85 mg g-1 of eggshells, the optimum pH was 6.0 (75 mM citrate buffer and the temperature was 30 °C. The Vmax and Km values of ICATG were determined as 29.1±1.2 U/mg of protein and 41.9±2.7 mM, respectively. The reusability of ICATG was tested and the remaining activity of ICATG was found to be 73 % of the initial activity after 80 cycles of batch operation. The amount of catalase bound onto the carrier was estimated by using the results of induced coupled plasma measurements. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km of free catalase and ICATG were found to be 1.4´106 and 2.8´103 dm3 s-1 mol-1, respectively. Catalase immobilization onto eggshell is economic and has good reusability. Hence, it can be concluded that eggshell is an efficient carrier for immobilizing catalase.

  2. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of bovines fed rations containing probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Massaro Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomices cerevisiae and Lactobacillus casei in bovine diets, on dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF intake and digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Rations were isoproteic (13,04% CP and isoenergetic (66,39% TDN with sorghum silage used as roughage (50% of DM. Six ruminal-cannulated males, castrated, ½Gir½ Holstein crossbred, with average live wight of 317 kg and 24 months old were utilized. Treatments were determined as control (without probiotic addition and with probiotic, which contained 4,5 x 109 CFU/animal/day of Saccaromyces cerevisiae and 3,1 x 107 CFU/animal/day of Lactobacillus casei. The experiment lasted 38 days, divided in two periods of 19 days. In the present work, the supply of live yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and lactic bacteria Lactobacillus casei had no influence on DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF intake and digestibility, ruminal pH, ruminal N-NH3 and PUN, indicating that can be used in cattle feed when necessary.

  3. Altered fibrinolysis in autosomal dominant thrombomodulin-associated coagulopathy (United States)

    Burley, Kate; Whyte, Claire S.; Westbury, Sarah K.; Walker, Mary; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Turro, Ernest; Chapman, Oliver G.; Reilly-Stitt, Christopher; Mutch, Nicola J.


    Thrombomodulin-associated coagulopathy (TM-AC) is a newly recognized dominant bleeding disorder in which a p.Cys537Stop variant in the thrombomodulin (TM) gene THBD, results in high plasma TM levels and protein C-mediated suppression of thrombin generation. Thrombin in complex with TM also activates thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). However, the effect of the high plasma TM on fibrinolysis in TM-AC is unknown. Plasma from TM-AC cases and high-TM model control samples spiked with recombinant soluble TM showed reduced tissue factor–induced thrombin generation. Lysis of plasma clots from TM-AC cases was significantly delayed compared with controls but was completely restored when TM/thrombin-mediated TAFI activation was inhibited. Clots formed in blood from TM-AC cases had the same viscoelastic strength as controls but also showed a TAFI-dependent delay in fibrinolysis. Delayed fibrinolysis was reproduced in high-TM model plasma and blood samples. Partial restoration of thrombin generation with recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate did not alter the delayed fibrinolysis in high-TM model blood. Our finding of a previously unrecognized fibrinolytic phenotype indicates that bleeding in TM-AC has a complex pathogenesis and highlights the pivotal role of TM as a regulator of hemostasis. PMID:27436851

  4. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum


    Scholes, Susan C.; Colledge, Coral J.; Naylor, Andrew; Mahdi, Mohammed H.; Smith, Alan M.; Joyce, Thomas


    It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the test...

  5. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy. (United States)

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc


    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy.

  6. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk


    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk...... by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat...

  7. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform... (United States)


    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  8. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  9. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea. (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel


    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  10. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein


    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  11. Quality and safety of bovine clones and their products. (United States)

    Heyman, Y; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Fromentin, G; Berthelot, V; Jurie, C; Bas, P; Dubarry, M; Mialot, J P; Remy, D; Richard, C; Martignat, L; Vignon, X; Renard, J P


    A multidisciplinary research programme was developed to get a scientific expertise for the quality assessment of products obtained from cloned livestock. Thirty-seven bovine Holstein female clones of five different genotypes and their products were analysed in comparison with 38 control animals obtained by conventional artificial insemination and raised under the same conditions at the same experimental farm. Animal evaluation included over 150 criteria and more than 10 000 measurements to check the physiological status and health over a 3-year period. All the parameters studied were in the normal range for age and breed, but some significant differences were detected between clone and control groups in terms of delayed onset of puberty in clones, higher neutrophil counts in haematology or lower biochemical plasma concentrations of gamma glutamyl transferase. Milk and meat analyses were conformable to expected values. We, however, found some differences in fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and muscle suggesting a possible deviation in lipid metabolism as assessed by higher delta-9 desaturase activity indexes in both milk and muscles from clones compared with controls. Repeated muscle biopsies in the semitendinosus muscle of the same animals demonstrated a higher oxidative activity in muscle of young clones (8 months of age) compared with controls, suggesting a delayed muscle maturation in clones. Nutritional evaluation of milk and meat using the rat feeding trials did not show any difference between clone and control products for food intake, growth rate, body composition of the rats, nor for possible allergenicity. Possible reactivation of bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERVs) was analysed and compared between normal and cloned cattle. As expected, these BERV sequences are not transcribed and no RNA was detected in the blood of clones, donor animals or controls; therefore, it may be assumed that the sanitary risk associated with BERV sequences is not higher in

  12. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Good


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress.

  13. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  14. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.


    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  15. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  16. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.


    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of inf

  17. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies (United States)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  18. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T


    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  19. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka


    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  20. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  1. Bovine dental fluorosis: histologic and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.


    Incisor teeth from 5- to 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cattle maintained on a ration averaging 40 ppm F annually from 4 months of age were analyzed by a variety of histologic techniques. These techniques included photomicroscopy, microradiography, protein staining, and microhardness testing. The features of fluorotic enamel that were noted were: hypomineralized outer enamel, coronal cementum hyperplasia, disrupted subsurface pigment band, hypoplastic pits, puckered incremental lines, periodic radiolucent regions, positive protein staining, and decreased microhardness of the outer enamel. These results were similar to the lesions of dental fluorosis observed in other species, and explain the external appearance of fluorotic bovine teeth observed under field conditions.

  2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner


    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  3. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle


    Lawrence Yoo; Hansang Kim; Andrew Shin; Vijay Gupta; Demer, Joseph L.


    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed...

  4. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  5. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  6. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders. (United States)

    Floeck, Martina


    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  7. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F


    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  8. Plasma Cleaning (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.


    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  9. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D


    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  10. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  11. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  12. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.


    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  13. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome. (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S


    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns.

  14. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles......NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... purposes; and (2) a diagnostic kit for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of two or more genetic marker alleles comprising a detection member....

  15. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M


    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  16. Mechanism of surface-mediated activation of bovine Factor XII and prekallikrein. (United States)

    Sugo, T; Ohno, Y; Shimada, T; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S


    The mechanism of kaolin-mediated activation of bovine Factor XII was studied in the presence of prekallikrein and HMW kininogen. The activated enzymes were assayed using fluorogenic peptides, Boc-Glu (OBzl)-Gly-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) for Factor XIIa and Z-Phe-Arg-MCA for plasma kallikrein. The rates of activation of the zymogens were separately measured by blocking either of the active enzymes with specific inhibitors, corn inhibitor for Factor XIIa (Ki = 6.7 nM) and Trasylol for plasma kallikrein (Ki = 3.9 nM). The result was as follows: (1) At the early stage of the activation reaction, kallikrein activity was first generated after short lag time, and then Factor XIIa activity was generated with a sigmoidal curve. In the presence of corn inhibitor, the activation of prekallikrein was observed, but in the presence of Trasylol, the activation of Factor XII was not observed. In the presence of high concentration of Ala-Phe-Arg-Ch2Cl, which inactivates immediately both of the active enzymes, the cleavage of a single chain prekallikrein into the two chain form by Factor XII was shown by SDS-PAGE, using nonlabelled and tritiated prekallikrein. (2) The incubation of Factor XII alone in a quartz cuvette or in the presence of kaolin and HMW kininogen did not result in the activation of Factor XII. The concave upward curve due to an autocatalytic activation was not observed even after the addition of Factor XIIa to Factor XII preparation. Moreover, no structural change of Factor XII during the incubation with kaolin and HMW kininogen was shown by SDS-PAGE, using 3H-Factor XII. (3) The rates of activation of prekallikrein by Factor XII and by Factor XIIa were approximately the same at higher concentration of prekallikrein. However, at lower concentration of prekallikrein the rate of activation of prekallikrein by Factor XII was shown to be a sigmoidal curve and slower than that by Factor XIIa. These results indicate that the activation of bovine Factor XII is

  17. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography (United States)

    Blans, Kristine; Hansen, Maria S.; Sørensen, Laila V.; Hvam, Michael L.; Howard, Kenneth A.; Möller, Arne; Wiking, Lars; Larsen, Lotte B.; Rasmussen, Jan T.


    ABSTRACT Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated. In this study, we present two isolation approaches accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV-marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides and presents a phospholipid profile differing from milk fat globules surrounded by epithelial cell plasma membrane. Moreover, the milk EV fractions are enriched in RNA with distinct and diverging profiles from milk fat globules. Collectively, our data supports that successful milk EV isolation can be accomplished in few steps without the use of ultracentrifugation, as the presented isolation approaches based on SEC effectively isolates EV in both human and bovine milk. PMID:28386391

  18. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna eKropp


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, mir-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy.

  19. Description of glucose transport in isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells by a three-compartment model. (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Quinton, V Margaret; Cant, John P


    Initial rates of glucose entry into isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells display moderate degrees of asymmetry and cooperative interactions between export and import sites. The present study examined the hypothesis that these kinetic features are due to compartmentalization of intracellular glucose. Net uptake of 3-O-methyl-d-[1-(3)H]glucose (3-OMG) by isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells was measured at 37 degrees C. The time course of 3-OMG net uptake was better fitted by a double-exponential equation than by a single- or triple-exponential equation. Compartmental analysis of the time course curve suggested that translocated 3-OMG is distributed into two compartments with fractional volumes of 32.6 +/- 5.7% and 67.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively. The results support the view that glucose transport in bovine mammary epithelial cells is a multistep process consisting of two serial steps: fast, carrier-mediated, symmetric translocation of sugar across the cell plasma membrane into a small compartment and subsequent slow exchange of posttranslocated sugar between two intracellular compartments. A three-compartment model of this system successfully simulated the observed time course of 3-OMG net uptake and the observed dependence of unidirectional entry rates on intra- and extracellular 3-OMG concentrations. Simulations indicated that backflux of radiolabeled sugar from the small compartment to extracellular space during 15 s of incubation gives rise to the apparent asymmetry, trans-stimulation, and cooperativity of mammary glucose transport kinetics. The fixed-site carrier model overestimated the rate of glucose accumulation in cells, and its features can be accounted for by the compartmentalization of intracellular sugar.

  20. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F


    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  1. Improvement of fibrin clot structure after factor VIII injection in haemophilia A patients treated on demand. (United States)

    Antovic, Aleksandra; Mikovic, Danijela; Elezovic, Ivo; Zabczyk, Michael; Hutenby, Kjell; Antovic, Jovan P


    Patients with haemophilia A have seriously impaired thrombin generation due to an inherited deficiency of factor (F)VIII, making them form unstable fibrin clots that are unable to maintain haemostasis. Data on fibrin structure in haemophilia patients remain limited. Fibrin permeability, assessed by a flow measurement technique, was investigated in plasma from 20 patients with severe haemophilia A treated on demand, before and 30 minutes after FVIII injection. The results were correlated with concentrations of fibrinogen, FVIII and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and global haemostatic markers: endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and overall haemostatic potential (OHP). Fibrin structure was visualised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The permeability coefficient Ks decreased significantly after FVIII treatment. Ks correlated significantly with FVIII levels and dosage, and with ETP, OHP and levels of TAFI. SEM images revealed irregular, porous fibrin clots composed of thick and short fibers before FVIII treatment. The clots had recovered after FVIII replacement almost to levels in control samples, revealing compact fibrin with smaller intrinsic pores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of fibrin porosity and structure before and after FVIII treatment of selected haemophilia patients. It seems that thrombin generation is the main determinant of fibrin structure in haemophilic plasma.

  2. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun


    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  3. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander


    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  4. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  5. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander


    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  6. [Bovine heterologous bone graft in orbital surgery]. (United States)

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T; Smida, R


    Lubboc (T650) is a bovine heterologous bone implant obtained by specific preparation of trabecular of bone. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies have revealed the absence of any cytotoxicity or systemic toxicity. Lubboc has many fields of application, including all bone graft surgical indications. We report our first results concerning the use of this product in orbital surgery either as a filling or contention material or as an apposition material. On all 20 operated patients we did not encounter any intolerance, inflammation or infection. The follow-up is still too short to appreciate the long term integration of this material which has the advantage of being a substitute for autologous bone, avoiding bone graft harvesting.

  7. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat


    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A


    Summary The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  9. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue. (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications.

  10. Electron probe microananlysis of fluorotic bovine teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.


    Incisor teeth were obtained from adult cattle which since 4 months of age to 5 or 6 years were maintained on rations containing a yearly average of 40 ppM F in the forage. Microchemical analyses were performed on the fluorotic bovine incisors. The microdistribution of fluoride varied markedly at different sites within the same tooth. Fluoride concentrations varied with depth from the tooth surface and were influenced by the concentrations of fluoride present in the forage during amelogenesis, and the presence of hypoplastic pits and hyperplastic coronal cementum in enamel. The cementum in these lesions contained remarkably high concentrations of fluoride, and it was less calcified and more porous than adjacent enamel. 5 figures.

  11. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;


    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  12. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). (United States)

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen


    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  13. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis. (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan


    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci.

  14. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk (United States)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.


    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  15. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract. (United States)

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S


    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

  16. In Vitro Evolution of Bovine Foamy Virus Variants with Enhanced Cell-Free Virus Titers and Transmission. (United States)

    Bao, Qiuying; Hipp, Michaela; Hugo, Annette; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Kehl, Timo; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin


    Virus transmission is essential for spreading viral infections and is a highly coordinated process which occurs by cell-free transmission or cell-cell contact. The transmission of Bovine Foamy Virus (BFV) is highly cell-associated, with undetectable cell-free transmission. However, BFV particle budding can be induced by overexpression of wild-type (wt) BFV Gag and Env or artificial retargeting of Gag to the plasma membrane via myristoylation membrane targeting signals, closely resembling observations in other foamy viruses. Thus, the particle release machinery of wt BFV appears to be an excellent model system to study viral adaption to cell-free transmission by in vitro selection and evolution. Using selection for BFV variants with high cell-free infectivity in bovine and non-bovine cells, infectivity dramatically increased from almost no infectious units to about 105-106 FFU (fluorescent focus forming units)/mL in both cell types. Importantly, the selected BFV variants with high titer (HT) cell-free infectivity could still transmit via cell-cell contacts and were neutralized by serum from naturally infected cows. These selected HT-BFV variants will shed light into virus transmission and potential routes of intervention in the spread of viral infections. It will also allow the improvement or development of new promising approaches for antiretroviral therapies.

  17. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  18. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.


    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  19. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian


    development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated...

  20. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  1. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation and stabilized by bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Jessica; Silva, Andressa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grasselli, Mariano, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal (Argentina)


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a new option for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their interesting chemical, electrical and catalytic properties. Research for cancer treatments have been developed using this promising radiotherapy agent. The challenge of gold nanoparticles is to keep them stable, due to metallic behavior. It is know that surface plasma resonance promotes agglomeration of metallic nanoparticles, but they are not stable. Stabilizers have been used to reduce agglomeration. The aim of this work is reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} salt to AuNPs performed by gamma radiation {sup 60}Co source and the stabilization of gold nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V as stabilizer agent. AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible to verify the nanoparticles formation. Samples containing BSA and samples obtained by the conventional method (without stabilizer) were monitored for two weeks and analyzed. Results were compared. (author)

  2. X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts


    Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P.


    Although X chromosome inactivation in female mammals evolved to balance the expression of X chromosome and autosomal genes in the two sexes, female embryos pass through developmental stages in which both X chromosomes are active in somatic cells. Bovine blastocysts show higher expression of many X genes in XX than XY embryos, suggesting that X inactivation is not complete. Here we reanalyzed bovine blastocyst microarray expression data from a network perspective with a focus on interactions b...

  3. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.


    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  4. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence. (United States)

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura


    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells. (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang


    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations.

  6. Ozone-induced augmentation of eicosanoid metabolism in epithelial cells from bovine trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikauf, G.D.; Driscoll, K.E.; Wey, H.E.


    Epithelial injury and inflammation have been implicated in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Because ozone is relatively insoluble and highly reactive, toxicologic effects of this compound may be limited to the plasma membranes of airway epithelium. We hypothesize that oxidant damage to epithelium may result in elaboration of various eicosanoids, which are known to alter airway smooth muscle responsiveness and epithelial cell functions (including ion transport). To examine eicosanoid metabolism after exposure to 0.1 to 10.0 ppm ozone, epithelial cells derived from bovine trachea were isolated and grown to confluency. Bovine tracheal cells in culture expressed differentiated features characteristic of epithelial cells, including a plasma membrane with a specialized polar morphology, an extensive network of filaments that were connected through intercellular junctional complexes, and keratin-containing monofilaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescent localization. Monolayers were alternately exposed to ozone and culture medium for 2 h in a specially designed in vitro chamber using a rotating inclined platform. Eicosanoid products were measured by the release of (/sup 3/H)-labeled products from cells incubated with (/sup 3/H)-arachidonic acid for 24 h before exposure and by the release of immunoreactive products into the cell supernatant. Both methods revealed ozone-induced increases in cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase product formation with significant increases in prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha, 6-keto F1 alpha, and leukotriene B4. Release rates of immunoreactive products were dose-dependent, and ozone concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm produced an increase in prostaglandin F2 alpha. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ozone can augment eicosanoid metabolism in airway epithelial cells.

  7. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  8. Electrosurgical plasmas (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean


    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  9. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)


    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  10. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy



    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of tr...

  11. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications. (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U


    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  12. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance. (United States)

    Juliarena, M A; Poli, M; Ceriani, C; Sala, L; Rodríguez, E; Gutierrez, S; Dolcini, G; Odeon, A; Esteban, E N


    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. In Argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 gene associated with BLV-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. A potential risk in expanding or segregating BoLA selected populations of cattle is that it might increase susceptibility to other common viruses. Special concern raises the strong association found between low proviral load and low antibody titer against major BLV structural proteins. This phenomenon might depend on host genetic factors influencing other viruses requiring, unlike BLV, strong and long-lasting humoral immune response to prevent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no association among neutralizing antibody titers against foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1 and polymorphism of the BoLA DRB3.2 gene. Conversely, there is strong association between BoLA DRB3.2*0902 and low antibody titers against 2 BLV structural proteins--env gp51 and gag p24--to date, the best BLV resistance marker. There is also significant association between low antibody titers against gp51 and p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1701 and low antibody titers against p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1101 or 02. Our data suggest that increasing BoLA-selected BLV-resistant cattle or segregating BoLA-associated alleles to BLV susceptibility would not affect the resistance or the predisposition to bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, or foot and mouth disease virus infection.

  13. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A


    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  14. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    Stubblefield, William B.; Alves, Nathan J.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Kline, Jeffrey A.


    Background We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405). Results Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT. Conclusion The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT. PMID:26866684

  15. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  16. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto


    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  17. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad


    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  18. Micro patterning of cell and protein non-adhesive plasma polymerized coatings for biochip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaidat, Salim; Berendsen, C.; Thomsen, P.;


    Micro scale patterning of bioactive surfaces is desirable for numerous biochip applications. Polyethyleneoxide-like (PEO-like) coating with non-fouling functionality has been deposited using low frequency AC plasma polymerization. The non-fouling properties of the coating were tested with human...... cells ( HeLa) and fluorescence labeled proteins (isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, i.e. FITC-BSA). The PEO-like coatings were fabricated by plasma polymerization of 12-crown-4 (ppCrown) with plasma polymerized hexene (ppHexene) as adhesion layer. The coatings were micro patterned using...

  19. Interaction between Xanthoxylin and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Maogui; TIAN Jianniao; HUANG Yonglin; BIAN Hedong; CHEN Zhengfeng; LIANG Hong


    The interaction between xanthoxylin (XT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulative physiological conditions has been analyzed in detail by various spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence, circular dichro- ism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that the quenching constants (K) were 3.31×105, 2.03×105 and 0.94×105 L·mol-1 at 286, 298 and 310 K, respectively. Based on the fluorescence results, the fluorescence quenching mechanism of the interaction between XT and BSA has been found to be combined static and dynamic quenching. Thermodynamic parameters △H0, △S0 and △G0 sug- gested that the hydrophobic force played a main role in binding of XT to BSA. The effect of XT on the conforma- tion of BSA was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitatively calculated from CD spectroscopy with reduc- tion of α-helical content by about 3.9%. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constant was also dis- cussed.

  20. Creep behavior of passive bovine extraocular muscle. (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Kim, Hansang; Shin, Andrew; Gupta, Vijay; Demer, Joseph L


    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37 ± 0.03 (standard deviation, SD). The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  1. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Yoo


    Full Text Available This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37±0.03 (standard deviation, SD. The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  2. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review. (United States)

    Nagahata, Hajime


    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle.

  3. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  4. Spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico. (United States)

    Martínez, Horacio Zendejas; Suazo, Feliciano Milián; Cuador Gil, José Quintín; Bello, Gustavo Cruz; Anaya Escalera, Ana María; Márquez, Gabriel Huitrón; Casanova, Leticia García


    The purpose of this study was to use geographic information systems (GIS) and geo-statistical methods of ordinary kriging to predict the prevalence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Jalisco, Mexico. A random sample of 2 287 herds selected from a set of 48 766 was used for the analysis. Spatial location of herds was obtained by either a personal global positioning system (GPS), a database from the Instituto Nacional de Estadìstica Geografìa e Informàtica (INEGI) or Google Earth. Information on TB prevalence was provided by the Jalisco Commission for the Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (COEETB). Prediction of TB was obtained using ordinary kriging in the geostatistical analyst module in ArcView8. A predicted high prevalence area of TB matching the distribution of dairy cattle was observed. This prediction was in agreement with the prevalence calculated on the total 48 766 herds. Validation was performed taking estimated values of TB prevalence at each municipality, extracted from the kriging surface and then compared with the real prevalence values using a correlation test, giving a value of 0.78, indicating that GIS and kriging are reliable tools for the estimation of TB distribution based on a random sample. This resulted in a significant savings of resources.

  5. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  6. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli


    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  7. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis. (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa


    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  8. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review. (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen


    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans.

  9. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Scholes


    Full Text Available It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the testing of orthopaedic implant materials; 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel. Wear tests using multidirectional motion were conducted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE pins rubbing against stainless steel plates. Roughness measurements were performed during testing along with particle analysis of the testing lubricant. At two million cycles (equivalent to 121.3 km of sliding, the mean wear factor for the four UHMWPE pins was 0.25 (standard deviation (SD 0.03 × 10−6 mm3/Nm and there was no evidence of any transfer film on the plate surfaces. The wear factor produced by 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel was lower than that measured in previous studies using bovine serum as the lubricant but greater than the wear factor shown in published work using a similar alternative lubricant (sodium alginate mixed with gellan gum. Work on the development of a suitable alternative lubricant to bovine serum will continue.

  10. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages. (United States)

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria


    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  11. Plasma exchange in the treatment of immune disease. (United States)

    Branda, R F; Moldow, C F; McCullough, J J; Jacob, H S


    Plasma exchange was investigated as an alternative to the use of toxic drugs to remove unwanted antibody. Studies in rabbits immunized with bovine serum albumin demonstrate that exchange transfusion after a primary immunization results in a rebound of antibody to above preexchange levels. However, exchange transfusion seven, 11, or 18 days after secondary immunization results in permanent lowering of antibody levels. Plasma exchange with the continuous flow centrifuge was used in four patients with hematologic diseases. White cell isoantibodies were removed in a septic leukopenic patient, permitting white cell transfusions. Two patients with immune thrombocytopenia were exchanges; one showed prompt and permanent elevation of platelet count, while the other did not improve. A patient with immune hemolytic anemia had stabilization of hemoglobin levels and decreased Coombs reactivity following plasma exchange.

  12. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  13. Risk factors against bovine respiratory diseade in suckling calves from Argentina


    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio José; Perea-Remujo, J.A.; Arenas-Casas, Antonio; Torralbo, A.; Borge-Rodríguez, Carmen; Carbonero-Martínez, Alfonso; Maldonado García, Alfonso


    An observacional cross-sectional study was performed to determine the risk factors associated to the main viral agents of the bovine respiratory disease: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (HVB1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (VDVB), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB) and parainfluenza 3 virus (VPI3). Blood samples from dairy calves in the provinces of Cordova and Santa Fe (Argentina) were obtained, and an epidemiological ques-tionnaire was filled. Antibodies against studied viruses were detect...

  14. Effect of bovine ABCG2 polymorphism Y581S SNP on secretion into milk of enterolactone, riboflavin and uric acid. (United States)

    Otero, J A; Miguel, V; González-Lobato, L; García-Villalba, R; Espín, J C; Prieto, J G; Merino, G; Álvarez, A I


    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP) is an efflux protein involved in the bioavailability and milk secretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds, actively affecting milk composition. A limited number of physiological substrates have been identified. However, no studies have reported the specific effect of this polymorphism on the secretion into milk of compounds implicated in milk quality such as vitamins or endogenous compounds. The bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism is described as a gain-of-function polymorphism that increases milk secretion and decreases plasma levels of its substrates. This work aims to study the impact of Y581S polymorphism on plasma disposition and milk secretion of compounds such as riboflavin (vitamin B2), enterolactone, a microbiota-derived metabolite from the dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol and uric acid. In vitro transport of these compounds was assessed in MDCK-II cells overexpressing the bovine ABCG2 (WT-bABCG2) and its Y581S variant (Y581S-bABCG2). Plasma and milk levels were obtained from Y/Y homozygous and Y/S heterozygous cows. The results show that riboflavin was more efficiently transported in vitro by the Y581S variant, although no differences were noted in vivo. Both uric acid and enterolactone were substrates in vitro of the bovine ABCG2 variants and were actively secreted into milk with a two-fold increase in the milk/plasma ratio for Y/S with respect to Y/Y cows. The in vitro ABCG2-mediated transport of the drug mitoxantrone, as a model substrate, was inhibited by enterolactone in both variants, suggesting the possible in vivo use of this enterolignan to reduce ABCG2-mediated milk drug transfer in cows. The Y581S variant was inhibited to a lesser extent probably due to its higher transport capacity. All these findings point to a significant role of the ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism in the milk disposition of enterolactone and the endogenous molecules riboflavin and uric acid

  15. Microarray analysis of embryo-derived bovine pluripotent cells: The vulnerable state of bovine embryonic stem cells (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Yeon-Gil


    Although there are many studies about pluripotent stem cells, little is known about pluripotent pathways and the difficulties of maintaining the pluripotency of bovine cells in vitro. Here, we investigated differently expressed genes (DEG) in bovine embryo-derived stem-like cells (eSLCs) from various origins to validate their distinct characteristics of pluripotency and differentiation. We identified core pluripotency markers and additional markers which were not determined as pluripotency markers yet in bovine eSLCs. Using the KEGG database, TGFβ, WNT, and LIF signaling were related to the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, some DEGs related to the LIF pathway were down-regulated, suggesting that reactivation of the pathway may be required for the establishment of true bovine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Interestingly, oncogenes were co-down-regulated, while tumor suppressor genes were co-up-regulated in eSLCs, implying that this pattern may induce abnormal teratomas. These data analyses of signaling pathways provide essential information on authentic ESCs in addition to providing evidence for pluripotency in bovine eSLCs. PMID:28257460

  16. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  17. Elastic Comparison Between Human and Bovine Femural Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Gaith


    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic stiffness and the degree of anisotropy will be compared for the femur human and bovine bones are presented. A scale for measuring the overall elastic stiffness of the bone at different locations is introduced and its correlation with the calculated bulk modulus is analyzed. Based on constructing orthonormal tensor basis elements using the form-invariant expressions, the elastic stiffness for orthotropic system materials is decomposed into two parts; isotropic (two terms and anisotropic parts. The overall elastic stiffness is calculated and found to be directly proportional to bulk modulus. A scale quantitative comparison of the contribution of the anisotropy to the elastic stiffness and to measure the degree of anisotropy in an anisotropic material is proposed using the Norm Ratio Criteria (NRC. It is found that bovine femure plexiform has the largest overall elastic stiffness and bovine has the most isotropic (least anisotropic symmetry.

  18. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin. (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E


    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  19. Distribution and localization of histamine in bovine and rabbit eye. (United States)

    Nowak, J Z; Nawrocki, J; Maslinski, C


    Histamine (HI) is present in various structures of the bovine and rabbit eye (retina, choroid, sclera) and in the optic nerve of both species. The amine levels in particular structures of either cow or rabbit are highly differentiated, as well as profile of HI distribution which differs markedly between both species, except only the retina structure (HI levels were between 70-80 ng per g tissue). In the bovine retina HI is stored in non mast cell compartment, while in the optic nerve at least 50% of the amine is of mast cell origin. Approximately 90% of the retinal HI was recovered in the P1 subcellular fraction. HI in the bovine retina is metabolized by methylation. The data are discussed in terms of a possible physiological role of HI in the retina.

  20. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu


    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  1. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions. (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L


    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  2. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization. (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W


    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  3. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T


    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  4. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation. (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D


    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  5. Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x (United States)

    Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan (United States)

    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji


    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  7. Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym ABPE; Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema;...63 External Vocabularies MeSH: Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle (D011016) SnoMedCT: Acute bovine ...ia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle [Disease/Finding] (N0000010988) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema ...

  8. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  9. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  10. Biotribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composites containing bovine bone hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-long; ZHU Yuan-yuan; WANG Qing-liang; GE Shi-rong


    Wear particles of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are the main cause of long-term failure of total joint replacements. Therefore, increasing its wear resistance or bioactivity will be very useful in order to obtain high quality artificial joints. In our study, UHMWPE composites filled with the bovine bone hydroxyapatite (BHA) were prepared by the method of compression moulding. A ball-on-disc wear test was carried out with a Universal Micro-Tribometer to investigate the friction and wear behavior of a Si3N4 ceramic ball, cross-sliding against the UHMWPE/BHA composites with human plasma lubrication. At the same time, the profiles of the worn grooves on the UHMWPE/BHA surface were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the addition of BHA to UHMWPE had a significant effect on the biotribological behavior of UHMWPE cross-sliding against the Si3N4 ceramic ball. The addition of BHA powder enhanced the hardness and modulus of elasticity of these composites and decreased the friction coefficients and wear rates under conditions of human plasma lubrication. When the added amount of BHA powders was up to 20%~30%, UHMWPE/BHA composites demonstrated the designed performance of the mechanical properties and biotribological behavior.

  11. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  12. Plasma Free Metanephrines (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  13. Improved plasma accelerator (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.


    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  14. Choline Uptake by Glomerular Synapses Isolated from Bovine Cerebellar Vermis. (United States)


    28 034 UNCLASSIFIED -7t. holing uptake by glomerular aynapaea isolated from bovine cerebellar venni - . 1) N1 IrRRIAN.E L NfISINndwr EtIIOMAS86 .t...w. -%FAt~Jr~a~etn 0,oAAM TX78215-5301 IL’SAJ) A-xpid ( kaolin 22nd. 19W5) hh.lhoac-anln uplake -ainalnnn 177 DIOMIDICAL DmIVIIN,~ F-5’. . Brain...Research. 366 (1986) 401-404 401 Elsevier BRE 21387 Choline uptake by glomerular synapses isolated from bovine cerebellar vermis D.M. TERRIAN, E.L

  15. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle. (United States)

    Larson, Robert L


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  16. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;


    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  17. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer. (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi


    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  18. The eradication experience of enzootic bovine leukosis from Lithuania. (United States)

    Acaite, J; Tamosiunas, V; Lukauskas, K; Milius, J; Pieskus, J


    Before 1985 the situation regarding enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) in Lithuanian cattle was described only haphazardly. In 1986 serological investigations were initiated together with an eradication programme. The EBL bovine leukosis virus (BLV) situation was monitored by the Institute of Immunology Vilnius University, national and regional veterinary laboratories. Starting in 1986 all EBL-positive cattle were separated from negative cattle into BLV-infected and BLV-free herds. To create the latter, calves were fed pasteurized milk. The seroprevalence in 1990 was 7.29%, but it steadily declined to 0.32% in 2006.

  19. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review of cases in clinical practice. (United States)

    Alexander, Dominic


    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a painful ocular disease affecting cattle worldwide. The publications documenting this condition focus on what is the accepted cause of IBK--Moraxella bovis. This article draws on experience and recorded data made at the time of the initial examination and follow-up visits. Laboratory culture of ocular swabs was undertaken where appropriate. Diagnosis of IBK is usually based on clinical signs, environment, and history. Misdiagnosis of the organisms involved is a genuine possibility. This article focuses on recent outbreaks of bovine ocular disease in the United Kingdom in three counties over a 12-month period.

  20. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai


    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  1. Characterization of a Deswapped Triple Mutant Bovine Odorant Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Favilla


    Full Text Available The stability and functionality of GCC-bOBP, a monomeric triple mutant of bovine odorant binding protein, was investigated, in the presence of denaturant and in acidic pH conditions, by both protein and 1-aminoanthracene ligand fluorescence measurements, and compared to that of both bovine and porcine wild type homologues. Complete reversibility of unfolding was observed, though refolding was characterized by hysteresis. Molecular dynamics simulations, performed to detect possible structural changes of the monomeric scaffold related to the presence of the ligand, pointed out the stability of the β-barrel lipocalin scaffold.

  2. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders. (United States)

    Kofler, Johann


    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  3. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian


    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of bovine leukemia virus associated with enzootic bovine leukosis in Japan. (United States)

    Matsumura, Keiko; Inoue, Emi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been increasing yearly in Japan although several European countries have successfully eradicated the infection. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis on the env gene obtained from 64 tumor samples found in different regions in Japan was carried out in order to define the genetic background of BLV strains prevailing in the country. Most of the Japanese isolates were found to reside in the consensus cluster or genotype 1 of BLV strains (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Out of them, 21 isolates and 10 isolates exhibited the identical sequences, respectively. Only one isolate was classified into the different genotype related to the US isolates. Analysis on the deduced amino acids of gp51 demonstrated the sequence diversity in the neutralizing domain. These data may indicate that two major populations of BLV prevailed throughout Japan, whereas antigenic variants also exist. It was further proved that multiple invasion of the genetically different BLV strains have occurred in Japan.

  5. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham


    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  6. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  7. Effects of bovine somatotropin administration on growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of replacement beef heifers. (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Francisco, C L; Marques, R S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H


    This experiment compared growth, body composition, plasma IGF-I and leptin, and reproductive development of beef heifers receiving or not recombinant bovine ST (BST) beginning after weaning until the first breeding season. Fifty Angus × Hereford heifers (initial BW = 219 ± 2 kg; initial age = 208 ± 2 d), weaned at approximately 6 mo of age, were assigned to the experiment (d 0 to 210). On d 0, heifers were ranked by initial BW and age and assigned to 1) treatment with BST or 2) saline control. Heifers assigned to the BST treatment received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections containing 250 mg of sometribove zinc whereas control heifers received a 5-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% saline every 14 d. Treatments were initiated on d 14 and last administered on d 196. Heifers were maintained on separate pastures harvested for hay the previous summer according to treatment and received grass and alfalfa hay at a rate to provide a daily amount of 7.0 and 1.0 kg of DM per heifer, respectively. Heifer shrunk BW was collected on d 1 and 211 for heifer ADG calculation. Blood samples were collected weekly from d 0 to 210 for determination of plasma progesterone to estimate puberty attainment as well as plasma concentrations of IGF-I and leptin in selected samples. On d 0, 63, 133, and 189, heifers were evaluated for intramuscular marbling, LM depth, and backfat thickness via real-time ultrasonography. No treatment effects were detected (P = 0.27) for heifer ADG (0.49 vs. 0.51 kg/d for control and BST heifers, respectively; SEM = 0.02). Mean backfat thickness was lesser (P plasma IGF-I concentrations compared with control cohorts 7 d after treatment administration (treatment × day interaction; P plasma leptin concentrations were lesser (P = 0.05) in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (1.82 vs. 2.03 ng/mL, respectively; SEM = 0.07). Onset of puberty was hastened in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (treatment × day interaction; P = 0.04). In summary, a greater

  8. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle. (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar


    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  9. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi


    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  11. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M


    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  12. SVSCf plasma desorption mass spectrometry: recent advances and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamensky, I.; Craig, A.G.


    SVSCf plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) as utilized in the BIO-ION instruments is described. The sensitivity of the technique is investigated for varying amounts of bovine insulin. The results show accurate mass assignment for pmole amounts of sample. Several methods, currently used for sample preparation in PDMS, are described. Spectra of the antibiotic nisin using two different sample preparation techniques show significant variation. The fragmentation pattern of reduced acetylated maltoheptaose is also presented. The initial results obtained using a new PDMS instrument equipped with variable flight path are shown. The increased resolution is illustrated using the extended flight path to measure the molecular ion region of the maltoheptaose.

  13. Solvent Binding Analysis and Computational Alanine Scanning of the Bovine Chymosin-Bovine κ-Casein Complex Using Molecular Integral Equation Theory. (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Sørensen, Jesper; Schiøtt, Birgit; Fedorov, Maxim V


    We demonstrate that the relative binding thermodynamics of single-point mutants of a model protein-peptide complex (the bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex) can be calculated accurately and efficiently using molecular integral equation theory. The results are shown to be in good overall agreement with those obtained using implicit continuum solvation models. Unlike the implicit continuum models, however, molecular integral equation theory provides useful information about the distribution of solvent density. We find that experimentally observed water-binding sites on the surface of bovine chymosin can be identified quickly and accurately from the density distribution functions computed by molecular integral equation theory. The bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex is of industrial interest because bovine chymosin is widely used to cleave bovine κ-casein and to initiate milk clotting in the manufacturing of processed dairy products. The results are interpreted in light of the recent discovery that camel chymosin is a more efficient clotting agent than bovine chymosin for bovine milk.

  14. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.


    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  15. An immunochemical assay to detect DNA damage in bovine sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Haring, R.; Dijk- Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Daas, N.H.G. den


    An immunochemical assay has been developed to detect oxidative damage in bovine sperm DNA. Sperm DNA contains a large amount of oxidative damage as a result of exposure to exogenous agents, but damage also can caused by normal metabolic processes and the absence of DNA repair in the later stages of

  16. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI


    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  17. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés


    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)


    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  19. Propagation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, P.M.; Soda, T.; Teerds, K.J.; Mizrak, S.C.; Kant, van de H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.


    The access to sufficient numbers of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) is a prerequisite for the study of their regulation and further biomanipulation. A specialized medium and several growth factors were tested to study the in vitro behaviour of bovine type A spermatogonia, a cell population that incl

  20. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis (United States)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  1. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  2. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.


    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  3. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland. (United States)

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof


    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  4. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S


    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three ...

  5. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions. (United States)

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong


    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  6. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.


    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  7. Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. (United States)

    Boukahil, Ismail; Czuprynski, Charles J


    Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation. To begin to assess this possibility, we developed an in vitro system to study biofilm formation directly on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. Using fixed primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells, we observed M. haemolytica biofilm formation after a 48h incubation period at 37°C. Addition of mucin, the main component of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract, decreased M. haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of prior viral infection of the epithelial cells on subsequent biofilm formation by M. haemolytica and found negligible effects. Utilization of this model system will provide new insights into the potential role of biofilm formation by M. haemolytica in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

  8. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.


    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was comp

  9. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a bovine serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, O V; Kristensen, A S; Rudnick, G


    . Here we report the molecular cloning of SERT from the bovine species. Translation of the nucleotide sequence revealed 44 amino acid differences compared to human SERT. When transiently expressed in HeLa cells and compared with rat and human SERTs the K(m) value for uptake was increased 2-fold. V...

  10. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure (United States)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  11. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs (United States)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  12. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin


    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  13. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter


    Murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against water-soluble somatic antigens (WSSA) and the wall fraction (WF) from Rhizopus arrhizus (Rhizopus oryzae) were produced in vitro by fusion of splenocytes from immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma X63-Ag 8.653 cells. Supernatants reacting only with h...... for the in situ diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis....

  14. Successful vitrification of bovine blastocysts on paper container. (United States)

    Kim, Y M; Uhm, S J; Gupta, M K; Yang, J S; Lim, J-G; Das, Z C; Heo, Y T; Chung, H-J; Kong, I-K; Kim, N-H; Lee, H T; Ko, D H


    Cryopreservation of bovine embryos can be performed by a variety of methods with variable degree of success. Here, we report a new, easy to perform, simple, inexpensive, and successful method for vitrification of bovine blastocysts. In vitro produced bovine blastocysts were exposed to vitrification solution (5.5 m ethylene glycol, 10% serum and 1% sucrose) in one single step for 20 s, loaded on a paper container prepared from commonly available non-slippery, absorbent writing paper, and then were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage. Vitrified blastocysts were warmed by serial rinsing in 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 m sucrose solution for 1 min each. Results showed that one step exposure of bovine blastocysts to cryoprotective agents was sufficient to achieve successful cryopreservation. Under these conditions, more than 95% of blastocysts survived the vitrification-warming on paper containers which was significantly higher than those obtained from other containers, such as electron microscope (EM) grid (78.1%), open pulled straw (OPS; 80.2%), cryoloop (76.2%) or plastic straw (73.9%). Embryo transfer of blastocysts vitrified-warmed on paper container resulted in successful conception (19.3%) and full-term live birth of offspring (12.3%) which were lower (P 0.05) to those obtained from blastocysts vitrified-warmed on EM grid (23.3 and 14.2%). Our results, therefore, suggest that paper may be an inexpensive and useful container for the cryopreservation of animal embryos.

  15. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health (United States)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  16. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.


    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein, κ-cas

  17. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  18. Mechanism of 3D domain swapping in bovine seminal ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaccini, Roberta; Ercole, Carmine; Graziano, Giuseppe; Wechselberger, Rainer; Boelens, Rolf; Picone, Delia


    3D domain swapping (3D-DS) is a complex protein aggregation process for which no unique mechanism exists. We report an analysis of 3D-DS in bovine seminal ribonuclease, a homodimeric protein whose subunits are linked by two disulfide bridges, based on NMR and biochemical studies. The presence of the

  19. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  20. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. (United States)


    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  1. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting. (United States)

    Farrugia, A


    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  2. Paradoxical relationship between atriopeptin plasma levels and diuresis-natriuresis induced by acute volume expansion.


    Sakata, M.; Greenwald, J E; Needleman, P


    Surgical removal of one or both atrial appendages was employed in rats to reduce the intrinsic stores of atriopeptin (AP). In conscious rats (with intact baroreceptor reflexes), bilateral or unilateral atrial appendectomy suppressed the diuresis and natriuresis produced by acute volume expansion. Surprisingly, volume expansion (with 4% bovine serum albumin in saline at 1.5 ml/kg per min for 15 min) did not result in an increase in plasma AP immunoreactivity (APir) in control or atrial-appende...

  3. Sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos by oligonucleotide microarray. (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Zhong, Fagang; Yang, Yonglin; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Shouren; Zhu, Bin


    The aim has been to set up a rapid and accurate microarray assay using sandwich mode for sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos. Twelve sequence-specific oligonucleotide capture probes used to discriminate 12 samples were spotted onto the aldehyde-modified glass slides by Arrayer. The 2 recognition probes used to identify coding regions of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) and β-casein (CSN2) reference gene were coupled with biotin. The assay was optimized by using genomic DNA extracted from blood samples of known sex individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the fragments in the HMG box region of SRY gene and CSN2 gene with sequence-specific primers. The sex of samples was identified by detecting both the SRY and CSN2 genes simultaneously in 2 reaction cells of microarrays, with the male having SRY and CSN2 signals and the female only CSN2. The sex of 20 bovine preimplantation embryos was determined by oligonucleotide microarray. The protocol was run with a blind test that showed a 100% (82/82) specificity and accuracy in sexing of leukocytes. The bovine embryos were transferred into 20 bovine recipients, with a pregnant rate of 40% (8/20). Three calves were born at term, and 5 fetuses were miscarried. Their sexes were fully in accordance with the embryonic sex predetermination predicted by oligonucleotide microarray. This suggests that the oligonucleotide microarray method of SRY gene analysis can be used in early sex prediction of bovine embryos in breeding programs.

  4. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E


    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  5. Histamine receptors in isolated bovine oviductal arteries. (United States)

    Martínez, A C; Novella, S; Raposo, R; Recio, P; Labadía, A; Costa, G; Garcia-Sacristán, A; Benedito, S


    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of histamine on isolated rings of bovine oviductal artery and to characterize the histamine receptors involved in the histamine-induced response. Endothelial dependence of the response was also investigated. Cumulative addition of histamine and 2-pyridylethylamine (histamine H receptor agonist) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in intact arterial segments precontracted with noradrenaline. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine showed non-competitive antagonism in the histamine-induced concentration-response curve. However, when the response to histamine was evaluated in the presence of mepyramine and histamine H1 and H3 receptors were blocked, Schild analysis yielded a line with a slope of 1.10 and a pA2 value of 8.91, indicating simple competitive antagonism of mepyramine at histamine H1 receptor sites. The histamine H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, caused marked dilatation only at high doses. Cimetidine, propranolol and mepyramine failed to inhibit this relaxant effect. In precontracted oviductal arteries, cimetidine did not modify the histamine-induced concentration-response curves. Combined treatment with histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists did not induce an additional displacement with respect to the isolated effect of mepyramine thus excluding activation of histamine H2 receptors. Histamine and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective histamine H3 receptor agonist, produced a moderate contractile effect on the resting tone of preparations. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist decreased the (R)-alpha-methylhistamine response but increased the maximal relaxant effect and abolished the contractile effect of histamine, suggesting the presence of a limited population of contractile histamine H3 receptors. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with methylene blue produced a significant inhibition of the relaxant response to histamine. Remaining

  6. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I


    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  7. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert


    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leu

  8. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M


    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  9. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.


    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions fro

  10. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1. (United States)

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C


    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens.

  11. Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation. (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador


    Femtosecond lasers have been widely used in laser surgery as an instrument for contact-free tissue removal of hard dental, restorative materials, and osseous tissues, complementing conventional drilling or cutting tools. In order to obtain a laser system that provides an ablation efficiency comparable to mechanical instruments, the laser pulse rate must be maximal without causing thermal damage. The aim of this study was to compare the different morphological characteristics of the hard tissue after exposure to lasers operating in the femtosecond pulse regime. Two different kinds of samples were irradiated: dentin from human extracted teeth and bovine femur samples. Different procedures were applied, while paying special care to preserving the structures. The incubation factor S was calculated to be 0.788±0.004 for the bovine femur bone. These results indicate that the incubation effect is still substantial during the femtosecond laser ablation of hard tissues. The plasma-induced ablation has reduced side effects, i.e., we observe less thermal and mechanical damage when using a superficial femtosecond laser irradiation close to the threshold conditions. In the femtosecond regime, the morphology characteristics of the cavity were strongly influenced by the change of the effective number of pulses.

  12. Fibrinolysis inhibitors in plaque stability: a morphological association of PAI-1 and TAFI in advanced carotid plaque. (United States)

    Jönsson Rylander, A-C; Lindgren, A; Deinum, J; Bergström, G M L; Böttcher, G; Kalies, I; Wåhlander, K


    Essentials Fibrinolysis inhibitors are localized in advanced atheroma by immunohistology of endarterectomies. Neovascular endothelium/neocapillaries show thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Macrophage areas show free plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), notably in the vulnerable part. Free PAI-1 and TAFI stabilize active plaque area by inhibition of fibrinolysis and inflammation.

  13. TAFI deficiency promotes liver damage in murine models of liver failure through defective down-regulation of hepatic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Greg C. G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Porte, Robert J.; Lisman, Ton


    Emerging evidence indicates that various haemostatic components can regulate the progression of liver disease. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) possesses anti-inflammatory properties besides its anti-fibrinolytic function. Here, we investigated the contribution of TAFI to the progr

  14. A comparative study of Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll separation techniques on sperm quality and IVF results for cryopreserved bovine semen (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Lee; Kim, Sue-Hee; Ji, Dong-Beom


    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of spermatozoa separation techniques on sperm quality and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) results for cryopreserved bovine semen. Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll gradient separation techniques were used for sperm separation and sperm motility, morphology and membrane integrity were evaluated before and after separation. Also, cleavage and blastocyst developmental rate were investigated after IVF with sperm recovered by each separation technique. The motility of samples obtained by the three separation techniques were greater compared to the control samples (p < 0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma-membrane integrity, identified by 6-carboxyfluoresceindiacetate/propidium iodide fluorescent staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, was highest in the glass wool filtration samples (p < 0.05). The cleavage and blastocyst rate of total oocytes produced from glass wool filtration samples were also higher than the control and Sephadex filtration samples (p < 0.05), but were not significantly different from Percoll separation samples. However, a significantly greater number of cleaved embryos produced by glass wool filtration developed to blastocyst stage than those produced by Percoll separation (p < 0.05). These results indicate that spermatozoa with good quality can be achieved by these three separation techniques and can be used for bovine IVF. In particular, it suggests that glass wool filtration would be the most effective method of the three for improving sperm quality and embryo production for cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. PMID:19687626

  15. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi


    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  16. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.


    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum...

  17. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  18. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San


    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  19. Effects of bovine serum albumin on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. (United States)

    Zhang, X-G; Yan, G-J; Hong, J-Y; Su, Z-Z; Yang, G-S; Li, Q-W; Hu, J-H


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/l) of BSA, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analysed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 3, 4 and 5 g/l BSA could improve boar sperm motility, effective survival time and plasma membrane integrity (p sperm acrosome integrity and T-AOC activity among these three groups (p > 0.05). The semen sample diluted with Modena containing 4 g/l BSA could achieve optimum effect, and sperm survival time was 7.5 days. After 7 days preservation, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were 54%, 49% and 78%, respectively. T-AOC activity and MDA content were 1.03 U/ml and 17.5 nmol/ml, respectively. In conclusion, Modena supplemented with BSA reduced the oxidative stress and improved the sperm quality of boar semen during liquid storage at 17°C, and 4 g/l BSA was the optimum concentration. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacities of BSA in liquid preserved boar semen.

  20. Effect of exogenous circulating anti-bPL antibodies on bovine placental lactogen measurements in foetal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taverne Marcel AM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The involvement of placental lactogen (PL in the regulation of foetal growth has been investigated in different species by in vivo immunomodulation techniques. However, when circulating antibodies are present together with the hormone, the procedure for hormonal measurement becomes considerably complex. The aim of this study was the immunoneutralization of bovine placental lactogen (bPL concentrations in bovine foetal circulation by direct infusion of rabbit anti-bPL purified immunoglobulins (IgG via a foetal catheter (in vivo study. The ability of a RIA based on guinea pig anti-bPL antiserum, for the measurement of bPL concentrations in samples containing exogenous rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulins, was also analyzed in in vitro and in vivo conditions. Methods Six bovine foetuses were chronic cannulated on the aorta via the medial tarsal artery. Infusion of rabbit anti-bPL IgG was performed during late gestation. Pooled rabbit anti-bPL antisera had a maximal neutralization capacity of 25 μg bPL/mL of immunoglobulin. Interference of rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulin with radioimmunoassay measurement using guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antibody was first evaluated in vitro. Polyclonal anti-bPL antibodies raised in rabbit were added in foetal sera to produce 100 samples with known antibodies titers (dilutions ranging from 1:2,500 till 1:1,280,000. Result(s Assessment of the interference of rabbit anti-bPL antibody showed that bPL concentrations were significantly lower (P Conclusion(s The use of a bPL RIA using a guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antiserum allowed for the measurement of bPL concentrations in foetal plasma in presence of rabbit anti-bPL IgG into the foetal circulation. Long-term foetal catheterization allowed for the study of the influence of direct infusion of anti-bPL IgG on peripheral bPL concentrations in bovine foetuses.

  1. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)


    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  2. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics. (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu


    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches.

  3. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton


    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  4. Volatile compounds in the thermoplastic extrusion of bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conti e Silva


    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of raw and extruded bovine rumen, extracted by dynamic headspace, were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS. Raw and extruded materials presented thirty-two volatile compounds. The following compounds were identified in raw bovine rumen: heptane, 1-heptene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, hexanal, ethyl butyrate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, heptanal, limonene, nonanal, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane and octadecane. The following compounds were identified in the extruded material: 1-heptene, 2,4-dimethylhexane, toluene, limonene, undecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane and nonadecane. Mass spectra of some unidentified compounds indicated the presence of hydrocarbons with branched chains or cyclic structure.

  5. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan


    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  6. Depletion of TGF-β from fetal bovine serum. (United States)

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L


    TGF-β is one of the key cytokines controlling immune responses. Measuring TGF-β from culture supernatants in vitro is an important index of immune function. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high level of latent TGF-β that often hampers measuring T cell-derived TGF-β in culture using FBS-supplemented medium. In this report, we generated anti-latency associated peptide (LAP) monoclonal antibodies which cross-react with bovine LAP, and developed a protocol to deplete TGF-β from FBS. This provides the ability to reliably quantify TGF-β in vitro without relying on serum-free media which do not support growth of murine T cells.

  7. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  8. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food? (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J


    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  9. Genotypification of bovine group A rotavirus in México. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A


    Bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. Nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in Mexico. This information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. In this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of Mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group A rotavirus. G and P genotypes were determined by PCR in rotavirus-positive samples (12/128). Three different genotype combinations were found, G10, P[11]; G6, P[5]; and G10, P[5]; in 67, 25 and 8% of the positive samples, respectively. Some rotavirus-positive animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus strain of a different genotype.

  10. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC


    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  11. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells. (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H


    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  12. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of solutions exposed to cold atmospheric plasma. (United States)

    Boehm, Daniela; Heslin, Caitlin; Cullen, Patrick J; Bourke, Paula


    The exposure of aqueous solutions to atmospheric plasmas results in the generation of relatively long-lived secondary products such as hydrogen peroxide which are biologically active and have demonstrated anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity. The use of plasma-activated solutions in applications such as microbial decontamination or anti-cancer treatments requires not only adequate performance on target cells but also a safe operating window regarding the impact on surrounding tissues. Furthermore the generation of plasma-activated fluids needs to be considered as a by-stander effect of subjecting tissue to plasma discharges. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays using mammalian cell lines were used to elucidate the effects of solutions treated with di-electric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma. Plasma-treated PBS inhibited cell growth in a treatment time-dependent manner showing a linear correlation to the solutions' peroxide concentration which remained stable over several weeks. Plasma-treated foetal bovine serum (FBS) acting as a model for complex bio-fluids showed not only cytotoxic effects but also exhibited increased mutagenic potential as determined using the mammalian HPRT assay. Further studies are warranted to determine the nature, causes and effects of the cyto- and genotoxic potential of solutions exposed to plasma discharges to ensure long-term safety of novel plasma applications in medicine and healthcare.

  13. Soluble Proteins Form Film by the Treatment of Low Temperature Plasma (United States)

    Ikehara, Sanae; Sakakita, Hajime; Ishikawa, Kenji; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hori, Masaru; Ikehara, Yuzuru


    It has been pointed out that low temperature plasma in atmosphere was feasible to use for hemostasis without heat injury. Indeed, earlier studies demonstrated that low temperature plasma played an important role to stimulate platelets to aggregate and turned on the proteolytic activities of coagulation factors, resulting in the acceleration of the natural blood coagulation process. On the other hands, our developed equips could immediately form clots upon the contact with plasma flair, while the histological appearance was different from natural coagulation. Based on these findings in formed clots, we sought to determine if plasma flair supplied by our devices was capable of forming film using a series of soluble proteins Following plasma treatment, films were formed from bovine serum albumin, and the other plasma proteins at physiological concentration. Analysis of trans-electron microscope demonstrated that plasma treatment generated small protein particles and made them fuse to be larger aggregations The combined results demonstrated that plasma are capable of aggregating soluble proteins and that platelets and coagulation factors are not necessary for plasma induced blood coagulation. Supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area (21590454, 24590498, and 24108006 to Y. I.).

  14. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  15. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis. (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N


    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  16. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle



    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...

  17. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis



    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  18. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.


    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  19. Residual stress around the cortical surface in bovine femoral diaphysis. (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Tadano, Shigeru


    Residual stress in living tissue plays an important role in mechanical strength. We have reported that residual stress exists in the bone tissue of a rabbit's tibiofibula. The purpose of this study is to measure the residual stress around the outer cortical region of bovine femoral diaphysis and to discuss the distribution of the stress. This work proposed the sin(2) psi method of X-ray diffraction to the measurement of residual stresses in bone tissue. In this method, residual stress can be estimated from the variation in the interplanar spacings orientated to a number of directions without the lattice strain in the stress direction. Four-point bending tests of strip specimens taken from bovine femoral diaphysis were carried out during X-ray irradiation in advance. In the proximal, middle, and distal sections of bovine femoral diaphyses, the residual stresses at the cortical surface were measured using characteristic Mo-Kalpha X-rays. The bending tests of strip specimens with X-ray irradiation showed that the method could reliably estimate residual stresses in the bone tissue. The residual stress of the bone axial direction was larger than that of the circumferential direction. The stresses in the middle part of five diaphyses along the bone axial direction were tensile. The maximum stress was 162 MPa at the lateral position and the minimum was 78 MPa at the posterior position. The residual stress in the bone axial direction varies around the circumferential region. In addition, the bone axial distributions of residual stresses were different in the proximal, middle, and distal sections of the individual femur. Furthermore, it was confirmed that residual stress in the bone tissue was released by the cutting out of the specimen. The residual stresses in bone tissue could be measured by this method. The results show that residual stress in the bone axial direction at the cortical surface in bovine femoral diaphysis is tensile and varies around the circumferential

  20. Susceptibilities of bovine summer mastitis bacteria to antimicrobial agents.


    Jousimies-Somer, H; Pyörälä, S.; Kanervo, A


    The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents of 32 aerobic bacterial isolates and to 10 antimicrobial agents of 37 anaerobic bacterial isolates from 23 cases of bovine summer mastitis (16 Actinomyces pyogenes isolates, 8 Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates, 3 S. uberis isolates, 3 S. acidominimus isolates, 2 Streptococcus spp., 15 Peptostreptococcus indolicus isolates, 10 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates, and 12 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative rods) was determined by the agar dilution m...

  1. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri


    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  2. Price transmission in the Spanish bovine sector: the BSE effect



    A regime-switching vector error correction model is applied to monthly price data to assess the impact of BSE outbreaks on price relationships and patterns of transmission among farm and retail markets for bovine in Spain. To evaluate the degree to which price transmission is affected by BSE food scares, a BSE food scare index is developed and used to determine regime-switching. Results suggest that BSE scares affect beef producers and retailers differently. Consumer prices are found to be we...

  3. Original findings associated with two cases of bovine papular stomatitis. (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Martinelle, L; Gallina, L; Mast, J; Sarradin, P; Thiry, E; Scagliarini, A; Büttner, M; Saegerman, C


    Bovine papular stomatitis virus was isolated from two calves in an animal house with biosafety level 3 confinement. The hypotheses on the origin of the infection, the interesting features of the partial amino acid sequences of the major envelope viral protein, and the importance of diagnostic tools available for animal diseases that are not listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) are discussed.

  4. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs


    McEwan John C; Brauning Rudiger; McWilliam Sean; Barris Wesley; Ratnakumar Abhirami; Snelling Warren M; Dalrymple Brian P


    Abstract Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in...

  5. Die Immunantwort boviner und capriner Euterepithelzellen auf verschiedene Mastitiserreger



    Infections of the bovine mammary gland are, in addition to the affliction of the animals, a great economic burden in the dairy industry. A better understanding of the innate immune response of the host could lead to a better selection of mastitis resistant cows or to better prophylactic and therapeutical treatments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the epithelial cells into the outcome of mastitis induced by different pathogens. Primary epithelial cell ...

  6. Development of a laboratory animal model for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Chandler, R L; Turfrey, B A; Smith, K


    Guinea pigs, gerbils, voles, golden hamsters and Chinese hamsters exposed to experimental infection with Moraxella bovis by ocular instillation or associated routes showed transient infections only and no clinical signs. Five strains of mice were of similarly low susceptibility but another, the C57 Bl strain, was relatively susceptible and treatment with corticosteroid before infection regularly produced keratoconjunctivitis. This system therefore offers a promising model for studies on infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

  7. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun


    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  8. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study (United States)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana


    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  9. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis. (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir


    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of the bovine Mx1 promoter. (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Takasuga, Akiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa


    The bovine Mx1 promoter region was found to contain 4 IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs), 7 GC boxes, 2 IL-6 responsive elements, 2 NFκB-binding sites and 2 AP-1-binding sites. Among Holstein, Charolai, and Brahman breeds, 5 nucleotide substitutions were detected in the promoter region. After the Mx1 promoter region from Holstein had been constructed with pGL-basic expression vector, the transfected cells showed promoter activity after IFN induction. Several artificial deletion mutants were prepared to determine the important regulatory elements responsible for the promoter activity, and it was found that ISRE has a key function in IFN response. The proximal ISRE1 showed potential induction by IFN. Furthermore, the proximal GC boxes were found to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 promoter with the deletion mutants. In this case, the 2 GC boxes exhibited a synergistic activation in the IFN response. Mithramycin A, an agent that inhibits gene expression selectively by coating GC boxes, was used, and Mx mRNA expression in MDBK cells was suppressed by this chemical. Therefore, GC boxes were also shown to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 gene.

  11. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  12. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  13. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N


    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono


    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  15. Evaluation of immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum using laser induced fluorescence. (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Abdel Ghany, Sh; Harith, M A


    The objective of the present study was to exploit laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a spectrochemical analytical technique for evaluation of immunoglobulin (IgG) in bovine colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected from different American Holstein cows at different times after calving. Four samples were gathered from each cow; the first three samples were obtained from the first three milkings (colostrum) and the fourth sample (milk) was obtained a week after calving. It has been demonstrated that LIF can be used as a simple, fast, sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analytical technique for qualitative estimation of IgG in colostrum. LIF results have been confirmed via the quantitative evaluation of IgG in the same samples adopting the single radial immunodiffusion conventional technique and a very good agreement has been obtained. Through LIF it was possible to evaluate bovine colostrum after different milking times and to differentiate qualitatively between colostrum from different animals which may reflect their general health status. A fluorescence linear calibration curve for IgG concentrations from 0 up to 120 g L(-1) has been obtained. In addition, it is feasible to adopt this technique for in situ measurements, i.e. in dairy cattle farms as a simple and fast method for evaluation of IgG in bovine colostrum instead of using lengthy and complicated conventional techniques in laboratories.

  16. Cross-reactivity of human and bovine antibodies in striped dolphin paraffin wax-embedded tissues. (United States)

    Jaber, J R; Fernández, A; Herráez, P; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Ramírez, G A; García, P M; Fernández, T; Arbelo, M; Pérez, J


    This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of seven anti-human and one anti-bovine antibodies in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of liver and mesenteric lymph nodes of 13 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Four antibodies (CD3, IgG, lysozyme and S100 protein) reacted with striped dolphin lymph nodes in a similar pattern to that observed in the species of origin. The anti-human MHC class II mAb reacted strongly with macrophages and dendritic-like cells of striped dolphins, whereas a small number of lymphocytes were labelled with this antibody. These antibodies were used to study the immunophenotype of the inflammatory infiltrated in non-specific chronic reactive hepatitis (eight cases) and chronic parasite cholangitis (two cases) and normal liver (three cases) of striped dolphins. Non-specific chronic reactive hepatitis was composed of inflammatory infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG+ plasma cells in portal spaces and hepatic sinusoids. Lymphonodular aggregates observed in chronic parasitic cholangitis showed a cellular distribution similar to that found in lymph node cortex, including the presence of S100+ and MHC class II+ dendritic-like cells in lymphoid follicles and interfollicular areas. This result suggests that those inflammatory infiltrates are highly organised to enhance antigen presentation to B and T cells.

  17. A fucose-containing O-glycoepitope on bovine and human nucleolin. (United States)

    Aldi, Silvia; Della Giovampaola, Cinzia; Focarelli, Riccardo; Armini, Alessandro; Ziche, Marina; Finetti, Federica; Rosati, Floriana


    In this paper, we demonstrate the existence and localization of fucosyl-containing O-glycoforms of nucleolin in cultured bovine endothelial cells (CVEC) and malignant cultured human A431 cells. The tool for this discovery was an antibody raised against gp273, a glycoprotein ligand for the sperm-egg interaction in the mollusc bivalve Unio elongatulus. The function and immunological properties of gp273 mainly depend on clustered Lewis-like, fucose-containing O-glycans. Here an anti-gp273 antibody was used to evaluate whether glycoepitopes similar to those of gp273 are part of potential ligands of selectins in endothelial cells. We found that anti-gp273 strongly and exclusively interacted with a 110 kDa protein in CVEC and A431 tumor cells. After partial purification, mass spectrometry identified the protein as nucleolin. This was confirmed by comparing anti-gp273 and anti-nucleolin antibody immunoblotting after nucleolin depletion. We confirmed that anti-gp273 binding to nuclear and extranuclear nucleolin was against a fucose-containing O-glycoepitope by immunoblot analysis of the protein after chemically removing O-glycans and by lectin-blot analysis of control and nucleolin-depleted samples. Using anti-gp273 IgG, we detected nucleolin on the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. O-Glycosylation may regulate the plethora of functions in which nucleolin is involved.

  18. Investigation on the interaction between bovine serum albumin and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangrong [Department of Chemistry, School of Basic Medicine, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003 (China); Chen, Dejun; Wang, Gongke [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, 46 Jian-she Road, Mu Ye District, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Lu, Yan, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, 46 Jian-she Road, Mu Ye District, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)


    Albumin represents a very abundant and important circulating antioxidant in plasma. In this paper, the ability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical has been investigated using UV–vis absorption spectra. The result shows that the antioxidant activity of BSA against DPPH radical is similar to glutathione and the value of IC{sub 50} is 5.153×10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}. The interaction between BSA and DPPH has been investigated without or with the eight popular antioxidants (L-ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, melatonin, (+)-catechin hydrate, procyanidine B3, β-carotene and astaxanthin) by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The fluorescence experiments show that DPPH quenches the fluorescence intensity of BSA through a static mechanism. The quenching process of DPPH with BSA is easily affected by the eight antioxidants, however, they cannot change the quenching mechanism of DPPH with BSA. Additionally, as shown by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and CD, DPPH may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of BSA. - Highlights: • The antioxidant activity of BSA against DPPH is similar to glutathione. • DPPH can quench the fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching. • One molecule of DPPH radical reduced by one molecule of BSA. • The eight antioxidants cannot change the quenching mechanism of DPPH with BSA. • The binding parameters are decreased by the introduction of the eight antioxidants.

  19. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality? (United States)

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F


    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  20. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  1. Rat plasma high-molecular-weight kininogen. A simple method for purification and its characterization. (United States)

    Hayashi, I; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S; Oh-ishi, S


    High-molecular-weight kininogen has been isolated from rat plasma in three steps in a relatively high yield. The purified preparation gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence and presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, and the apparent Mr was estimated as 100,000. On incubation with rat plasma kallikrein, rat high Mr kininogen yielded a kinin-free protein consisting of a heavy chain (Mr = 64,000) and a light chain (Mr = 46,000), liberating bradykinin. The kinin-free protein was S-alkylated, and its heavy and light chains were separated by a zinc-chelating Sepharose 6B column. The amino acid compositions of rat high Mr kininogen and its heavy and light chains were very similar to those of bovine high Mr kininogen and its heavy and fragment 1.2-light chains, respectively. A high histidine content in the light chain of rat high Mr kininogen indicated the presence of a histidine-rich region in this protein as in bovine high Mr kininogen, although this region was not cleaved by rat plasma kallikrein. Rat high Mr kininogen corrected to normal values the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of Brown-Norway Katholiek rat plasma known to be deficient in high Mr kininogen and of Fitzgerald trait plasma. The kinin-free protein had the same correcting activity as intact high Mr kininogen. Rat high Mr kininogen also accelerated approximately 10-fold the surface-dependent activation of rat factor XII and prekallikrein, which was mediated with kaolin, amylose sulfate, and sulfatide. These results indicate that rat high Mr kininogen is quite similar to human and bovine high Mr kininogens in terms of biochemical and functional properties.

  2. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard


    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  3. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch (United States)


    an electron-ion pair in the discharge. Fig. 2. EEDF is non - Maxwellian and changes along the plasma column The electron–neutral collision...plasma radius. Even at atmospheric pressure the EEDF is non - Maxwellian and it is changing along the plasma column. ...18 31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain EEDF usually strongly differs from Maxwellian and chages along the plasma column (this is

  4. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Stefan [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hächler, Herbert [University of Zürich, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, National Centre for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Hilbi, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Max von Pettenkofer-Institut, D-80336 München (Germany); Frey, Joachim [University of Bern, Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato, E-mail: [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: • Degradation of environmental toxins, a protein, and bioparticles were studied. • A commercial air purifier based on a cold plasma was used. • Passage through the device reduced the concentration of the compounds/particles. • Deposition inside the plasma air purifier was the main removal process. -- Abstract: Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds–environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)–in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0 m s{sup −1} (3200 L min{sup −1}), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10 L min{sup −1}. Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10 Hz or 50 Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative “degradation” efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.

  5. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome. (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E


    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) ( The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  6. Cell Infectivity in relation to bovine leukemia virus gp51 and p24 in bovine milk exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Yamada

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exosomes and BLV in bovine milk. BLV structural proteins, gp51 (Env and p24 (Gag, were detected in bovine milk exosomes from BLV-infected cattle by Western blot analysis. In cells inoculated with these milk exosomes, BLV DNA was not detected during three serial passages by nested PCR. Purification of exosomes from persistently BLV-infected cells was achieved by immuno-magnetic separation using an antibody against exosomes coupled to magnetic beads. Consistently, BLV gp51 and p24 proteins were detected in purified exosomes. Moreover, reverse transcriptase activity was observed in purified exosomes, meaning that exosomes also contain viral enzyme. However, BLV DNA was not detected in serially passaged cells after inoculation of purified exosomes, indicating that exosomes carrying BLV proteins appeared to be not infectious. These results suggest that BLV proteins are released with milk exosomes and could be transferred into recipient cells of calves via milk exosomes as an alternative route not requiring virus infection. Moreover it is also possible that bovine milk exosomes play a role in clearance of BLV proteins from infected cells.

  7. The Plasma Universe (United States)

    Suplee, Curt


    Preface; 1. The fourth state of matter; 2. The music and dance of plasmas; 3. The Sun-Earth connection; 4. Bringing the Sun to Earth: the story of controlled thermonuclear fusion; 5. The cosmic plasma theater: galaxies, stars, and accretion disks; 6. Putting plasmas to work; Index.

  8. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura


    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  9. Plasma in dentistry


    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok


    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  10. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G


    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  11. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry


    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  12. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder


    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  13. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis


    Miura, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi


    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with ...

  14. Plasma Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Diwan


    Full Text Available Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms. Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.

  15. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike


    In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  16. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.


    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  17. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R


    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  18. Assessment of bovine spermatozoa viability using different cooling protocols prior to cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo B.D. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of different cooling rates on the post-thawing quality of bovine spermatozoa. Ejaculated semen from a 24-month-old Jersey bull was collected using an artificial vagina and diluted in a commercial extender to evaluate spermatozoan concentration and motility subjectively before cooling and freezing and after thawing. Straws were allocated to four cooling curves: rapid (RD, semi-rapid (SRD, semi-slow (SSLW and slow (SLW. The temperature was decreased from 25ºC to 4ºC in 10, 50, 110 and 135 min, which represents a cooling rate of 2.06, 0.40, 0.18 and 0.15ºC/min, respectively. Then straws were frozen and stored at -196ºC. After thawing, one aliquot of each straw was used for evaluation. Spermatozoan integrity and mitochondrial function were evaluated using a combination of fluorescent probes containing 100 mg/mL FITC-PSA, 0.5 μg/mL PI and 153 μM JC-1. At the end of cooling, spermatozoan motility did not differ among RD (63.3%, SRD (66.7%, SSLW (66.7% and SLW (80.0%. However, normal spermatozoan morphology was lower in SRD (84.8% compared to RD (91.7%, SSLW (91.7% and SLW (90.3% (P<0.05. In thawed semen, spermatozoan motility and normal morphology did not differ among RD (40.0%; 88.8%, SRD (43.3%; 82.5%, SSLW (40.0%; 87.2% and SLW (36.7%; 88.0%. The percentage of damaged spermatozoa, including plasma and acrosome membrane damage and low mitochondrial potential, was higher in RD compared to the others (P<0.05. In conclusion, a rapid cooling curve is detrimental to the spermatozoa and affects the post-thaw spermatozoan integrity of bovine frozen semen.

  19. Plasmas for medicine (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.


    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  20. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke


    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  1. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.


    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  2. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Nair


    Full Text Available Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.

  3. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery (United States)

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant


    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA. PMID:26529005

  4. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant


    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.

  5. Plasma detachment in linear devices (United States)

    Ohno, N.


    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  6. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi


    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  7. Regulatory microRNA network identification in bovine blastocyst development. (United States)

    Goossens, Karen; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Van Poucke, Mario; Van Zeveren, Alex; Van Soom, Ann; Vandesompele, Jo; Peelman, Luc


    Mammalian blastocyst formation is characterized by two lineage segregations resulting in the formation of the trophectoderm, the hypoblast, and the epiblast cell lineages. Cell fate determination during these early lineage segregations is associated with changes in the expression of specific transcription factors. In addition to the transcription factor-based control, it has become clear that also microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation of pluripotency and differentiation. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in early lineage segregation, we compared the miRNA expression in early bovine blastocysts with the more advanced stage of hatched blastocysts. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR-based miRNA expression profiling revealed eight upregulated miRNAs (miR-127, miR-130a, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-203, miR-28, miR-29c, and miR-376a) and four downregulated miRNAs (miR-135a, miR-218, miR-335, and miR-449b) in hatched blastocysts. Through an integrative analysis of matching miRNA and mRNA expression data, candidate miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs were prioritized for validation. Using an in vitro luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed a direct interaction between miR-218 and CDH2, miR-218 and NANOG, and miR-449b and NOTCH1. By interfering with the FGF signaling pathway, we found functional evidence that miR-218, mainly expressed in the inner cell mass, regulates the NANOG expression in the bovine blastocyst in response to FGF signaling. The results of this study expand our knowledge about the miRNA signature of the bovine blastocyst and of the interactions between miRNAs and cell fate regulating transcription factors.

  8. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function. (United States)

    Siqueira, Adriano F P; Maria, Fernanda S; Mendes, Camilla M; Hamilton, Thais R S; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Dreyer, Thiago R; da Silva, Herculano M; Nichi, Marcilio; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Visintin, José A; Assumpção, Mayra E O A


    Fertilization rates and subsequent embryo development rely on sperm factors related to semen quality and viability. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is based on emission of electromagnetic waves of a laser optical system that interact with cells and tissues resulting in biological effects. This interaction is mediated by photoacceptors that absorb the electromagnetic energy. Effects are dependent of irradiation parameters, target cell type, and species. In sperm, PBMT improves several features like motility and viability, affecting sperm aerobic metabolism and energy production. The aim of this study was to investigate, under same conditions, how different output powers (5, 7.5, and 10 mW) and time of irradiation (5 and 10 min) of laser (He-Ne laser, 633 nm) may affect frozen/thawed bovine sperm functions. Results showed significant effects depending on power while using 10 min of irradiation on motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. However, no effect was observed using 5 min of irradiation, regardless of power applied. In conclusion, PBMT is effective to modulate bovine sperm function. The effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between power applied and duration of irradiation, showing that these two parameters simultaneously influence sperm function. In this context, when using the same fluency and energy with different combinations of power and time of exposure, we observed distinct effects, revealing that biological effects should be also based on simple parameters rather than only composite parameters such as fluency, irradiance and energy. Laser irradiation of frozen/thawed bovine semen led to an increase on mitochondrial function and motility parameters that could potentially improve fertility rates.

  9. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski


    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  10. MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham C. Gilchrist


    Full Text Available Successful fertilization and subsequent embryo development rely on complex molecular processes starting with the development of oocyte competence through maturation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as gene regulators in many biological systems, including the oocyte and embryo. In order to further explore the roles of miRNAs in oocyte maturation, we employed small RNA sequencing as a screening tool to identify and characterize miRNA populations present in pools of bovine germinal vesicle (GV oocytes, metaphase II (MII oocytes, and presumptive zygotes (PZ. Each stage contained a defined miRNA population, some of which showed stable expression while others showed progressive changes between stages that were subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bta-miR-155, bta-miR-222, bta-miR-21, bta-let-7d, bta-let-7i, and bta-miR-190a were among the statistically significant differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05. To determine whether changes in specific primary miRNA (pri-miRNA transcripts were responsible for the observed miRNA changes, we evaluated pri-miR-155, -222 and let-7d expression. Pri-miR-155 and -222 were not detected in GV oocytes but pri-miR-155 was present in MII oocytes, indicating transcription during maturation. In contrast, levels of pri-let-7d decreased during maturation, suggesting that the observed increase in let-7d expression was likely due to processing of the primary transcript. This study demonstrates that both dynamic and stable populations of miRNAs are present in bovine oocytes and zygotes and extend previous studies supporting the importance of the small RNA landscape in the maturing bovine oocyte and early embryo.

  11. Proteome analysis of early lineage specification in bovine embryos. (United States)

    Demant, Myriam; Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J


    During mammalian embryo development, the zygote undergoes embryonic cleavage in the oviduct and reaches the uterus at the morula stage, when compaction and early lineage specification take place. To increase knowledge about the associated changes of the embryonic protein repertoire, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of in vitro produced bovine morulae and blastocysts (six biological replicates), using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 560 proteins were identified of which 502 were quantified. The abundance of 140 proteins was significantly different between morulae and blastocysts, among them nucleophosmin (NPM1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A), receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (GNB2L1/RACK1), and annexin A6 (ANXA6) with increased, and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3), peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) with decreased abundance in blastocysts. Seventy-three percent of abundance altered proteins increased, reflecting an increase of translation activity in this period. This is further supported by an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in the translation machinery and the synthesis of ATP. Additionally, a complementary 2D saturation DIGE analysis led to the detection of protein isoforms, e.g. of GSTM3 and PRDX2, relevant for this period of mammalian development, and exemplarily verified the results of the iTRAQ approach. In summary, our systematic differential proteome analysis of bovine morulae and blastocysts revealed new molecular correlates of early lineage specification and differentiation events during bovine embryogenesis.

  12. Scientific Opinion on BSE risk in bovine intestines and mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ


    Full Text Available Bovine intestines and mesenteries in the European Union (EU have to be removed from the food and feed chain. The opinion provides a quantitative assessment of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE infectious load that might enter the food and feed chain yearly if bovine intestine and mesentery from animals born and raised in the EU would be re-allowed for consumption. Data on the evolution of the BSE infectious titre; and of the weight of histological structures accumulating BSE infectivity, were collected. The Cattle TSE Monitoring Model (C-TSEMM was used to estimate the number of BSE infected cattle entering undetected in the food and feed chain yearly. A model named TSEi was developed to estimates the BSE infectious load in tissues from infected animals at different ages and the total yearly infectious load that could enter the food and feed chain in the EU27. In BSE infected cattle, the infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery reaches its maximum in animals younger than 18 months and then progressively declines to a minimum value in animals older than 60 months. Due to the decline of the BSE prevalence in the EU, between 2007 and 2012, the yearly amount of BSE infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery (sent to destruction from animals entering the food and feed chain was reduced by a factor of 10. However, over this period, the maximum level of exposure to the BSE agent for individuals that would have consumed these tissues remained stable. Finally, the TSEi model indicated that the removal of the last four metres of the small intestine and of the caecum from the food and feed chain would result in a major reduction of the BSE exposure risk associated with intestine and mesentery in cattle.

  13. Mitral valve repair with a malleable bovine pericardium ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Volpe


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical procedure utilizing a malleable bovine pericardium ring in mitral valve repair and clinical and echodopplercadiographic results. METHODS: Thirty-two (25 female and 7 male patients, aged between 9 and 66 (M=36.4±17.2 years, were studied over a 16-month period, with 100% follow-up. In 23 (72% of the patients, the mitral approach was the only one applied; 9 patients underwent associated operations. The technique applied consisted of measuring the perimeter of the anterior leaflet and implanting, according to this measurement, a flexible bovine pericardium prosthesis for reinforcement and conformation of the posterior mitral annulus, reducing it to the perimeter of the anterior leaflet with adjustment of the valve apparatus. RESULTS: The patient survival ratio was 93.8%, with 2 (6.2% fatal outcomes, one from unknown causes, the other due to left ventricular failure. Only one reoperation was performed. On echodopplercardiography, 88% of the patients had functional recovery of the mitral valve (50% without and 38% with mild insufficiency and no hemodynamic repercussions. Of four (12% of the remaining patients, 6% had moderate and 6% had seigre insufficiency. Twenty-eight percent of class II patients and 72% of class III patients passed into classes I (65%, II (32%, and III (3%, according to NYHA classification criteria. CONCLUSION: Being flexible, the bovine pericardium ring fit perfectly into the valve annulus, taking into account its geometry and contractility. Valve repair was shown to be reproducible, demonstrating significant advantages during patient evolution, which did not require anticoagulation measures.

  14. A Method of Purification of Bovine Colostrum sIgA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; GAO Xuejun; YAO Yonghao; ZHOU Shenghua


    sIgA in bovine colostrum was purified by ultrafiltration and enzymolysis methods in this experiment, and the prepared substance was detected by Western Blot. The purity and yield were up to 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for production of bovine colostrum sIgA.

  15. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  16. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...

  17. HoBi-like viruses – the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus' (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings...

  18. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.


    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vi

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35. (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C


    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

  20. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.


    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All ti

  1. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  2. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.


    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle

  3. Control of bovine leukosis virus in a dairy herd by a change in dehorning.


    DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G; Darlington, R L; Evermann, J F


    Following the demonstration that bovine leukosis virus was transmitted in calves by gouge dehorning, electrical dehorning at a younger age was implemented in a commercial Holstein herd. Subsequently, annual testing of the herd revealed a decline in the prevalence of bovine leukosis virus antibodies as older cattle dehorned by the former method were replaced by younger cattle dehorned by the latter method.

  4. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle. (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela


    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle.

  5. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.


    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Garg


    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bifeng Pan; Feng Gao; Hongchen Gu


    A hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer was synthesized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles to enhance bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilization efficiency. The amount of immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane.

  8. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den


    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate co

  9. A Simplified Chromatographic Approach to Purify Commercially Available Bovine Submaxillary Mucins (BSM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Duelund, Lars;


    In this study, a simple purification protocol is developed to reduce the bovine serum albumin (BSA) content in commercially available bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM). This involved purification of the BSM by one-column anion-exchange chromatography protocol resulting in BSM with greatly reduced BSA...

  10. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.


    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  11. TACC3 Is Important for Correct Progression of Meiosis in Bovine Oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; Leitoguinho, Ana Rita Canhoto; Zacarias Silva, Ricardo A; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Roelen, Bernard A J


    Transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins are key players during mitosis via stabilization of the spindle. The roles of TACCs during meiosis are however less clear. We used bovine oocytes to study the expression and function of TACC3 during meiosis. TACC3 mRNA was detected in bovine oocytes du

  12. Simulation modelling to support national policy making in the control of bovine herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.


    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a respiratory disease in cattle. Increased international legislation, together with a high prevalence of BHV1 infected cattle in The Netherlands, put pressure on Dutch livestock industry to

  13. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  14. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets (United States)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  15. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates (United States)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  16. Comparative evaluation of various solid phases for the development of coated tube assays for the estimation of progesterone in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karir, Tarveen [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India); Samuel, Grace [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India)], E-mail:; Sivaprasad, N.; Venkatesh, Meera [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India)


    Immobilization of progesterone antibody using three polystyrene surfaces and two progesterone radiotracers for use in the development of a coated tube assay for the evaluation of progesterone levels in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk was studied. The selection of the solid phase and the tracers were based on the maximum binding, non-specific binding, sensitivity and percentage recovery. Amongst the polystyrene tubes studied, streptavidin coated tubes showed the acceptable assay features such as low non-specific binding (0.5-1.0%), adequate sensitivity (0.13-0.16 ng/ml) and recovery (85-115%) for all the three sample matrices, human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk.

  17. The binding of bovine factor XII to kaolin. (United States)

    Kirby, E P; McDevitt, P J


    Purified bovine factor XII was radiolabeled with iodine-125 and its binding to kaolin studied. Binding was rapid and was not readily reversible upon adding unlabeled factor XII. The optimum pH for binding was in the region of pH 5-7. The isoelectric point of factor XII was pH 5.7. High concentrations of urea or increasing the ionic strength of the medium did not inhibit binding. Polyvalent macromolecules, such as Polybrene and polylysine, were effective inhibitors of factor XII binding to kaolin. Polylysine caused the release of factor XII that had bound to the kaolin surface.

  18. Developments in diagnosis and control of bovine paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose


    Bovine paratuberculosis can be costly to farmers who, as a consequence, may be interested in control of the causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Between-herd spread is primarily due to movement of MAP-infected livestock, and within-herd transmission most often occurs...... the exposure of susceptible animals to the milk and faeces of infected animals. However, cost-effectiveness may depend on labour costs, and strategic use of diagnostics may have certain appeals through the information provided. Current bulk tank milk tests are not deemed to have a role in MAP control, whereas...

  19. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille;


    of enteral fluid intake was replaced with bovine colostrum or a mixed milk diet for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Intestinal absorption of energy and wet weight was used to assess intestinal function and the efficacy of colostrum. Results: Colostrum did not improve energy or wet weight...... absorption compared with the mixed milk diet (P = 1.00 and P = .93, respectively). Growth as measured by weight and knemometry did not differ between diets (P = .93 and P = .28). In these patients,...

  20. Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis: review of main techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (BTB remains an important economic and zoonotic problem in Latin America. Traditionally, the fight against BTB is initiated by the implementation of routine diagnostic tests for certification of free properties. The diagnosis of BTB can be made by direct and indirect methods, in which we can mention clinical, post mortem, histopathological, immunological, bacteriological and molecular methods. The renewal of scientific interest in tuberculosis in recent year has led to develop and improve methods of diagnosis, prevention, control and eradication of BTB. The aim of this review is to present and discuss different diagnosis methods of BTB.

  1. Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis: review of main techniques. (United States)

    Ramos, D F; Silva, P E A; Dellagostin, O A


    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains an important economic and zoonotic problem in Latin America. Traditionally, the fight against BTB is initiated by the implementation of routine diagnostic tests for certification of free properties. The diagnosis of BTB can be made by direct and indirect methods, in which we can mention clinical, post mortem, histopathological, immunological, bacteriological and molecular methods. The renewal of scientific interest in tuberculosis in recent year has led to develop and improve methods of diagnosis, prevention, control and eradication of BTB. The aim of this review is to present and discuss different diagnosis methods of BTB.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh


    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  3. A case of bovine ketoacidosis in a lactating woman. (United States)

    Sandhu, Harminder S; Michelis, Michael F; DeVita, Maria V


    A 36 year-old 5 weeks postpartum lactating woman presented to the emergency room with severe nausea and vomiting for 48 hours. The patient was found to be in non-diabetic ketoacidosis with a serum pH 6.9 and a HCO3 of <5mEq/L. This condition rapidly improved with the administration of intravenous dextrose and bicarbonate and with the cessation of breast feeding. The course and pathophysiology of the rarely described phenomenon of bovine ketosis in a human is discussed here.

  4. [Risk assessment for importing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)]. (United States)

    Hörnlimann, B; Guidon, D; Griot, C


    Since the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Switzerland in 1990, extensive epidemiological investigations and risk factor analyses were carried out. In this study, statistical data on meat and bone meal traded from 1985 to 1989 were analysed addressing the following questions: i) what amount of meat and bone meal was exported from Great Britain (GB) and where to and ii) what amount of meat and bone meal was imported into Switzerland and where from? The findings led to the hypothesis that imported material potentially infected with scrapie-like agents was the cause for BSE in Switzerland.

  5. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna;


    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium...... dioxide and MS. The results, complemented by analyses of purified samples of complex I, showed phosphorylation of five subunits of the complex, 42 kDa (human gene NDUFA10), ESSS, B14.5a (human gene NDUFA7), B14.5b (human gene NDUFC2) and B16.6 (GRIM-19). MS also revealed the presence of phosphorylated...

  6. Effects of Visible Light on Cultured Bovine Trabecular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; 郝风芹; 魏厚仁; 许德胜


    To explore the biological effects of light on trabecular cells, cultured bovine trabecular cells were exposed to visible light of different wavelength with different energy. Cellular morphology, structure, proliferation, and phagocytosis were observed. The cells showed no remarkable changes when the energy was low. When the exposure energy reached 1. 12 mW/cm2 , the cytoplasm showed a rough appearance, and cell proliferation and phagocytosis decreased. This phototoxicity was strong with white light (compound chromatic light), moderate with violet light or yellow light, and mild with red light.

  7. L'affaire de la viande bovine irlandaise


    Del Cont, Catherine; Pironon, Valérie


    Intervention dans le cadre des 1res Journées Louis Lorvellec. 8 pages.; International audience; Le 20 novembre 2008, la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne rendait un arrêt relatif à la restructuration du marché irlandais de la transformation de viande bovine. L'arrêt a été abondamment commenté. Il reste intéressant d'y revenir pour les besoins d'une réflexion sur le droit du marché et le commerce des produits agricoles.

  8. Method for obtaining bovine zygotes produced in vivo. (United States)

    Ellington, J E; Farrell, P B; Simkin, M E; Foote, R H


    A superovulatory and surgical protocol was developed for recovery of bovine zygotes. Holstein cows and heifers were given follicle-stimulating hormone and cloprostenol to induce superovulation. Surgical cannulation and lavage of the uterine tube was performed 40 to 48 hours after the start of standing estrus. In general, cows had more corpora hemorrhagica than did heifers, but a higher percentage (P less than 0.05) of ova recovered from cows were infertile. Several heifers were subjected to the procedure twice, and embryo recovery rates were equivalent both times.

  9. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle. (United States)

    Edwards, T A


    Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.

  10. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura


    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  11. In vitro palmitoylation of native bovine brain Goα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The native Goα was purified from bovine brain cortex and palmitoylated in vitro. The in vitro palmitoylation site was the same as that in vivo. The internal palmitoylation of purified native Goα was found to be largely maintained. The apparant palmitoylation ratio was significantly increased after the Goa was treated with DTT. The GTPg S binding characteristic of Goα was not influenced by palmitoylation, however, the affinity for LUVs was increased dramatically. The in vitro palmitoylation model of Goα provides a better basis for studying the functional role of G protein palmitoylation in signal transduction.

  12. The permeability of dentine from bovine incisors in vitro. (United States)

    Tagami, J; Tao, L; Pashley, D H; Horner, J A


    The permeability of coronal dentine was investigated by measuring the hydraulic conductance of dentine discs. Reductions in dentine thickness from the enamel side of disc resulted in a greater increase in permeability than reductions from the pulpal side. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fewer dentinal tubules with smaller diameters in superficial dentine than in deep dentine. The permeability of coronal incisor bovine dentine is six to eight times less than that of unerupted coronal human third molar dentine but similar to that of human root dentine.

  13. Use of bovine mesenteric vein in rescue vascular access surgery. (United States)

    Benedetto, Filippo; Carella, Giuseppe; Lentini, Salvatore; Barillà, David; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Spinelli, Francesco


    We describe a technique for rescue surgery of autologous arterovenous fistula (AVF), using bovine mesenteric vein (BMV), which may be used in patients with autologous AVF malfunction caused by steno-occlusion on the arterial side or by fibrosis of the first portion of the vein. To preserve the autologous AVF, we replaced the diseased portion of the artery, or the first centimeters of the vein, by a segment of BMV, with the aim of saving the patency and functionality of the access. We used this technique in 16 cases. All patients underwent hemodialysis treatment immediately after the procedure. Infection or aneurismal dilatation of the graft in implanted BMV was never observed.

  14. Tetraethylammonium-sensitive K(+) current in the bovine spermatozoa and its blocking by the venom of the Chilean Latrodectus mactans. (United States)

    Parodi, Jorge; Navarrete, Patricia; Marconi, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Mejías, Fernando Romero


    The morphology and size of spermatozoa hinder the study of the functional properties of the spermatozoa plasma membrane. However, some studies have revealed the presence of a number of ion channels in this cell. We set out to measure the endogenous currents and to study the effect of the venom of the Chilean black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans). By patch-clamping bovine spermatozoa our results indicate the presence of an outwardly rectifying current, sensitive to changes in K(+) concentration (30-140 mM) and to tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10-100 mM). The application of the venom (7.5 microg/ml) blocks these K+ currents and then alters the passive properties of the plasma membrane. This leads to the entry of Ca(++), reflected by a change in basal fluorescent units (5+/-2 at 35+/-10 FAU). The Ca(++) influx follows a reduction in the membrane conductance (control 22+/-2; venom 10+/-1 pS), as calcium channels open in accord with voltage dependence.

  15. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  16. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  17. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  18. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus


    Ross, Jeremy


    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  19. Optimalisasi Pengikatan Tanin Daun Nangka dengan Protein Bovine Serum Albumin (Optimalisation Binding of Jackfruit Leaves Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin Protein)


    Wahidin Teguh Sasongko; Lies Mira Yusiati; Zaenal Bachruddin; (Mugiono), Mugiono


    Tannins are high molecular weight polyphenol compounds with ability to bind proteins. Based on the structure, albumin are simple globular molecule protein. Optimalisation binding of jackfruit leave tannins to bovine serum (BSA) albumin was done in two stages. The first stage was to determine levels of tannins and condensed tannins in jackfruit leaves grown in mediterranean soil types. Second research was optimalisation binding of jackfruit leaf tannins with bovine serum albumin. In t...

  20. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito


    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  1. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa) (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.


    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  2. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T C; Gupta, P; Laha, S; Martinez, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Nagel, S B; Saenz, A D; Simien, C E; Killian, Thomas C.


    Ultracold neutral plasmas are formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. Through the application of atomic physics techniques and diagnostics, these experiments stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas ranges from 1-1000 K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can approach $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recombination, collective modes, and thermalization in these systems have also been studied. Optical absorption images of a strontium plasma, using the Sr$^+$ ${^2S_{1/2}} -> {^2P_{1/2}}$ transition at 422 nm, depict the density profile of the plasma, and probe kinetics on a 50 ns time-scale. The Doppler-broadened ion absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity distribution, which gives an accurate measure of the ion dynamics in the first microsecond after photoionization.

  3. What is a plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  4. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾


    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  5. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick


    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  6. Expression of growth factor ligand and receptor genes in the preimplantation bovine embryo. (United States)

    Watson, A J; Hogan, A; Hahnel, A; Wiemer, K E; Schultz, G A


    The sensitive technique of mRNA phenotyping with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the patterns of gene expression for several growth factor ligand and receptor genes during bovine preimplantation development. Several thousand bovine embryos encompassing a developmental series from one-cell zygotes to hatched blastocysts were produced by the application of in vitro maturation, fertilization, and oviductal epithelial cell embryo coculture methods. Transcripts for transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A) are detectable in all preimplantation bovine stages as observed in the mouse. Transcripts for TGF-beta 2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) and the receptors for PDGF-alpha, insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II are also detectable throughout bovine preimplantation development, suggesting that these mRNAs are products of both the maternal and the embryonic genomes in the cow, whereas in the mouse they are present only following the activation of the embryonic genome at the two-cell stage. In contrast to the mouse embryo, IGF-I mRNA was detected within preimplantation bovine embryos. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a maternal message in the bovine embryo, since it is only detectable up until the eight-cell embryo stage. Bovine trophoblast protein (bTP) mRNA was detectable within day 8 bovine blastocysts. As was observed in the mouse, the transcripts for insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or nerve growth factor (NGF) were not detectable in any bovine embryo stage. Analyses of this type should aid the development of a completely defined culture medium for the more efficient production of preimplantation bovine embryos.

  7. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting (United States)


    Plasma Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 11 Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 Features and Benefits of APCR Technology Feature...Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 14 APC on Aluminum Removal to Primer RAM on Carbon Fiber Partial Topcoat Removal APC Topcoat RAM...60Hz Plasma Flux™ Power Supply VENT To Facility HEPA <= Filtration COTS Six-Axis Robot Aircraft part Particulate Collection System

  8. Plasma Processing of Materials (United States)


    Manchester, N.H. 1983. Private communication. 5. Camacho , S. L. 1983. Plasma melting experience with the PEC transferred arc torch. Paper presented...Electrotechnology. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Butterworth Group. 18. Camacho , B. 1983. Plasma arc torches fog industrial applications. Paper presented...Oxidizing (e.g., by plasma anodization), nitriding, carbiding, and siliciding of metal or semiconductor surfaces are examples [2). a Etching--Atom-rby-atom

  9. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein


    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  10. Space plasma physics research (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.


    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  11. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product. (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel


    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses.

  12. Generation of amphoteric surfaces via glow-discharge technique with single precursor and the behavior of bovine serum albumin at the surface. (United States)

    Akdoğan, Ebru; Mutlu, Mehmet


    Amphoteric surfaces were generated on silicone substrates via plasma polymerization technique using a single monomer; diethyl allyl phosphate (DAP). Surface characterization was performed by the means of contact angle titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface of silicone was found to be slightly basic with an apparent basicity of 0.12 μmol/m(2) while plasma surface modification made the surfaces amphoteric with the surface acid/base concentration adjustable by varying plasma parameters. The adsorption of model protein; bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces was found to be correlated to the surface acid/base ratio. Percent reduction on modified surfaces compared to bare silicone surface was 32, 59 and 92% for 20 W 5 min, 60 W 5 min and 100 W 5 min modified surfaces respectively. Conformational change of BSA upon adsorption to the surfaces was investigated with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. It has been shown that BSA preserves more of its secondary structure upon adsorption to plasma modified surfaces than the bare silicone surface. It has been concluded that DAP modified surfaces reduces the amount of protein adsorption on the surfaces due to the modified surfaces amphoteric nature and the ability of modified surfaces to preserve the secondary structure of adsorbed protein better than the bare silicone surface.

  13. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott


    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  15. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G


    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  16. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo


    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  17. Solid expellant plasma generator (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  18. Plasma and particles (United States)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka


    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  19. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt


    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.